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date: 22 September 2020

(p. 791) Index

(p. 791) Index

Tables and figures are indicated by an italic t and f following the page number

Abbott, K. W., 776
Abulafia, David, 39
academic center of gravity, critical global studies, 13
academic space of tension, global studies, 5
ACFTU (All China Federation of Trade Unions), 301
acquiescent socialism in China, 222–4
acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), 658–9
action, power of, 340
activist motherhood, 240
actors, global governance, 776t
Adamoli, Ginevra, 572
adaptive coping, global governance, 784
adidas, 303
Admati, Anat, 337
Adorno, Theodor, 592
ADRA (Adventist Development and Relief Agency), 745
affirmative action, inequality and the Global South, 219, 220–1
After Tamerlane, 43
Aga Khan Development Network, 745
agenda setting, pandemics as, 660
agents, not circumstances, 194
agriculture history, Anthropocene thesis, 179
agro pessimism, 631
Agustín, Laura, 354, 355
AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), 658–9
aid workers, 749
AIG (American International Group), financial meltdown, 283
Åkesson, Jimmie, 543
Albert-Ludwigs-Universität in Freiburg, Germany, 28
Alexander VI, Pope, 422
algorithmic geopolitics, 393–6
alibi tendencies, 462–4
Al-Kindi, 96
Allard, LaDonna Bravebull, 262
All China Federation of Trade Unions (ACFTU), 301
Almagest, 41
Alpers, Svetlana, 500
Al-Tabari, 45
alternative food movements, 570
alternative food networks, 572–3
Amar, Paul, 354
Ambedkar, B. R., 211–12, 214–215, 221
American Council of Learned Societies, 202
American farmers, food and global policies, 622
American globalization, 520–1
American International Group (AIG), financial meltdown, 283
American University in Cairo, 29
Amin, Samir, 324, 677
Analects of King Fu Tse, 21
The Ancient City, 45
Anderson, Benedict, 56, 387
Andreas, Peter, 352
and the evolution of global studies, relativization of space, 55–6
Anheier, H., 689
Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 61
antecedents of global studies. See also evolution of global studies
Axial revolution, 41
cosmogony of the universe, 37
cosmology of the universe, 37
globalization, meaning of, 38
(p. 792)
global studies as a metadiscipline, 38
global studies as a transdiscipline, 38
glocalization, meaning of, 38
life beyond Earth, 45–6
longue durée thinking, 37
significance of China and the Middle Kingdom, 39
antecedents of global studies, geography
diaspora of people and ideas, 42
Greece, 44–5
India, 41–4
and mythology, 40
North Africa, 45
Persia, 45
pilgrimages (hajj), 41–2
southern hemisphere, 45
Trans-Siberian Railroad, 46
word origin, 40
antecedents of global studies, maps
rules of cartography, 40
space, 40
spatiality, 40
antecedents of global studies, religion
discovery of heaven, 41
effects of geography, 40–1
Jewish tradition, 40, 42
universal ummah, 41
Anthropocene era, visual arts and globalization, 509
Anthropocene thesis. See also impoverishment in the Anthropocene
atmospheric carbon dioxide, 179–80
climates, 175
geological roots, 174
geopolitics, 175
from global studies to Anthropocenology, 184–5
global understandings, 175–6
golden spike, 177–8
history of agriculture, 179
Holocene period, 178–9
human age, 178–81
industrialization, 180
interconnections in the twentieth century, 176
introduction, 173–4
limits to growth, 176
meteorology, 175
nuclear weapons, 176
physical sustainability, 179
point of origin, 177–8, 178–81
population increase, 180–1
potential for environmental destruction, 176
stratigraphy, 174
sustainable development, 176, 179
use of fossil fuels, 180
Anthropocene thesis, ecological consequences
of global trading links, 175
industrial pollution, 176
Anthropocene thesis, planetary boundaries
addition of novel entities into the Earth system, 183
atmosphere aerosol loading, 183
biogeochemical flows, 183
biosphere integrity, 182
changes in land use, 183
climate change, 182
fresh water use, 183
limits to growth, 181
ocean acidification, 182
stratospheric ozone depletion, 182
Anthropocentrism, 452–3
anti-austerity protests, 728–9
anti-GMO activism, 572–3
anti-sweatshop activism, 296–8
anti-World Trade Organization demonstration in Seattle (1999), 13
Appadurai, Arjun, 10, 22, 51–2, 58, 60, 63–7, 141–2, 585, 593
Appiah, Kwame Anthony, 22
Apple, labor relationships in China, 293–4
Apple factories, 302
apptivism, 570–2
Arab Spring, 596
Arendt, Hannah, 708–9
Aristotle, 217, 713
Arizona State University, 28
armed conflict, feminist perspectives, 235–40
Arrhenius, Svante, 636, 667
Arrighi, Giovanni, 324
(p. 793) art. See also visual arts and globalization
as an axe, 498
as a soft agent, 498
Art and Money Project, 504
Arthashastra of Kautilya, 21
Asad, Talal, 162
ASAFLA (Asia, Africa, and Latin America), 215
Asia Journal of Global Studies, 31
Asian Global Studies Association, 31
aspirational vs. functional perspectives on civil society, 689
assimilationism, 450–2
assimilation to Western models, 450
associations for global studies, 29–31
Assyrians, involuntary migration, 370
Athanasiou, Athena, 265
athlete development academies, 603–4
atmosphere, 648
atmosphere aerosol loading, planetary boundaries, 183
atmospheric carbon dioxide, Anthropocene thesis, 179–80
Attia, Kader, 505
authentic otherness, 96
Autin, Whitney J., 177–8
The Axial Age and Its Consequences, 41
Axial revolution, 41
Aydinli, E., 404
Aziz, Mohamed Ould Abdel, 408
Bacon, Roger, 96
“Bad Romance,” 554–5
banal cosmopolitanism, 612
Bangladesh, 294, 299
banking reform, 334–9
Bannerji, Himani, 536
Barkawi, Tarak, 60
Barker, Greg, 680
Barker, Michelle, 711
Barnet, Richard, 63, 311
Barr, Stephen, 51
Basel Accords, 337–8
Bauman, Zygmunt, 51, 58, 99–101
Bayley, Alan, 115
Bear Stearns, financial meltdown, 283
Beck, Ulrich, 22, 52, 63, 783
Bell, 507–8
Bellah, Robert, 22, 41, 162, 487
belonging
determining (see citizenship)
and global sports, 610–12
Benjamin, Walter, 387
Bennett, T., 573
Bentley, Jerry, 114
Beoku-Betts, Josephine, 239
beppegrillo.it, 595
Berg, Heather, 354
Berger, Peter, 162
Beringia land bridge, 363–4
Berlusconi, Silvio, 595
Bernanke, Ben, 333–4
Bernstein, Elizabeth, 353–4
Bertolucci, Bernardo, 591
Bevan, Anne, 512
Beyer, Peter, 51, 63
Biden, Joe, 336
biodiversity, depletion of, 622–3
biogeochemical flows, planetary boundaries, 183
biosphere, 648
biosphere integrity, planetary boundaries, 182
biotechnology, food and global policies, 625
The Birth of the Modern World: Global Connections and Comparisons, 115
“Bitch Better Have My Money,” 551
Blanchette, Thaddeus, 354
Blue Marble, 509
Blum, Hester, 509
Blumberg, Rhoda Lois, 240
Bodin, Jean, 419
Böhm, Steffen, 675
border security, human trafficking, 147
Börzel, T., 785
Bos, Elizabeth, 572
Boss, Hugo, 504
Bouazizi, Mohamed, 100
boundless connectivity, 121
Bourdieu, Pierre, 52, 160, 162, 165
Bourgois, P., 464
Box, George, 286
(p. 794) Braudel, Fernand, 509
Brave New World, 512
Brecher, Michael, 60
Brenner, Johanna, 234, 242
Brenner, Neil, 12, 526–7
Brexit, 38
Bright, Charles, 43
British East India Company, 500
Brooke, John L., 361
Brotton, Jerry, 40
Brown, Jerry, 668
Brown, Zack “Danger,” 566
Brundtland, Gro Harlem, 669
Brysk, Alison, 706
Buddhist humanitarian organization, 747
Buddhists, involuntary migration, 370
Buffett, Warren, 5
Buiter, Willem, 334
BUM International, 297
Burgess, Jean, 569
Bush, George H. W., 482
Bush, George W., 331, 394, 405, 411, 486, 640
Butler, Judith, 265
Buzan, Barry, 148, 403
Calhoun, Craig, 205–6
Cameron, David, 533–4, 540
Cameroon, 106
Canada, multiculturalism and neoliberalism, 539
Canadian advertising campaign, 555–7
capacities, global governance, 777–83
capitalism
and civil society, 693–4
in global sports, 604
role in climate change, 643–4
Capitalismo Gore, 353
capitalist crisis displacement strategies, 672, 676–80
capital’s structural power, 339–41
carboniferous capitalism, 528
care, feminist perspectives, 232–5
CARE (Cooperative for Assistance and Relief Everywhere), 745
career-oriented graduate programs, 27
Carette, J., 488
Caritas Internationalis, 745
Carnegie Corporation, 202
Carroll, William K., 318
cartography. See also maps
imagery, 500
rules of, 40
Carver, Terrell, 60
Cassin, René, 424
Castells, Manuel, 12, 52, 65, 521, 522, 528
Castro, Fidel, 373
catchwords, global history, 46
Caté, Ricardo, 262–3
Catholic Relief Services (CRS), 746
causal beliefs, 160
Cauty, Jimmy, 504
CEDAW (Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women), 229–31
Centre for Global Governance, 29
Cercel, Cosmin, 251
CESCR (Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights), 460
CGS (critical global studies). See critical global studies
Chakravartty, Paula, 591
Chanda, Nayan, 38, 43
changing social relations, evolution of global studies, 54–6
Chant, Sylvia, 243
Chase-Dunn, Christopher, 57
chemicals, excessive use in food systems, 624–5
Chernotsky, H. I., 205–6
Chin, C. B. N., 206–7
China
ACFTU (All China Federation of Trade Unions), 301
acquiescent socialism, 222–4
Apple factories, 302
and emission reductions, 641–2
Foxconn factories, 302
