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date: 03 June 2020

(p. 825) Index

(p. 825) Index

Figures, notes, and tables are indicated by f, n, and t following the page numbers.

Abbott, Edith, 624
Abe, Shinzo, 587n4
Abecedarian Project, 310, 313
Aberle, D. F., 648
Abortion
antiabortion movement, early history of, 249n9
changes in use of, 233
effects of, 243–244
history (US) of, 249n9
Hyde Amendment (1976), 225, 249n11
legalization of, 15, 71n19, 224–226
level of use of, 134
Medicaid and, 222, 244
parental consent requirements, 225
partial-birth abortion, 225
public support for access, 225–226, 226f
reduced contraception availability and, 134
Roe v. Wade (1973), 224, 243, 303
sex-selective abortion, 130, 259, 260, 264, 266–268, 272, 273, 649
state bars on, 222, 224–225
Texas’s abortion rate after state restrictions, 225
waiting periods, 225
Abramitzky, Ran, 45, 63, 68
Abrevaya, Jason, 273
ABS (Australian Bureau of Statistics), 800, 804t
Absenteeism, 517
Academia
gender salary gaps in (non-STEM and STEM), 786–787
STEM majors and percentage in, 791n7
tenure-track of women with STEM PhDs and children, 789
Acemoglu, Daron, 438, 662
Acosta, Pablo, 735, 741
Adams, Renée B., 547, 548
Addams, Jane, 624
Addati, Laura, 189n11
Adserà, Alicia, 9, 14, 149, 160, 166
Advanced Placement (AP) tests in STEM subjects, 770, 771t
“Advances in Feminist Economics” series, 626
AEA (American Economic Association), 5, 28n2, 625–626, 637
AFDC/TANF programs, 456–457, 456f, 460–463, 461f, 469–470, 473, 474, 475n11, 760
AFEE (Association for Evolutionary Economics), 637
AFQT (Armed Services Qualification Test), 598, 611, 616n3
Africa. See also specific regions and countries
age at marriage in, 102, 103f
arranged marriage in, 99
child brides in, 102
divorce rates in, 110–111
education, gender gap in, 718
fertility rates in, 138n2
marriage rates in, 97
missionary activity in, 660–661
slave trade generating demographic shock in, 661–662, 667n18
African Americans, 17. See also Racial differences in US women’s labor market
allostatic load of, 690
contraception use by black women, 227, 229f
divorce trends of women, 81
female labor force participation of, 66–67
incarceration of men, effect on sex ratios in marriage, 63 (p. 826)
intermarriage with, 47
nonmarital fertility and, 208
poverty rates of female-headed black families, 405
sex ratio differences, 55
teen fertility and, 209, 210n12
wage penalty of black women, 633
Afrobarometer, 654, 661
Age at marriage
in developed countries, 197
in developing countries, 102–104, 103f
divorce rates and, 77, 78, 79, 80–81
educational attainment and, 81, 104, 239, 346, 349, 358
legal age, 104
marital sorting and, 39, 40–44, 42t, 49
marriage squeeze and, 104
in United States, 238, 238f
younger women marrying older men in United States, 63
Agesa, Jacqueline, 737
Agesa, Richard U., 737
Agriculture
fertility in relationship to, 125, 665n3
gendered division of labor in, 706–708
gender roles, history of, 646–650, 651, 665–666n7, 666nn10–11
plough-positive vs. plough-negative crops, 650, 665n5
seasonal or daily wage labor of women in, 721
strategies to promote women’ agency in, 708–710
unpaid agricultural self-employment, 702
women’s empowerment and, 700, 705–710
Agüero, Jorge M., 357
AHAR (Annual Homeless Assessment Report), 801, 803–804, 803t
Ahern, Kenneth, 547
AIDS. See HIV/AIDS
Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC). See AFDC/TANF programs
Ainsworth, Martha, 140n28
Aizer, Anna, 85, 285, 288, 289, 295, 296n4
Akarçay-Gürbüz, Ayça, 296n3
Akee, Randall K. Q., 290, 291
Akerlof, George A., 210n11, 442
Akgunduz, Yusuf Emre, 308
Akin, S. Nuray, 50
AlAzzawi, Shireen, 354
Albania
female migration impact in, 734, 738
paternal migration and children’s school outcomes in, 736
Albeda, Randy, 414
Albrecht, James W., 383–384
Alesina, Alberto, 29n7, 646, 648, 657, 658–659, 665n3
Alfano, Marco, 108
Algan, Y., 659, 660
Ali, Daniel Ayalew, 126
Allgood, Sam, 805
Allison, Paul D., 811
Allostatic load, 689–691, 693n12
Almås, Ingvild, 491
Almond, Douglas, 264, 273, 292, 296n8
Altonji, Joseph G., 613
Altruism and caregiving work, 750, 752
AMA (American Medical Association), 220
Amanatullah, Emily T., 494
Ambrus, Attila, 107, 349
American Academy of Pediatrics, 223
American Association of University Professors, 786
American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists’ Committee on Adolescent Health Care, 223
American Community Survey (ACS)
divorce and, 79
marriage sorting and, 49
occupations and, 426, 429, 430, 437
race and, 597
American Economic Association (AEA), 5, 28n2, 625–626, 637
American Medical Association (AMA), 220
American Time Use Survey (ATUS), 37, 284
Amin, Mohammad, 717
Amin, Vikesh, 296n3
Amore, Mario Daniele, 554n17
Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina, 66, 733–734
Ananat, Elizabeth Oltmans, 209, 210n12, 242, 243
Andersen, Steffen, 495
(p. 827) Anderson, Deborah J., 410, 427
Anderson, Siwan, 106, 107, 360
Andersson, Henrik, 688
Andersson, Neyer, 180
Andrabi, Tahir, 353, 357
Andreoni, James, 433
Andrews, Courtney, 405
Andrist, Lester, 103
Angelov, Nikolay, 384
Angrist, Joshua, 45, 47, 63, 67, 177
Annual Homeless Assessment Report (AHAR), 801, 803–804, 803t
Ansel, Bridget, 404, 417
Antecol, Heather, 413, 599, 610, 616n9, 780
Antman, Francisca M., 11, 18, 26, 731, 734, 736, 743n6
Anukriti, S., 8, 13, 25, 28, 97, 108, 264, 266, 267
Apicella, Coren L., 489, 490
Appelbaum, Eileen, 337–338
AP (Advanced Placement) tests in STEM subjects, 770, 771t
Arcidiacono, Peter, 240
Arck, Petra Clara, 682
Argys, Laura M., 1, 89
Armed Services Qualification Test (AFQT), 598, 611, 616n3
Arranged marriages, 13, 97, 99–101
ARTs (Assisted reproductive technologies), 158, 210n7
Arulampalam, Wiji, 369, 376
Arunachalam, Raj, 107
Arvey, Richard D., 529n9
ASE (Association for Social Economics), 637
ASGE (Association for the Study of Generosity in Economics), 637
Ashcraft, Adam, 205, 211n17
Ashraf, Nava, 108, 110, 114, 139n23, 657
Asia. See also specific regions and countries
age at marriage in, 102, 103f
arranged marriages in, 99, 101
divorce rates in, 111
dowry in, 106, 108
educational attainment, gender gap in, 346–348, 347f
gender wage gap in, 712
marriage rates in, 97
sex-selective abortion in. See Abortion
Asian Americans, intermarriage of, 47
Askew, Rachel, 610
Assaad, R., 734
Association for Evolutionary Economics (AFEE), 637
Association for Social Economics (ASE), 637
Association for the Study of Generosity in Economics (ASGE), 637
Assortative mating, 13, 44–50
in developing countries, 104–106
educational attainment and, 44–50
income taxes and, 457
marital delay and, 49–50
migration patterns and, 738
Atella, Vincenzo, 691–692
Atkin, David, 360
Atkinson, Stanley M., 486
At-Risk Child Care program, 306
Attali, Yigal, 493
Attanasio, Orazio, 716, 717
ATUS (American Time Use Survey), 37, 284
Australia
fertility falling below replacement levels in, 173
gender wage gap in, 372, 372f
homelessness in, 801–805, 804t, 811
Household Income and Labor Dynamics, 7
Journeys Home: Longitudinal Study of Factors Affecting Housing Stability, 802–803, 806–807, 810, 817
labor force participation of women in, 373, 374f, 663
male-biased sex ratio in, 662–663
Maternity Payment program, 177–178
pronatalist policies to increase childbirth rates in, 174, 177–178, 188n6
Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS), 800, 804t
Austria
childlessness in, 150
cohabitation trends correlated with nonmarital fertility in, 207
gender wage gap in, 373
maternity leave in, 161, 180, 334, 336
parental leave-taking in, 332–333
Autoimmune diseases, 681–682, 693n8
Autor, David, 160, 163, 271, 272, 290, 436, 438, 662
(p. 828) Averett, Susan L., 1, 51n2, 460, 627
Avison, William R., 683
Azmat, Ghazala, 388, 493
Babcock, Linda, 494–496
Babiarz, Kimberly Singer, 139n21
Baby boom, 55, 65–66, 235, 235237f
Bachelor degrees in STEM, 771–772, 772f, 783–790, 785t, 791n7
Bachrach, Christine A., 195
Bacolod, Marigee P., 447n10
Bagnoli, Mark, 40, 41
Bagues, Manuel, 551
Baicker, Katherine, 470
Bailey, Martha J., 15, 157, 219, 241
