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date: 17 September 2019

(p. 525) Index

(p. 525) Index

A
absolute dietary restriction
relative dietary restriction vs., 136
abstinence
dialectical
in BED and BN management, 343
abuse
laxative
BN and, 226
in PD, 446
N-acetylcysteine (NAC)
for BN, 375
acid reflux
BN and, 225
“activity disorder”
AN as, 192–193
adolescent(s)
early
ED–related diagnostic criteria for, 19–20
EDs in
CRT for, 399–400
family therapy for, 320–321
IPT for
adaptations of, 311
adolescent anorexia nervosa (AN)
adolescent bulimia nervosa (BN)
adolescent-focused therapy (AFT)
FBT vs., 323
adolescent girls
body dissatisfaction among, 480
adult(s)
EDs in
family therapy for, 329–330
affect(s)
defined, 156
IPT in encouraging acceptance of, 298
painful affect, 298
IPT in helping patient experience
suppressed affect, 298
negative (see negative affect)
affect dysregulation model
within biosocial theory, 335
affective disorders
EDs and, 164, 229–230
“affect reduction” model, 162–163
affect regulation
as factor in EDs, 238–239
affect regulation model
for EDs, 340
African Americans
body image and eating concerns among, 197
agomelatine
for NES, 382
alcohol abuse/dependence disorder
anxiety disorders related to, 233
EDs and, 233–234
OCD related to, 233
alcoholism
EDs and, 233–234
alexithymia
described, 176
EDs and, 176
allele(s)
described, 80
allocentric lock (AL) theory
of body image distortion, 481, 481f
alprazolam
for AN, 361t, 368
altered feeding behaviors
in AN and BN
studies of, 48–49, 49t
alternate rebellion
in BED and BN management, 343
American Psychiatric Association, 499
American Psychological Association, 506
American Psychologist, 198
amitriptyline
for AN, 360, 361t
amygdala
OFC and, 60
angry threat stimuli
attentional biases to, 240
Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, 483
anorexia nervosa (AN). see also eating disorder(s) (EDs)
as “activity disorder,” 192–193
adolescent
in adults
family therapy for, 329–330
after bariatric surgery, 461–462
altered feeding behaviors related to
studies of, 48–49, 49t
anxiety and harm avoidance with
PET data correlated with, 57–58
appetitive regulation in, 47–79
CCK and, 51, 54t
fMRI studies of, 61–66, 62f, 65f
future research directions related to, 66–67
gender differences in, 61
ghrelin and, 52–53, 55t
HPA axis effects on, 50
images of food in, 62
interoceptive processing in, 59–60
introduction, 47
leptin and, 51–52, 54t55t
neurocircuitry of, 58–60
neuroendocrine systems–related, 50–53
NPY and, 51, 54t
opioid peptides and, 50–51, 54t
PET studies of, 61–62
PYY and, 51, 54t
regional cerebral blood flow studies in, 61–62
SPECT studies of, 61–62
tastes of food in, 62–63, 62f
twin studies, 48
binge eating/purging type of, 10
binging in
negative affect lability and, 239
brain imaging studies in, 58–66
CBT-E for, 278–280
CBT for, 278–280
efficacy of, 278–279
costs of, 412
course of, 36–37
cross-cultural patterns of, 35–36
CRT for
RCTs of, 397
defined, 461
diagnosis of, 10
discovery of, 34
early sensory specific satiety in, 60
epidemiology of, 34–35
features of, 461
genetic influences on, 48, 80–105 (see also genetic influences)
history of, 2
hunger and satiety in
fMRI studies of, 63
incidence of, 35
interoception in
fMRI studies of, 63–64
IPT for, 303–304
in Jamaica, 200
medical complications of, 222–225
bone metabolism–related, 224–225
cardiac, 222–223
dermatologic, 225
endocrine, 224
gastrointestinal, 223–224
hematologic, 224
malnutrition, 223
neurologic, 224
pulmonary, 223
monoamine function disturbances related to, 53, 55–58
DA activity in, 53, 55
serotonin, 55–58
mortality rate associated with, 222–223
negative emotionality and, 173–177
emotional processing deficits, 176–177
emotional responses to body image exposure, 175–176
emotional responses to food cues, 174–175
neurobiologic alterations in, 47–48
neuropeptide and neuroendocrine alterations in, 49–53, 54t55t
parents’ role in, 319
perfectionism and, 236–238
persistence and, 237
prevalence of, 263
psychological comorbidity of, 229–243, 231t233t
affective disorders, 229–230
anxiety disorders, 230
ICDs, 234–235
personality disorders, 235–236
substance abuse disorders, 230, 233–234
research on
future directions for, 66–67
response to inhibition alterations in
fMRI studies of, 65–66
response to reward alterations in
fMRI studies of, 64–65, 65f
restricting type of, 10
risk factors for, 3
longitudinal studies’ characteristics, 107, 111, 112, 117
social media in, 262–263
state vs. trait characteristics in, 47–48
subsystems in, 47
subtypes of, 10
suicide attempts related to, 36
suicide related to, 36
trait anxiety and, 237
treatment of, 3–4, 360–368, 361t (see also specific types)
AEDs in, 368
antidepressant–antipsychotic combinations in, 364–365