Gini coefficient, 213t
global history, 121–2
inequality, 211–12, 213t, 222–4
involuntary migration, 368–9
labor, fundamental human rights, 301–2
labor unrest, 301–2
(p. 795)
Nike factories, 302
Pou Chen factories, 302
and world-systems analysis, 644–5
China, strikes
Foxconn, 293–4
IBM factory, 301
Walmart store, 301
Yue Yuen shoe factory, 301
China and the Middle Kingdom
antecedents of global studies, 39
Qin dynasty, 39
significance in global history, 39
Chirac, Jacques, 591
Chirico, JoAnn, 63
cholera, 652–3
Chomsky, Noam, 597
Christianity, competitive religious globalisms, 491–4
Church World Service (CWS), 746
cinema. See film and video
cities. See global cities
cities first thesis, 528
citizenship
citizenship gaps, 706–8
Citizenship Studies, 704
connection between effort, reward and virtue, 704–6
defining, 703–4
devaluation, 706–8
dislocation, 706–8
essential social contract, 704
globalization, 704–6
immigration, 704–8
introduction, 701–3
native-born citizens, 705
pockets of concentrated wealth, 705
psychological aspects, 703–4
rights and duties, 703
securitization, 707
superclass, 705
superzips, 705
and terrorism, 707
transnational villagers, 705
vulnerability, 706–8
who belongs?, 704–6
citizenship, global
civic education, 710–12
contemporary approaches to studying, 709–10
criticality tool, 711
critiques of, 712–14
definition, 14
global competency, 710–12
global consciousness, 711–12
globalism, styles of, 714
global self, 712
global sensitivity, 711–12
global understanding, 711–12
history of, 708–9
International Campaign to Ban Landmines, 710
reflexivity tool, 711
relationality tool, 711
rise of the global justice movement, 710
scholarship in global citizenship, 710
social imaginary tool, 711
thinking tools, 711
three A’s of globalization, 711
citizenship gaps, 706–8
Citizenship Studies, 704
city-to-city interactions, localization of the global, 75
civic branding, global sports, 606
civic education, global citizenship, 710–12
civil society
activist view, 690
and capitalism, 693–4
Civil Society I approach, 692–3
Civil Society II approach, 693
consensus based understanding of social change, 693
Contesting Global Governance, 693
definition, 687, 689
Democracy in America, 692
democratic accountability in global governance, 690–1
developing research, 695–6
divergent research approaches, 689
functional vs. aspirational perspectives, 689
Global Civil Society Yearbook, 690, 691
in global governance, 785
introduction, 687–8
Johns Hopkins project, 692
mapping and measuring, 690, 692, 696
(p. 796)
methodological cornerstone of civil society research, 692
need for empirical data, 690
positioning and inherent values, 691–2
potential for individuals, 691
social capital, 692
vital elements of research, 690
WSF (World Social Forum), 694–5
Civil Society I, approach to civil society research, 692–3
Civil Society II, approach to civil society research, 693
Clark, Brett, 679
class, feminist perspectives, 232–5
class of civilizations thesis, 163–4
Claude, Inis L. Jr., 60
climate, Anthropocene thesis, 175
climate and environment, effects on migration, 364–6
Climate Casino, 676
climate change
Anthropocene thesis, planetary boundaries, 182
atmosphere, 648
Bill Clinton, 640
biosphere, 648
China and emission reductions, 641–2
China and world-systems analysis, 644–5
contraction and convergence, 639–40
COPs (Conferences of the Parties), 637–8
cosmopolitan sentiment, 645–6
cryosphere, 648
food, global policies, 630–1
Framework Convention, 637
George W. Bush, 640
global justice, 639–40
global politics, 637–9
global studies in the Earth system, 648–9
greenhouse gases, 636
human impact on, 528–9
hydrosphere, 648
impoverishment in the Anthropocene, 466
inequality and the Global South, 216
introduction, 635–7
IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), 636–7
Keeling curve, 636
Kyoto agreement, 640–1
lithosphere, 648
LPAA (Lima-Paris Action Agenda), 646
national interest, 637–8
NGOs (non-governmental organizations), 638
Paris accord, 640–1
planetary boundaries, 182
product of capitalism, 643–4
responsibility for, 639–40
securitization, 647
UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme), 636
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, 637–9
Westphalian state system, 638
climate politics commodified, 671–6
Clinton, Bill, 282, 640
Clinton, Hillary, 243, 342, 675
Cochrane, John, 332
Cohen, Robin, 59
cold wars, 386–8. See also war and militarization
Colley, Linda, 46
colonial mentalities and scholarship on non-Western subjects, 22
Columbia University, 27, 202
Comcast, media industry, 587
commercialization, global sports, 602
Commercial Paper Funding Facility (CPFF), 333
Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (CESCR), 460
Committee to Protect Journalists, 597
commodification, global sports, 602, 604
common heritage of mankind principle, 463–4
The Communist Manifesto, 311
communitarianism, 438–40
communities evolve from knowledge, 195–6
complex connectivity, 194–5
compromised connectivities, 570
concentration of the media industry, 586
concentric circles of social realities, 163
Concern Worldwide, 746
Condition of Postmodernity, 55, 57
(p. 797) Conferences of the Parties (COPs), 637–8
Confucianism as a World Religion, 39
congruency and incongruity in global governance, 782t
connected consumption, 570–2
connections and comparative viewpoints, global history, 119
connectivism, 498
Conrad, Sebastian, 46
consensus based understanding of social change, 693
Conservative Catholic, competitive religious globalisms, 493
consolidation of media, 586
contemporary art, 499
Contesting Global Governance, 693
contours and scopes, global history, 115–18
contraction and convergence, 639–40
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), 229–31
convergence, 95, 586
Coomaraswamy, Radhika, 239
cooperation and communication, taming financialization, 287
Cooperative for Assistance and Relief Everywhere (CARE), 745
Copenhagen Accord (2009), 765
COPs (Conferences of the Parties), 637–8
Copy Light/ Factory, 503
Coral Collapse, 511
core nations and regions, global sports, 603
core rights, 459–61
Cornell University, 202
Coronation Park, 505–6
corporate globalization, 521–2
corruption of global sport federations, global sports, 605
The Corrupt Show and Speculative Machine, 503
Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe, 46
cosmogony of the universe, 37
cosmology of the universe, 37
cosmopolitan framing, 723
cosmopolitan sentiment, 645–6
cost of GFC bailout, 336
Couldry, Nick, 570
counter-summits, 721
Cox, Robert, 128, 312
CPFF (Commercial Paper Funding Facility), 333
Crawshaw, Lauren, 133
creativity, global sports, 610–12
Crenshaw, Kimberlé, 133
creolization, 97, 610
cricket, glocalization of, 104–5
Crimean Tatars, involuntary migration, 370
crimes against humanity, 426
crisis, global epistemology, 192–4
crisis of industrialization, evolution of global studies, 60–2
Critical Globalization Studies, 16
critical global studies
academic center of gravity, 13
actually existing global studies, 15
global activist thinking, 14
global citizenship, 14
globalization-from-above, 13
globalization-from-below, 13
inspirations for, 13
preferential option for the subordinate majority of global society, 13
rooted cosmopolitans, 14
critical global studies (CGS). See critical global studies
criticality tool, 711
critical perspectives, 24, 25
critical realism, 241
Critical Theories of Globalization, 58
critical theory
in global studies, 13
world republic of critical theories, 14
critical thinking
as balanced reasoning, 12
globalization of, 14
pillar of global studies, 12–14
Critique of Judgment, 159
critiques, of global citizenship, 712–14
critiques, of global studies
“global studies” as a catchphrase, 14
limited scope and status, 15
postcolonial thinking, 16
Crossley, Pamela Kyle, 22
(p. 798) CRS (Catholic Relief Services), 746
cryosphere, 648
cultural convergence, media industry, 593–4
cultural differentialism, media industry, 593–4
cultural exchange and diffusion, 96
cultural hybridity, media industry, 593–4
Cultural Identity and Global Process, 60
cultural imperialism, media industry, 591–3
culture, glocalization of, 102–3
culture and social structures, 22
The Culture of Connectivity, 568–9
The Culture of Industrial Man, 60
culture of poverty, 464
currency of diamonds, 502
CWS (Church World Service), 746
Dadaab Refugee Camp, 740f
Dahl, Kristian Thulesen, 543
Dallas Cowboys, 303
Daly, Herman, 669–70
Danish People’s Party, 543
Darian-Smith, Eve, 130
Darwin, John, 43, 44
Darwin, Sinke & Tongeren, taxidermists, 502
Darwin’s Nightmare, 197
Das Kapital, 190
data divides, 573–5
data surveillance, 575
D’Cruz, Premilla, 320
dead animals, Dutch art, 501–2
debate, 323–5
Declaration on Eliminating Violence against Women (EVAW), 237
decoding digital foodscapes, 575–7
decolonizing global studies
decentering modernist frameworks, 253–5
introduction, 251–3
decoupling, global governance, 784
Deep Breathing/ Resuscitation of the Reef, 511
defamation of religions, 491
