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date: 14 July 2020

(p. 899) Index

(p. 899) Index

Abbas, Anwar, 630
abolition china, 646
abolitionism, 683–84, 688–89
Academia de Innovación para la Sostenibilidad, 549
Accord for Fire and Building Safety, 778
Adbusters, 188, 216, 520–21
Adidas boycott, 300
Ae Dil Hai Mushkil, 37
Affeldt, Stefanie, 18
affinity groups, 95
affordances. see social media
Africa/Middle East. see also specific countries
attitude-behaviour gap, 565
blood diamonds, 369, 374–75, 379, 559
boycotts/buycotts, 559, 562, 564, 574–75
conflict minerals, 370, 376–78, 381, 392
conservation tourism in, 353–54
conspicuous consumption in, 565
consumption in, 560–61
corporate social responsibility, 563–64, 576
culture jamming in, 574
discursive strategies, 562, 574
ecolabelling, 565
ethics/morality, 561–65
Fairtrade, 565, 571–73
food industry, 560, 564
identity, 563
institutions, 563
lifestyle strategies, 562, 565, 574
NGO activism in, 567, 570, 574
oil/mineral extraction (see oil/mineral extraction)
organic certification in, 567–71
organic food consumption, 571
organic food sector, 565–67, 568–70t, 569f, 577n6
overview, 16, 559–60
participatory guarantee systems (PGS), 571
philanthropy in, 563–64
political consumerism in, 561–65, 575–76, 887, 889
poverty rates in, 560–61, 576
sustainability certification, 255–56, 567–71, 576, 836, 848
sustainable consumption/production, 562–64
urbanization, 561
Afrobarometer, 563
agency
corporate brands, 216–17
food consumerism, 278
global value chains, 257–58
nationalism, 670, 676
social practice theory, 139–43, 141–42f
AGICES, 465
Alabama Chanin, 304
A-labelled products, 390–92, 396–97, 404
Alberta oil sands, 369, 373, 379
Alcedo, Patrick, 728
Algeria, 561, 568t
All Lives Matter, 691
Alonso, Luis E., 472
alterconsumerism, 79–81, 80t
Alternativa 3, 462
alternative exchange systems, 821, 823t, 825–26
alternative food provisioning, 76, 82, 277, 281–82, 284, 285, 444, 460, 596
alternative living promotion, 821, 823t, 825–26
Alunni, Silvia, 148
Amaeshi, Kenneth, A. B., 563
Amazon boycott, 574
Ambedkar, Bhimrao Ramji, 36, 40
American Anthropological Association, 706
American Family Association, 630, 703
Amnesty International France, 374
(p. 900) Angola, 568t, 836
Animalia, 164
animal welfare
anti-halal boycott, 669–71, 677nn1–3
in behavioural economics, 119
in corporate brands, 213
in food consumerism, 11–12, 281, 286
in vegan/plant-based diets, 8, 160, 161, 163–72
WATOK regulations, 670
anti-American activism, 211
anti-apartheid movement
African National Congress (ANC), 49–52, 56, 58
Barclays Boycott, 57
black poverty, 50
boycott economic impacts, 55, 60–62
British AAM, 48, 53–58, 62
bus boycotts, 50–51
civic/labour organisations in, 58–61
clothing boycott, 58
communal identity in, 61–63
Congress Alliance, 50
Congress Movement, 50–53
consumer boycott campaigns, 5–6, 47, 49–52, 61–63, 94, 99, 276, 880
democratic government formation, 60
as discursive strategies, 54–55
economic sanctions, 62
ethics/morality in, 701–2
expanded boycotts, 56–58
food boycotts, 57, 58, 287
forced labour in, 51–52
foreign investment impacts, 60
Grand Apartheid, 49
international boycotts, 52–58, 62
labour strikes, 59–60
as lifestyle politics, 54
loan agreements impacts, 60
local resistance, 47–48
modes of coordination, 96, 99
Petty Apartheid, 49
political meaning as cohesive force, 62–63
political participation in, 61, 837
potato boycott, 51–52
rent boycott, 59
Revised Programme of Action, 49–50
Sharpeville massacre, 55–57
solidarity in, 47, 52–53, 56–57, 62–63
suppression of resistance, 51, 55–56, 59–62, 880
white-owned retailers boycott, 59
anti-austerity protests (Greece), 664, 669, 673–75, 678n21, 678n23
anticonsumerism, 79–81, 80t, 168, 856, 859–64, 869–71, 871n1
antiglobalization activism, 211
anti-halal boycott, 669–71, 677nn1–3
anti-Jewish boycotts, 626, 628–30, 665, 705–12, 714n5
anti-LGBTQ boycotts, 630–31, 703–4
anti-Muslim boycotts, 631, 632, 669–71, 677nn1–3
anti-sweatshop activism. see also fashion consumerism
brand avoidance/rejection, 209–11
in the clothing industry, 298–99, 522–23
ethics/morality in, 701
factory wages, 522
government role in, 837
media coverage of, 181, 183, 190, 197
Nike labour abuses, 197, 522
overview, 20, 883
power relationships in, 257
White Label Campaign, 518, 532n2, 817
Anvar, Muntaha, 564
Apple Inc., 377
Apple iPhone 6, 392
Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS), 229
Aquaculture Stewardship Council, 234t, 338
Aquino, Benigno, 731
Arab League, 708
Arctic 30 protesters, 371
Argentina, 542, 544–46
Ariztía, Tomas, 547, 548, 549
Arla Foods boycott, 574–75
Arsel, Zeynep, 208, 211, 215, 218
Art of Living, 39
Attitude, Behavior, Choice (ABC) paradigm, 8, 136, 140–41
attitude-behaviour gap, 350, 351, 355–60, 565, 862–67
Auld, Graeme, 806
(p. 901) Austgulen, Marthe Hårvik, 302
Australia
Advance Australia Fair, 643, 656
Buy Australian-Made campaign, 18, 643, 654–58
colonialism in, 18
commodity racism/spectacle, 644, 647–50
dialectics of political consumerism, 644–47
food movements in, 83
Great White Train, 643, 655–57, 889
indigenous Australians exhibitions, 648
labelling standards in, 845
racial images commodification, 648–50
racialized political consumerism in, 643–44
toy activism in, 315
White Sugar campaign, 18, 643–44, 650–53, 658, 889
Australian-Made Preference League, 654–57
Austria
consumer engagement in, 498–508t
ethical products sales, 436–38, 437t
labelling/certification standards in, 74
Verdi operas boycott, 96
authoritarian regimes, 96
Baby Milk Action, 98
Baek, Young Min, 689
Bagchi, A. K., 30
Baker, Laurie, 577n6
Bakker, Erik, 171
Balsiger, Philip, 15, 787
Barbosa, Livia, 546–47
Barendregt, Bart, 199
Bargeman, Bertine, 360
Baringhorst, Sigrid, 8
Barnett, Clive, 497
Barr, Stewart, 358
Barrientos, Stephanie, 254–55
Bartley, Tim, 229, 801, 807, 842
Bartling, Björn, 117, 126
Battle of Seattle, 74, 459–60
Baumgarten, Britta, 468
Bayliss, Kate, 261
Becchetti, Leonardo, 573
Beck, Ulrich, 207
behavioural economics
abstract money-distribution tasks, 114
altruism avoidance, 114–15, 126
animal welfare in, 119
automatic enrolment plans, 123, 125
cognitive processes, 125
collective choice, 116–18
competition effects, 117
dictator game, 114, 115
environmental movement, 125–26
ethical labels, 120
ethics/morality, 117–23, 125
experimental evidence, 114, 115, 117, 119–21
fairness perceptions, 121, 126
financial/economic literacy, 122–24
globalization/individualization process in, 6–7, 72
illusory preference for fairness, 114–15
individual decision-making, 113–16, 120, 122–23, 126
individual self-interest, 113, 116
investment decisions, 120–26
justice sensitivity, 114–15, 119–21
moral wiggle room, 115–16
mouse killing study, 117
