Abstract and Keywords
Migration has played a critical role in human survival on Earth since prehistoric times. Archaeologists, anthropologists, linguists, geneticists, and climatologists now agree that anatomically modern humans, Homo sapiens, originated in Africa. It took approximately 70,000 years for them to disperse out of Africa to populate the other habitable continents. Climate change and geography determined their migration routes. Historically, there have been more involuntary migrations than voluntary ones. Empire-building and wars were the two main contexts for forced migrations; in contrast, large-scale socioeconomic developments, particularly differences among various regions of the world, provide the contexts for voluntary migrations. This chapter discusses both forms of migration.
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