deferred liberalism, inequality and the Global South, 221–2
Deleuze, Gilles, 538
deleveraging, 333–4
deliberation, 444–5
deliberative governance, human trafficking, 149
Deloughrey, Elizabeth, 510
Deming, W. Edwards, 285, 287
democracy. See global democracy
Democracy in America, 692
democratic accountability in global governance, 690–1
Deng, Xiaoping, 212, 222–3
Denzau, A. T., 277, 285
derivatives trading, 332, 335–6, 338
Derrida, Jacques, 203
destabilizing older hierarchies, localization of the global, 82–4
deterritorialization, 11
deterritorializing, global sports, 611
devaluation, citizenship, 706–8
developing countries, definition, 214
The Devil Came on a Horseback, 197
Dewey, John, 128, 427
Dewinter, Filip, 542
diaspora of people and ideas, 42
Dicken, Peter, 59
diets and lifestyles, food and global policies, 622
differential inclusion, 538
digital connectivity
alternative food movements, 570
alternative food networks, 572–3
anti-GMO activism, 572–3
apptivism, 570–2
compromised connectivities, 570
connected consumption, 570–2
The Culture of Connectivity, 568–9
data divides, 573–5
data surveillance, 575
decoding digital foodscapes, 575–7
Digital Sociology, 570
economies of sharing, 568–70
ethical shopping, 571
exchanging surplus edible food, 571
experience economy, 574
A Five-Step Plan to Feed the World, 571
Follow the Things, 571
food activism, 570
Googlization of everything, 574
images of food, 567–8
(p. 799)
introduction, 565–7
Local Dirt, 573
Monsanto, 573
Oklahoma Food Cooperative, 573
OLIO app, 571
Open Food Network, 573
social media wars, 573–5
Sorted Food, 569–70
visibility/invisibility, 577
YouTube, 569–70
Digital Sociology, 570
Dijck, José van, 568, 574, 576
Dimon, Jamie, 336
Dirlik, Arif, 98
discourse, role of in global epistemology, 196
disembedding people, global sports, 611
disjuncture, 97
dislocation, citizenship, 706–8
Dispossession: The Performative in the Political, 265
dissolution of empires, involuntary migration, 371–2
Distribution of Wealth, 504
divergence, 95
Division of Global Affairs at Rutgers University-Newark, 5
Doctrine of Discovery, 422
Dodd, Christopher, 338, 340
Dodd-Frank legislation, taming financialization, 287
Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010, 338
domains of globalization, evolution of global studies, 66, 66f
domestication of protests, 725
Douglas, Mary, 162
Downing, John, 591
Draper, Norman, 286
Drexhage, John, 669
drone warfare, 767–8
drug wars, 350–3
Drug Wars: The Political Economy of Narcotics, 353
Drummond, Bill, 504
Dryzek, John, 149
Du Bois, W. E. B., 256f
and Donald Trump, 260
global racism, 255–60
Jewish persecution, 257
legacy, 259–60
run for the US Senate, 259
Duchamp, Marcel, 504
Duguet, Pierre, 132
Duke University, 30
Dumont, Louis, 162
Dunant, Henry, 735
Duran, Alejandro, 511
Durkheim, Emily, 21
Dyke, Anya Hart, 541
early European modernity, 418–19
The Earth as a Whole: Its Atmosphere and Hydrosphere, 636
earthquake in Haiti (2010), 735f
Earth system
addition of novel entities into, 183
global studies, 648–9
planetary boundaries, 183
earth systems, 361
Easterly, William, 458
EBSCO Host Database, 7
Echohawk, John, 265
Eck, Diana, 40
Eckes, Alfred E. Jr., 60
The Ecological Rift, 679
Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ESCR), 460
economic hardships, human trafficking, 145
economies of sharing, 568–70
economy, glocalization of, 99–101
Edinburgh School of the sociology of science, 166
effectiveness, global governance, 776f, 776–778
efficacy, global governance, 776f, 776, 777–778
Egypt, media industry, 595–6
Ehrenberg, J., 687
Ehrenreich, Barbara, 233
Eichengreen, Barry, 336, 342
Einstein, Albert, 127, 708–9
Eisenstein, Hester, 242–3
(p. 800) El Monte slave shop, 297, 298
el-Ojeili, Chamsy, 58
El Salvador, TCC (transnational capitalist class), 321
emergent TNS (transnational state), 316
emerging trends in global studies
global as theme vs. primary focus, 32
global theory vs. practice, 32–3
insiders vs. outsiders, 33–4
introduction, 31
emissions trading, 674–5
Enderlein, H., 773
endless wars, human trafficking, 145
End of History, 408
end of multiculturalism, 540
Engels, Frederick, transnational capitalist class, 311
English as the official language of Japan, 98
environmental critique
capitalist crisis displacement strategies, 672, 676–80
climate politics commodified, 671–6
contending principles of environmentalism, 668–71
emissions trading, 674–5
introduction, 667–8
natural capital, 670
shifting, stalling, stealing strategy, 672, 680
Stiglitz-Stern High-Level Commission on Carbon Pricing, 675
environmental destruction, Anthropocene thesis, 176
environmentalism principles, contending, 668–71
epistemic worldviews, 160
epistemology. See global epistemology
equality of opportunities, inequality and the Global South, 219
Eratosthenes, 40
Eriksen, Thomas Hylland, 60
Erturk, Yakin, 239
Esbenshade, Jill, 296
ESCR (Economic, Social and Cultural Rights), 460
Eshetu, Theo, 512
ethical shopping, 571
ethnic cleansing, 369–70
ethnic Germans, involuntary migration, 371
ethnoscapes, 65, 141
Eurocentrism, 96
European-ness, 541
European Union
Erasmus Mundus Program, 28
Global Studies consortium, 27–8
TCC (transnational capitalist class), 322
EVAW (Declaration on Eliminating Violence against Women), 237
evolution of global studies. See also antecedents of global studies; Global Studies Consortium
Analects of King Fu Tse, 21
Arthashastra of Kautilya, 21
associations, 29–31
beginning of, 21
career-oriented graduate programs, 27
changing social relations, 54–6
colonial mentalities and scholarship on non-Western subjects, 22
a crisis of industrialization, 60–2
culture and social structures, 22
domains of globalization, 66, 66f
era of globalization, 22
ethnoscapes, 65
The European Union’s Global Studies consortium, 28
financescapes, 65
first joint global studies MA, 28
first MA program, 21
first PhD program, 29
first undergraduate program, 21
flows, 23, 64–7
fluidity, 58
global consciousness, 62–4
global ethics, 22
global history, 22
global imaginary, 22
globalization as unsettlement, 60–2
Global North vs. Global South, 54
global politics, 22
global subfields of existing departments, 25–6
history of globalization, 24
hybridity theory, 22
ideologies, 66, 66f
(p. 801)
ideoscapes, 65
imaginaries, 66, 66f
intellectual practice, a paradigm shift, 56–60
intensification of disembodied globalization, 54–6
introduction, 21–2
layers, 64–7
liquidity, 58
major figures in, 51–4, 53f (see also specific figures)
MA programs, 28–9
mediascapes, 65
ontologies, 66, 66f
PhD programs, 28–9
Plato’s Republic, 21
processes, 23
publication outlets, 29–31
religion and cultural interactions, 21
research centers, 29–31
research-oriented graduate programs, 28–9
rise of textbooks, 59
rise of the West, 21
shift in scholarly publishing, 59–60
social enquiry, a paradigm shift, 56–60
social scapes, 22, 23, 65
as a teaching field in undergraduate programs, 26–7
technoscapes, 65
world systems of economic and political interdependence, 22
excessive economism, global epistemology, 196–7
exchanging surplus edible food, 571
executive pay, 335
exile, involuntary migration, 369–71
Expanded Academic ASAP database, 7
expansive multilateralism, 762–3
experience economy, 574
Exploring Globalization, 31
external forces affecting the local, global epistemology, 191
externalization, 726
Facebook Revolution, 595–6
Factiva database, 7
Fahmy, Shahira, 589
failed states, globalization and security, 405–6
Fairclough, N., 550
Fairleigh Dickinson University, 31
Falk, Richard, 709
Fall-Conroy, Blake, 504
family debts, human trafficking, 145
family policy, competitive religious globalisms, 491–4
Fannie Mae, 283
Farnsworth, Clyde, 63
far-right parties, 541–2
Fassin, Didier, 395
Fayadh, Ashraf, 508
Featherstone, Mike, 51, 59–60, 585
Fed monetary policies, 333–4
Fei, Cao, 503–4
Feldmann, Hans-Peter, 503–4
Fellini, Federico, 591
female body in global media
“Bad Romance,” 554–5
“Bitch Better Have My Money,” 551
Canadian advertising campaign, 555–7
Farkhunda Malikzada, 557–9
“Flawed Justice After a Mob Killed an Afghan Woman.,” 557
happiness for all ideology, 550
imaginaries, 551
introduction, 549–52
Lady Gaga, 554–5
“Look Good in All You Do,” 555–7
love and loss of the female body, 555–7
Rihanna, 552–5
sexy violent imagery, 551, 556–7
Strangers to Ourselves, 557
Feminism and Marxism, 255
feminist global studies, 231–2
feminist perspectives. See also female body in global media; women
activist motherhood, 240
alternative visions, 242–4
armed conflict, 235–40
CEDAW (Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women), 229–31
critical realism, 241
critiques, 242–4
(p. 802)
EVAW (Declaration on Eliminating Violence against Women), 237
honor killings, 237
introduction, 229–31
patriarchal forms of gender relationships, 230–1
peace, 235–40
security, 235–40
social motherhood, 240
TFNs (transnational feminist networks), 241
UN’s Special Rapporteur on Violence Against Women, 239
VAW (violence against women), 235–40
women’s movements, 240–2
feminist perspectives, gendering globalization
care, 232–5