nudging, 7, 8, 111–12, 118–19, 127, 153
overview, 7, 111–12
pivotality, 122, 125, 126
privacy, 124–25
prosocial preferences, 112–16, 126
reputation, 113
salience, 119, 122, 124–26
status-quo effect, 118–19
strengths/weaknesses, 127–28
welfare for others, 114
willingness-to-pay, 114, 120, 121
Belgium
alternative consumption practices in, 445
boycotting/buycotting in, 439f, 442
consumer engagement in, 498–508t
ethical products sales, 437t, 438
postmaterialism in, 526
prosumption in, 444
Belliger, Andréa, 183
Benford, Robert D., 781
Benin, 568t
Ben & Jerry’s boycott, 635
Bennett, E. A., 19, 890
(p. 902) Berger, Sebastian, 7, 373, 882
Best Aquaculture Practices/Global Aquaculture Alliance, 338
Beyond Meat burgers, 166
Bhagavad Gita, 39
Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), 35
Bienabe, Estelle, 571
Bilanci di giustizia, 466
Billig, Michael, 666
Bimber, Bruce, 197
Black, Iain R., 394, 861
Black-Korean Conflict, 687
blacklists, 822t, 823–24
Black Lives Matter, 632, 635, 687, 689, 691, 692, 694n4
Blee, Kathleen M., 688
blockchain technologies, 143
blood diamonds, 369, 374–75, 379, 559. see also oil/mineral extraction
Blue Angel labelling, 840
Blue Canoe, 302
Blue Lives Matter, 687, 692, 694n5
Blue Marine Foundation, 341
Board for Accreditation and Conformity Assessment, 843
Body Shop, 212
Bosi, Lorenzo, 467
Boston Tea Party, 275, 516–17, 646, 683
Boström, Magnus, 9, 22, 222n6, 250, 260–61, 268n2, 881, 892
bottled water campaign, 195
boundary definition modes, 91–95, 93f, 101–3
Bourdieu, Pierre, 650
Bourikos, Dimitris, 470, 472
boycott, divest and sanction (BDS) movement, 17, 19, 705–13, 714n5, 780, 784, 890
Boycott from Within group, 708
#Boycott Germany campaign, 664, 669, 673–75, 678n21, 678n23
Boycott Japanese Products Period, 604–5
Boycott Jewish campaign, 665
Boycott News, 54, 55
boycotts. see also specific campaigns
Africa/Middle East, 559, 562, 564, 574–75
applications of, 776
cannabis, 753
China, 37, 589
corporate brands, 209–11, 220t
described, 3, 10–11, 19, 28
fashion consumerism, 299–302, 522
food consumerism, 284–87
globalization, 235–36
history of, 683
identity as motivation for, 703–4
Latin America, 542–47, 550, 551, 554
market valuation effects, 822t, 823–24
modes of coordination, 97
North America, 517–20, 528–31, 646
Northwestern Europe, 438–43, 439–41f, 446, 450
racialized political consumerism, 684, 686–89, 693, 694nn4–5
seafood consumerism, 333–36, 342, 344
social media in, 210, 300, 530–31, 630–31
social movement organisations, 73, 74
social practice theory, 139–43, 141–42f
Southern Europe, 458–60, 458f, 463, 467
surrogate (see anti-apartheid movement)
Thailand, 605–6, 613
tourism, 351
toy consumerism, 315
United Kingdom, 335–36, 669–71, 677nn1–3, 706
vegan/plant-based diets, 168
brahmacharya, 35
Brandalism, 216
brand avoidance/rejection, 210–11
brands. see corporate brands
Brazil, 541–54
Breitbart, 636
Brenčič, Maja Makovec, 634
Brent Spar oil rig, 368, 372
British Anti-Apartheid Movement (AAM). see anti-apartheid movement
Brons, Anke, 149
Brooks, Andrew, 258, 262–63
Brown, Nicole Marie, 668, 690
Brundtland Commission, 401
Bruns, Axel, 191
Budeanu, Adriana, 351
Bulgaria, 483, 489–90, 491f, 492f, 493, 494f, 495, 498–508t
Bumble Bee boycott, 335
(p. 903) Burgoon, Brian, 796
Burkina Faso, 568t, 569f
Burt, B. Q., 13
Burundi, 568t
Bush, Simon R., 251, 252, 260–61, 338, 886
Business Compliance Initiative, 447
Business Social Compliance Initiative, 797, 803
Buy Australian-Made campaign, 18, 643, 654–58
Buy Black campaign, 632–33, 665
Buycott.com, 302
buycotts
Africa/Middle East, 559, 562, 564, 574–75
cannabis, 753
China, 598–99
corporate brands, 212–14, 220t, 221
described, 3, 17–19, 28, 776, 885
fashion consumerism, 301–3
Latin America, 542–47, 550, 551, 554
mass consumption, 855–56, 860, 870–71
North America, 517–20, 528–31, 646
Northwestern Europe, 438–43, 439–41f, 446, 450
racialized political consumerism, 688–89
seafood consumerism, 333, 342
social movement organisations, 73, 74
social practice theory, 139–43, 141–42f, 150
Thailand, 605–8, 614
tourism, 351, 360
toy consumerism, 319, 322
vegan/plant-based diets, 164, 166, 168
Buy Nothing Day, 521
Caldwell, Melissa L., 667
Cameroon, 568t
Campaign for Fair Food, 524–25
Canada. see North America
Canadian Association of Consumers (CAC), 517, 518
Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA), 523
Canadian seafood boycott, 341
cane sugar boycotts, 646–47, 650–53
cannabis
alternative lifestyle politics, 751, 757–58
blood weed campaign, 753, 760n13
boycotts/buycotts, 753
Clean Green Certified, 752
disordered consumption, 745
dispensary workers, 756
environmental issues, 746–48
ethical purchasing initiatives, 752–58, 760n11, 760n13
global market for, 743–44
labour issues, 747–48, 759n3
legalization in U. S./Canada, 744–46, 745t, 756–59
legal status/public discourses, 19–20, 741–43
market transaction initiatives, 755–56
medicinal, 743–44, 750, 752
normalization of, 750–51, 757, 890
organic certification, 753–54
pesticides, 747, 748
political participation, post-legalization, 752–56
political participation, pre-legalization, 750–52
production issues, 746–48
public opinion polls, 744–45, 745t
recreational, 744, 746
reputation, 754, 757
research methods, 749–50
social science research, 748–49
standards organizations, 754–55, 757, 758, 760n11
supply-side political consumerism, 751–52, 758–59
sustainability certification, 754–55, 757–58
terminology, 742–43
Carrier, James G., 726
carrot mobs, 530, 822t
Carvalho de Rezende, Daniel, 168
Cashore, Benjamin, 840
Castelló, Enric, 667, 668
Castells, Manuel, 196–97
Catalan cava boycott (Spain), 663–64, 668, 669, 671–73, 675, 678n12
catastrophe lens, 379–80, 383
Catholic League for Religious and Civil Rights, 703
Cathy, Dan, 531
celanthropy, 343
Central (Thai retailer), 606
(p. 904) Central/Eastern Europe. see also specific countries
accessibility of goods, 493
actions, 482, 484, 498–509t
awareness, 482–86, 498–509t
consumer engagement in, 484–85, 485f, 489
economic differences, 492–93, 492f
embedded politics of everyday life, 480, 496–97
environment as motivation, 483, 485–86, 489, 490–91, 491f, 493
ethnocentrism in, 490–91, 491f
fairtrade products/Fairtrade label, 489, 493–94, 496, 510n5
infrastructures of consumption, 494–95, 494f
local cultural factors, 496
local society focus, 481
methodology, 482–83, 510n2
overview, 15–16, 479–80
political consumerist organizations, 493–94
political culture, 495–97
political participation in, 480–81, 495
socialism, legacy of, 480–82
variations vs. Western Europe, 483–86, 484–85f, 498–509t, 510nn3–4
variations within, 486–87
welfare state type, 495
willingness-to-pay, 482, 484–86, 488–91, 491f
certification. see sustainability certification