antidepressants in, 360–362, 361t
antipsychotics in, 361t, 363–364
anxiolytic medications in, 368
appetite stimulants in, 361t, 365
cannabinoids in, 361t, 365
CBT in, 278–280
cost-effectiveness of, 412–413
CRT in, 397
ghrelin agonists in, 361t, 367
hormonal agents in, 361t, 366–367
lithium in, 361t, 367
nutritional supplements in, 368
opioid antagonists in, 368
opioids in, 368
pharmacotherapy in, 360–368, 361t (see also specific agents)
prokinetics in, 361t, 365–366
research on, 521
zinc in, 361t, 366
anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), 56–57, 59
anterior insula, 59
antidepressant(s)
for BED, 376t, 377–378
for BN, 369–372, 370t
antidepressant–antipsychotic combinations
for AN, 364–365
antiepileptic drugs (AEDs)
for AN, 368
for BED, 376t, 379–381
for BN, 370t, 372–373
anti-ideal(s)
ideals vs., 194
antipsychotic(s)
for AN, 361t, 363–364
for BED, 382
for BN, 375
anxiety
AN and
PET data correlated with, 57–58
trait-related, 237
BN and
PET data correlated with, 57–58
EDs and, 164
anxiety disorders
alcohol abuse/dependence disorder and, 233
EDs and, 230
anxiolytic medications
for AN, 368
apoptosis
AN and, 223
appetite-focus DBT, 339
appetite stimulants
for AN, 361t, 365
appetitive regulation
Apple Watch, 494
aripiprazole
for BN, 375
arousal systems
EDs and, 29
artificial cervical vagal nerve stimulation (VNS)
in depression management, 158
artificial intelligence (AI), 493
values embedded in, 499
assessment(s)
described, 211
ecological momentary
of negative affect, 238–239
of EDs, 209–221
context of, 211–212
determining domains or constructs of interest in, 213–215
diagnosis in, 213
EDE in, 216
ESP in, 217
function of, 212–213
instruments in, 215–218
interviews in, 215–217
introduction, 211
psychological, 211–221
SCOFF in, 212–213, 216–217
screening tests in, 212–213
secondary domains in, 214
self-report questionnaires in, 217–218 (see also self-report questionnaires)
thresholds for recovery in, 214–215
treatment planning and outcome in, 213
underlying theoretical assumptions in, 213–214
introduction, 211
as process, 211–221
assumption(s)
underlying
in EDs assessment, 213–214
athletes
ED prevention in, 260–261
atomoxetine
for BED, 376–377, 376t
attention
sustained
norepinephrine in, 240
attentional bias(es)
(p. 527) to social and angry threat stimuli and emotion recognition, 240
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
ARFID and, 431
drugs for
in BED, 375–377, 376t
in BN, 374
attitude(s)
eating
negative affect impact on, 161–164
atypical anorexia nervosa (atypical AN), 438, 448–451
criteria for, 448–449
defined, 448
described, 448–449
history of, 448–449
models of
evidence of diagnostic validity and clinical significance using, 449–450
prevalence of, 449
status of
research needed to clarify, 451
avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID)
ADHD with, 431
ON vs., 453
B
baclofen
for BED, 381–382
for BN, 375
bariatric surgery(ies)
AN after, 461–462
BED after, 459–460
BN after, 460–461
EBs–and EDs–related, 458–469
food addiction after, 465–466
GI physiology alterations after, 459
introduction, 458–459
LOC overeating after, 460
NES after, 462
NSRED after, 462
postoperative sequelae, 459
problematic EBs after, 462–464
types of, 458
bariatric surgery patients
EBs and EDs in, 458–469 (see also eating behavior(s) (EBs); eating disorder(s) (EDs); specific disorders and bariatric surgery(ies))
introduction, 458–459
NES, 462
NSRED, 462
problematic EBs, 462–464
food addiction in, 465–466
postoperative GI problems in, 464–465
Barrett’s esophagus
BN and, 225
Beck Depression Inventory, 328
Beck Depression Inventory scores, 442–443
Before I Eat, 496
behavior(s)
altered feeding
in AN and BN, 48–49, 49t
binge–purge
harm avoidance scores in women with, 237
BPD–related, 334–335
dietary, 136–137
eating
after bariatric surgery, 458–469
impact on body image and eating concerns, 191–193
purging
BN and, 225–226
SE–related, 425–427
behavioral disturbances
genetic influences on, 81
behavioral family systems therapy (BFST), 322
Behavioral Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF), 399–400
behavioral response shifting, 239
behavioral weight loss treatment (BWLT)
for BED, 378
CBT vs., 276
belief(s)
religious
impact on body image and eating concerns, 191–192
Belize
body image in, 201
as one of “fattest nations,” 201
bias(es)
attentional
to social and angry threat stimuli and emotion recognition, 240
in self-report in paper-and-pencil vs. mobile assessments, 498
binding potential
defined, 68
binge eating
negative affect and
BED and, 171–173
BN and, 167–169
treatment research on, 522
binge eating disorder (BED), 438
after bariatric surgery, 459–460
DSM-5 on, 459
prevalence of, 459–460
boundary problems related to, 2
CBT for, 276–278, 302