Bailey, Michelle Stegman, 476n16
Baird, Samantha Boyce, 486
Baker, Matthew, 629, 630
Baker, Michael, 270, 308–309, 332, 334, 436, 527, 783
Balafoutas, Loukas, 490, 493
Balanced Budget Act of 1997, 469
Baldiga, Katherine A., 485, 782
Ban, R., 552
Bandara, Amarakoon, 274n10
Bandiera, Oriana, 721–722
Bangladesh
consanguineous marriage and, 112–113
divorce rates in, 111
domestic violence in, 110, 361
dowry and bride price in, 106, 107
early marriage discouraged, effect on girls’ schooling in, 349
educational attainment, microfinance’s effect on, 716
flypaper effect in financing women’s microenterprises in, 705
garment-sector jobs in, 359, 714
Grameen Bank, 26–27, 703, 716
Matlab family planning program in, 132, 135, 140n28
mortality rate of girls with older sisters in, 264
mothers with daughters, bargaining power of, 263
shift from “brawn-based” to “brain-based” work and, 354
son-preferring differential stopping behavior in, 266
Banyard, Victoria, 812
Baranov, Victoria, 263
Barber, Brad M., 486
Barcellos, Silvia, 266–267
Barcelona Summit, 182
Bardhan, Pranab K., 261
Barker, David J., 288
Barnett, W. Steven, 318n17
Baron-Cohen, Simon, 523
Barone, Carlo, 773–774
Barron, John M., 382
Barros, Ricardo, 355
Bartel, Anna, 332
Bartik, Timothy, 312, 313–314
Bassuk, Ellen L., 806, 807
Bastian, Jacob, 464
Basu, Alaka Malwade, 267
Bateup, Helen S., 516
Batt, Rosemary, 573, 575
Bau, N., 656
Baudasse, Thierry, 739–740
Bauer, Gerrit, 206
Bauer, Thomas, 688
Bauernschuster, S., 183
Baughman, Reagan, 185, 186
Baum, Charles L., 332, 334, 335
Bazillier, Remi, 739–740
Beaman, Lori, 552
Bear, Stephen, 583
Beatrice and Sidney Webb, 624
Beatty, Timothy, 296n6, 468
Beauchamp, Jonathan P., 514
Beaudry, Paul, 783
Becker, Gary S., 36–37, 55, 283, 409, 626, 753, 754
Becker’s model of marriage market, 3, 4, 12, 23, 28n1, 55, 56–58, 57f, 64, 69, 70n1, 70n7, 80, 102, 106–107, 196
on cost of children, 153
on divorce, 75, 76, 77, 78, 80, 84
The Economics of Discrimination, 613
on fertility and economics, 135, 152, 159, 161, 164, 174, 175, 182, 196, 200
on investment in children, 283
on polygamy, 113
on racial discrimination’s effect on wages, 613, 614 (p. 829)
“A Theory of the Allocation of Time,” 3
A Treatise on the Family, 56, 239, 628
Becker, Sascha O., 154, 660
Becker-Mincerian framework, 628
Becker-Willis economic model of fertility, 150
Bedard, Kelly, 599, 610, 616n9
Beede, David, 786
Beegle, Kathleen, 133
Behavioral endocrinology, 17, 515–519
Behavioral genetics, 520–521
Behavioral traits, gender differences in, 481–512
biological explanations for, 514. See also Biological differences
in competitiveness, 488–494, 567
fear-of-backlash hypothesis and, 494–495
in finance industry, 482, 486–487
future research needs, 500
in job experience, 401–402
in negotiation abilities and willingness, 494–496, 502n24
in risk aversion, 482–487, 501n7, 529n3, 782
in social preferences, 496–499
in tastes and preferences contributing to occupational segregation, 430–435
terminology of “sex differences” and, 515
in trust and trustworthiness, 498–499, 502n26, 502n28
Behrman, Jere R., 274n10, 357, 782
Beilock, Sian L., 779
Beine, Michel, 738–739
Belgium
gender equality in earnings in, 23
maternity leave earnings in, 328
Belkin, Lisa, 413
Beller, Andrea H., 89, 617n20
Beller, Emily, 296n3
Belot, Michèle, 39
Benard, Stephen, 410, 417
Bendavid, Eran, 134
Benevolent sexism, 495
Bengtsson, Niklas, 274n10
Benjamin, Daniel J., 447n15, 521
Bennett, Neil G., 292
Benson, Alan, 411
Berdahl, Jennifer L., 411, 414, 419n28
Berger, Allen N., 548
Berger, Mark C., 309
Bergmann, Barbara R., 318n22, 631, 632
Bergstrom, Ted C., 37, 40, 41
Bernal, Raquel, 312
Bern Sex Role Inventory (BSRI), 447n14
Bertocchi, G., 659, 660
Bertrand, Marianne, 167n9, 271, 383, 414–415, 443, 481, 529n3, 540, 542, 549, 582, 615, 618n25, 630
Betcherman, Gordon, 723n15
Bethmann, Dirk, 70n6
Bettinger, Eric P., 781
Betz, Nancy E., 484, 501n8
Bhalotra, Sonia, 108, 260, 261, 263, 264, 267, 273, 274n12, 358
Bharadwaj, Prashant, 211n22, 264, 353, 357
Bhat, P. N. Mari, 267
Bhattacharya, Haimanti, 106
Bhaumik, Sumon, 714
Bian, Lian, 777
Bianchi, Suzanne M., 284, 406
Biddle, Jeff E., 38
Bidner, Chris, 107
Bifulco, Robert, 210n13
Binzel, C., 734
Biological differences, 513–537
behavioral endocrinology, 17, 515–519
behavioral genetics, 520–521
brain functioning, 523
in determining STEM-related gender differences, 768–769
emotions, 523–524
as explanation for wage gaps and occupational segregation, 22–23
future research needs, 522, 528
genoeconomics, 521–522
life expectancy and, 28–29n6, 673–698. See also Life expectancy
mapping brain and human genomes, 514
nature–nurture dichotomy and, 514, 527
neuroeconomics, 17, 522–523
self-control, 524–525
sensory functioning and perceptions of time and space, 17, 525–527
Birth control movement, 220–221
public support for, 220–221, 220f, 249n7
Birth control pill. See Contraception, access to
Bitler, Marianne P., 68, 158, 184, 473, 474
(p. 830) Bittman, Michael, 415
Björklund, Anders, 183, 290, 291, 293, 520
Björkman-Nyqvist, Martina, 274n10
Black, Dan A., 160, 309, 382, 385, 473
Black, Sandra E., 154, 292, 384, 436
Blackwell, Lisa S., 777
Blair-Loy, Mary, 411, 414, 419n28
Blais, Ann-Renée, 484, 501n8
Blank, Rebecca M., 462, 613
Blau, David M., 307, 309, 317n4, 318n22
Blau, Francine D., 1, 11, 16, 24, 317n3, 369, 376–377, 379, 380, 387, 395, 402, 407, 408, 412, 416, 418n8, 425, 427, 429, 481, 617n20, 625, 627, 784, 787
Bleakley, Hoyt, 154, 166
Blended families, 87–88, 755
Blind auditions, 500
Bloch, Francis, 110
Bloemen, Hans G., 43
Blue laws repeal, 83, 92n8
Blum, Bernado S., 447n10
Bobonis, Gustavo J., 111
Bohnet, Iris, 500
Bongaarts, John, 130
Bonin, Holger, 431, 487
Booth, Alison L., 369, 492, 582
Borghans, Lex, 436
Bos, Peter A., 516–517
Boschini, Anne, 721
Boserup, Ester, 646, 647, 648, 656, 665n6
Boston Infant School, 305
Bottia, Martha Cecilia, 780
Bouchard, Thomas J., 529n9
Boulier, Bryan L., 105
Bound, John, 472–473, 609–610
Boushey, Heather, 404, 417
Bowles, Hannah Riley, 494–495
Bowlus, Audra J., 385
Boyd, R., 653
Bozick, Robert, 775
Bozzano, M., 659
Brain drain, 738
Brandts, Jordi, 493
“Brawn-based” work, shift to “brain-based” work, 348, 353–354, 435, 443
Brazil
Brazilian Demographic and Health Survey, 285
child treatment in, 262–263
divorce rates in, 111
free child care services, effect on female employment in, 355
trade liberalization, effect on female employment in, 354
Breastfeeding, 124, 266–267, 286, 335–337, 409
Breckinridge, Sophonisba, 624
Breierova, Lucia, 355, 356, 358
Brewer, Dominic J., 780
Bride price. See Dowry or bride price
Brien, Michael, 67
Brioschi, B., 657
British Household Panel Survey, 7
British Workplace Employment Relations Survey, 431
Brooks, Kathryn P., 690
Brown, Daniel, 273
Brown, Murray, 259, 628
Brown, Susan L., 79
Brown v. Board of Education (1954), 614
Browne, Irene, 610
Browning, Martin, 115n3
Bryan, Mark L., 369
BSRI (Bern Sex Role Inventory), 447n14
Buchan, Nancy R., 498–499
Buchmueller, Thomas, 468, 470
Buckert, M., 490
Buckles, Kasey S., 15, 158, 206, 211n22, 281, 285, 288
Buckner, John C., 810–811
Budig, Michelle J., 11, 410
Buffington, Catherine, 382
Building Strong Families program, 88–89
Buka, Stephen, 285, 288
Bullinger, Lindsey Rose, 210n13
Bullock, Jungmiwha, 597
Bumpass, Larry L., 77
Bureau of Labor Statistics, 337n1, 430
Burkhauser, Richard V., 472–473
Burkina Faso
polygamy in, 113
women’s workload affected by poor infrastructure in, 707
(p. 831) Bursztyn, Leonardo, 415
Busch-Geertsema, Volker, 805
Buser, Thomas, 432, 485, 490, 491
Bush, George H. W., 306
Business skills training, relationship to female employment, 354–355
Butz, William, 159
Buvinić, Mayra, 705
Byker, Tanya, 140n30
Cadsby, C. Bram, 444, 493
Cahn, Naomi, 48–49
Cahuc, P., 659, 660
California Center for Research on Women and Families, 331
California Employment Development Department, 338
California Paid Family Leave, 330–331, 330–332, 335, 337–338, 338nn10–11
Calsamiglia, Catarina, 493
Campa, P., 662
Canada
Allowance for Newborn Children (ANC, Quebec), 179