CETSCALE, 634
Chad, 568t
Chakravarty, M., 29
charkha, 32
Chatterjee, Partha, 29, 32
Chatterton, Paul, 443
Chávez, César, 520
Chefs-for-Seals movement, 341
Cherrier, Helene, 394, 861
Chewinski, Max, 13
Chicken of the Sea boycott, 335
Chick-fil-A campaign, 197–98, 530–31
Chile, 542, 547–50
Chilean sea bass boycott, 335
China
alternative food networks, 596
automobile consumption, 598
boycotts, 589
boycotts, by other nations, 37
buycotts, 598–99
consumerism, evolution of, 584–86, 599n1
consumerism, transitions in, 592–94, 594f
decentralization in, 587–88
economic transition in, 587, 590f, 591–92
energy consumption in, 597–98
environmental awareness in, 588
food safety regulation, 594–99
governing mechanisms/approaches, 590f, 592
green consumption policies, 585–86, 593–97
health-related consumption, 593
household appliances, 593, 598
institutional environment, 590f, 591–92
institutions in, 587–90, 590f
Internet in, 588
labelling standards in, 845–46
lifestyle strategies, 589
low-carbon transition, 597
NGO activism in, 588
online retail, 585, 596, 599n1
overview, 16, 583–84
political consumerism in, 586–90, 590f, 887–88
political participation in, 588–89
social embeddedness, 590–91, 590f
willingness to pay, 585
China Energy Label, 598
China Forest Certification Council, 845–46
Chiquita, 238
chocolate. see also cocoa
ethics/morality, 1, 647, 652–53, 787
fair trade, 468, 804–6, 807n2
palm oil boycott, 193–94, 781
political consumerism impacts, 807
Christensen, T. K., 13
Christian Action, 53–54
civic engagement. see political participation
civil rights movement, 519–20, 633, 665, 681, 684
Clancy, Benjamin, 195–96
Clancy, Kelly A., 195–96
(p. 905) Clean Clothes Campaign, 80, 306, 784, 786, 788n3
Climate Savers initiative, 447
Clinton, Bill, 522
CNN effect, 375
Coalition of Immokalee Workers’ (CIW), 524
Coca-Cola boycotts, 209–11, 551, 574, 776
cocoa. see also chocolate
Africa, exports from, 570t, 572
in Australia, 652
ethics/morality, 1, 652
fair trade, 572–73, 804–6, 807n2
political consumerism impacts, 800
slavery/child labour in, 566
sustainability certification, 255, 799, 807n2
codes of conduct, 254–55, 257, 259–61, 885
Coelho, Sandra Lima, 474n13
coffee
Africa, exports from, 570t, 572–73
in Australia, 647, 652
consumer perceptions, 258–59
consumer preferences, 3, 115, 117, 120
ethics/morality, 787
fair trade, 114–17, 119, 255, 260, 436–38, 437t, 462, 848
global value chains, 252, 255, 257–59
in India, 30
nudging effects on, 119
private governance standards, 794–95
race-based demarcation, 647
social relations approach to, 10
solidarity, 572–73
Starbucks boycott, 210, 215, 218–19
sustainability certification, 227, 260, 343, 448, 797, 799
Cohen, Lizabeth, 517
Cohen, Scott, 355
Cohn, Alain, 118
Cola Turka, 211
COLEACP-PIP program, 567
Coles, Romand, 83
collaborative consumption, 393
collective identity in social movements
Clean Clothes Campaign, 784, 786, 788n3
collective good criterion, 777
as collectivized individual action, 774
definitions/classifications, 775–76
degrowth, 81, 782–83
direct social actions, 781
domain of outcome, 778, 778f
duration of outcome, 778f, 779
efficacy of, 776–80, 778f, 891
frame resonance, 780–81
grassroots initiatives, 783–85
interactional/cultural dynamics in, 786–87
market niches in, 787
material resources factor, 780
modes of coordination, 92–93, 93f
nature of outcome, 778, 778f
NGO activism in, 786
overview, 7, 773–75
producers, market functions in, 786, 881
public policy in, 786
research studies, 773–75
Slow Food, 788n2
solidarity in, 784–85
solidarity purchasing groups, 463, 465–66, 774, 782, 784, 825–26
success determinants, 780–82
Time Banks, 784, 788n4
timing of outcome, 778f, 779
Transition Towns, 80–81, 444, 779, 788n1
type of outcome, 777–78, 778f
value practices, 784
Collier, Stephen J., 481
Collins, John, 53
Combating BDS Act of 2016, 709
Committee of African Organisations (CAO), 53–54
commodity aesthetics, 649–50
Common Code for the Coffee Community, 797
Common Threads program, 305
community-supported agriculture (CSA), 282, 444
Comoros, 568t
competitor theory, 836–37
complement theory, 836
Conflict-Free Campus Initiative (CFCI), 377
Conflict Minerals Initiative, 377
Congo, D. R., 568t, 836
consensus movements, 92
conspicuous consumption. see mass consumption
(p. 906) Constantino, Marco, 573
construal-level theory of psychological distance, 357
consumer animosity, 626, 634–35, 638n4
consumer culture. see mass consumption
consumer engagement
Central/Eastern Europe, 484–85, 485f, 489
electricity systems, 414–16, 420–22
North America, 526–29
Western Europe, 499t, 501t, 503t, 505t, 507t, 509t
consumer ethnocentrism, 626, 633–35, 638n3
consumer racism, 628–29, 631–33, 638n2
convergence theory, 838
coordination modes. see modes of coordination
Copeland, Lauren, 197, 441
corporate brands
agency, 216–17
animal welfare in, 213
backstage, 9, 206, 208, 221, 222n6
boycotts, 209–11, 220t
brand aid, 213
brand avoidance/rejection, 210–11, 218–19, 220t
brand communities, 209, 216
brand loyalty, 208
buycotts, 212–14, 220t, 221
corporate social responsibility, 213, 885
critical theory, 208, 222n4
culture jamming, 216, 221
defined, 205, 207
digital discussion of, 216–17
as discursive strategies, 214–17, 220t
front stage, 9, 206, 208
green, 212–14, 238
hegemony, 208–9, 222nn4–5
identity, 218
internal discourses, 217
issue saliency, 9, 219
lack of control, 207–8
legitimacy, 207, 213–14, 221
as lifestyle strategy, 217–19, 220t
monitoring, 207, 215, 217, 221
overview, 9, 205–6, 222nn1–3
power relationships in, 211, 215–16, 221
reflexivity, 208–9, 222nn4–5
reputation, 9, 205–7, 213, 214, 217, 219, 221, 713, 796–98, 806–7, 885, 892
selective strategy, 212
symbolic competition, 213
as symbolic resource, 207–8, 219, 220t
theoretical perspectives, 206–9
corporate social responsibility (CSR)
Africa/Middle East, 563–64, 576
corporate brands, 213, 885
Europe, 796
fashion consumerism, 298–99, 305
food consumerism, 259–60, 279, 282, 283
Latin America, 541–42, 545, 548–49, 554
COSATU, 59–60
Côte d’lvoire, 568t
Couldry, Nick, 190
Cowspiracy, 164
Crépault, Jean-Francois, 481
CRH boycott, 707
Crimson Hexagon ForSight tool, 197–98
Croatia, 495
Crockett. David, 27
Cromie, John G., 211, 861
Crouch, Geoffrey, 355
Cry Freetown, 375
Cuadras-Morató, Xavier, 669
culture jamming
Africa/Middle East, 574
corporate brands, 216, 221
described, 3, 9, 883
fashion consumerism, 306
media/mediated relations, 188, 194
North America, 521, 522, 530
oil/mineral extraction, 374–75
reputation targeting by, 11, 298–99, 689, 704, 777
cyber cascades, 197
Cyprus, 484f, 499t, 503t, 505t, 507t, 509t
Czech Republic, 483, 486, 488–89, 491f, 492–93, 492f, 494–96, 494f, 498–508t, 841
Dagevos, Hans, 171
D’Alisa, Giacomo, 782, 783