efficacy of, 276
GSH in, 277
predictors and moderators of, 277–278
vs. behavioral weight loss treatment, 276
vs. group behavioral weight-loss interventions, 130
vs. pharmacotherapy, 276
course of, 39
cross-cultural patterns of, 39
defined, 459
described, 169
diagnosis of, 10
discovery of, 38
DRD2 in, 160–161
DSM on, 2
epidemiology of, 38–39
incidence of, 38–39
IPT for, 301–303
future directions in, 310–311
negative emotionality and, 169–173
emotional responses to body image exposure, 170–171
emotional responses to food cues, 169–170
negative affect and binge eating, 171–173
OBE episodes in, 459–460
OSFED related to, 39
overweight people with
group behavioral weight loss interventions vs. CBT for, 130
personal history timeline of patient with
example of, 292t293t
prevalence of, 38
psychological comorbidity of, 229–243, 231t233t
affective disorders, 229–230
anxiety disorders, 230
ICDs, 234–235
personality disorders, 235–236
substance abuse disorders, 230, 233–234
risk factors for, 3
longitudinal studies’ characteristics, 111, 118–119
suicide attempts related to, 39
suicide related to, 39
treatment of, 4
ADHD–related drugs in, 375–377, 376t
AEDs in, 376t, 379–381
antidepressants in, 376t, 377–378
antipsychotics in, 382
baclofen in, 381–382
chromium in, 382
LDX in, 375–377, 376t
opioid antagonists in, 381
pharmacotherapy in, 375–382, 376t (see also specific agents)
weight-loss drugs in, 376t, 378–379
weight loss dieting interventions among persons with, 130
(p. 528) binge–purge behaviors
harm avoidance scores in women with, 237
binging
negative affect effects on, 238–239
biomedicine
global proliferation of
impact on body image and eating concerns, 201–202
biosocial theory
affect dysregulation model within, 335
of DBT, 334
EDs–related, 337–338
for EDs
adaptations of, 340–341
bisexual men
body image dissatisfaction among, 194
BIVRS (Body Image Virtual Reality Scale), 480
blood oxygen level dependent signal
defined, 67–68
body
communal socialization of
impact on body image and eating concerns, 191
body image
in Belize, 201
in China, 201
EDs related to
in Nepal, 200
in United Arab Emirates, 201
body image dissatisfaction
among adolescent girls, 480
among bisexual men, 194
among gay men, 194
body image distortion
AL theory of, 481, 481f
body image disturbances
VR in, 478–484, 481f
assessment-related, 480
studies-related, 479–480
treatment-related, 480–484, 481f
body image exposure
emotional responses to
AN and, 175–176
BED and, 170–171
BN and, 166–167
Body Image Virtual Reality Scale (BIVRS), 480
body mass index (BMI)
defined, 68
genetics of, 83
legislated minimum
for models, 193
Body Project, 255–256
Bollywood
Hollywood vs., 200–201
bone marrow loss
AN and, 224
bone metabolism
AN effects on, 224–225
borderline personality disorder (BPD)
behaviors associated with, 334–335
DBT with, 334
efficacy of, 336–337
described, 334–335
EDs and, 235
brain
starvation and emaciation effects on, 47–48
brain imaging studies
in AN and BN, 58–66
of normal feeding behavior in healthy individuals, 60–61
brain injury(ies)
CRT for, 396
bulimia nervosa (BN). see also eating disorder(s) (EDs)
adolescent
FBT for, 324–327
in adults
family therapy for, 330
after bariatric surgery, 460–461
altered feeding behaviors related to
studies of, 48–49, 49t
anxiety and harm avoidance with
PET data correlated with, 57–58
appetitive regulation in, 47–79
CCK and, 51, 54t
fMRI studies of, 61–66, 62f, 65f
future research directions related to, 66–67
gender differences in, 61
ghrelin and, 52–53, 55t
HPA axis effects on, 50
images of food in, 62
interoceptive processing in, 59–60
introduction, 47
leptin and, 51–52, 54t55t
neurocircuitry of, 58–60
neuroendocrine systems–related, 50–53
NPY and, 51, 54t
opioid peptides and, 50–51, 54t
PET studies of, 61–62
PYY and, 51, 54t
regional cerebral blood flow studies in, 61–62
SPECT studies of, 61–62
tastes of food in, 62–63, 62f
twin studies, 48
binging in
negative affect lability and, 239
brain imaging studies in, 58–66
CBT for, 271–276
CBT-E, 272–276
comparative treatment research, 273–274
efficacy of, 272–274
generalizability of treatment effects from controlled research to routine clinical care settings, 274
GSH in, 275–276
physical exercise with, 130
predictors and moderators of, 275
RCTs of, 274
treatment model, 271–272
costs of, 412
course of, 38
cross-cultural patterns of, 37–38
defined, 460
delayed medial OFC activation reduction in, 60
described, 2, 165–166
diagnosis of, 10
discovery of, 37
DSM on, 2
epidemiology of, 37
genetic influences on, 48, 80–105 (see also genetic influences)
history of, 2
hunger and satiety in
fMRI studies of, 63
incidence of, 37
interoception in
fMRI studies of, 63–64
IPT for, 300–301
future directions in, 310–311
in Jamaica, 200
