- In Pursuit of Justice for Disability: Model Neutrality Revisited
- Theoretical Strategies to Define Disability
- Disability, Health, and Difference
- Habilitative Health and Disability
- Philosophy and the Apparatus of Disability
- Disability Liberation Theology
- Disabilities and Well-Being: The Bad and the Neutral
- Evaluative Diversity and the (Ir)Relevance of Well-Being
- Contractualism, Disability, and Inclusion
- Civic Republican Disability Justice
- Disability and Disadvantage in the Capabilities Approach
- Disability and Partial Compliance Theory
- The Disability Case Against Assisted Dying
- Epistemic Exclusion, Injustice, and Disability
- What’s Wrong with “You Say You’re Happy, but … ” Reasoning?
- Interactions with Delusional Others: Reflections on Epistemic Failures and Virtues
- Disability, Rationality, and Justice: Disambiguating Adaptive Preferences
- Ideals of Appreciation and Expressions of Respect
- The Limiting Role of Respect
- Respect, Identification, and Profound Cognitive Impairment
- A Dignitarian Approach to Disability: From Moral Status to Social Status
- Cognitive Disability and Moral Status
- Dignity, Respect, and Cognitive Disability
- On Moral Status and Intellectual Disability: Challenging and Expanding the Debates
- Educational Justice for Students with Intellectual Disabilities
- A Symmetrical View of Disability and Enhancement
- Cognitive Disability and Embodied, Extended Minds
- The Visible and the Invisible: Disability, Assistive Technology, and Stigma
- Neurotechnologies and Justice by, with, and for Disabled People
- Second Thoughts on Enhancement and Disability
- Cost-Effectiveness Analysis and Disability Discrimination
- Prioritization and Parity: Which Disabled Newborn Infants Should Be Candidates for Scarce Life-Saving Treatment?
- Why People with Cognitive Disabilities Are Justified in Feeling Disquieted by Prenatal Testing and Selective Termination
- Reproductive Choice in Context: Avoiding Excess and Deficiency?
- Bioethics, Disability, and Selective Reproductive Technology: Taking Intersectionality Seriously
- Procreation and Intellectual Disability: A Kantian Approach
- Parental Autonomy, Children with Disabilities, and Horizontal Identities
Abstract and Keywords
This chapter addresses confusions that contribute to seemingly essential conceptual contestation about whether being disabled is not just being different but is inescapably bad. There are two generally accepted main functions for which models of disability are formulated and used: (1) categorizing individuals as being disabled or not and (2) explaining why people experience limitations due to disability. Conceptualizing disability as a “term of art” is the currently common, but narrowly useful, approach to engaging with the first function. The broader second function is explored by considering a flawed model of disability constructed for policy purposes and discovering how modeling disability for explanatory purposes can go wrong. Finally, the chapter shows what goes wrong for aspirational and epistemic justice when a more controversial third function, modeling disability appraisively, is pursued to advance the claim that being disabled is not merely a difference but is inveterately, even if not definitively, bad.
Anita Silvers was Professor of Philosophy at San Francisco State University, where she began in 1967. She was a pioneer in writing philosophy about disability and a leader in achieving access to higher education for students with disabilities. For a quarter-century, Silvers was APA Pacific Division Secretary-Treasurer and a member of the APA Board. Her awards and honors include the Phi Beta Kappa/APA Lebowitz Prize, the APA Quinn Prize, and U.S. presidential appointment to the NEH National Council on the Humanities.
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