Dana, Jason, 115
De Angelis, Massimo, 784
de Bakker, Frank G. A., 786
Debord, Guy, 188
de Certeau, Michel, 643–44
Deep Sea Coalition, 341
Deep Water Horizon campaign, 183–84, 183f, 188
deforestation, 230
degrowth movement, 81, 782–83. see also voluntary simplicity
de Jager, Johan Nicolaas Wilhelm, 5, 565
De Jongh, D., 564
Delistavrou, Antonia, 469
della Porta, Donatella, 20, 73, 785, 891
Demaria, Federico, 782
de Moor, Joost, 15
Denmark
consumer engagement in, 499t, 501t, 503t, 505t, 507t, 509t
energy consumption studies, 391, 394, 397–99, 398–400f
ethical products sales, 436–38, 437t
food consumerism in, 276, 278, 286–87
Friland, 395
household appliance/ICT initiatives, 397, 402
ICT device repair, 393
ICTs/appliances consumption drivers, 400–404, 403f
Internet usage in, 401
mobile phones in, 402–3, 403f
organic foodstuff buycotts, 284
sharing economy initiatives, 393
washing machine use in, 403
Department of Environmental Quality Promotion (DEQP), 607–8, 615
De Smet, 304
DeSoucey, Michaela, 667, 669
détournement, 188
de Vreese, Claes, 191
Dewey, John, 819
D’Hollander, David, 847
Diani, Mario, 7, 73, 785, 881
discursive political consumerism. see also culture jamming
Africa/Middle East, 562, 574
anti-apartheid movement as, 54–55
corporate brands as, 214–17, 220t
described, 3–4, 28
fashion consumerism as, 306
North America, 369, 521
oil/mineral extraction, 369–76
racialized political consumerism, 689–90
Thailand, 605, 610–13, 615
in tourism, 351–52
vegan/plant-based diets, 168–69
divestment strategies, 369, 372–74, 380–81, 383
Dodd-Frank Act, 377
Dolan, Catherine, 254–55
Dolnicar, Sara, 355
Dominican Republic, 836
Donaghey, Jimmy, 785
Don’t Buy Where You Can’t Work campaigns, 519, 633, 646
downshifting/downsizing, 393–95, 861–64
drain thesis, 33
Drug Free Schools and Communities Act, 748
Dubuisson-Quellier, Sophie, 21, 445, 891–92
Dulsrud, Arne, 343, 842
Dumpstarbucks campaign, 630
Earl, Jennifer, 370
Earthworks, 375–76
East India Company, 30
Echegaray, Fabián, 545, 562, 563
Eco, Umberto, 187
ecobrand loyalty, 208
Ecodesign Directive, 396
ecofashion, 865
ecolabelling
Africa/Middle East, 565
competition with, 840t, 845–46
energy, appliances, 390–92, 396–97, 404, 447–48
facilitation of, 840t, 842–44
forest certification, 847
globalization, 238
government roles, 834, 835, 837–49
incentives, 840t, 841–42
institutional context shaping, 839–41, 840t
legitimacy of, 840t, 844–45
market valuation effects, 822t, 824
Northwestern Europe, 446–48
(p. 908)
oil/mineral extraction, 381
protectionism, 840t, 848–49
public procurement, integration into, 840t, 846–47
seafood consumerism, 332, 334, 337–38, 344
standardization in, 868
Thailand, 605, 607–8
tourism, 350, 357
toy consumerism, 318–19, 324
EcoMark Africa (EMA), 565
Economic Adjustment Programme, 460
ecotourism on Palawan. see also tourism
balikbayans, 724–25
Bohol, 727–28
branding, 726–27
class identities in, 723–25, 732–34, 736n3, 889–91
communal labour, 732
consumer capitalism in, 723
consumption practices in, 723–24
cultural politics, 728–29, 733–34
Donsol, 728
economic impacts, 725, 732–34
emergence of, 724–27, 736nn1–3
environmental impacts, 727–30
environmental respect, 735
green consumerism vs. food insecurity, 722
lifestyle values in, 725–26
livelihoods, 727–30
logging moratorium, 730, 736n6
marginalisation, 733–34
National Ecotourism Development Council, 725, 736n2
national pride, 725, 732–34, 736n2
overview, 19, 721–22
pasalubong, 733
remittances in GDP, 723
reputation, 728, 730
shared identity, 732
social identities, 728–29
Tagbanua lifeways, 733–34
terminology, 736n4
Underground River case study, 730–34, 736n4, 736nn6–7
virtualism, 726
ecovillages, 80–81, 779–80
Edensor, Tim, 668
effect
CNN, 375
of colonialism, 29–31, 880
competition, 117
of globalization, on oil/mineral extraction, 378–79
market valuation, 822t, 823–24
media/mediated relations, 182–84, 183f
nudging, 119
postmaterialism, in North America, 525–27, 533n6
status-quo, 118–19
efficacy
of collective identity, 776–80, 778f, 891
contentious valuation, production of, 820–26, 822–23t
of political consumerism, 814–16, 891–92
of PSOs, 806–7, 891–92
Egypt, 561, 568t, 575
Eijgelaar, Eke, 12
Eisner, Michael, 704
Ekici, Ahmet, 211
Elder, Sara D., 573
electricity systems
affordances, 416–17, 426–27
automation, 420, 426
autonomy, 423
in China, 597–98
collectivization, 420–22
consumer engagement, 414–16, 420–22
consumer identity, 416
control of usage, 420
energy devices politics, 416–17
energy storage, 423
energy use monitoring/management, 418–19
green, 415
Guarantees of Origin (GO), 415
HEM practices, 144–48, 145–46t, 147f
home batteries, 412, 422–23
human factor, 143–44
microgrids, 424
overview, 13–14, 411–12
peer-to-peer markets, 425
practice integration, 419–20, 423
privacy/security issues, 418, 420, 428
prosumption, 420, 422–28
provision dynamics, 413–14
(p. 909)
smart grids, 414
smart meters, 412, 417–20
solar panels, 412, 420–22
virtual power plants, 424
Electronic Industry Citizenship Coalition, 370, 377
electronics industry. see household appliances/electronics
El Poder del Consumidor, 551
Enbridge, 369
energy efficiency, 391, 397–99, 398–400f
Energy Label Directive, 396
energy labelling, 390–92, 396–97, 404, 447–48
Energy Star Programme, 396
engagement. see consumer engagement
Enough Project, 377
environmental movement. see also Greenpeace; sustainable community movement organizations
anticonsumerism, 79–81, 80t, 168, 856, 859–64, 869–71, 871n1
behavioural economics, 125–26
brand buycotts, 212–14
characterization, 92, 98
ecovillages, 80–81, 779–80
food retailing, 149–50
green labels development role, 74
liberal environmentalism, 229
modes of coordination, 102–3
political consumerism and, 1–4, 13, 14, 105–6
power of the consumer, 140–43, 141–42f, 147
regulatory governance development role, 78, 140
seafood consumerism, 331–32
social-practice approach, 140–43, 141–42f
tourism, 349–50, 355
toy consumerism, 316, 318–19, 323–24
voluntary simplicity, 81
Equo Garantito, 465
Eriksen, Thomas Hylland, 665
Esping-Andersen, Gøsta, 495
Estonia, 483, 484f, 487–88, 492–93, 492f, 494f, 495, 498–508t
Estrada, Joseph, 725, 736n2
ethical brand loyalty, 208
Ethical Consumer, 300
EthicalConsumer.org, 777
Ethical Fashion Initiative, 447
ethical shopping maps, 445, 822t, 824
Ethical Trading Initiative, 797
ethics/morality
Africa/Middle East, 561–65
in anti-apartheid movement, 701–2
in anti-sweatshop activism, 701
behavioural economics, 117–23, 125
brand avoidance/rejection, 210–11
chocolate, 1, 647, 652–53, 787
coffee, 787
fossil fuel divestment, 369, 372–74
in GMOs, 712
ideal type model, 700–701, 712–13
in Latin America, 547–50
Northwestern Europe, 446–48
overview, 699–700, 712–13, 890