class, 232–5
feminist global studies, 231–2
materialist and political economy approach, 232
OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development), 234
postcolonial and post-structuralist approach, 232
precarity, 232–5
study approaches, 232
feminization of agriculture, 620–1
Ferguson, James, 389
Fernand, Braudel, 501
film and video
The Financial Crisis, 502–3
Flooded McDonald’s, 502–3
glocalization, 103–4, 105–6
financescapes, 65, 141
finance structures, problem orientation, 141–2
The Financial Crisis, 502–3
financialization
AIG (American International Group), 283
Bear Stearns, 283
Fannie Mae, 283
financial sector, essential functions, 279–80
Freddie Mac, 283
Glass-Steagall Act of 1933, 282, 288
global financialization, 1980s and 1990s, 281–2
and globalization, 280–1
global turbulence in the twenty-first century, 282–3
Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act, 282
introduction, 277–9
mortgage-backed securities, 283
recession, 282
subprime mortgage crisis, 282
financialization, taming
cooperation and communication, 287
Dodd-Frank legislation, 287
free market fundamentalism, 286
mental models, 285
regulation and enforcement, 288
sound leadership, 284–5
sound theory, 285–7
summary of recommendations, 284 (see also specific recommendations)
financial sector, essential functions, 279–80
Financial Services Modernization Act of 1999. See Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act
fire and building safety, 304
firm structure
twentieth century vs. twenty-first, 294–5
Walmart vs. General Motors, 294–5
First French, 543
first-order governance, 774–5
First World, inequality and the Global South, 214–15
fiscal failure, 332–3
Fish Story, 510
A Five-Step Plan to Feed the World, 571
fixing sport results, 605
“Flawed Justice After a Mob Killed an Afghan Woman.,” 557
Flemish Liberal Party, 542–3
Flooded McDonald’s, 502–3
flows, 23, 64–7, 141
fluidity, evolution of global studies, 58
FOCUS (Focus Humanitarian Assistance), 745
focus on income impoverishment, 462
Foedus pacificum (pacific federation), 423
Follow the Things, 571
food
digital (see digital connectivity)
(p. 803)
global food systems, history of, 618–19
glocalization of, 103–4
images of, 567–8
food, global policies
agro pessimism, 631
alternative paths, 631
climate change, 630–1
feminization of agriculture, 620–1
future of, 628–31
global hunger and malnutrition, 619–21
Green Revolution, 619
introduction, 617
land ownership, 621
minorities, hunger and malnutrition, 621
political unrest, 629–30
role for global studies, 632
smallholder farmers, 620–2
WFS (World Food Summit), 617–18
women farmers, 620–1
food activism, 570
food security, definition of, 617–18
food systems, globalization and food security
American farmers, 622
biotechnology, 625
changing diets and lifestyles, 622
definition of food security, 617–18
depletion of biodiversity, 622–3
efforts of UN organizations, 627–8
excessive use of chemicals, 624–5
GE (genetically engineered) seeds, 625
global food governance, 627–8
introduction, 621–2
large-scale land acquisitions, 623–4
malnourished women, 626
NCDs (noncommunicable diseases), 626–7
nutrition, 625–6
pesticides, 624
resource scarcities, 622–3
run-off from treated crops, 624
smallholder farmers, 622
unhealthy eating habits, 626–7
water scarcity, 623
football (soccer), glocalization of, 104–5
Foote, Eunice Newton, 667
forced labor. See human trafficking
Ford, Henry, 101
Ford Foundation, 202
Fordist policies, 101
Foreign Affairs, 258
Forest Stewardship Council (FSC), 438
Forst, R., 428
For the Love of God, 502
fossil fuels, Anthropocene thesis, 180
Foster, John Bellamy, 324, 679
Foucault, Michel, 160, 203, 537
Fountain, 504
Foxconn, 293–4
Frakes, Jennifer, 463
Framework Convention, 637
framing, 167
franchises, global sports, 603
Frank, Barney, 338
Fraser, Nancy, 243
Freddie Mac, 283
Freedman, Des, 587
freedom of the ancients, 422
freedom of the moderns, 422
Freedom Party, 543
free market fundamentalism, 286
French Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen, 423
French flu, 657
French Front National, 543
French strikes (1995), 13
fresh water use, planetary boundaries, 183
Friedman, Jonathan, 51, 60
Friedman, Milton, 262, 286
Friedmann, Harriet, 618
Friman, H. Richard, 352
FSC (Forest Stewardship Council), 438
Fukuda-Parr, Sakiko, 243
Fukuyama, Francis, 408–9
Fuller, J. F. C., 385
functional vs. aspirational perspectives on civil society, 689
fundamental human rights, labor, 300, 301–2
funding, global studies, 5–6
Furceri, D., 287
fusion, 97
G 7 (Group of Seven), 437–8
Galbraith, J. K., 521
Gandhi, Mohandas, 212, 215
Garcia, Raul, 262
Gardner, Howard, 711
GCC (Gulf Cooperation Council), 437–8
Geertz, Clifford, 99, 131, 162, 203
GE (genetically engineered) seeds, 625
Geithner, Tim, 337, 340
Gellner, Ernest, 56, 785
gender power, problem orientation, 143
gender relations
glocalization of, 98, 103
public displays of affection, 103
genetically engineered (GE) seeds, 625
genetically modified organisms (GMOs), 573
Geneva Convention, 426
geography
effects on religion, 40–1
in the Jewish tradition, 40
and mythology, 40
and religion, 40
word origin, 40
geopolitics, Anthropocene thesis, 175
Germany, multiculturalism and neoliberalism, 544
Geyer, Michael, 43
GFC (global financial crisis) of 2008. See also Keynesian economics
AIG (American International Group), 283
Basel Accords, 337–8
Bear Stearns, 283
CPFF (Commercial Paper Funding Facility), 333
deleveraging, 333–4
derivatives trading, 332, 335–6, 338
Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010, 338
executive pay, 335
failed banking reform, 334–9
Fed monetary policies, 333–4
fiscal failure, 332–3
Glass-Steagall separation, 338
global governance, 777
Goldman Sachs, 283
Hyman Minsky school, 331
introduction, 331–2
limits of monetary policy, 333–4
LSAP (Large-Scale Asset Purchase) program, 333
Morgan Stanley, 283
PDCF (Primary Dealer Credit Facility), 333
political consequences of economic failure, 342–3
quantitative easing, 333–4
subprime mortgage crisis, 282
TAF (Term Auction Facility), 333
TALF (Term Asset-Backed Securities Loan Facility), 333
too big to fail, 338–9
total cost of bailout, 336
TSLF (Term Securities Lending Facility), 333
Volcker Rule, 338
Wells Fargo scandal, 335
Gharem, Abdulnasser, 508
Ghonim, Wael, 595–6
Ghost, 505
Giddens, Anthony, 51–2, 57–8, 162
Gilmore, Peter, 571
Gindin, Sam, 130, 324
Gini coefficient
distribution of household incomes, 448
inequality and the Global South, 212, 213t
Gladwell, Malcolm, 596
Glass-Steagall Act of 1933, 282, 288
Glass-Steagall separation, 338
Glendon, M. A., 429
global, first use of the term, 94
global activist thinking, 14
global and transnational questions, global history, 119
global capital, localization of the global, 81
global capitalism, glocalization of, 95
global capitalist forces, glocalization of, 98
global circuits, localization of the global, 77–8
global cities, 522–3, 606
Global Cities, 52
global citizenship. See citizenship, global
Global Civil Society Yearbook, 690, 691
global commodities, global history, 120
global competency, global citizenship, 710–12
(p. 805) global consciousness
evolution of global studies, 62–4
global citizenship, 711–12
Global Corporate Sustainability Report 2013, 301
Global Culture: Nationalism, Globalization and Modernity, 51, 53, 56, 63
global democracy
geography beyond countries, 435–6
globalization and security, 408–9
introduction, 433–4
global democracy, challenges to
FSC (Forest Stewardship Council), 438
G 7 (Group of Seven), 437–8
GCC (Gulf Cooperation Council), 437–8
governance beyond states, 437–8
IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force), 438
IGOs (intergovernmental organizations), 437–8
IMF (International Monetary Fund), 438
NSG (Nuclear Suppliers Group), 437–8
publics beyond nations, 436–7
TGNs (transgovernmental networks), 437–8
WFTO (World Fair Trade Organization), 438
WTO (World Trade Organization), 437–8
global democracy, deeper structures
assimilationism, 450–2
assimilation to Western models, 450
introduction, 447–8
multiculturalism, 450–1
political culture, renegotiating differences, 449–52
political ecology, Anthropocentrism, 452–3
political economy, redistributing resources, 448–9
potential core tenets, 451–2
transculturalism, 451–2
global democracy, institutional designs
communitarianism, 438–40
deliberation, 444–5
multilateralism, 440–2
multistakeholderism, 443–4
resistance, 445–6
summary of, 446–7
world federalism, 442–3
global-e, 30
Global Economy Journal, 31
Global Environmental Politics, 59
global epistemology
complex connectivity, 195
excessive economism, 196–7
external forces affecting the local, 191
introduction, 189–91
local knowledge, 195
myopia, 189
normal trouble vs. crisis, 193
right-wing populism in Europe, 191–2
role of discourse, 196
victimhood, 196–7
global epistemology, elements of
communities evolve from knowledge, 195–6
complex connectivity, 194–5
crisis, 192–4
hegemony, 194–5
human actors, 196–7
macro-level analysis, 191–2
meso-level analysis, 191–2