LOC overeating after, 460
medical complications of, 225–226
laxative abuse, 226
self-induced vomiting, 225–226
monoamine function disturbances related to, 53, 55–58
DA activity, 53, 55
serotonin, 55–58
mortality rate associated with, 225
National Comorbidity Survey–Replication Adolescent Supplement on, 37
negative emotionality and, 165–169
emotional responses to body image exposure, 166–167
emotional responses to food cues, 166
negative affect and binge eating, 167–169
neurobiologic alterations in, 47–48
neuropeptide and neuroendocrine alterations in, 49–53, 54t55t
novelty-seeking scores and, 237
OBE episodes in, 460–461
prevalence of, 37
psychological comorbidity of, 229–243, 231t233t
affective disorders, 229–230
anxiety disorders, 230
ICDs, 234–235
(p. 529) personality disorders, 235–236
substance abuse disorders, 230, 233–234
purging behavior in, 225–226
research on
future directions for, 66–67
response to inhibition alterations in
fMRI studies of, 65–66
response to reward alterations in
fMRI studies of, 64–65, 65f
risk factors for, 3
dietary behaviors as, 136–137
longitudinal studies’ characteristics, 111, 117–118
social media in, 262–263
state vs. trait characteristics in, 47–48
subsystems in, 47
suicide attempts related to, 38
suicide related to, 38
treatment of, 4
ADHD–related management in, 374
AEDs in, 370t, 372–373
antidepressants in, 369–372, 370t
antipsychotics in, 375
5-HT3 receptor antagonists in, 370t, 373
hormonal agents in, 370t, 373
lithium in, 370t, 374
opioid antagonists in, 370t, 373–374
pharmacotherapy in, 368–375, 370t (see also specific agents)
prokinetic agents in, 375
research on, 2, 521–522
weight-loss drugs in, 370t, 374
vagal nerve activity in
depression related to, 158–159
weight loss dieting interventions among persons with, 130
bupropion
for BED, 379
burning bridges
in BED and BN management, 343
Buss-Durkee Scale (BDS), 363
C
caloric deprivation
effects on caloric intake
animal studies of, 131
caloric intake
caloric deprivation effects on
animal studies of, 131
longer-term
DLW in assessment of, 135
caloric restriction
short-term
relationship to laboratory-based eating, 128–129
Campaign for Real Beauty, 262
cannabinoids
for AN, 361t, 365
carbamazepine
for BN, 370t, 372–373
carbonyl-[11C]WAY100635
defined, 68
career support
Internet-based interventions for EDs related to, 512–513
cataloging
cross-cultural
to global systems and regional trends, 199–202
“cathartic colon” syndrome, 226
Caucasians
body image and eating concerns among, 197
Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, 163–164
Center for Medicare Services, 413
central coherence, 396
of CRT for EDs, 403t, 405–406
defined, 239–240
examples of, 403t
weak
defined, 239–240
central nervous system (CNS)
AN effects on, 224
cerebral blood flow
regional
in appetitive regulation in AN and BN, 61–62
defined, 68
cheerleaders
ED prevention in, 260
chewing
after bariatric surgery, 464
Chicago/Stanford adolescent-focused therapy vs. FBT study, 323
Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire, 420
Child Guidance Center, 319
childhood
overanxious disorder of
EDs and, 230
children
EDs in
CRT for, 399–400
diagnostic criteria for, 19–20
IPT for
adaptations of, 311
marketing of toys and clothing for
impact on body image and eating concerns, 195
Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, 98
China
body image in, 201
chocolate
emotions and
immediate and delayed effects, 163–164
chocolate “addicts”
guilt after eating chocolate, 157–158
cholecystokinin (CCK)
AN and BN and, 51, 54t
chromium
for BED, 382
chromosome(s)
defined, 80
chronic tendency toward overconsumption, 140–146. see also overconsumption, chronic tendency toward
cisapride
for AN, 361t, 365–366
citalopram
for BN, 370t, 373
clarification
in IPT for EDs, 298–299
classification(s)
defined, 9
described, 9
of EDs, 9–23 (see also specific types and eating disorder(s) (EDs), classification of)
classification systems
described, 9
climate
impact on body image and eating concerns, 190
Clinical Global Impression-Improvement scale
for NES, 382
clonazepam
for AN, 368
clonidine
for AN, 368
clothing
marketing of
impact on body image and eating concerns, 195
clothing customs
impact on body image and eating concerns, 190
cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)
CRT vs., 397, 398t
ECT vs., 482
for EDs, 4, 15, 271–286, 304 (see also specific disorders, e.g., bulimia nervosa (BN))
brevity of, 281
clinical range/reach of, 281
cost-effectiveness of, 280–281
(p. 530) dissemination and implementation of, 283
effectiveness of, 280–281
efficacy of, 278–280
ethnic, racial, and cultural considerations related to, 282
scalability of, 282–283
task-sharing in, 281–282
group behavioral weight loss intervention vs.