in racialized political consumerism, 688–89
theories of, 700–702
in tourism, 352–55
undemocratic political consumerism, 627
universal human rights, 700
vegan/plant-based diets, 166, 172
Ethiopia, 568t, 569f
Eurobarometer, 439–40, 440f, 451, 483
European Social Survey (ESS), 438–41, 439f, 451, 472–73, 483
European Union. see also Northwestern Europe
A-labelled products, 390–92, 396–97, 404
anti-austerity protests (Greece), 664, 669, 673–75, 678n21, 678n23
BDS movement, 17, 19, 705–13, 714n5, 780, 784, 890
energy consumption in, 597
ethical products sales, 436–38, 437t
foie gras ban, 669
green electricity systems, 415
ICT-related directives in, 396
labelling standards in, 838–39, 847
nationalism in, 666
origin-destination labelling, 669, 710–11
political consumerism expansion in, 74, 838–39
seafood consumerism in, 332, 341–43
unemployment rates in, 461
(p. 910) Evangelistic Association, 630
Evans, David, 280–81
Ewing, Mike T., 211, 861
Export Promotion of Organic Products from Africa (EPOPA), 567
Facebook. see social media
Fair Food Campaign, 524–25
Fair Indigo, 302
Fair Labor Association, 299, 776, 794
Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, 524
Fair Labour Association, 234t, 238
Fairphone, 392, 405, 800–802
fair trade
chocolate, 468, 804–6, 807n2
coffee, 114–17, 119, 255, 260, 436–38, 437t, 462, 848
labelling, 80, 97, 120, 140, 238, 260
Latin America, 542, 554
North America, 526
Northwestern Europe, 446
Southern Europe, 461–62, 462f, 464–65, 466f, 467–69
in Southern Europe, 461–62, 462f, 464–65, 466f, 467–69
toy consumerism, 318, 324
worldshops, 467–68
Fair Trade Advocacy Office, 469
Fairtrade Canada, 526
Fair Trade Hellas, 469
Fair Trade International, 100, 101, 794, 804
Fair Trade Labelling Organizations International, 234t
Fair Trade USA, 526
Fairwear Foundation, 797
Faith Equality Index, 630
Falk, Armin, 117, 126
Farmers’ Cooperative Law of 2007, 596
fashion consumerism. see also anti-sweatshop activism
boycotting, 299–302, 522
buycotting, 301–3
challenges in, 306–8
child labour, 296, 298
clothing swaps, 305
consumer education in, 302–3
corporate social responsibility, 298–99, 305
culture jamming, 306
developing countries expansion, 308
as discursive strategies, 306
disposable, waste clothing, 303–4
environmental impacts, 296–97
fast fashion model, 294–95
global advocacy networks, 298–99
human rights violations, 295–96, 298, 307
jeans industry, 258, 262–63
labelling schemes in, 303, 447, 448
labour abuses, 295–96, 298, 307
as lifestyle strategy, 303–6
MADE-BY clothing, 802–4
manufacturing, contracting of, 307–8
megasuppliers, 307
monitoring, 300, 308
overview, 12, 293–94
political consumerism historically, 297–99, 883
product-service systems, 304–5
purchase price in, 303
repairing/refashioning/recycling initiatives, 305
slow fashion garments, 304–6
social media impacts, 302
sustainability, 302, 303
upcycling initiatives, 305
Fatal Transactions, 369, 374
Fine, Ben, 258, 261
Finland
consumer engagement in, 499t, 501t, 503t, 505t, 507t, 509t
vegan/plant-based diets in, 159, 161, 163, 164, 166, 167
Fishlove, 341, 343
Fishwise, 333
Fitna, 574
5 Rs of consumption, 286
flexitarianism, 8, 148, 161, 170
Flow Kana, 755–56
Follesdal, Andreas, 664
Food, Inc., 164
food consumerism. see also seafood consumerism; vegan/plant-based diets
agency, 278
alternative food provisioning, 76, 82, 277, 281–82, 284, 285, 444, 460, 596
animal welfare in, 11–12, 281, 286
(p. 911)
boycotting, 284–87
buycotting, 12, 284
consumerist collective action in, 101–5, 102–4f, 104t
consumption study, 145, 148–50, 154nn5–6
corporate social responsibility, 259–60, 279, 282, 283
ethics behind food movement, 468–69
fairtrade food, 284
fast food consumption studies, 189
food experts research, 283
food industry research, 283
food waste, 287
gastronationalism, 667, 677
health in, 286
identity, 276, 285
individual consumers research, 279–80
as lifestyle strategy, 12, 95, 284–86
media discourses in, 286–87
modes of coordination, 97, 99
NGO activism in, 276, 281, 282
organic food alliances, 283
organic food labelling, standardization, 278, 281, 448, 839
organized activism research, 281–82
overview, 11–12, 275–76
political consumerism in, 12, 95, 277–79, 883
primary food producers research, 282–83
public regulation research, 282
retail actors research, 280–81
safety, 276, 286
sector, background, 276–77
Slow Food movement, 92, 444, 459, 466–67, 782, 788n2
social actors in, 276, 277, 279–83
standard setting organizations, 277
sugar boycotts, 646–47
sustainability, 149–50, 285
trust in food project, 277–78
urban agriculture, 783–84
voluntary simplicity in, 286
Food Safety Law of 2009, 595
Forest Stewardship Council, 234t, 375, 447, 794, 838, 842–44
Forks over Knives, 164
Forno, Francesca, 6, 7, 15, 79, 443, 461, 782
Forrest, Nigel, 779
Fossil Free, 372
fossil fuel divestment, 369, 372–74, 380–81, 383
Fouka, Vasiliki, 669, 674
Fox, Jon E., 667, 668
France
alternative consumption practices in, 445
BDS movement in, 710
boycotting/buycotting in, 439f, 442
boycotts, modes of coordination, 97, 99
consumer engagement in, 499t, 501t, 503t, 505t, 507t, 509t
ethical products sales, 437t, 438
French wines boycott, 275, 287, 837
political consumerism forms in, 443–44
prosumption in, 444
vegan/plant-based diets in, 164, 165
Frank, Dana, 666
Fransen, Luc, 21, 796, 891–92
freeganism, 464, 474n11, 864, 871n1
Free Produce Movement, 688
Fridell, Gavin, 9, 260, 882
Friedman, Milton, 116
Fruit of the Loom boycott, 299–300
Gabriel, Yanis, 171
Gamson, William A., 775–76, 814
Gandhi, Mahatma (Mohandas), 5, 31–38, 50, 776, 837, 879–80
Gap, 298
Garnier boycott, 707
gastronationalism, 667, 677
Gazprom oil platform, 371
Gehlot, Ashok, 35
Gellner, Ernest, 665
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), 709
genetically modified organisms (GMOs)
anti-GMO campaigns, 523–24
consumerist collective action, 102–4f, 102–5, 104t
ethics/morality in, 712
labelling requirements, 839
media depictions of, 185–86, 195–96, 196f
Roundup Ready (RR) wheat, 523–24
Gentry, James W., 211
Gereffi, Gary, 253
(p. 912) Germany
anti-austerity protests (Greece), 664, 669, 673–75, 678n21, 678n23
Blue Angel labelling, 840
boycotting/buycotting in, 439f, 442
consumer engagement in, 499t, 501t, 503t, 505t, 507t, 509t
environment as motivation in, 483, 484f
ethical products sales, 436–38, 437t
financial/economic literacy, 122–24
GMO discourse in, 185–86
Internet usage study, 191–93, 192t
labelling/certification standards in, 74
organic movement, 446
political consumerism forms in, 443
Sonnen Community, 424
vegan/plant-based diets in, 160
Ghana, 568t
Giddens, Anthony, 169, 172
Gifford, Kathie Lee, 298, 522
Ginnis, Lee Phillip, 211
Give It a Break campaign, 781
“Give Swordfish a Break” campaign, 335