normal flow of trouble, 192–4
seeing agents, not circumstances, 194
structures, 196–7
global ethics, 22
Global Finance Journal, 31
global financial crisis (GFC) of 2008. See GFC (global financial crisis) of 2008
global financialization, 1980s and 1990s, 281–2
global financial turbulence in the twenty-first century, 282–3
global food governance, 627–8
global governance
actors, 776t
adaptive coping, 784
capacities, 777–83
case studies, 775, 777
civil society, definition, 785
congruency and incongruity, 782t
decoupling, 784
definition, 773
effectiveness, 776–778, 776f
efficacy, 776–778, 776f
financial crisis of 2007–2008, 777
first order, 774–5
(p. 806)
governance orders and dimensions, 770t
innovation, 787–9
institutions, 783–7
introduction, 773–4
legitimacy, 776f
managing interdependence, 774–8
mode of performance, 776, 776f
performance, 773–779
readiness, 777–83
recombination, 788
reflexive modernization, 783
refunctionality, 788
requirements, institutions, and implementation, 780t
second order, 774–5
soft power, 776
as a system, 775t
trade-offs, 781–2
transgressions, 783–7
voids, 783–7
global historical scholarship, global history, 116–17
global history
boundless connectivity, 121
catchwords, 46
challenges and opportunities, 120–3
in China, 121–2
connections and comparative viewpoints, 119
contours and scopes, 115–18
crucial matter of periodization, 43
evolution of global studies, 22, 42–6
global and transnational questions, 119
global commodities, 120
global historical scholarship, 116–17
global intellectual history, 44
interests and fields, 118–20
introduction, 113–14
in Japan, 122
in Korea, 122
networks and connectivity, 44
North American vs. other regions of the world, 46
origins of the world as a whole, 43
global human condition, 64f
global imaginary, 4, 5, 22, 142, 498
global intellectual history, 44
globalism
justice, 5
market, 5
religious, 5 (see also religious globalisms)
styles of, 714
Global Issues Division of the Graduate School of Social Sciences, 28
globality, definition, 7
Globality Studies Journal: Global History, Society, Civilization, 31
globalization. See also glocalization
adoption of the term, 24
characteristics of, 95–6
citizenship, 704–6
definition, 3–7, 10, 402
era of, 22
etymology of the term, 10
and financialization, 280–1
vs. globalism, 481
history of, 24 (see also evolution of global studies)
implications for global studies, 107–8
introduction, 10–11
meaning of, 38
mental models of, 149–50
social and cultural connectivity, 95–6
thin theory of globalization, 108
and the visual arts (see visual arts and globalization)
the world as a single place, 95–6
Globalization, 31, 59–60
Globalization and Culture: Global Mélange, 593
Globalization and Health, 59
Globalization and Its Discontents, 52
globalization and security
challenges to the legitimacy of the state, 408–11
democracy, 408–9
economic aspects, 402
failed states, 405–6
globalization, definition, 402
human security, 406–7
introduction, 401
key trends, 404–8
nationalism, 410–11
(p. 807)
religion, 409–10
responsibility to protect, 407–8
security, definition, 403
soft power, 411
states vs. ideas, 403–4
types of security, 406
Globalization and War, 60
globalization as unsettlement, evolution of global studies, 60–2
globalization-from-above, 13
globalization-from-below, 13
globalization indices, KOF Index of Globalization, 7
Globalizations, 30, 59
globalizers, 7
globalizing knowledge, 4
global justice, climate change, 639–40
global justice movement, 710, 720, 722–3, 728–9
global labor studies, 305
Global Labour Journal, 305
Global Labour University (GLU), global labor studies, 305
global law
challenges to, 756–7
concepts, 758–60
criminal accountability for war, 761–2
current impossibility, 769–70
definition, 758
drone warfare, 767–8
horizontal cooperation, 758
horizontal international law, 759
human refugees and migration, 768–9
international law, 759
introduction, 755–8
mega-terrorism, 767–8
UN (United Nations), 761–2
vertical order, 758–9
Westphalian responses, 760
global law, weaknesses
Copenhagen Accord (2009), 765
expansive multilateralism, 762–3
geopolitics, 766–7
global leadership, 762–3
international criminal accountability, 767
introduction, 762–3
Law of the Seas Treaty, 762–3
NPT (Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty), 766
Paris climate agreement (2015), 765
voluntary international law, 764–5
global leadership, global law, 762–3
Global Media Journal, 31
global movements
anti-austerity protests, 728–9
cosmopolitan framing, 723
counter-summits, 721
diverse opportunities, 726–7
domestication of protests, 725
externalization, 726
global justice movement, 710, 720, 722–3, 728–9
global social movements, 720
INGOs (international non-governmental organizations), 724
international regimes, 724
introduction, 719
multilevel political opportunities, 725–6
neoliberal globalization, 727
organizing beyond the state, 722–3
politicization of international relations, 724–5
protest, 720–1
social forums, 721–2
transnational repertoire of action, 720–2
transnational social movements, 720
Westphalian principle of national sovereignty, 724
WSF (World Social Forum), 721
global movements, politicization
causes, 725
definition, 724–5
global multinodal space, localization of the global, 76–8
Global Networks: A Journal of Transnational Affairs, 30
Global News Journal, 31
Global North vs. Global South, evolution of global studies, 54
global orientations, problem orientation, 140–3
Global Policy, 30
global politics, 22, 639–40
(p. 808) global problématiques, problem orientation, 142
global production of locality, 10–11
global production system, 295–6
Global Reach: The Power of Multinational Corporations, 63, 311–12
global self, global citizenship, 712
global sensitivity, global citizenship, 711–12
Global Shift, 59
global social movements, 720
Global Society, 59
Global Sociology, 59
Global South. See also Third World
vs. Global North, 214
global sports
Americanization, 604
athlete development academies, 603–4
banal cosmopolitanism, 612
belonging, 610–12
capitalism, 604
civic branding, 606
commercialization, 602
commodification, 602, 604
core nations and regions, 603
corruption of global sport federations, 605
creativity, 610–12
creolization, 610
deterritorializing, 611
for development and peace, 608–10
disembedding people, 611
fixing sport results, 605
franchises, 603
glocalization, 104–5
grobalization., 604–5
hybridization, 610
Hybridization theory, 610
hypercommodification, 602–3, 605
increased corruption, 605
introduction, 601–2
labor markets, 603
making global cities, 606
McDonaldization of, 604
media-based fans, 611
mega-events, 606–8
migration-based fans, 611
nation branding, 606
networked media sport, 611
peripheral nations and regions, 603
place marketing, 606
political economy, 602–6
political resistance to, 608
pursuing soft power, 606–7
SDP (sport for development and peace), 608–10
security issues, 607–8
semi-peripheral nations and regions, 603
sociocultural identity, 610–12
TNCs (transnational corporations), 603, 604
world system theory, 603–4
global studies
academic space of tension, 5
critiques of (see critiques, of global studies)
decolonizing (see decolonizing global studies)
definition, 3–6
emerging trends (see emerging trends in global studies)
funding, 5–6
the global imaginary, 4, 5
globalizing knowledge, 4
institutional growth, 4–6
justice globalism, 5
main characteristics of, 23–5 (see also pillars of global studies)
market globalism, 5
as a metadiscipline, 38
pandemics, 661 (see also pandemics)
pillars of (see pillars of global studies)
religious globalism, 5
renaming existing programs, 5
scope, 5
space of tension, 5
systemic internationalization, 4
as a transdiscipline, 38
global studies, intellectual camps
globalizers, 7
modifiers, 7–8
rejectionists, 7
skeptics, 7–8
(p. 809) “global studies” as a catchphrase, 14
Global Studies Association, 5, 15, 30
Global Studies Consortium, 5, 15. See also pillars of global studies
adopting the term “globalization,” 24
critical perspectives, 24, 25
interdisciplinarity, 23, 25
introduction, 22–5
main characteristics of global studies, 23–5
transnationality, 23, 25
trans-temporality, 23–4, 25
global studies (GS). See global studies
The Global Studies Journal, 30
global studies programs. See also specific institutions
first joint global studies MA, 28
first MA program, 21
first PhD program, 29
first undergraduate program, 21
global subfields of existing departments, 25–6
MA programs, 28–9
PhD programs, 28–9
research-oriented graduate programs, 28–9
teaching fields in undergraduate programs, 26–7
global studies vs. international studies
assessment shortcomings, 205–6
big tent approach, 205
competition for limited institutional resources, 204
definition of IS, 199–200
disjuncture between IS and pedagogy, 204–6
emergence of IS, 200–4
global studies apart from IS, 206–7
introduction, 199–200
IS scholarships and curricular programs, 200–4
learning outcomes, 205
philanthropic support for IS, 202
post-WWII, 202
Project Camelot, 204
realism theory, 203