for overweight BED persons, 130
Internet-delivered, 496–497
IPT with
for AN, 303–304
for BED, 302
for BN, 300–301
physical exercise with
for BN persons, 130
cognitive-behavioral therapy–enhanced (CBT-E). see enhanced CBT (CBT-E)
cognitive dissonance (CD) programs, 255–256
cognitive factors
emotional responses to food related to, 157
cognitive flexibility, 239
Cognitive Flexibility Scale, 402
cognitive processes
as factor in EDs, 239–240
cognitive remediation therapy (CRT), 395–409
for AN
RCTs of, 397
in brain-injured patients, 396
CBT vs., 397, 398t
described, 395
for EDs, 395–409 (see also specific disorders)
in child and adolescent populations, 399–400
in clinical settings, 400–401
examples of, 403t404t
experimental measures, 404–406
future work in, 406
historical development of, 396–397
introduction, 395
outcome measurements, 402–406
outline of typical therapy session, 401–402, 403t404t
RCTs in adult populations, 397–399
self-report measures, 402
as therapy enhancer, 397, 398t
indications for, 396
introduction, 395
cognitive restraint
overeating during stress related to, 162
cognitive systems
EDs and, 27–28
coherence
central ( see central coherence)
college campus
impact on body image and eating concerns, 192
comfort eating
negative affect impact on, 161–164
susceptibility to stress and, 162–163
communal socialization of food and body
impact on body image and eating concerns, 191
communication
social
as primary function of emotion, 431–432
communication analysis
in IPT for EDs, 299
compensatory eating disorder, 445–446
complication(s)
medical, 222–225 (see also specific disorders, e.g., anorexia nervosa (AN), medical complications of)
conditioning
evaluative
in SE, 432–434, 432f
confidentiality
Internet-based interventions for EDs and, 506–507
of mobile devices and apps for EDs, 499
conflict around food
in SE, 426
conjoint family therapy (CFT)
in FBT-AN, 321
connection(s)
making
in IPT for EDs, 296–297
constructs of interest
of EDs
to be assessed, 213–215
cortisol
defined, 68
cost(s)
in EDs, 410–415
future directions related to, 414
ICD-9 on, 411
individual cost estimates, 410–411
introduction, 410
national cost estimates, 411–412
per-patient financial costs, 411
personal costs, 410–411
cost–benefit issues
in ED prevention, 263–264
cost-effectiveness
in EDs, 410–415
future directions related to, 414
treatment-related, 412–414
cost utility
defined, 414
of ED treatments, 414
course
of EDs (see specific disorders)
cross-cultural cataloging
to global systems and regional trends
as factor in body image and eating concerns, 199–202
cross-cultural patterns
of AN, 35–36
of BED, 39
of BN, 37–38
CRT Resource Pack, 400
cue exposure therapy (CET)
for EDs, 475–478
cultural influences
in CBT for EDs, 282
cultural issues
in future versions of DSM, 17–18
culture
defined, 187–188
described, 187–189
impact on body image and eating concerns, 187–208
from cross-cultural cataloging to global systems and regional trends, 199–202
finance and, 201–202
from gender and race to intersectionality, 196–198
globalization and, 199–202
global proliferation of biomedicine and, 201–202
ideas, ideals, and images in, 193–195
introduction, 187
large-scale environmental and political-economic variables in, 189–191
media in, 201
practices, behaviors, and habits in, 191–193
shifts in, 196–202
from socioeconomic status to upward mobility, 198–199
symbolic body capital in, 195–196
toward increased multidisciplinary collaborative research on, 202–203
d-cycloserine
for AN, 368
cyproheptadine
for AN, 361t, 365
D
dancer(s)
ED prevention in, 260
Danish Twin Registry, 87
DBT–guided self-help (DBTgsh), 339
decided preferences
in SE, 426
decubitus ulcers
AN and, 225
(p. 531) deficit(s)
interpersonal, 289
dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)
for AN, 361t, 367
delayed gastric emptying
AN and, 223
delayed medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) activation reduction
in BN, 60
demand characteristics
reductions in bulimic symptoms in experimental trials due to, 138
Department of Health and Human Services (HHS)
under HITECH Act, 499
depression
BN–related vagal nerve activity and, 158–159
CRT for, 396
EDs and, 164
treatment of
artificial cervical VNS in, 158
dermatologic complications
of AN, 225
desipramine
for BN, 370t, 374
Detail and Flexibility Questionnaire (DFlex), 402
dexfenfluramine
for BED, 376t, 379
for BN, 370t, 374
diabetics
ED prevention in, 261
diagnosis
of EDs