childbirth leave, effect on gender wage gap in, 383
fertility falling below replacement levels in, 173
housing prices and fertility rates, correlation between, 162–163
immigrant fertility rates in, 166
maternal SES and child well-being in, 284
maternity leave in, 334, 336
parental leave-taking in, 332
pronatalist policies to increase childbirth rates in, 179
universal pre-K program (Quebec), 308
Workplace and Employee Survey, 570
Cancer rates, 693n4
Cannonier, Colin, 180
Capparucci, Francesca, 704
Carbone, June, 48–49
Card, David, 386
Cardenas, Juan-Camilo, 485
Cardoso, Ana R., 386, 550
Care penalty, 19, 23, 749–766
bargaining in polity, 759–761
exchange and bargaining and, 751–754
externalities, 753–754
family care penalties, 754–755
gender and, 750–751
imperfect information and limited agency, 752–753
labor-market care penalties, 756–759
lack of alternatives in care, 751–752
Caring labor, 633–634. See also Care penalty; Household work
family caregivers, compensation of, 634
Carletto, Calogero, 734
Carneiro, Pedro, 336
Carpenter, Jeffrey, 485
Carranza, Eliana, 261, 651–652
Carrell, Scott E., 781
Case, Anne, 684, 691
Cassirer, Naomi, 189n11
Casterline, John B., 139n13
Castilla, Emilio J., 577
Castro, Mayra Ruiz, 291
Casual employment. See Informal sector
Catholic Church, 99, 111, 660
Cawley, John, 688
CCBDG (Child Care and Development Block Grant), 304–305, 306
CCTC (Child Care Tax Credit), 460
CDA (Child Development Act of 1971), 306
Ceci, Stephen J., 768–769, 786
Cerrutti, Marcela, 738
Cha, Youngjoo, 387, 404, 412, 413, 434, 435
Chaaban, Jad, 736
Chakravarty, Abhishek, 108, 261
Chamberlain, Chris, 805
Chandra, Amitabh, 185–186
Chang, Christopher, 682
Chang, Simon, 64–65
Charles, Kerwin Kofi, 45, 63, 66, 67, 68, 201, 597, 613
Charness, Gary, 483, 491, 501n7
Chastity, 101, 103
Chatterji, Monojit, 573
Chattopadhyay, Raghabendra, 552
Chen, Joyce J., 735
Chen, Yan, 492, 516
Chen, Yuyu, 260, 357
(p. 832) Chen, Zhuoqiong, 502n17
Cheng, Albert, 778
Cherlin, Andrew J., 82, 87, 88, 162
Chetty, R., 684
Chiang, Hui-Yu, 580
Chiappori, Pierre-André, 38, 39, 40, 45, 62, 64, 66, 71n14, 115n3
Chigavazira, Abraham, 810
Child brides, 102
Child care
caring labor and feminist perspective, 633–634
collaboration and workers in, 753
in developed countries, 181–183, 189nn18–19
in developing countries, 26, 349–350
earned income tax credit and, 760
family leave policies and, 336
feminist model and, 630
free child care services, effect on female employment, 355
public funding of, 716, 759
in United States, 15, 303–322. See also Child care in United States
work/life balance and, 409–411
Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCBDG), 304–305, 306
Child care in United States, 15, 24, 182, 303–322
Abecedarian Project, 310, 313
availability of, 182
Boston Infant School, 305
Child Care Development Fund (CCDF), 306, 316, 317n7, 475n11
child development and, 309–313
crowding out as concern for, 318n18
disadvantaged families through federally funded Child Care and Development Block Grants, 304–305
early policy, 305
empirical research, 307–315
family leave for new parents and, 316, 317n4
Head Start program, 305–306, 314, 316, 318n15
historical perspective, 304–305
last 50 years of policy, 305–307
maternal employment and, 307–309, 315, 317n3
Military Child Care Act of 1989, 317n6
Perry Preschool Project, 306, 309–310, 313
public subsidies, recommendations for, 313–315
regional economic development and, 313–315
returns on investment in, 313–314, 318n15
universal preschool programs, evaluation of, 312–313, 318n19
welfare-to-work child care subsidies, 306
Child Care Tax Credit (CCTC), 460
Child custody policies in United States, 84–85
Child Development Act of 1971 (CDA), 306
Child gender, 15, 25–26, 259–280
bias in developing countries, 260–268
differential stopping behavior, 266–267
fertility decline and mortality rates considered jointly for, 267–268
labor market and family roles, 270
marriage, divorce, and fertility, 269
“missing girls,” 25–26, 260, 263–266
mortality rates linked to, 264
parental interaction and, 268–269
preferences, returns, and value of marriage and, 270–272
son preference in developing countries, 25–26, 63, 101, 129–131, 139nn19–20, 259
transitory conditions, discrimination against girls under, 274n10
in United States, 268–272
Childlessness, 150
Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP), 469
Child subsidies, 173, 177–179
Child support
child gender and, 269
payments, 755
US policies, 84–85, 89–90
Child tax credits, 173, 456f, 460
Child well-being
divorce in United States and, 86–89
female migration impact on, in sending areas, 740–742
homelessness impacts on, 807, 810–811, 815 (p. 833)
maternal socioeconomic status (SES) and, 281–302
maternity and family leave impact on, 335–337
Chile
divorce rates in, 111
marriage outcomes, effect of college education on, 46
maternity leave earnings in, 328
Solidario program, 704
“Chilly” work environments, 789–790
Chin, Aimee, 166
Chin, Yoo-Mi, 361
China
age at marriage in, 104
agricultural economy and gender roles in, 649
bride price and dowry in, 106
child gender bias and differences in net returns to sons and daughters in, 274n8
child health linked to maternal education in, 357
child welfare in households of mothers with sons vs. with daughters, 263
cotton revolution’s effect on gender roles in, 663
divorce rates in, 111
educational outcomes related to fertility rates in, 154
educational outcomes related to male vs. female income in, 263
household bargaining power linked to sex ratios in, 64
household bargaining power linked to woman’s income in, 263
household decision-making of nonmigrant women in, 735
household savings, effect of sex ratio on, 65
individual incentive pay in, 580
love matches in, 101
migration impact on nonmigrant children schooling in, 735
One Child Policy, 26, 63, 130, 134–135, 188n2, 267
remittances and nonmigrant women’s labor supply in, 734
sex ratios in, 63, 64, 65, 68–69
sex-selective abortion and “missing girls” in, 260, 264, 267, 649
son preference in, 25–26, 55, 63, 71n12, 130
STEM majors among women in, 774
tea production and female children in, 360
CHIP (Children’s Health Insurance Program), 469
Chiswick, Barry R., 67
Choe, Chung, 487
Choi, Jaesung, 782
Choi, James J., 447n15
Chong, Alberto, 204
Choo, Eugene, 43
Chor, Elise, 286
Chou, Shin-Yi, 357
Christiaensen, Luc, 133
Cimpian, Andrei, 777
Cinnirella, Francesco, 154
Cintina, Inna, 247
Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Title VII), 303, 601, 608, 614, 615
Clampet-Lundquist, Susan, 272
Clark, Andrew E., 689
Clark, Jeremy, 162–163
Clarke, Damian, 358
Clinton, Bill, 306, 463
Clinton, Hillary, 555n20
Coale, Ansley J., 152, 153
Coates, John M., 518
Cobb-Clark, Deborah A., 8, 17, 513, 581, 805, 808, 810, 811
Cochrane, Tom, 260, 267, 274n12
Cohabitation
age at (US), 238, 238f
divorce rates and, 77
fertility and, 163–164, 197. See also Nonmarital fertility
prevalence of stem family and, 657
trends in developed countries, 197–198, 207
Coleman, Brett, 704
Coles, Melvyn G., 41, 43
Collins, William J., 2, 17, 595
Colombia
community child-care in, 716
divorce rates in, 111
Profamilia family planning program in, 133
Colorado Family Planning Initiative , 245
(p. 834) Columbia School of Household Economics, 628
Commerce Department, US, 784–786
Committee on the Status of Women in the Economics Profession (CSWEP), 5, 625
Compensating differentials theory, 757
Compensation schemes. See also Gender wage gap
team compensation scheme vs. individual productivity-based scheme, 9
Competitiveness
economic outcomes and, 491–492
factors that reduce gender gap in, 492–493
gender differences in, 488–494, 567
promotion tournaments, use of, 577, 581–582
stereotypically male tasks and, 488–490
team competitions, 492–493
testosterone levels and, 516
Compton, Janice, 410
Computer science. See also GEMP field; STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) field
gender differences in, 770, 771t, 784, 789
as high-paying STEM field, 787
Comstock laws (1873), 157, 219, 221, 241, 248n2