Title VI funding, 202
global studies vs. IR (international relations), 3
global subfields of existing departments, 25–6
global trading links, Anthropocene thesis, 175
global trafficking, 356
Global Transformations, 57, 59, 66
global understanding
Anthropocene thesis, 175–6
global citizenship, 711–12
global warming, problem orientation, 141
Global War on Terrorism, 394
glocalization. See also globalization; localization of the global
authentic otherness, 96
convergence, 95
creolization, 97
of cricket, 104–5
cultural exchange and diffusion, 96
of culture, 102–3
definition, 10, 94, 100
disjuncture, 97
divergence, 95
of economy, 99–101
English as the official language of Japan, 98
Eurocentrism, 96
of food, 103–4
of football (soccer), 104–5
Fordist policies, 101
fusion, 97
gender relations, 98, 103
global capitalism, 95
global capitalist forces, 98
of governance, 102
of higher education, 107
hybridity, 97
hybridization, 97
IKEA, 100
implications for global studies, 107–8
indigenization, 97
introduction, 93–4
invariance, 95
IPL (India Premier League), 104–5
in Islam, 99
McDonald’s, 103–4
meaning of, 38
Meiji Restoration, 98
mélange, 97
of movies, 103–4, 105–6
(p. 810)
of music, 103–4, 105
myth of cultural uniqueness, 96
origins of, 94–9
particularizing the universal, 94, 96
Phone Ladies of Bangladesh, 100
of popular culture, 103–4
post-World War II modernization theory, 95
public displays of affection, 103
religion, 99
in Singapore, 102–3
of smartphones, 106
spatial dimension, 98
of sports and games, 104–5
of technology, 106
tensions and confrontational politics, 97
Toyota principles, 101
universalizing the particular, 94, 96
Wal-Mart in Argentina, 100–1
weakness of, 97
world systems theory, 95
GLU (Global Labour University), global labor studies, 305
GMOs (genetically modified organisms), 573
Goldblatt, David, 57
golden spike, Anthropocene thesis, 177–8
Goldstein, J., 390
Goldtooth, Dallas, 264
Gompers, Samuel, 299
Goodwin, Neva, 133
Goody, Jack, 97
Google Ngram search engine, 7
Googlization of everything, 574
governance. See also global governance
beyond states, 437–8
glocalization of, 102
governance orders and dimensions, 770t
governing of extraction, 389
governmentality, 535
government humanitarian actors, 743–4
Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act, 282
Gramsci, Antonio, 131, 312
The Great Divergence, 115
The Great Sea, 39
Greece, antecedent of global studies, 44–5
Greek portico, metaphor of, 424
Greeks, involuntary migration, 370
Green, J. F., 776
Green, Josh, 569
greenhouse gases, 636
Green Revolution, 619
Greenspan, Alan, 283
Greenspan, Simon, 680
Green Textile, 303
Grillo, Beppe, 595
grobal forces, 604–5
grobalization., 604–5
Grosfoguel, Ramón, 16
Grotius, Hugo, 423, 509
GS (global studies). See global studies
Guattari, Félix, 538
Guilhot, N., 203
Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), 437–8
Gunn, Giles, 22
Gupta, Subodh, 507
H1N1 virus, 655–6
habitus, 160
Hage, Ghassan, 536
Haitian earthquake (2010), 735f
hajj (pilgrimages), antecedent of global studies, 41–2
Half the Sky, 244
Halle, Randall, 195
Hamm, Julius von, 636
Hanieh, Adam, 323
Hannerz, Ulf, 51, 58
happiness for all ideology, 550
harmonium, 105
Harris, Jerry, 312
Harris, Neil, 711
Harrison, George, 105
Harvard University
Global History Project, 31
IS (international studies), 202
Harvey, David, 11, 52, 55, 519, 672, 677–8
Hatoum, Mona, 506–508
Hawken, Paul, 680
Hayden, Patrick, 58
Hayek, F. A., 286–287
health, definition, 661
Heater, Derek, 708
(p. 811) heaven, discovery of, 41
Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich, 159
hegemony, global epistemology, 194–5
Held, David, 22, 51, 57, 59, 66, 254, 402
Heleta, Savo, 713
Helicopter Ben, 334
Helleiner, Eric, 280
Hellwig, Martin, 337
Here Comes Everybody, 594, 596
Herman, Edward S., 585, 588, 597
Herodotus, 45
Hey, J., 205
higher education, glocalization of, 107
Hilferding, Rudolph, 323
Hirst, Damien, 502
Hirst, Paul, 57
history of seafaring, visual arts and globalization, 510
A History of the World in Twelve Maps, 40
Hitler, Adolf, 370–1
Hitotsubashi University, 28
HIV/AIDS, 658–9
Hiwa K, 507–8
Hobbes, Thomas, 419, 423
Hobbs, H. H., 205–6
Holbrook, John M., 177–8
Holocene period, 178–9, 528–9
Holocene vs. early Anthropocene, 464–7
Holsti, Ole, 202
Homo erectus, 362–3
homogeneity of societies, 534
Homo habilis, 362
Homo neanderthalensis, 362
Homo sapiens, 363–4
Hon Hai Precision Industry Company. See Foxconn
honor killings, 237
Hopkins, A. G., 22, 43
horizontal cooperation, 758
horizontal international law, 759
Horkheimer, Max, 592
Hot Spot, 508
Houser, Trevor, 673
“How Could So Much Produce So Little?,” 589
HPCs (humanitarian programming cycles), 750
HRPs (humanitarian response plans), 750
Huber, Joseph, 668
Hugo Boss art prize, 504
human actors, global epistemology, 196–7
human age. See Anthropocene thesis
Human Development Report 1994, 406–7
humanitarian, definition, 735
Humanitarian Charter and Minimum Standards in Humanitarian Response, 737
humanitarian organizations
agendas for action, 751–2
aid workers, 749
debates, 751–2
financial and organizational challenges, 745–747, 746f
future of, 752–3
government humanitarian actors, 743–4
Haitian earthquake (2010), 735f
HPCs (humanitarian programming cycles), 750
HRPs (humanitarian response plans), 750
Humanitarian Charter and Minimum Standards in Humanitarian Response, 737
humanitarian system, 738–40
international law, 737
introduction, 735–6
issues, 751–2
Kenya’s Dadaab Refugee Camp, 740f
local actors, 748–9
new actors, 749
OCHA (Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs), 740
principles of, 736–7
private sector, 749
Red Cross/Red Crescent, 742–3
responsibility to protect, 737
Sphere Project, 736–7
UNHCR (UN Refugee Agency), 740–1
UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund), 740, 742
UN (United Nations) agencies, 740–2
WFP (World Food Programme), 740–1
WHS (World Humanitarian Summit), 738
(p. 812) humanitarian organizations, international NGOs
ADRA (Adventist Development and Relief Agency), 745
Aga Khan Development Network, 745
Buddhist humanitarian organization, 747
CARE (Cooperative for Assistance and Relief Everywhere), 745
Caritas Internationalis, 745
Concern Worldwide, 746
CRS (Catholic Relief Services), 746
CWS (Church World Service), 746
FOCUS (Focus Humanitarian Assistance), 745
Islamic Relief Worldwide, 746
JRS (Jesuit Refugee Service), 746
LWR (Lutheran World Relief), 746
Médecins sans frontières (Doctors Without Borders), 748
Médecins sans Frontières (Doctors Without Borders), 745
Mercy Corps, 746
Order of Malta, 745
Oxfam, 747
Samaritan’s Purse, 747
Save the Children Fund, 747
Save the Refugees Fund, 746
Sovereign Order of Malta, 748
Tzu Chi, 747
US National Association of Evangelicals, 747
World Relief, 747
World Vision International, 747
humanitarian programming cycles (HPCs), 750
humanitarian response plans (HRPs), 750
humanitarian system, 738–40
human-made environmental factors, 366
human refugees and migration, global law, 768–9
human rights
birth of, 419–23
core rights, 459–61
crimes against humanity, 426
Doctrine of Discovery, 422
early European modernity, 418–19
Foedus pacificum (pacific federation), 423
freedom of the ancients, 422
freedom of the moderns, 422
French Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen, 423
Geneva Convention, 426
ICCPR (International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights), 425
ICESC (International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights), 425
introduction, 417–18
liberalism, 419–23
limitations, 427–30
metaphor of the Greek portico, 424
Nuremberg tribunals, 426
ongoing problems, 424–7
Perpetual Peace, 423
post-WWII, 426
prospects, 427–30
responsibility to protect, 426
solutions, 424–7
Tokyo tribunals, 426
UDHR (Universal Declaration of Human Rights), 424–5
Universal Declaration of Human Rights., 422
war crimes, 426
human security, globalization and security, 406–7
human trafficking. See also problem orientation; trafficking
border security, 147
controlling, 353–4
definition, 144
deliberative governance, 149
economic hardships, 145
endless wars, 145
family debts, 145
global agency, 353–4
illicit migration, 145
illiteracy, 145
involuntary migration, 374–5
Palermo Protocol, 353
patterns of, 144–5
poverty, 145
problem response, 146–9
scope of exploitation, 144
(p. 813)
state securities, 148
stating the problem, 143–6
Thailand, 147
UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, 353
underlying causes, 146–8
Humboldt University, 28
hunger and malnutrition
food, global policies, 619–21
minorities, 621
Huntington, Samuel P., 163, 253, 711
Hurley, Cornelius, 338
Hussein, Saddam, 374
Hutchinson, John, 44
Huxley, Aldous, 497–8
hybridity, 97
hybridity theory, 22
hybridization, 97, 610
Hybridization theory, global sports, 610
hydrosphere, 648
Hyman Minsky school, 331
Hymer, Stephen, 312
hypercommodification, global sports, 602–3, 605
IBM factory, strikes, 301
Ibn Al-Haytham, 96
ICCPR (International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights), 425