Glickman, Lawrence, 683, 684, 688
Glin, Laurent, 16
Global Coffee Program, 797
Global Ecolabeling Network, 605
Global Ecovillage Network, 779–80
Global e-Sustainability Initiative, 370, 377
Global Fashion, 522
GlobalGAP scheme, 338
globalization
boycotts, 235–36
buycotts, 235–36
critical business scholarship, 237–38, 241
ecolabelling, 238
global supply chains, 9, 231–32, 235–36
governance gaps, 228, 230–31, 240, 243n1
governance interactions, 239–40
individual/collective business interests, 236–37, 241
individualization of responsibility, 229
institutional arrangements, 239–40
multilateral trade agreements, 227–28
neoliberal ideology, 9, 228–29
NGO activism, 9, 230–32, 235–36, 240–41
overview, 9, 227–28
regulatory initiatives/standards, 237–40
social movements, 232–33, 241
sustainability certification, 9, 227, 229, 233–42, 234t
toy consumerism, 317, 318
trade liberalization, 9, 228–29
transnational advocacy networks, 232–33
Global Justice Movement, 7, 74–75, 82, 95, 467
Global Sustainable Seafood Initiative (GSSI), 339
global value chains
agency in, 257–58
case studies, 253–54
codes of conduct, 254–55, 257, 259–61, 885
concepts, terminology, 251–54
constant comparative method, 254
critiques of, 256–59, 267
development of, 231–32, 251
exchange relations, 256–57
GCC approach, 251, 252, 260
global poverty chains, 263–64, 265–66t, 267–68, 268n2
GPN approach, 252, 260
imagery in marketing, 260
lead firms, 252–53
maize production, in Thailand, 610–13
monitoring, 260–61
NGO activism and, 235–36
overview, 9–10, 249–50
political consumerism impacts, 254–56, 259–61
power relationships in, 256–57, 260, 882
reputation, 232, 235–37, 241
social relations of production, 256–57
supply chain management, 251
sustainability standards, 255, 259–61
systems of provision, 261–63, 265–66t, 267–68
third-party certification, 253
trust, 260
typologies, 258–59
Global Witness, 374, 375
Goffman, Erving, 71, 358
Goldman, Robert, 207, 217
González, Alma Amalia, 570
Goodman, David, 82
Goodman, Michael, 260
(p. 913) Google searches study, 195–96, 196f
Goossen, Rachel, 314
Gössling, Stefan, 349
government roles
in anti-sweatshop activism, 837
competitor theory, 836–37
complement theory, 836
contentious valuation, production of, 820–26, 822–23t
convergence theory, 838
ecolabelling, 834, 835, 837–49
economic sociology on, 818–20, 827–28
in North America, 519, 523–24, 841
overview, 21, 833–34, 849–51, 892
reputation, 840t, 841
substitute theory, 835–36
sustainability certification, 834
toy consumerism, 322–23, 885–86
trigger theory, 837–38
Grab your Wallet boycott, 300–301
Graham, Billy, 630
Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten, 13
Grasseni, Cristina, 77
Graziano, Paolo R., 79, 461, 782
Great Exhibition of the Industry of All Nations, 648
Great White Train, 643, 655–57, 887
Greece
anti-austerity protests, 664, 669, 673–75, 678n21, 678n23
consumer engagement in, 458, 458f, 460–61, 469–72, 474n1, 501t, 503t, 505t, 507t, 509t, 890
Golden Dawn, 673–74, 678n23, 890
Greenberg, Cheryl, 665, 666, 668, 675
Green Card initiative, 606–8, 614–15, 617nn1–2
Greenpeace
food boycotts, 193–94, 781
Nike boycotts, 776
oil industry activism, 368, 370–72
seafood activism, 333, 335–36
toy campaigns, 319–21
Grounded Theory approach, 185
gruppi di acquisto solidale (GAS), 100, 101
Guinea-Bissau, 568t
Gulbrandsen, Lars H., 9, 882
Gulyás, Emese, 15
Gunn, Lewis, 688–89
Gupta, Charu, 34, 36
Gurney, Christabel, 53
Guthman, Julie, 168
Halal Food Authority (HFA), 677n3
Halkier, Bente, 11–12, 883
Hall, Colin Michael, 349
Hallström, Kristina Tamm, 250
handbook of communication guerilla, 189
Harp, Dustin, 686
Harrods boycott, 300
Harvey, Linda, 630
Hasell, Ariel, 197
Haug, Wolfgang Fritz, 649
Haunss, Sebastian, 443
Hawkins, Roberta, 340
Hempest, 302
Henning, John, 577n6
Hermès boycott, 300
Hewlett-Packard boycott, 707
Hiller Connell, Kim Y., 12
Hjalager, Anne-Mette, 350, 356
H&M boycott, 300
Holt, Douglas B., 195, 205, 215, 218, 222n5, 856–57
Holzer, Boris, 184, 185, 193, 372
home and away gap, 13, 357–59, 361
home batteries, 412, 422–23
home bias, 121
household appliances/electronics
in China, 593, 598
conflict minerals, 370, 376–78, 392
consumption drivers, 400–404, 403f
downshifting/downsizing, 393–95, 861–64
energy efficiency, 391, 397–99, 398–400f
energy labelling, 390–92, 396–97, 404, 447–48
ICT device repair, 393, 404–5
ICT direct energy consumption, 396–97
ICT environmental impacts, 395–96
ICT labelling, 392
Internet services derived energy consumption, 397
labour abuses in, 801–2
lifestyle strategies, 393–94
off-grid living, 394
(p. 914)
overview, 13, 389–90, 883
political consumerism strategies, 390–95, 885
public policy, 395–97, 402
sharing economy, 393
smartphones, 392, 405, 800–802
social peer pressure, 400–405
sustainability certification, 391–92
sustainable alternatives, 392
voluntary simplicity, 393–94
willingness-to-pay, 391
household energy study, 143–48, 145–46t, 147f, 154nn3–4
Huddleston, Trevor, 53
Hughes, William Morris, 653
Huissoud, Lucas, 18
Hund, Wulf D., 649–50
Hungary, 481, 482, 488–89, 491f, 492f, 494–96, 494f, 498–508t, 629
Hysing, Erik, 21, 892
Icelandic Responsible Fisheries, 845
IDEAS, 462
identity
Africa/Middle East, 563
brand avoidance/rejection, 210–11
building, modes of coordination, 94–99, 102–3, 105
citizen consumer, 858–59, 866–67
communal, in anti-apartheid movement, 61–63
consumer, in electricity systems, 416
corporate brands, 218
food consumerism, 276, 285
as motivation for boycott, 703–4
nationalism and, 663–67, 671, 675–76
in racialized political consumerism, 646, 692
in tourism, 358
vegan/plant-based diets, 165, 166, 169, 171–72, 881
iFixit website, 393
Illes, Allistair, 333
Incredible Edible network, 444
India
beef consumption in, 40
boycotts, 33–37
brahmacharya, 35
buycotts, 33, 34
charkha, 32
colonialism, effects of, 29–31, 880
communitarian ideal, 32
Constructive Programme, 33
cultural nationalism, 33–38
Dalits, 36, 40
food politics in, 38–40
Gandhi, 5, 31–33
khadi, 32, 34, 37
Make in India campaign, 38
material/spiritual distinction, 30–31
Muslims in, 36, 40
overview, 28–29
patriarchal discourse, 34–35
political consumerism in, 5, 27–28
religious discourse, 35–36
Salt (Dandi) March, 31
shopping malls discourse, 35
social media impacts in, 36
swadeshi, 5, 33–38, 776
symbolism, 32
vegetarianism in, 38–40
wealth transfer from, 33
women’s rights in, 34–35
Indian National Congress, 31
Indigenous, 302
Indonesia, 846
Industrial Environment Institute (IEI), 607–8
Infant Formulation Action Coalition (INFACT), 701
Inglehart, Ronald, 525
Innocence of Muslims, 574
Instagram. see social media
Institutional Review Boards, 748
Instituto Akatu, 549
Intermón Oxfam, 462