self-report questionnaires for, 217
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)
future versions of
cultural issues in, 17–18
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Ed. (DSM-5)
on BED after bariatric surgery, 459
on CBT for EDs, 271
comorbidity eating disorder studies in, 236
Eating Disorders Workgroup of
on OSFED, 39
on EDs, 2–3, 9–23
external validators–related, 13
EDs classification of, 25
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Ed. (DSM-IV)
on EDs, 2–3
psychological comorbidity–related, 229
dialectical abstinence
in BED and BN management, 343
dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), 334–350
adaptations of
for EDs, 338–340
appetite-focus, 339
balance between change and acceptance in, 335–336
biosocial theory of, 334
with BPD, 334
efficacy of, 336–337
case management strategies in, 336
core strategies in, 336
described, 334, 335, 337–338
dialectic framework within, 334
for EDs, 337–350
adaptations of, 338–340
adaptations of biosocial theory in, 340–341
affect regulation model, 340
BED and BN, 343
biosocial theory in, 337–338
reasons for, 337–338
Stanford model, 338–339, 341–343, 342t, 344t346t (see also Stanford DBT model)
emphasis of, 334
functions of, 335
introduction, 334
modes of treatment in, 335
modules in, 335
stages of, 335
standard treatment with, 334–336
stylistic strategies in, 336
diarrhea
AN and, 223–224
dietary behavior(s)
as risk factor for BN, 136–137
Dietary Intent Scale (DIS), 134, 135
dietary restraint
dieting vs., 127
researcher’s use of measures in
validity of, 134–136
dietary restriction(s)
may be unrepresentative of real-world dieting, 133–134
relative vs. absolute, 136
dieting
defined, 127
described, 127
dietary restraint vs., 127
EDs related to, 126–154 (see also specific disorders, e.g., bulimia nervosa (BN))
animal studies of, 131
chronic tendency toward overconsumption, 140–146 (see also overconsumption, chronic tendency toward)
dietary behaviors increasing risk for bulimic pathology, 136–137
dietary restriction interventions may be unrepresentative of real-world dieting, 133–134
empirical tests of, 127–128
future directions in, 146–147
implications regarding possible explanations for inconsistent findings, 138–146
incompatible study findings, 131–138
introduction, 126–127
prospective studies, 128
prospective studies vs. experiments, 132
reductions in bulimic symptoms in experimental trials due to demand characteristics, 138
researcher’s use of dietary restraint measures, 134–136
theoretical mechanisms of, 127
trials evaluating interventions seeking to manipulate, 130–131
ED symptoms related to, 127
in Fiji, 200
longer-term
ED symptoms related to, 129–131
real-world
dietary restriction interventions may be unrepresentative of, 133–134
dieting theory of eating pathology
empirical tests of, 127–128
disease context
impact on body image and eating concerns, 191
disgust
recontextualization in approach to, 433
disgust experience
in phenomenology of SE, 427–429, 428f, 430f
in SE, 432–434, 432f
dissonance theory
in ED prevention programs, 251
distributed cloud computing, 493
domains of interest
of EDs
to be assessed, 213–215
dopamine (DA)
EDs related to, 53, 55
in set-shifting tasks, 240
stress in reducing, 161
in “wanting” of rewards, 160–161
dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2)
in BED, 160–161
dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) deficiency
obesity related to, 161
dopamine (DA) receptor binding alterations
in EDs, 53, 55
doubly labeled water (DLW)
in longer-term caloric intake assessment, 135
DOVE, 262
dumping syndrome
after bariatric surgery, 464
Dutch Restrained Eating Scale (DRES), 134, 135
dysphagia
BN and, 225
E
early adolescents
ED–related diagnostic criteria for, 19–20
eating
comfort
negative affect impact on, 161–164
susceptibility to stress and, 162–163
effects on emotions
EDs related to, 158–159
emotional
after bariatric surgery, 463
vs. restrained eating, 162
laboratory-based
relationship of dieting to, 128–129
mindful
in BED and BN management, 343
restrained vs. emotional, 162
selective, 419–437 (see also selective eating (SE))
slowness in
in SE, 426–427
sweet
after bariatric surgery, 463–464
eating attitudes
negative affect impact on, 161–164
Eating Attitudes Test (EAT), 217
eating behavior(s) (EBs)
after bariatric surgery, 458–469
eating disorder(s) (EDs). see also pica; specific types, e.g., bulimia nervosa (BN)
adolescent
family therapy for, 320–321
in adults