Conditional cash transfers (CCTs)
access to financial capital for women and, 704
education of females and, 349
Oportunidades conditional cash transfers (Mexico), 349
PROGRESA conditional cash transfers (Mexico), 111
Conley, Dalton, 292
Connecticut Jobs First program, 473
Connelly, Rachel, 15, 24, 64–65, 303, 307
Connolly, Anne, 198–199
Consanguineous marriage, 112–113, 115n8
Consumer Expenditure Survey, 283, 286
Conti, Gabriella, 90
Conti, Maurizio, 189n13
Contraception, access to, 8, 198, 219–257
abortion. See Abortion
birth control movement, 220–221
birth rates and, 233–236, 235237f
changes in marriage, family structure, and women’s economic outcomes correlated with, 237–239
changes in use of any contraception, 227–228, 228f
choice of contraceptive method used, 228–230, 229230f
Colorado Family Planning Initiative (CFPI), 245
cost of contraceptives, 248–249n4, 249n6
Dalkon Shield, 223
divorce rates and, 77
emergency contraception, 226–227, 230–233, 246–247
Emergency Contraception Collaborative Agreement Pilot Project (Washington state), 247
fertility decline and, 25, 123–124, 157–158
IUDs, 222–224, 235
long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs), 15, 223–224, 230, 231f, 244–246, 248, 250n21
the pill, use and effect of, 15, 157, 210n4, 221, 239, 240–243
Plan B, 226–227, 232f, 233
price change of contraceptives and, 133
publicly funded family planning programs and, 221–222, 241, 249n8
research on effects of, 239–247
St. Louis Contraceptive Choice Project (CHOICE), 244–245
sterilization, 228, 230, 230f, 250n14, 250n16
supply chain issues and, 134
technology changes, effects of, 240, 247–248
teen inquiries via Google and Twitter, 10
Texas’s restrictions, 225, 243
Cook, C. Justin, 294
Cooke, Thomas J., 410
Cooperative workplace, 567–568, 577
Copen, C. E., 286
Corak, Miles, 87
Corey, Michael, 284
Cornell Couples and Careers Study of dual-earner couples, 575
Cornelson, Kirsten, 48–49, 436, 527, 783
Corno, Lucia, 102–103
(p. 835) Cornwell, Christopher, 779
Corporate and political leadership roles, 539–540. See also Glass ceiling
in developed countries, 21–23, 562–563
educational attainment and, 562–563, 717
future research needs, 550–551
gender diversity’s effects on corporate strategy, 545–549
individual incentive pay and rat race, 576–582
international trends, 713, 713f
management practices, 561–593. See also Management of women workers
policies to promote women, 542–543
quotas for women in political office, 551–552, 555n21
quotas for women on corporate boards, 10, 545–549, 554n14
recent female progress, 540–542
risk aversion and, 547–548
spillovers and, 549–551
STEM and, 783–784
Corporate social responsibility, 17, 583–585, 584t, 588n18
Correll, Shelley J., 410, 417
Cortes, Patricia, 9, 16, 412, 425, 435, 740–742, 783, 788
Coser, Lewis A., 788
Costello, Peter, 188n6
Cotton, Christopher, 502n20, 781
Courtenay, Will H., 688
Cowan, Philip A., 88, 89
Cox-Edwards, A., 735
Credit, access to, 27, 702–703. See also Microcredit programs
Cronqvist, Henrik, 519
Crosetto, Paolo, 483, 501n8
Crosnoe, Robert, 686
Croson, Rachel T. A., 433, 483, 488, 497–499
Crump, Richard, 185
CSWEP (Committee on the Status of Women in the Economics Profession), 5, 625
Cuffey, Joel, 468
Culhane, Dennis, 801, 805
Cultural attitudes. See also Social norms
math gender stereotypes and, 779–780
negotiations and gender stereotyping, 495, 502n24
women’s role and, 645, 658
Cunha, Flavio, 318n15
Curran, Sara R., 738
Current Population Survey (CPS), 430, 459, 573, 597, 609
Child Support Supplement, 755
Currie, Janet, 160, 184, 189n20, 285, 288, 289, 292, 295, 296n4, 296n6, 296n8, 467, 475–476n14
Curtis, Marah A., 162, 807–808
Cutler, David M., 685
Cvencek, Dario, 776
Cygan-Rehm, Kamila, 180
Czech Republic
gender wage gap in, 373
labor force participation of women in, 373, 374f
D’Acunto, Francesco, 444, 447n15
d’Addio, Anna C., 161
d’Agostino, Giorgio, 704
Dague, Laura, 11, 470
Dahl, Gordon B., 269, 290, 334
Dahl, Molly, 466
Dalkon Shield, 223
Dalton, J. T., 662
Dargnies, Marie-Pierre, 493
Darity, William A. Jr., 616n3
Darroch, Jacqueline E., 139n21
Das, Jishnu, 353
Das, Tirthatanmoy, 335
Das Gupta, Monica, 263, 267
Dasgupta, Shatanjaya, 8, 13, 25, 28, 97, 101
Data and empirical methods, 6–11
difference-in-difference design and leave-taking rates, 332, 334, 338n10. See also Difference-in-difference (DD) approach
future research needs, 28
in homelessness assessment, 801–803, 817–818
in maternity and family leave review, 326–327
migration impact, challenges in evaluating, 732–733
(p. 836) Dating sites, data on marital preferences from, 39
Datta Gupta, Nabanita, 379, 434, 492, 571
Dave, Chetan, 483
Davies, Andrea Rees, 411
Davies, Rhys, 571
Davis, Benjamin, 738
Dawson, Ree, 807
Deaton, Angus S., 273n6, 684, 691
Decker, Sandra L., 469
Dee, Thomas, 780
De Giorgi, Giacomo, 739
de Grip, Andries, 382
Dehejia, Rajeev, 274n10
Deininger, Klaus, 126
de Janvry, Alain, 741
DeJong, Gordon F., 740
de la Briere, Elisabeth Sadoulet, 741
Delavande, Adeline, 45, 63
Del Boca, D., 183
Del Bono, Emilia, 160
DeLeire, Thomas, 11, 184, 430, 431, 466, 470
Delfgaauw, Josse, 492
Demand-for-children model, 152–153
Demb, Ada, 545
de Mel, Suresh, 704
Demiral, Elif E., 489
Democratic Republic of the Congo, matrilineal and patrilineal societies in, 655
Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), 113, 139n17, 661
De Neve, Jan-Walter, 358
Denmark
childbirth leave, effect on gender wage gap in, 383
gender gap in promotion rates in, 581
gender wage gap in, 373, 379, 565, 565f
Integrated Database for Labour Market Research (IDA), 586–587
maternity leave in, 336, 380, 434
Denton, Margaret, 683
Denton, Nancy A., 427
Deolalikar, Anil, 261, 262, 273n5
de Oliveira, Angela, 497
De Philippis, Marta, 775
Depression in women, 687
d’Ercole, Marcom, 161
Desai, Sonalde, 103
Deshpande, Manasi, 472
Detting, Lisa, 162–163
De Vany, Arthur S., 126
Developed countries
age at marriage in, 102, 103f
birth rates in, 14
educational gender gap closed in, 25
fertility rates in, 149–172
gender discrimination in, 22
gender wage gap in, 20, 21, 369–394. See also Gender wage gap
glass ceiling in, 21–23. See also Glass ceiling
labor force participation in. See Labor force participation
managerial positions held by women in, 564f. See also Glass ceiling
marriage rates in, 97, 98f
maternity and paternity leave in, 23–24, 329
occupational segregation in, 22
son-preferring differential stopping behavior in, 269
trends in, 20–25
wages, gender equality in, 23
work/life balance in, 23–24
Developing countries
child care in, 26, 349–350
divorce in, 97, 101, 109–111
education in. See Education of females
family planning programs in, 131–135
gender bias and child sex selection in, 25–26, 260, 263–266
labor force participation rate of women in, 16, 26, 349–355. See also Labor force participation of women in developing countries
marriage markets in, 13, 25, 97–120. See also Marriage markets in developing countries
microcredit programs in, 8, 26–27
trends in, 25–27
Devereux, Paul J., 154
De Walque, Damien, 357
(p. 837) Dey, Judith, 402
DHS (Demographic and Health Surveys), 113, 139n17, 661
Diaz, Christina J., 211n15
Diaz-Gimenez, Javier, 41
Dickert-Conlin, Stacy, 185–186
Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT), 436
Difference-in-difference (DD) approach, 10, 126, 138n8, 176, 179, 184, 247, 266, 332, 334, 338n10, 519, 546, 547
Di Maro, Vincenzo, 716
Disadvantaged persons
child support issues of disadvantaged men, 90
double disadvantage for children born with adverse health condition in low-SES families, 295
federally funded child care for, 304–305
intimate partner violence and, 90, 285
Dittmar, Amy, 547
Divorce, 13. See also Divorce in United States
custodial parents, gender of, 755
in developing countries, 97, 101, 109–111
educational attainment and, 90, 202
paid caregiving and incentive for, 760
principal–agent problems in, 70n5
stigma of, 111
unemployment and, 86
Divorce in United States, 75–96
barriers to economic self-sufficiency, role of, 85–86