ICESC (International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights), 425
ideologies, evolution of global studies, 66, 66f
ideoscapes, 65, 141
IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force), 438
IGOs (intergovernmental organizations), 437–8
IKEA, glocalization of, 100
illegal aliens, multiculturalism and neoliberalism, 539
The Illicit Global Economy and State Power, 352
illicit migration, human trafficking, 145
illiteracy, human trafficking, 145
ILO (International Labor Organization), 299–301
images of food, 567–8
imaginaries
definition, 66, 66f
evolution of global studies, 66, 66f
female body in global media, 551
global imaginary, 4, 5, 22, 142, 498
in global studies, 4, 5
social imaginary, 498
social imaginary tool, 711
imaginative landscapes, problem orientation, 141–2
Imagined Communities, 56
IMF (International Monetary Fund), 438
immigrants, multiculturalism, 535–6
immigration. See also multiculturalism, nation-states and immigration
and citizenship, 704–8
localization of the global, 77
non-immigrant workers, 539
temporary foreign workers, 539
imperial globalization, 520
implosion of space and time, 11
impoverishment in the Anthropocene. See also Anthropocene thesis
alibi tendencies, 462–4
CESCR (Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights), 460
climate change, 466
common heritage of mankind principle, 463–4
core rights, 459–61
culture of poverty, 464
ESCR (Economic, Social and Cultural Rights), 460
focus on income impoverishment, 462
international and global justice, 463
introduction, 457–9
late Holocene vs. early Anthropocene, 464–7
MDGs (Millennium Development Goals), 459
notions of intergenerational justice, 462
obligations of non-state actors, 463
politics of denial, 462
population bomb, 458
poverty vs. impoverishment, 457
right to development, 459
social minimum, 459–61
(p. 814) impoverishment vs. poverty, 457
inaction, power of, 339
in-between space of the state, localization of the global, 80–2
Inclusive Green Growth, 669
India
antecedent of global studies, 41–4
Gini coefficient, 213t
inequality, 211–12, 213t, 218–21
partitioning of, 372
religious globalisms, 486
TCC (transnational capitalist class), 320
India: A Sacred Geography, 40
Indiana University, 29–30, 202
Indian Country Today, 264
India Premier League (IPL), 104–5
indigenization, 97
indigenous peoples, impacts of migration, 367
industrial effect, 528
industrialization, Anthropocene thesis, 180
industrial pollution, Anthropocene thesis, 176
inequality and the Global South
acquiescent socialism in China, 222–4
affirmative action, 219, 220–1
ASAFLA (Asia, Africa, and Latin America), 215
China, 211–12
China, India, and the United States, 213t
climate change, 216
deferred liberalism, 221–2
developing countries, definition, 214
equality of opportunities, 219
First World, 214–15
Gini coefficient, 212, 213t
history of, 211–12, 214–16
India, 211–12
Indian model of fighting, 218–21
jiefang, 215
justification of, 211–12, 214
liberty over equality, 221–2
Marxist approach, 222–4
multiple sources, 218
numerical equality, 217
as a power relationship, 216–17
reservation, 220–1
samata (social equality), 215
scope of, 214–16
SCs Scheduled Castes, 218–19
SDG moment, 224–5
SDG (Sustainable Development Goals), 216, 224–5
Second World, 214–15
STs Scheduled Tribes, 218–19
swaraj (self-rule), 215
Third World, 214–15
three rural problems, 223
two paradoxes, 211–12, 214
ubuntu (mutual interdependence), 216
untouchable castes, 218–19
Inertia, 511
influenza, 654–6
informational world, 522
Inglis, David, 64
INGOs (international non-governmental organizations), 724
Inkeles, Alex, 402
innovation, global governance, 787–9
institutions, global governance, 779–783, 780t
intellectual practice, a paradigm shift, 56–60
intensification of disembodied globalization, 54–6
interconnections in the twentieth century, Anthropocene thesis, 176
interdisciplinarity, 23, 25. See also transdisciplinarity
interests and fields, global history, 118–20
intergenerational justice, 462
intergovernmental organizations (IGOs), 437–8
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 636–7
international and global justice, 463
International Campaign to Ban Landmines, 710
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), 425
International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights (ICESC), 425
international criminal accountability, global law, 767
International Interactions, 199
International Labor Organization (ILO), 299–301
international law, 737, 759. See also global law
(p. 815) “International Masters Programmes for Trade Unionists,” 305
International Monetary Fund (IMF), 438
international non-governmental organizations (INGOs), 724
International Political Sociology, 199
international regimes, global movements, 724
international regulation of labor, 299–301
international relations vs. global studies, 3
International Sociological Association’s Research Committee on Labour Movements, 305
International Studies and Academic Enterprise, 200
International Studies Association (ISA). See ISA (International Studies Association)
International Studies Perspectives, 206
International Studies Quarterly, 199
Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), 438
In the Realm of the Diamond Queen, 45
intrepid mavericks, 9–10
invariance, 95
involuntary migration. See migration, involuntary
IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), 636–7
IPL (India Premier League), 104–5
Iran
media industry, 595
religious globalisms, 486
Iraq, TCC (transnational capitalist class), 321
IR (international relations) vs. global studies, 3
ISA (International Studies Association)
competition for limited institutional resources, 204
definition of IS (international studies), 199
disjuncture between scholarship and pedagogy, 204
diversification of international studies, 203
founding of, 202–3
journals, 199
Isin, Engin, 704
ISI Web of Knowledge, 7
Islam
competitive religious globalisms, 489–92
glocalization, 99
Islamic Relief Worldwide, 746
Islamophobia, multiculturalism and neoliberalism, 542, 544
Israel, religious globalisms, 486
Italy, media industry, 595
Jacobs, Jane, 528
Jameson, Dale, 173
Jameson, Fredric, 5
Jänicke, Martin, 668
Japan, global history, 122
Japanese internment, WWII, 371
Jasanoff, Maya, 43
Jaspers, Karl, 41
Jawaharlal Nehru University, 305
Jentoft, S., 774
Jesuit Refugee Service (JRS), 746
Jewish Life, 257
Jewish tradition, antecedent of global studies, 40, 42
jiefang, 215
Joas, Hans, 41
jobbers agreements, 304
Johns Hopkins project, 692
Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies in Washington, DC, 27
joint or shared liability, 304
Jooste, Nico, 713
Joseph S. Murphy Institute for Worker Education and Labor Studies at the CUNY School of Professional Studies, global labor studies, 305
Journal of Conflict Resolution, 203
Journal of Critical Globalization Studies, 30
Journal of Global Buddhism, 31
Journal of Global Business, 31
Journal of Global Drug Policy and Practice, 31
Journal of Global Ethics, 31, 59
Journal of Global Health Sciences, 31
Journal of Global History, 31
Journal of Globalization Studies, 30
Journal of Global Legal Studies, 31
Journal of Global Marketing, 31
JRS (Jesuit Refugee Service), 746
(p. 816) Juergensmeyer, Mark
global consciousness, 63
on global religion, 483
sociotheology, 165–6
worldviews, 160, 165–6
Jugaad (make do), 101
Jürgen Osterhammel, 115
justice globalism, 5, 488
Kafka, Franz, 498
Kaldor, Mary, 22, 386–7, 393, 690
Kalmyks, involuntary migration, 370
Kang, Liu, 591
Kant, Immanuel, 159, 423, 708
Karmali, Abyd, 674
Kasbah, 505
Kaul, Inge, 782–3, 788–9
Kay, John, 277, 280
Kayaoğlu, T., 490
Kazakhstan, involuntary migration, 370
Keck, Margaret, 726
Keeling, Charles David, 636
Keeling curve, 636
Kennedy, Paul, 59
Kennedy, Stephen, 58
Kenya’s Dadaab Refugee Camp, 740f
Keohane, R. O., 776
Keucheyan, Razmig, 13
Keynesian economics, introduction, 331–2
Keynesian economics failure during the GFC. See also GFC (global financial crisis) of 2008
banking reform, 334–9
capital’s structural power, 339–41
political demobilization, 341–2
power of action, 340
power of inaction, 339
productive power, 340–1
technocracy, 341–2
K Foundation Burn a Million Quid, 504
Khaldun, Ibn, 45
Kibish, Omo, 363
Kilcullen, David, 395
King, Anthony, 51
King, Mervyn, 285
Kirshner, Jonathan, 340
Kjærsgaard, Pia, 543
Klein, Naomi, 668, 676
Knoke, D., 786
Knotts, H. G., 204
knowledge structures, problem orientation, 142
KOF Index of Globalization, 7
Koo, Richard, 332–333
Kooiman, J., 774
Korea, global history, 122
Koresh, David, 157–8
Kristeva, J., 557
Kristoff, Nicholas D., 244
Kroker, Arthur, 577
Kroker, Marilouise, 577
Krugman, Paul, 335, 339, 676
Kuhn, Thomas, 203
Kwak, James, 340
Kyoto agreement, 640–1
labor
adidas, 303
anti-sweatshop activism, 296–8
Bangladesh, 294, 299
BUM International, 297
changing world economy, 294–6
collapse of the Rana Plaza building, 294
Dallas Cowboys, 303
El Monte slave shop, 297, 298
failure of self-regulation, 298–9