family therapy for, 329–330
affective disorders with, 164
after bariatric surgery, 458–469 (see also bariatric surgery patients; eating behavior(s) (EBs); specific disorders and bariatric surgery(ies))
alexithymia and, 176
appetitive regulation in, 47–79
fMRI studies of, 61–66, 62f, 65f
future research directions related to, 66–67
gender differences in, 61
images of food in, 62
interoceptive processing in, 59–60
introduction, 47
neurocircuitry of, 58–60
PET studies of, 61–62
regional cerebral blood flow studies in, 61–62
SPECT studies of, 61–62
tastes of food in, 62–63, 62f
approaches to understanding, 45–208
assessment of, 209–221
technology-based, 4–5
attitudes and behaviors associated with, 247
atypical AN, 448–451
behavioral, temperamental, and personality factors associated with
genetics of, 83–84
boundary problems related to, 2–3
categories of, 10
causes of
family environment, 320–321
CBT for, 271–286 (see also specific disorders and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), for EDs)
classification of, 9–23
alternative diagnostic model, 13–16
boundary problems related to, 2–3
controversies related to, 17–20
cultural issues in, 17–18
DSM-5, 9–23, 25
future directions in, 17–20
intradiagnostic heterogeneity, 16
introduction, 9
overlap between diagnostic entities in, 12–13
research-related criteria in, 17
separate diagnostic criteria for children and early adolescents, 19–20
separate diagnostic criteria for men and women, 18–19
statistical approaches to, 11–12
taxonomy in, 9
TDM, 13–16, 14f
transdiagnostic model, 15–16
common comorbidity profile of, 13
compensatory, 445–446
complexity of, 520
conceptualization of
cost-effectiveness, 410–415 (see also cost(s); cost-effectiveness)
course of, 34–43 (see also specific disorders)
depression and anxiety with, 164
diagnosis of
DSM-5 on, 10–11
overlap in, 12–13
dieting and, 126–154 (see also specific disorders and dieting, EDs related to)
DSM-5 on, 9–23
emerging syndromes, 438–457 (see also specific disorders and emerging syndromes)
emotions and (see also emotion(s))
epidemiology of, 34–43 (see also specific disorders)
introduction, 34
on Facebook, 263
family and genetic studies of, 3, 81
family therapy in, 319–333 (see also family therapy, for EDs)
in Fiji, 200
functional and task activation studies in, 61–66, 62f, 65f
genetic influences on, 80–105 (see also genetic influences)
GWAS in, 98–99
history of, 1–2
hunger and satiety in
fMRI studies of, 63
Internet-based interventions for, 505–519 (see also Internet-based interventions, for EDs)
interoception in
fMRI studies of, 63–64
interpersonal model for, 288–289
introduction, 1–5
JIT interventions for, 497
longer-term dieting related to symptoms of
experimental studies of, 129–131
low self-directedness and, 238
mental disorders with, 164
models of
objectification theory, 480
monoamine function disturbances related to, 53, 55–58
DA activity, 53, 55
DA receptor binding alterations, 53, 55
serotonin, 55–58
moods and, 155–186 (see also mood(s))
negative affect effects on, 161–164
negative emotionality and, 164
NES, 438–444, 440t, 443f
(p. 533) nosological issues related to, 11–12
peak onset of, 247
persistence and, 237
personality and
relationships between, 238
pharmacotherapy of, 359–394 (see also specific agents, disorders, and pharmacotherapy, of EDs)
prevalence of, 126
treatment difficulties related to, 247
prevention programs for (see ED prevention programs)
psychoeducation for
apps for, 496
psychological assessment of, 211–221 (see also assessment(s), of EDs)
psychological comorbidity of, 229–243, 231t233t
affective disorders, 229–230
anxiety disorders, 230
DSM-IV on, 229
DSM-5 on, 236
ICD-10 on, 236
ICDs, 234–235
introduction, 229
perfectionism, 236–238
personality disorders, 235–236
personality traits–related, 236–240
substance abuse disorders, 230, 233–234
temperament, 236–238
questions related to, 520
recent changes related to, 2
register studies of
results of risk factors and markers from, 119–120
relationships between personality/temperament and
perspectives on, 238
research on
future directions for, 66–67
response to inhibition alterations in
fMRI studies of, 65–66
response to reward alterations in
fMRI studies of, 64–65, 65f
risk factors for, 3, 106–125 (see also specific types, disorders, and risk factor(s), for EDs)
self-monitoring of
self-report questionnaires for, 218
serotonin receptor binding alterations in, 56–58
sleep-related, 442
standalone