child support policies and, 89–90
child well-being and, 86–89
compared to OECD countries, 81, 82t
consequences of, 86–90
delayed entry into marriage and, 77, 78, 79, 80–81
determinants, 79–86, 91n7
divorce rate changes, 76–77, 76f
divorce reform, role of, 84–85
educational attainment and, 202
exceptionally high rate of, 81–84
“gray divorce” revolution, 13, 79
no-fault divorce, 84–85
religion and, 81–82, 83–84, 92nn8–9
socioeconomic status differences, 78–79
trends, 75–79, 76f
Do, Quy-Toan, 112
Dobbie, Will, 612
Docquier, Frédéric, 737–738
Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010, 554n11
Dohmen, T., 484
Domestic violence. See Intimate partner violence
Dommaraju, Premchand, 111
Donald M. Waldman, 460
Donohue, John J., III, 71n19, 167n4
Doris, Aedin, 782
Dorn, David, 160, 438
Doss, Cheryl, 708
DOT (Dictionary of Occupational Titles), 436
Doubled-up housing, 800, 804, 811–812
Dowry or bride price (marriage payments), 103, 106–108, 261
agricultural economy and, 648
consanguineous marriage and, 112
cultural differences and, 656–657
Dozier, Raine, 610
Drago, Robert, 178
Dreber, Anna, 490, 502n20
Dresser, Laura, 609–610
Drolet, Marie, 570–571
Drug and alcohol abuse, 809–810, 812
Drydakis, Nick, 523
Du, Qingyuan, 65
Duflo, Esther, 128, 355, 356, 358, 360, 552, 618n25
Dugar, Subhasish, 106
Duncan, Beverly, 426
Duncan, Greg J., 291, 296n7, 310
Duncan, Otis Dudley, 426
Dunlop, Dorothy D., 687
Dunning, Hayley, 787
Durrance, Christine P., 247
Durrant, Valerie, 720
Duryea, Suzanne, 204
Dustmann, Christian, 336
Early, Dirk W., 806
Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS), 311, 337
(p. 838) Early Head Start Child Care Partnership program, 307
Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC), 185, 189n21, 290, 317n8, 456–457, 456f, 459–460, 463–466, 464465f, 760
Earnings. See Gender wage gap; Wages
East, Chloe N., 467–468
East Asia. See also specific countries
age at marriage in, 102, 103f
arranged marriages in, 99
divorce rates in, 111
gendered patterns in labor force participation in, 706f, 707
household businesses in, 701
Ebenstein, Avraham, 267
Eccles, Jacquelynne S., 776–778, 783
ECHP (European Community Household Panel), 376
Eckbo, B. Epsen, 547
Eckel, Catherine C., 9, 17, 481, 483, 487, 497–498, 502n24
Eckstein, Zvi, 385
ECLS (Early Childhood Longitudinal Study), 311, 337
Economic development linked to women’s empowerment, 18, 28, 699–729
agriculture and, 705–710
entrepreneurship and, 701–705
gender equality and, 718–722
interventions creating new opportunities for women, 700
land ownership and, 655
negative impact of gender inequality, 721–722
policy recommendations for, 722–723
wage employment and, 710–718
Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001 (EGTRRA01), 459
Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2003 (EGTRRA03), 459
Economic Opportunity Act of 1964 (EOA), 222, 241
Economic recession
decline in fertility rates and, 159, 163
government transfers and, 453
nonmarital and teen fertility rates and, 207, 208–209
TANF caseloads and, 474
women-owned companies and labor force reductions during, 546
Ecuador
domestic violence in, 110
female labor force participation in, 360–361
rural labor market in, 708
Edgar, Bill, 801
Edin, Per-Anders, 379
Edlund, Lena, 63, 64, 68, 69, 101, 273, 662
Educational attainment
age at marriage and, 81, 104, 239, 346, 349, 358
assortative mating and, 44–50
birth control (the pill), effect on, 242
cohabitation trends and, 198
in developing countries, 355–359
divorce and, 90, 202
father’s education as equal to mother’s in importance for child’s educational attainment, 296n3
female employment levels affected by, 353, 433
fertility correlated with. See Education of females
gender wage gap, effect on, 376, 410, 712
health effects of, 685
immigrants and, 165
intergenerational transmission of education in United States, 281–282, 282f, 290–291
male backlash to women’s increased educational level, 110
managerial posititions held by women and, 562–563, 717
marriage rates and, 20, 286
motherhood and, 20, 128, 239, 318n14
mother’s education, importance for child’s educational attainment, 357
nonmarital fertility and, 200, 201–202
parental time with children correlated with parent’s level of education, 406–407 (p. 839)
public support of child care services and, 716
racial differences in United States and, 598, 605
teen pregnancy and, 83, 355
Educational investments in children
educational outcomes related to fertility rates, 154
in India and Norway, 9
maternal SES and, 286
public investments, 296n5
sex ratios and, 68–69
Education Amendment Act of 1972 (Title IX), 303
Education of females, 10
children’s health linked to, 356
conditional cash transfers and, 349
consequences of increase in, 355–359
consequences of inequality in, 721
in developing countries, 26, 27, 345–349, 355–359, 717–718, 723n18
divorce and, 111, 202
economic forces affecting, 348
favoritism and gender gap, 348
female-to-male ratio in secondary school enrollment, 346, 347f
fertility rates and, 14–15, 20, 126–127, 136, 140n32, 154–157, 156f, 346, 355–356
gender-focused policies affecting, 348–349
gender gap closed in developed countries for, 25
gender gap in education and development, 346, 347f
land inheritance rights to women increasing girls’ schooling, 349
marriage sorting and, 40, 44–46
remittances and nonmigrant girls’ school outcomes, 735–736
returns to schooling and, 44, 127, 377
risk preferences and educational outcomes, 485–486, 782–783
school infrastructure as factor for, 349
school-to-work transition and, 717
STEM-related differences during school years, 768–776. See also STEM field
Egypt
bride price in, 106
migration impact on nonmigrant women’s labor supply in, 734
son-preferring differential stopping behavior in, 266
trade liberalization’s effect on female employment in, 354
Ehrenberg, Ronald G., 780
Eisenhower, Dwight, 249n8
Eisenkopf, Gerald, 492
Eisenstadt v. Baird (1970), 221
Eissa, Nada, 459, 464–465
Ekert-Jaffe, Olivia, 61
Elango, Sneha, 612
Elder care
caring labor and feminist perspective, 633–634
collaboration and workers in, 753
women’s employment hours and wages, impact on, 755
Elliott, Diana B., 405
El Salvador
divorce rates in, 111
female migration impact on children in, 741
remittance receipt and school attendance in, 735
Emergency contraception, 226–227, 230–233, 246–247, 250n24
Emergency Contraception Collaborative Agreement Pilot Project (Washington state), 247
Emotions, gender differences in, 523–524
Employment continuity, 755
Emran, M. Shahe, 100
Endogamy, 657–658
(p. 840) Engineering. See also STEM field
female-earned PhDs in, growth of, 773, 774f
as high-paying STEM field, 787
high school courses, girls in, 770
instructor gender and effect on female majors in, 781
England, Paula, 410
Entertainment-education, 83
Entrepreneurship of women, 518, 521, 700, 701–705
international trends, 701–702
strategies to promote, 702–705
Environmental Protection Agency’s Toxic Release Inventory, 285
EOA (Economic Opportunity Act of 1964), 222, 241
Equal Opportunity Act of 1972, 614
Eren, Ozkan, 780
Eriksson, Tor, 571
Ermisch, John, 202
Erten, Bilge, 110, 358
Esping-Andersen, G., 660
Esteve, Albert, 104, 105
Esteve-Volart, Berta, 551
Estonia
gender wage gap in, 373
labor force participation of women in, 373, 374f
Estrogen. See Hormonal processes
Eswaran, Mukesh, 360, 361
Ethiopia
assortative mating in, 106
contraceptive use, increase in, 132
educational level in relation to fertility rate in, 127
family planning in relation to fertility rate in, 133, 138n6
microenterprise lending in, 704
Ethnicity. See also specific ethnic groups
contraception use by, 227, 229f, 230, 231f
marriage sorting and, 46–48, 67
nonmarital fertility and, 206, 208
poverty rates of female-headed families, 405
Ethnographic Atlas dataset, 646, 654, 657, 664
ETHOS (European Typology on Homelessness and Housing Exclusion), 800
Eurobarometer data, 155, 156–157
Europe. See also specific countries
age at marriage in, 197
arranged marriages in, 101
births outside of marriage in, 163–164, 164f