International Baby Food Action Network (IBFAN), 701
International Organization for Standardization (ISO), 760n11
International Social and Environmental Accreditation and Labelling (ISEAL) Alliance, 239
International Social Survey Programme (ISSP), 441f, 451
Internet. see also social media (p. 915)
in China, 588
media/mediated relations, 164–67, 170, 173, 190–93, 192t
in North America, 529–31
in Thailand, 605, 609–10, 612, 614
investments
anti-apartheid movement impacts, 60
automatic enrolment plans, 123, 125
behavioural economics, 120–26
selective, 690
socially responsible investments (SRIs), 690
Iraq, 561
Ireland
BDS movement in, 709–10
consumer engagement in, 499t, 501t, 503t, 505t, 507t, 509t
CRH boycott, 707
ISEAL (International Social and Environmental Accreditation and Labelling Alliance), 339, 760n11
Isenhour, Cindy, 867
Israel
BDS movement, 17, 19, 705–13, 714n5, 780, 784, 890
consumer engagement in, 505t, 507t, 509t
consumer ethnocentrism in, 634
Italy
consumer engagement in, 499t, 501t, 503t, 505t, 507t, 509t
fairtrade movement, 464–65, 466f
global justice movement, 467
political consumerism in, 458, 458f, 464–76
Slow Food movement, 92, 444, 459, 466–67, 782, 788n2
solidarity purchasing groups, 463, 465–66, 825–26
unemployment rates in, 461
voluntary simplicity, 466
Jackson, Tim, 863, 866
Jacobsen, Eivind, 343, 842
Jacobsen, Mette Hove, 13, 403
Jaffe, Rivke, 199
Jallinoja, Piia, 8, 881
January Vegan Pledge, 166
jeans industry, 258, 262–63
Jensen, Henry, 185
Jewish people, boycotts of, 626, 628–30, 665, 705–12, 714n5
Jordan, 561
Joy, Melanie, 159
justice sensitivity, 114–15, 119–21
Just Mayo mayonnaise, 166
Juvan, Emil Ring, 353
Jylland-Post, 574–75
Kallio, 305
Kallios, Giorgios, 782
Kantamaturapoj, Kanang, 16
Karpik, Lucien, 824
Kathie Lee apparel, 298, 522
Katz, Meredith A., 16
Kaur, Ravinder, 36
Keck, Margaret E., 368
Kehr, Flavius, 124–25
Kellogg’s boycott, 636
Kelly, Florence, 518
Kenya, 563–64, 568t, 569f, 573
KFC boycott, 574, 670
khadi, 32, 34, 37
Khadi Village Industries Commission (KVIC), 37
Khan, Aamir, 36
Kimberley Process Certification Scheme (KPCS), 369, 375, 836
Kimport, Katrina, 370
Kinder Morgan, 369
King, Brayden G., 777
Kirchler, Michael, 117
Kitschelt, Herbert, 775
Klintman, Michael, 12, 22, 356, 371, 841, 886, 892
Kloppenburg, Sanneke, 7, 13, 882, 883, 885
Koenig-Archibugi, Mathias, 844
Koos, Sebastian, 442, 495
Korzeniewicz, Miguel, 253
Kozinets, Robert V., 32
Krieger, David John, 183
Ku Klux Klan (KKK), 626, 681, 688
kulturnost, 481
labelling. see ecolabelling
Labour Behind the Label, 776
(p. 916) Lakoff, Andrew, 481
Lamers, Machiel, 12, 726, 883
Lamont, Michèle, 691
Lang, Tim, 171
Lasn, Kalle, 188
Latin America
agrarian reform, 551–52
Argentina, 542, 544–46
boycotts/buycotts, 542–47, 550, 551, 554
Brazil, 541–54
Brazilian youth, 546–47
Chile, 542, 547–50
collective initiatives in, 547
consumer activism, 541, 549, 551–54
corporate social responsibility, 541–42, 545, 548–49, 554
distributive justice, 551–52
ethics/morality in, 547–50
fair trade in, 542, 554
family role in, 547
focus group research, 549–50
forest certification schemes, 844–45
global sense of place, 550
GMO discourse in, 186
individual motivations, 545–46, 550, 554
institutional setting in, 547–50, 553–55
labour movement, 542
Mexico, 544–46, 551, 841
milk boycott, 552, 553
modes of coordination, 99
NGO activism in, 549, 551–52, 555
overview, 16, 539–40
political consumerism politicization, 257–58, 460, 544, 552, 887–88
political participation in, 545–47
postmaterialism in, 544
public protests, 542–43
reputation, 549
SCP strategy, 541–42
social process dynamics, 540–41, 547
soft drinks boycott, 551
sustainability certification, 255, 541–42, 836
Latvia, 483, 489–90, 491f, 492f, 493, 495, 498–508t
Leach, Darcy K., 443
Lebanon, 561, 575
Lee, Michael S. W., 210
Lego, 317, 319–21, 371
“Lego: Everything Is NOT Awesome,” 371
Lei, Zhang, 16
Lekakis, Eleftheria J., 15, 18, 189, 195, 216, 443, 459, 472, 666, 889
Le Mare, Ann, 573
LENA, 304
Lesotho, 568t
LGBTQ boycotts, 630–31, 703–4
life insurance, 819
lifestyle political consumerism
Africa/Middle East, 562, 565, 574
anti-apartheid movement as, 54
cannabis, 751, 757–58
corporate brands as, 217–19, 220t
described, 3–4, 28
in ecotourism on Palawan, 725–26
fashion consumerism as, 303–6
food consumerism as, 12, 95, 284–86
household appliances/electronics, 393–94
North America, 525–27, 533n6
Northwestern Europe, 443–44
recruitment of people, 152
in social movement organisations, 72–73
Thailand, 605, 609–10
in United Kingdom, 444
vegan/plant-based diets as, 167–70
Li & Fung, 307
liminality theory, 358
Lithuania, 483, 486, 489–90, 491f, 492f, 493, 494f, 495, 498–508t
Liu, Wenling, 16
Liz Claiborne, 298
Llopis-Goig, Ramón, 462
Locke, Richard M., 841
Lockie, Stewart, 281, 285
Lodge, Tom, 50
Long, Patrick, 355
Lund, Bruce, 313
Luxembourg, 499t, 501t, 503t, 505t, 507t, 509t
Macapagal-Arroyo, Gloria, 725
Macdonald, Kate, 844
MacMillan, Harold, 55
Madagascar, 568t, 569f
MADE-BY clothing, 802–4
(p. 917) Magubane, Bernard, 50, 56
Maier, Rudi, 188
makeITfair campaign, 370
Makro, 606
Malawi, 563, 568t
Mali, 568t
Mall Group, 606
Malta, 499t, 501t, 503t, 505t, 507t, 509t
Mandela, Nelson, 60
Mangrove Action Project, 335
Maquila Solidarity Network (MSN), 522–23
Marcos, Ferdinand, 723
Marcuse, Herbert, 317, 858
Marine Aquarium Council, 234t
Marine Stewardship Council, 234t, 337–38, 845
market valuation
business opportunities, 825
class/cultural identity, 815
consumer behaviour changes, 814–16
contentious, production of, 820–27, 822–23t
economic sociology on, 818–20, 827–28
inconsistency, 815–16
naïve aggregationist perspective, 816
overview, 21, 813–14
political consumerism as driving force, 816–17
reputation in, 813, 819, 821–22, 824, 826, 828
reversibility, 815–16
transformation of via activism, 818–20, 827–28
Marks & Spencer boycott, 631
Marlboro boycott, 574
Marx, Axel, 847
Marx, Karl, 116
mass consumption
advertising/branding in, 865–66
in Africa/Middle East, 565
alternative practices, 861, 868–71
anticonsumerism, 79–81, 80t, 856, 859–64, 869–71, 871n1
buycotting, 855–56, 860, 870–71
citizen consumer identity, 858–59, 866–67
commoditization, 857
community infrastructure, 863
consumer culture, 856–57
as driving force, 816–17, 892
fashion/trends in, 865
freeganism, 464, 474n11, 864, 871n1
historical background, 856–58
ideology, 317, 319, 323
knowledge gaps, 864
mobility infrastructure, 863–64
moronization of society, 857–58
in North America, 520–21
overview, 22, 855–56
previous choice dependency, 863
sharing economy, 393, 869–70
socialization in, 866
social motivations in, 866–67, 884
toy consumerism, 317, 319, 323
value-action gap, 350, 351, 355–60, 565, 862–67
waste production by, 864