fire and building safety, 304
firm structure, twentieth century vs. twenty-first., 294–5
firm structure, Walmart vs. General Motors, 294–5
Foxconn, 293–4
fundamental human rights, 300, 301–2
global labor studies, 305
global production system, 295–6
Green Textile, 303
ILO (International Labor Organization), 299–301
international regulation, 299–301
introduction, 293–4
jobbers agreements, 304
joint or shared liability, 304
(p. 817)
labor standards in trade agreements, 304
LF Sportswear, 297
Mervyns, 297
Montgomery Ward, 297
Nike, 296–7, 303
outsourcing, 294
private enforcement, 296–8
reputation management, 296–8
transnational contractors, 295
triple bottom line, 297
UN Global Compact, 299–301
Walmart, 298
worker’s rights in a global economy, 303–5
WTO (World Trade Organization), 304–5
labor markets, global sports, 603
labor standards in trade agreements, 304
Lady Gaga, 554–5
land empires, involuntary migration, 368–9
land ownership, food and global policies, 621
land use, planetary boundaries, 183
Large-Scale Asset Purchase (LSAP) program, 333
large-scale land acquisitions, food systems, 623–4
Last Glacial Maximum, 363
late globalization, 388–90, 396
late modern art, 499
Latin America, TCC (transnational capitalist class), 321
Latour, Bruno, 174
Lau, C., 783
Laumann, E. O., 786
Laurence, Janet, 511
law. See global law
Law of the Seas Treaty, 762–3
layers, evolution of global studies, 64–7
leadership, taming financialization, 284–5
Lean In, 235
Lefebvre, H., 526–8
legitimacy, global governance, 776, 776f
Leipzig University, 27, 28, 29, 32
Lena, J. C., 553
Lenard, Patti, 707
Lenin, Vladimir, 323
lens technology and Dutch art, 500
leveling effect, 389
Levi-Strauss, Claude, 203
Levitsky, Steven, 254
Levitt, Peggy, 705
Levitt, Theodore, 63
Lewis, D., 696
LF Sportswear, 297
liberalism and human rights, 419–23
liberty over equality, 221–2
Lichtenstein, Nelson, 294
life beyond Earth, 45–6
Life Beyond Earth, 37
Lilley, Kathleen, 711
Lima-Paris Action Agenda (LPAA), 646
limits to growth, planetary boundaries, 181
The Limits to Growth, 668
Lindbeck, George, 166
Line of Control, 507
Linton, Ralph, 96
Linz, P. J. J., 781
liquidity, evolution of global studies, 58
lithosphere, 648
Local Dirt, 573
localization of the global. See also glocalization
city-to-city interactions, 75
destabilizing older hierarchies, 82–4
global capital, 81
global circuits, 77–8
global multinodal space, 76–8
immigration, 77
in-between space of the state, 80–2
introduction, 73–4
loosening of identities, 77
mapping globalization, 81
micropolitics, 78–9
micro research, 74–6
national state vs. “the state,” 80
nation as container, 79
neo-Weberian state theory, 80
role of the nation-state, 79
state participation in global operations, 80–2
state sovereignty, 81–2
territorial dimension, 81
transnationalized actors, 77–8
unequal power among states, 82
local knowledge, global epistemology, 195
Locke, John, 221, 420–2, 427–9
(p. 818) longue durée thinking, 37
“Look Good in All You Do,” 555–7
loosening of identities, localization of the global, 77
Loungani, L., 287
love and loss of the female body, 555–7
Lovell, Julia, 351
Lovins, Amory, 680
Lovins, L. Hunter, 680
LPAA (Lima-Paris Action Agenda), 646
LSAP (Large-Scale Asset Purchase) program, 333
Lucas, Robert, 331–332
Lupton, Deborah, 567, 570, 575
Lutzenburger, José, 670
Luxemburg, Rosa, 678
LWR (Lutheran World Relief), 746
Lynch, H., 107
Mackinder, Halford, 520
Macpherson, C. B., 221
macro-level analysis, global epistemology, 191–2
Madoff, Bernie, 335
The Making of a Transnational Capitalist Class, 318
The Making of Global Capitalism, 130
Malikzada, Farkhunda, 557–9
malnourished women, food and global policies, 626
managing and containing the foreign Other, 540
managing interdependence, global governance, 774–8
Mandelbaum, Michael, 766
Manjoo, Rashida, 239
Mansilla, Veronica Boix, 711
Mao Zedong, 215, 222–3
mapping and measuring civil society, 690, 692, 696
mapping globalization, localization of the global, 81
mapping impulse, 500
maps
and globes, 500
pilgrimages (hajj), 41–2
relativization of space, 40–6
rules of cartography, 40
space, 40
spatiality, 40
maquiladora industry, 321
Marez, Curtis, 353
Margulis, Lynn, 509
Maritime Empires, involuntary migration, 366–8
market globalism, 5, 488
Marshall, T. H., 703
Marx, Karl
on capitalism, 21
Das Kapital, 190
glocalization, 96
on human rights, 427
influence on ideology, 161
primitive accumulation, 678
TCC (transnational capitalist class), 323
transnational capitalist class, 311
Marxist approach to inequality and the Global South, 222–4
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Global History Project, 31
Massacre of Saint Bartholomew, 419
mass production of ignorance, 588–9
materialist and political economy approach to women’s studies, 232
Mattelart, A., 550
Matusitz, J., 100
Max Weber, worldviews, 162
Maxwell, R., 566
Mazlish, Bruce, 43, 114
McCarty, Philip, 130, 255
McCaughey, R. A., 200–2
McChesney, Robert, 585, 587, 588, 592
McCoy, Charles. S., 62–4
McDonaldization of global sports, 604
McDonald’s, glocalization, 103–4
McGrew, Anthony, 57
McMichael, Philip, 618
McNeill, William, 21
McRobbie, Angela, 243, 556
MDGs (Millennium Development Goals), 459, 483–4
Meadows, Paul, 60–3
Mearsheimer, J. J., 403
(p. 819) Measures of Difference, 506
Médecins sans Frontières (Doctors Without Borders), 745, 748
media, representation of trafficking, 354–6
media-based fans, global sports, 611
media consolidation, 586
media industry
advertising, 585–6
Arab Spring, 596
beppegrillo.it, 595
Comcast, 587
Committee to Protect Journalists, 597
concentration, 586
control by oligopoly, 586–7
convergence, 586
cultural convergence, 593–4
cultural differentialism, 593–4
cultural hybridity, 593–4
cultural imperialism, 591–3
demise of public affairs programming, 588
Egypt, 595–6
Facebook Revolution, 595–6
global concern, 597–8
Globalization and Culture: Global Mélange, 593
Here Comes Everybody, 594, 596
“How Could So Much Produce So Little?,” 589
introduction, 583
Iran, 595
Italy, 595
mass production of ignorance, 588–9
media consolidation, 586
News Corp, 586–7
NSA (National Security Agency) vulnerability, 596
The Politics of Media Policy, 587
poverty of news, 588–9
promise of new media, 594–7
resistance of local culture, 593–4
“Retreating from the World: The Sharp Decline in Foreign Coverage,” 589
threat to local cultures, 590–1
Time Warner Communications, 587
Walt Disney Company, 586
mediascapes, 65, 141
mega-events, global sports, 606–8
megalopolis, 526
mega-terrorism, global law, 767–8
Meiji Restoration, 98
mélange, 97
memento mori, 500, 502
mental models, financialization, 285
Mentz, Steve, 509
Mercy Corps, 746
Merkel, Angela, 533–4, 705
Merton, Robert, 94
Mervyns, 297
meso-level analysis, global epistemology, 191–2
meteorology, Anthropocene thesis, 175
methodological cornerstone of civil society research, 692
Miall, H., 488
Mian, Atif, 334, 336–7
micropolitics, localization of the global, 78–9
micro research, localization of the global, 74–6
Middle East problem, problem orientation, 140–1
Middle East region, TCC (transnational capitalist class), 321
Middle Kingdom. See China and the Middle Kingdom
migration
by anatomically modern human migrants, 364
Beringia land bridge, 363–4
climate and environment, 364–6
earth systems, 361
Homo erectus, 362–3
Homo habilis, 362
Homo neanderthalensis, 362
Homo sapiens, 363–4
human-made environmental factors, 366
introduction, 361–2
Last Glacial Maximum, 363
migrants, worldwide estimate, 706
prehistoric, 362–4
Younger Dryas period, 364
migration, involuntary
Assyrians, 370
Buddhists, 370
Chinese empire, 368–9
(p. 820)
Crimean Tatars, 370
dissolution of empires, 371–2
establishment of Pakistan, 372
ethnic cleansing, 369–70
ethnic Germans, 371
exile, 369–71
Greeks, 370
human trafficking, 374–5
impact on indigenous peoples, 367
Japanese internment, WWII, 371
Kalmyks, 370
Kazakhstan, 370
land empires, 368–9
Maritime Empires, 366–8
Mongol empire, 368–9
partitioning of India, 372
politically-defined refugees, 373
as punishment, 369–71
Qing Dynasty, 369
as refuge seeking, 373–5
rights of refugees, 373
Russian empire, 368–9
Siberia, 369–70
trans-Atlantic slave trade, 367–8
Western Europe, 366–8
Yuan Dynasty, 368–9
migration, voluntary
early 1920s, 375–6
history of, 375–6
involuntary servitude, 377
old vs. new migrants, 375
post-1960, 376
regulation of, 376
service workers, 376–7
STEM experts, 377–8
women vs. men, 376
migration-based fans, global sports, 611
militarization of police departments, 394–5
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), 459, 483–4
Miller, David, 713
Miller, T., 566
Mills, C. Wright, 317, 318
Minimum Wage Machine, 504
Misoczky, Maria Ceci, 675
Mitchell, Audra, 467
Mitchell, Gregory, 354
Mittelman, James, 58, 60
Mobile Home, 507
Modelski, George, 60–3, 498
mode of performance, global governance, 776, 776f
Modernity at Large: Cultural Dimensions of Globalization, 60, 65
modifiers, 7–8
Moghadam, Assaf, 63
Mohammadi, Ali, 591
Mol, Arthur, 577
Molloy, Tom, 504
money, themes in visual art,