child care cost and availability in, 181–183
cohabitation trends correlated with nonmarital fertility in, 163, 198, 207
educational attainment and gender equality in, 377
female migration pull factors in, 739
fertility rates in, 155–156
gendered patterns in labor force participation in, 706f, 707
gender wage gap in, 161
homelessness, incidence of, 805
immigrant fertility rates in, 164
nonmarital fertility rate in, 195, 196f
nonwage vs. wage work of women in, 710, 711f
paid maternity leave, effect on fertility in, 180–181
teen fertility in, 199, 199f
Europe 2020, 182
European Community Household Panel (ECHP), 376
European Social Survey, 181
European Typology on Homelessness and Housing Exclusion (ETHOS), 800
Evans, William, 814, 818
Ewert, Stephanie, 610
Exley, Christine L., 496
Faccio, Mara, 554n17
Fafchamps, Marcel, 106
Fair Housing Act of 1968, 614
Fairlie, Robert W., 390n15
Falk, Armin, 498, 501n8
Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (FMLA), 180, 317n4, 329–332, 334, 336–337, 338n7, 338n15, 410
Family-friendly work policies, 14, 24, 161. See also Flexible work schedules
Family planning. See also Contraception, access to
Colorado Family Planning Initiative (CFPI), 245
in developed countries, 157–158
in developing countries, 131–135
St. Louis Contraceptive Choice Project (CHOICE), 244–245
US publicly funded programs, 221–222, 241, 249n8
Family structure, changes in. See also Single-parent households
contraceptive use and, 237–239
gender roles and, 658–660
maternal SES and well-being of next generations and, 294
Family Support Act of 1988, 461
Fang, Hanming, 462
Farming. See Agriculture
Farran, Dale C., 312
Farre, Lidia, 742
Father absence, effects of, 208, 271–272, 274n17
Fatherhood bonus and motherhood penalty, 11. See also Motherhood penalty
Fawcett, Millicent and Henry, 624, 625
Fehr, Ernst, 498
Fehr-Duda, Helga, 524
Feldman, Marcus W., 104
Felfe, Christina, 313
Feminist Economics (journal), 626, 635–636
Feminist perspective, 18, 623–641
best practices for empirical studies and, 635
empirical methodology and, 634–636
endogenous preferences and caring labor, 633–634
journals, 626
labor economics and, 624–626
labor supply and, 626–630
machine-learning techniques and, 635
textbooks, 627
wage determination and, 631–633
Fenske, James, 113
Ferber, Marianne A., 387, 627
Fernández, Cristina, 630
Fernández, Raquel, 48, 291, 662
Fernandez-Kranz, Daniel, 381
Fernández-Val, Iván, 205, 211n17
Ferreira, Daniel, 548
Ferrer, Ana, 9, 14, 149, 162–163
Ferrer, Rosa, 388
Fertig, Angela R., 806, 807, 811
Fertility rates, decline in, 10, 13, 14
among educated women, 15
“birth strike” and, 761
contraception access and, 25, 123–124, 157–158
in developed countries, 149–172. See also Fertility rates in developed countries
in developing countries, 25–26, 121–147. See also Fertility rates in developing countries
educational attainment of women and, 14–15, 20, 136, 140n32, 154–157, 156f
gender differences and, 267–268
natural fertility, defined, 139n14
total fertility rate (TFR), decline in, 121, 122f, 138n1, 149–150, 150f, 151t, 173, 188n1
in United States, 68
Fertility rates in developed countries, 149–193. See also Nonmarital fertility
antinatalist policies to discourage childbearing, 188n2
baby bonuses and, 173, 177–179, 189n7
child care cost and availability, 181–183
childlessness, 150, 167n2
child subsidies, 177–179
delay in marriage and, 163–164
demand-for-children model, 152–153
differences-in-differences (DD) model and, 176
economic conditions and uncertainty and, 158–160
economic drivers of low fertility, 157–163
educational attainment and, 155–156, 156f
empirical methods in study of, 176–177
family leave policies and, 173, 179–181
family planning and, 157–158
fertility preferences, 154–157
fixed effects model and, 176
future research needs, 187–188
gender wage gap after returning to work post-childbirth, 381 (p. 842)
housing and, 162–163
immigrant fertility, 164–166
instrumental variable (IV) models and, 177
labor markets and gender wage gap and, 160–162, 166
Medicaid and public health insurance and, 183–184
microeconomic model of fertility, 152–154
policies to encourage childbearing, 173–193
quantity–quality tradeoff, 153–154, 174–176, 182
regression discontinuity (RD) models and, 177
tax incentives and, 173, 184–186
theoretical considerations and Becker’s model, 174–176
total fertility rate (TFR), decline in, 149–150, 150f, 151t, 173, 188n4
union formation and, 163–164
welfare programs and, 188n3
Fertility rates in developing countries, 25–26, 121–147
bargaining power and number of children, 110, 128–129
child gender preference and, 25–26, 55, 129–131
educational attainment of mother and, 126–127, 346, 355–356
family planning programs, research on, 131–135
household bargaining and, 110, 128–129, 135, 210
policies, 131–137
polygyny and, 114
spacing between births and, 130
technology to determine gender of fetus, 130
timing of fertility, 127–128
Feyisetan, Bamikale J., 140n28
Feyrer, James, 183
FFS (Fragile Families and Child Well-Being Survey), 294, 802–803, 806, 807
Fiel, Jeremy E., 211n15
Field, Erica, 107, 110, 139n23, 349, 354
Field experiments, defined, 447n5
Filippin, Antonio, 483, 501n8
Finance industry, women’s representation in, 482, 486–487
Finland
gender wage gap in, 382
individual incentive pay in, 580
maternal leave in, 161
role burden hypothesis in, 686
Finlay, Keith, 206
Firpo, Sergio, 610
Fitzenberger, Bernd, 382
Fitzpatrick, Katie, 466
Fixed-effects models, 11, 176, 734
Flabbi, Luca, 385, 388, 434, 550
Fletcher, Jason M., 9–10, 14, 195, 203–204, 211nn16–18, 294
Flexible work schedules, 161, 411–412, 434–435, 443, 573
Flory, Jeffrey A., 9, 431, 489
Floyd, Ife, 473
Fogli, Alessandra, 291, 662
Folbre, Nancy, 19, 633, 749
Fomby, Paula, 88
Fontana, Marzia, 709
Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
contraceptive methods, approval role of, 219
on IUDs, 223
on LARCs, 223
Nonprescription Drugs Advisory Committee and Reproductive Health Drugs Advisory Committee, 226
on the pill, 222
on Plan B, 226–227
Food Stamps. See SNAP
Ford, Deanna, 551
Foreign direct investment, 714
Forsythe, Nancy, 720
Fortin, Bernard, 62, 71n14
Fortin, Nicole M., 378, 414, 433, 610
Foster care system, 760
Fragile Families and Child Well-Being Survey (FFS), 294, 802–803, 806, 807
France
cohabitation trends in, 163, 207
competitive high schools, gap in girls’ STEM study in, 781–782
divorce rates in, 111 (p. 843)
fertility rates in, 173
gender wage gap in, 372, 372f, 385
immigrant fertility rates in, 166
labor force participation of women in, 373, 374f
long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) in, 198
male scarcity post-World War II in, 45
maternity leave in, 328, 334
pronatalist policies to increase childbirth rates in, 173–174
technology in workplace, regulation of, 417
teen fertility rates in, 199, 199f
Franceschet, S., 551
Francesconi, Marco, 39, 41, 43, 582
Francis, Andrew M., 68–69, 71n18
Frank, Jeff, 582
Frank, Robert H., 498
Franklin, Allyson W., 807
Freedman, Ronald, 139n21
Free-rider issues, 90, 286, 754
Freund, Karen M., 787
Friedman, Willa, 359
Friedman-Sokuler, Naomi, 770, 774, 776
Frink, Brenda D., 411
Frisancho Robles, Veronica, 735
Frye, Melissa B., 486
Fryer, Roland G., Jr., 48, 611, 612, 769, 778
Fujiwara, Thomas, 415
Füllbrunn, Sascha C., 487
Funk, Patricia, 548
Furstenberg, Frank F., 283, 284
Furst-Nichols, Rebecca, 705
Furtado, Delia, 46–47, 48, 742
Gabriel, Gülsah, 682
Gaddis, Isis, 354
GAF (Growth of American Families) studies, 249n12
Galinsky, Adam, 495
Gallup Polls
on birth control movement, 220–221, 220f, 249n7
on gender preference for children, 270
Galor, O., 650, 651
Game theory and gender differences in relation to labor market outcomes, 497–498, 502nn26–28
Gangadharan, Lata, 552
Gans, Joshua S., 177–178
García, Joan, 105
Gariety, Bonnie Sue, 573
Garment industries, 354, 359–360, 663, 714, 720
Garofalo, Orsola, 554n17
Garrett, Bowen, 470
Garthwaite, Craig, 470
Gassman-Pines, Anna, 209, 210n12
Gauthier, Anne H., 161, 174–175, 284
Gay, V., 650
Gayle, George-Levy, 385