Mattel product recall, 315, 323
Mauritius, 568t
Max Havelaar label, 446, 572
Mayotte, 568t
McClintock, Anne, 649
McDonald’s boycott, 73, 211, 215, 521, 574, 630
McGehee, Nancy, 354
McIntyre, Beverly D., 577n6
McKee, Alan, 189
McLuhan, Marshall, 183
McMahon, Molly Scott, 564
Meat Free Monday, 166, 171
meatification of human diet, 159
Meatless October, 166
Meatrix, The, 164
media/mediated relations
actants, 193–94
boycotts, 185
bricolage, 183f, 184
communication vs. media studies, 182–84, 183f
critical artwork analysis, 189
cultural studies, 188–89
culture jamming, 188, 194
decentralized production, 195–96, 196f
deductive analysis, 186–89
frame analysis, 186
inductive/qualitative methodologies, 184–85
Internet, 164–67, 170, 173, 190–93, 192t
media viruses, 188, 193
(p. 918)
medium effects, 182–84, 183f
mixed basic formats, 193–94
negative coverage, 184–85, 187
overview, 8, 181–82
power asymmetries in, 188
produsage, 191, 196–98, 881
quantitative/deductive content analysis, 185–86
rhetorical devices, 189
semiotic activism, 184, 187–89, 194, 197–99
social media, 190, 193, 197–98
symbolism, 183f, 184, 188
uncommercials, 188, 193
Melucci, Alberto, 76–77, 82
MENA region. see Africa/Middle East
Mennonite Central Committee, 706
metagovernance, 795
method
cannabis research, 749–50
central/Eastern Europe, 482–83, 510n2
constant comparative, 254
global value chains, 254
inductive/qualitative, 184–85
media/mediated relations, 184–85
nationalism, 668–69
North America, challenges, 532, 533n8
Northwestern Europe, challenges, 449–51
Mexico, 544–46, 551, 841
Micheletti, Michele, 16, 19, 28, 168, 170, 171, 181, 190, 197, 306, 324, 436, 481, 520, 685, 774, 786, 795, 834, 890
microgrids, 424
Micromax X259, 392
Mihelj, Sabina, 667, 668
Miller, Alice M. M., 340, 341
Milonoff, Tuomas, 166
mobility practices study, 151–52
Modern Language Association, 706
modes of coordination
alternative forms of, 96
boundary definition modes, 91–95, 93f, 101–3
coalitional, 93, 93f, 98–99
consumerist collective action, 101–6, 102–4f, 104t
environmental movement, 102–3
identity building, 94–99, 102–3, 105
individual motivations in, 95, 100, 106n2
interorganizational collaboration, 94
mechanisms of, 91–93, 93f, 884
mutual recognition, 95
network analysis approach to, 106
online campaigning, 96–97
organizational, 93, 93f, 95, 99–101
overview, 89–91
relational patterns of actors, 101
resource allocation modes, 91–94, 93f, 102–3
social construction, 95
social movements, 93–95, 93f, 99
solidarity in, 91–97, 100, 105–6
subcultural/communitarian, 93, 93f, 96–97
transaction costs, 94
Mohammed cartoons controversy, 185
Molnár, Virág, 691
Mommaas, Hans, 360
Monsanto boycotts, 210, 523–24
Monterey Bay Aquarium, 336, 342
Montero, José Ramón, 480
Montgomery bus boycott, 140, 519, 684
Monticelli, Lara, 20, 891
Moore foundation, 333
morality. see ethics/morality
Morocco, 568t, 575
Moruzzi, Romina, 472
Motta, Renata, 186
Movement for the Survival of the Ogoni People (MOSOP), 368
Movimento dos Trabalhadores Rurais Sem Terra (MST), 551–52
Mozambique, 568t
Mukherjee, Roopali, 686
Muniz, Albert M. Jr., 209, 216
Murray, Douglas, 238
Muslims
anti-halal boycott, 669–71, 677nn1–3
anti-Muslim boycotts, 631, 632, 669–71, 677nn1–3
in India, 36, 40
Mohammed cartoons controversy, 185
Naboskab initiative, 393
Namibia, 568t
(p. 919) naming and shaming strategy, 73, 822t, 823–24, 884
Nando’s boycott, 670, 677n1
National Civic Engagement Survey (NCES), 529
National Consumers League (NCL), 517–18, 817
nationalism. see also undemocratic political consumerism
agency in, 670, 676
anti-austerity protests (Greece), 664, 669, 673–75, 678n21, 678n23
anti-halal boycott, 669–71, 677nn1–3
business practices, 664
Buy Australian-Made campaign, 18, 643, 654–58
Catalan cava boycott (Spain), 663–64, 668, 669, 671–73, 675, 678n12
concepts, definitions of, 665–66, 676–77
ecolabelling protectionism, 840t, 848–49
economic/consumer theories, 666–67
gastronationalism, 667, 677
hate crimes, 678n11
identity and, 663–67, 671, 675–76
methodology, 668–69
modes of coordination, 96, 676
mutual respect and, 664
overview, 18–19, 663–64, 889
particularism, 665–66
power relationships in, 665–67
resocialization of wrongdoers, 664
symbolic consumer, 667–68, 677
theoretical background, 664–68
universalism, 665–66
National Worldshops Association, 465
Natura Line, 447
Naturland, 338
Naus, Joeri, 147
Nawijn, Jeroen, 12
Nazi Germany, 629, 708
negative political consumer action. see boycotts
Nehru, Jawaharlal, 31, 32
Neilson, Lisa A., 333
Nestlé boycott, 3, 98, 99, 193–94, 209, 238, 275, 701, 781
Netanyahu, Benjamin, 711
Netflix, 165
Netherlands
BDS movement in, 710
boycotting/buycotting in, 439f, 442, 503t
cannabis in, 746
consumer engagement in, 499t, 501t, 505t, 507t, 509t
ecolabelling, 446, 447
environment as motivation in, 483, 484f
ethical products sales, 436–39, 437t
labelling/certification standards in, 74
Max Havelaar label, 446, 572
political consumerism forms in, 443
New Black Panther Party, 632
New 7 Wonders of Nature (N7WN), 731
Next boycott, 58
NFL boycott, 687
NGO activism
in Africa/Middle East, 567, 570, 574
in China, 588
Clean Clothes Campaign, 784, 786, 788n3
in food consumerism, 276, 281, 282
fossil fuel divestment, 369, 372–74
globalization, 9, 230–32, 235–36, 240–41
global value chains and, 235–36
in Latin America, 549, 551–52, 555
market valuation, 824, 825
in Northwestern Europe, 447
oil/mineral extraction, 374–76, 379
PSOs and, 796
seafood consumerism, 331–34, 338, 342, 344
in Southern Europe, 470
in Thailand, 612, 613, 616
in tourism, 352, 356
toy consumerism, 315, 319–21
Nicolini, Davide, 137
Niger, 568t
Niger Delta boycott, 368–69, 372, 383
Nigeria, 563, 564, 568t
Nigh, Ronald, 570
Nijhuis, Jorrit O., 152
Nike: Just Cut It campaign, 300
Nike, labour abuses, 197, 298, 522, 776–77
Nike boycott, 3, 73, 298–300, 306, 521, 701, 776–77
NikeWatch campaign, 776–77
Niva, Mari, 8, 881
No Dirty Gold (NDG) campaign, 369–70, 375–76
(p. 920) “No Gender December” campaign, 315
non-governmental organizations (NGOs). see NGO activism
Nonomura, Robert, 527
North America
academic boycott, of Israel, 706
anti-GMO campaigns, 523–24
anti-Semitic boycotts in, 629
anti-sweatshop activism, 518, 522, 532n2
BDS movement, 17, 19, 705–13, 714n5
boycotts/buycotts, 517–20, 528–31, 646
cannabis in (see cannabis)
civil rights movement, 519–20, 633, 665, 681, 684
clothing, textiles waste in, 304
clothing libraries in, 304–5
conflict minerals initiatives, 370, 376–78
consumer advocacy groups in, 517
consumer-based objectives activism, 518
consumer engagement in, 526–29
culture jamming in, 521, 522, 530
demographics, 528–29
discriminatory hiring practices activism, 519–20
discursive strategies, 369, 521
fairtrade products in, 526