Abstract and Keywords
Open market operations are the buying and selling of securities by the central bank. Such operations differ from discount operations in that open market operations are undertaken at the initiative of the central bank rather than a commercial bank. Historically, such trading of securities has predated the setting of interest rates. The emergence of long-term finance and complex financial systems has extended the range of securities in which central banks may deal. Open market operations depend on the policy framework set by the central bank. But such operations are not necessary for the setting of interest rates. Such operations are often undertaken when the monetary transmission mechanism from interest rates appears to have failed, as in the case of recent quantitative easing operations. In general, open market operations have proved effective in times of banking or financial crisis.
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