Geary, David C., 770
Geddes, Lori A., 580
Gelbach, Jonah B., 308, 473
Gelber, Alexander, 318n18
Gelbgiser, Dafna, 775
Geller, Amanda, 807
Gemmill, Alison, 199, 208
GEMP (geosciences, engineering, economics, math/computer science, and physical science) field, 768. See also STEM field
bachelor degrees in, female percentage of, 771–772, 772f
gender and earnings in, 786
gendered norms and job preferences in, 783
gender retention gap and, 789–790
gender salary gaps in academia and, 786–787
occupations and gender similarities/differences in, 784, 785t
PhDs earned by women in, growth of, 773, 774f
PhDs earned in, by both genders, 772–773, 773f, 791n7
Gender discrimination, 22. See also Child gender; Gender wage gap
antidiscrimination laws, effect of, 553n6, 715
Becker model and, 28n1
corporate tacit discrimination, 554n12
in developing countries, 260–268
education gap due to favoritism of boys, 348
employers’ discriminatory behavior and gender wage gap, 384–385
family care provision as motive for, 756
female employment, effect on, 355, 553n6
in high-performance work system (HPWS), 569 (p. 844)
high-performance work system (HPWS) and, 572
maternity leave and, 333
stereotypes, 495, 776–780
Gender equality. See also Gender discrimination; Gender wage gap
belief in, and increase in female education, 358–359
economic development and, 700, 718–722
indices, 779–780
Gender identity
in care work, 751
in job preferences, 782–783
in occupational segregation, 442–444, 447n4
Gender roles, 645–671
care work and, 498, 749–750, 754–755
dowry vs. bride price, 656–657
future research needs, 664
geography and, 651–652
heterogeneity in historical persistence and, 663–664
historical family structures, influence of, 658–660
historical origin of, 646–663
language and, 650–651
matrilineality and, 652–656
matrilocality and, 656
natural experiments in history and, 661–663
preindustrial societal characteristics and, 652–658
religion and, 660–661
in World War II, 662
Gender stereotypes, 495, 776–780
Gender wage gap, 1, 4, 16
in academia (non-STEM and STEM), 786–787
biological differences as explanation for, 22–23
data and empirical methods, 7–8
decomposition of, 373–379
in developed countries, 20, 21, 369–394, 565, 565f
in developing countries, 712
discriminatory behavior of employers and, 384–385
educational attainment and, 376, 410, 712
export-oriented manufacturing industries relying on, 721
fertility rates in developed countries and, 160–162
firm job-rationing model and, 382
glass ceiling and, 21, 481. See also Glass ceiling
high-performance work system (HPWS) and, 571
human capital and, 381–384
international trends in, 370–373, 514, 711–712
job-matching model and, 382
job search and job mobility and, 385–386
Juhn-Murphy-Pierce (JMP) decomposition and, 374, 377–379
labor demand factors and, 384–386
managerial positions and, 386, 481
maternity leave and women with children and, 333–335, 338, 383, 716, 723n15
median gender gap by country, 371t
nonrandom selection of women into work and, 379–381
Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition and, 7, 22, 369, 374–377
occupational characteristics as factor for, 437–442, 439f, 440441t
occupational segregation and, 387–388, 425, 428–429, 446n3, 481, 713
part-time work by women and, 381–382, 387, 409, 711
paternity leave and, 383–384
residual, 439, 442, 447n13, 712
STEM jobs and, 768, 784–787
STEM PhD holders and, 788
in United States, 23, 161, 372, 372f, 377, 380, 382–383, 385
work/life balance practices and, 575
Gene–environment interactions, 293–294
Generalized Axiom of Revealed Preferences, 516
General Social Survey to show trends in US intergenerational transmission of education, 281–282, 282f
(p. 845) Genetic heritability, 209, 211n23, 520–521, 681–682
Genoeconomics, 521–522
Geography and gender roles, 410–411, 651–652
Geosciences, engineering, economics, math/computer science, and physical science field. See GEMP field
German Socio-Economic Panel, 7, 37, 431, 484, 487
Germany
childbirth leave, effect on gender wage gap in, 383
child care in, 183
childlessness in, 150
family reunification in migration to, 740
gender role in, 662, 667n19
gender wage gap in, 372, 372f, 373, 377, 381, 382
job mobility, gender difference in, 386
maternal SES and child well-being in, 284
maternity leave in, 334, 336
motherhood penalty and, 759–760
remittances to, 741
smoking in, 688
testosterone levels linked to occupational choice in, 517
Geronimus, Arline T., 689, 690–691
Gerson, Kathleen, 404
Ghana
child treatment in, 262–263
contraception availability and use in, 134
gender antidiscrimination laws in, 715
in-kind grants to women in, 705
Navrongo Project in, 132
pension plans in, 656
remittances and intrahousehold allocation in, 741
Giannelli, Gianna Claudia, 736
Giavazzi, F., 659
Gibson, John, 733
Gibson-Davis, Christina, 209, 210n12
Gicheva, Dora, 582
Gielen, Anne C., 519
Gilchrist, Katherine, 189n11
Gillen, Ben, 490, 501n7, 501n14
Gilovich, Thomas, 498
Gimenez-Nadal, Jose Ignacio, 47, 630
Ginther, Donna K., 19, 87, 767, 788–790
Giolito, Eugenio, 41
Girma, Sourafel, 247, 250n24
Giuliano, Paola, 10, 18, 23–24, 29n7, 645, 646, 648, 658–659, 664, 665n3, 666n7, 717
Glass, Jennifer L., 82, 575, 789
Glass ceiling, 1, 21–23, 481, 539–542, 553nn2–3
Glassdoor, 481
Glätzle-Rützler, Daniela, 492
Glewwe, Paul, 138n10, 357, 717
Glimcher, Paul W., 525
Glinskaya, E., 734
Global Gag Rule, 140n29
Global Gender Gap Index, 666n7
Gneezy, Uri, 433, 483, 488, 490, 491, 497, 501n7, 501n15, 502n20, 527, 652, 653
Goda, Gopi Shah, 185
Goette, Lorenz, 490
Göhlmann, Silja, 688
Golan, Limor, 385
Goldberger, Arthur S., 521
Goldhaber, Daniel D., 780
Goldin, Claudia D., 3, 16, 24, 49–50, 77, 157, 158, 161, 167nn8–9, 377, 387, 397, 402, 408, 411–412, 413, 417, 418n3, 428, 429, 435, 442–443, 454, 481, 582, 614, 647, 662, 788
Goldstein, Joshua, 155
Gong, B., 654
Gonzalez, Libertad, 742
Goody, J., 648
Gooptu, Angshuman, 470
Görlich, Dennis, 382
Gorman, Bridget K., 687
Gottfried, Michael A., 775
Gottlieb, J., 654
Gould, Eric D., 49
Gould, Thomas, 806
Graefenberg, Ernest, 222
Graham, John W., 89, 786, 787, 788
Graham-Bermann, Sandra, 812
Grameen Bank (Bangladesh), 26–27, 703, 716
Granger, C. W., 66
Grant, Linda, 786
Grapard, Ulla, 627
(p. 846) Gray, Jason D., 691
Gray, Jo Anna, 202
“Gray divorce,” 13, 79
Grazier, S., 431
Great Recession. See Economic recession
Greece
labor force participation of women in, 373, 374f
math test scores and gender differences in, 770
“Greedy occupations,” 788–789
Greenstone, Michael, 201
Greenwald, Anthony G., 776
Greenwood, Jeremy, 49
Grépin, Karen A., 353
Griffith, Amanda L., 781
Griswold v. Connecticut (1965), 158, 221, 224, 241
Grogger, Jeffrey, 462, 465
Grosjean, P., 662
Gross, Tal, 247, 470
Grossbard, Shoshana (Amyra) (aka Grossbard-Shechtman), 10, 12–13, 47, 55, 58–59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 66, 68, 70n5, 71n11, 628
Grossman, Philip J., 483, 497–498, 683
Grove, Wayne A., 433
Growth mindset, 776–778
Growth of American Families (GAF) studies, 249n12
Gruber, Jonathan, 83, 87, 88, 92n9, 184, 189n20, 206, 243, 308
Gruenewald, Tara L., 690
Grusky, David B., 436
Guatemala
divorce rates in, 111
microenterprise lending in, 704
rural labor market in, 708
time use of women vs. men in, 711, 712f
Guest, Ross, 178
Guinnane, Timothy W., 152
Guiso, Luigi, 518, 660, 779
Guldi, Melanie, 10, 16, 204, 211n22, 453, 472
Gulesci, Selim, 108, 261, 358–359
Gullickson, Aaron, 47
Gundersen, Craig, 810
Gunderson, Morley, 577, 580
Guner, Nezih, 459
Gurnell, Mark, 518
Guryan, Jonathan, 284, 597, 613
Gutierrez, Italo A., 140n30
Guzmán, Juan Carlos, 741
Haan, Peter, 183
Haeck, Catherine, 308, 312
Halko, Marja-Liisa, 490
Hallock, Kevin F., 540
Halpern, Diane F., 523, 529n10, 530n18
Ham, John C., 468, 470
Hamermesh, Daniel, 38
Hamersma, Sarah, 470
Hamid, Saima, 101
Hamm, Katie, 187
Han, Hongyun, 415
Han, Wen-Jui, 332
Hank, Karsten, 183
Hansen, C. W., 649
Hanson, Gordon H., 160, 734
Harbaugh, William T., 490
Haring, Robin, 518
Harlem Children’s Zone, 612
Harold, Rena D., 777
Harper, Cynthia C., 246
Hartley, Robert Paul, 294
Hartmann, Heidi, 625
Hastings, Orestes P., 208
Head Start program, 305–306, 314, 316, 318n18
Health. See also Life expectancy
autoimmune diseases, 681–682, 693n8
cancer rates, 693n4
differences in, 18
double disadvantage for children born with adverse health condition in low-SES families, 295
education of females, children’s health linked to, 356
education of females, their own health linked to, 358
heart disease, 682
homelessness and, 808–809, 811
immune system and gender differences, 681–682
marriage’s effect on individual’s health, 686–687 (p. 847)
morbidity paradox, 673
obesity and, 689
parents’ SES, effect on children’s health, 289, 296n6
smoking and, 688
telomeres’ role in, 682
Health and Retirement Study (HRS), 294, 522, 755
Health insurance. See also Medicaid
family leave policies and, 336
job lock and, 469
job push and, 469
lack of, effect on health conditions, 682
Health-related jobs in STEM, 784
Healy, Andrew, 492
HEARTH (Homeless Emergency Assistance and Rapid Transition to Housing Act of 2009), 800, 815
Heath, Rachel, 8, 15–16, 27, 110, 263, 345, 359–360, 361
Heckman, James J., 90, 307, 313–315, 318n15, 618n24
Heckman’s selection correction approach, 7, 28n5, 266, 380
Heer, David M., 63, 68
Helburn, Suzanne W., 318n22
Hellerstein, Judith K., 86
Hemmeter, Jeffrey, 476n16
Hener, Timo, 183
Henriques, Maria-Helena, 138n10, 285
Herault, Nicolas, 810
Herbert, Joe, 518
Herbst, Chris M., 204, 291, 311–312, 317n4
Heritability. See Genetic heritability
Herr, Jane L., 434
Herrmann, Mariesa A., 292, 296n8, 517, 529n8
Hersch, Joni, 409, 413
Hertz, Tom, 281
Heterogeneity in historical persistence, 663–664
Heywood, John S., 580
High-performance work system (HPWS), 17, 561, 565–572
cooperative workplace and, 567–568
effect on women’s outcomes, 567–570
evidence on effectiveness of, 570–572
gender discrimination in, 569, 572
as high-commitment work system, 569–570
job redesign and, 569
multiskilling and, 568–569
soft skills and, 568–569, 587n9
HILDA (Household, Income, and Labor Dynamics in Australia), 44
Hildebrandt, Nicole, 102–103
Hill, Ronald, 811
Hill, Terrence D., 687
Himmelweit, Susan, 633
Hindu women, 114n1
Hines, Melissa, 523
Hirokawa, Katsuiku, 682
Hispanic women
contraception use by, 227, 229f, 230
divorce trends of, 81, 86
poverty rates of female-headed families, 405
Hitsch, Günter J., 39
HIV/AIDS, 132, 233, 414, 809, 816
Hochschild, Arlie, 406, 633
Hock, Heinrich, 742
Hoem, Jan M., 180
Hofferth, Sandra, 406
Hoffman, Florian, 781
Hoffman, Moshe, 490, 527, 653–654
Hoffman, Saul D., 1, 51n2, 627
Holmes, Jessica, 519
Holst, Elke, 740, 741
Holt, Charles A., 483
Homeless Emergency Assistance and Rapid Transition to Housing Act of 2009 (HEARTH), 800, 815
Homelessness, 799–823
administrative records on, 801–802, 817
causes of, 805–808
chronic homelessness, 801
consequences of, 808–811
coordination of services as policy response, 815
coping strategies for homeless, 811–813
cultural homelessness, 800
data and analyses, need for improvements on, 817–818
definitions and types of, 799–801
episodic homelessness, 801
family homelessness, 806–808, 812, 814, 815, 818 (p. 848)
incidence of, 803804t, 803–805
measures and data sources on, 801–803
personal vulnerability factors, 805–807
policy responses, 813–816
prevention strategies for, 814
primary homelessness, 800
rental costs and, 806, 814
secondary homelessness, 800
sheltered homelessness, 807, 813–814
stress and, 808, 812
subjective homelessness, 800
tertiary homelessness, 800
transitional homelessness, 801
victimization and, 809, 811
Hong, Lu, 768
Hong, Sung Hyo, 182
Hooimeijer, Pieter, 737
Horioka, Charles Yuji, 65
Hormonal processes, effect of, 515–519, 529n6, 681–682, 688
Horney, Mary Jean, 259, 628
Hortaçsu, Nuran, 100, 101
Hotchkiss, Julie L., 788
Hotz, V. Joseph, 153, 205
Household, Income, and Labor Dynamics in Australia (HILDA), 44
Household bargaining
of caregivers, 751–753, 757, 760–761
child welfare in households of mothers with sons vs. with daughters, 263
fertility rates in developing countries, 110, 128–129, 135, 210
income pooling and, 755
migrant-nonmigrant decision-making and, 734–735, 743n4
relationship between education and increases in women’s bargaining power, 358
relationship between job availability and increases in women’s bargaining power, 262–263, 346, 360
sex ratios, 64–65, 71n14
Household savings, 65
Household work, 58–62. See also Work/life balance
egalitarian gender roles and, 659
gendered norms and, 414–415
household bargaining and, 667n21
male-breadwinner hypothesis and, 658–659
responsibilities’ impact on employment and earnings, 409–411
same-sex households, division of labor in, 629
time spent in, 406–407, 667n21
work in household (WIHO), markets for, 59–62, 59f, 69–70, 70n6, 70n8
Houselessness, defined, 800
Houseworth, Christina, 67
Housing First policies, 814
Housing market
fertility rates and, 162–163
as homelessness factor, 806–807, 815–816
Hoynes, Hilary Williamson, 467, 473, 474, 475–476n14, 602
HRS (Health and Retirement Study), 294, 522, 755
Hu, Luojia, 264, 266, 390n15
Huang, Jennie, 495
Human capital
gender differences in developed countries, 20
gender wage gap and, 381–384
theory, 3, 757
Human genetics, 17
Hummer, Robert A., 685
Hungary
gender equality in earnings in, 23
labor force participation of women in, 373, 374f
Hunger and food insecurity, 810, 811
Hungerman, Daniel M., 83, 242, 285
Hunt, Jennifer, 789
Hurst, Erik, 284
Hussey, Andrew, 433
Hyde, Janet S., 769, 770
Hyde Amendment (1976), 225, 249n11
ICAPE (International Confederation of Associations for Pluralism in Economics), 637
Ichino, Andrea, 269, 273, 517, 659
IDB (Inter-American Development Bank), 48
Ilies, Remus, 529n9
ILO (International Labour Organization), 327–329
(p. 849) Imas, Alex, 483, 501n7
Imbens, Guido W., 177
Immigration. See Migration
Incarceration
effect on marriage market, 201
effect on sex ratios in African American labor force, 66
effect on sex ratios in African American marriage, 63
Income inequality. See also Gender wage gap
marriage sorting and, 48–50
single-person households and, 49
India
agriculture and female labor force participation in, 651
arranged marriages in, 100, 101
child gender bias and differences in net returns to sons and daughters in, 261–262, 266, 274n8
child mortality rate of girls in, 264
conditional cash transfers (CCTs) for girls remaining in secondary school, 349
consanguineous marriage in, 112
divorce in, 111
dowry in, 106, 108, 115n4, 657
educational outcomes related to fertility rates in, 154
fertility rate and female labor productivity in, 136–137
gender quota system in election candidates in, 551–552
gender wage gap in, 712
household savings, effect of sex ratio on, 65
inheritance rights of women in, 107, 349, 709
job outsourcing to, effect on marriage and fertility in, 359
Khasi matrilineal society in, 652–653
labor force participation of women in, 352, 720
low-caste girls, education of, 719
microenterprise lending in, 704
mothers with sons, treatment of, 263
National Family Health Surveys, 139n17
political positions held by women increasing girls’ schooling, 349
rural banking program in, 703–704
sex-selective abortion and “missing girls” in, 260, 267
shift from “brawn-based” to “brain-based” work in, 354
son preference in, 25–26, 55, 71n12, 101, 130, 260, 261–262
son-preferring differential stopping behavior in, 266
time use of women vs. men in, 711, 712f
weather shocks and changes to women’s employment in, 361
Indonesia
assortative mating in, 105
bride price in, 108
children’s health linked to maternal education in, 357
contraceptives, price change in, 133
fertility studies in, 132
INPRES school-building program, 355
Sekolah Dasar Inpres school building program, 657
virilocality hypothesis in, 656
Infant and child mortality rates
education of females, effect on, 357
family leave policy length and, 336
FMLA implementation’s impact on, 337
gender preference and, 264, 267–268
under-5 mortality rates, 123, 124f, 138n5
Influenza pandemic (1918), lasting negative effects of, 292