variants of, 438
symptoms of
IPT in redirecting issues related to, 297
systematic study of
beginnings of, 2
trait anxiety and, 237
transdiagnostic theories of, 252
treatment of, 3–4 (see also specific types)
basic science contributions to, 520–521
CBT-E in, 214
CBT in, 4, 15, 214, 304
cost-effectiveness of, 412–414
costs utility of, 414
CRT in, 395–409 (see also specific disorders and cognitive remediation therapy (CRT))
discrimination and implementation of, 522
IPT in, 4, 287–318
limitations of conventional, 505–506
modality selection for, 304
outpatient, 351
plateau in development of, 521–522
self-report questionnaires in, 217–218
technologies in, 522–523
technology-based, 4–5
VR for, 470–491 (see also virtual reality (VR))
Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale (EDDS), 217
Eating Disorder Examination (EDE), 447
in EDs assessment, 216
Eating Disorder Examination–Questionnaire (EDE-Q), 217–218, 328
Eating Disorder Examination–Questionnaire-Restraint (EDEQ-R) scale, 134, 135
Eating Disorder Examination–Restraint (EDE-R) scale, 135
Eating Disorder Inventory
subscales of, 328
Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2), 363, 364, 449
Interpersonal Distrust Subscale of, 364
Eating Disorder Inventory 12 score, 378
Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) scores, 360
eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS), 438
boundary problems related to, 2–3
neuroticism and, 119
risk factors for
longitudinal studies’ characteristics, 119
eating disorder not otherwise specified, purging type (EDNOS-P). see purging disorder (PD)
Eating Disorders Inventory-3, 217
Eating Disorders Inventory subscales, 12
Eating Disorders Workgroup
of DSM-5
on OSFED, 39
Eating Disorders Working Group
of Psychiatric Genomics Consortium, 99
Eating Inventory, 447
eBody project program, 511
ecological momentary assessment (EMA), 495
on negative affect, 238–239
edema formation
BN and, 226
“EDINA,” 510
ED prevention, 247–270. see also ED prevention programs
AN, 263
cost–benefit issues related to, 263–264
current status and underlying theory, 247–270
dissemination/implementation in, 263–264
future directions in, 264–265
as harmful, 253
IPT development in, 311–312
obesity prevention and, 259–260
programs for (see ED prevention programs)
public health/policy and mass media models related to, 261–262
screening in, 249–250
in specific settings and special populations, 260–263
(p. 534) theories and models of interventions in, 250–252
dissonance theory, 251
feminist theory, 251
media literacy and advocacy, 251–252
psychoeducation, 250
social learning theory, 250–251
ED prevention programs, 247–270. see also ED prevention
categories of, 247–248
CD programs, 255–256
cost–benefit issues related to, 263–264
dissemination/implementation in, 263–264
effective
examples of, 255–260
effectiveness of, 252–253
future directions in, 264–265
as harmful, 253
indicated prevention programs, 248
moderators and mediators of, 253–254
in obesity prevention, 259–260
peer support/school-based programs, 258–259
risk factors informing, 249
StudentBodies program, 248, 250, 254, 256–258, 263
targeted or selective prevention interventions, 248
theories and models of, 250–252
dissonance theory, 251
feminist theory, 251
media literacy and advocacy, 251–252
psychoeducation, 250
social learning theory, 250–251
universal prevention program, 247–248
ego-oriented individual therapy (EOIT), 322
emaciation
brain effects of, 47–48
embodied technology
VR as, 473
emerging syndromes, 438–457. see also specific disorders, e.g., purging disorder (PD)
atypical AN, 448–451
future directions in, 453–454
introduction, 438–439
NES, 438–444, 440t, 443f
status of
research needed to clarify, 443–445
emotion(s). see also mood(s)
chocolate and
immediate and delayed effects, 163–164
defined, 156
EDs and, 155–186
clinical evidence, 164–177
cognitive factors in, 157
dimensions of, 156, 157f
five-way model of, 155–158, 156f
future directions in, 178
introduction, 155–158, 156f, 157f
meal size, timing, and habit effects on, 159
mechanisms associated with, 158–164
predicted changes related to, 155–156, 156f
hunger and eating effects on, 158–159
introduction, 155–158, 156f, 157f
moods vs., 156
negative affect effects on, 161–164
stress susceptibility and, 162–163
neural substrates shared by sensory reward impact on, 159–161
social communication as primary function of, 431–432
emotional eating
after bariatric surgery, 463
restrained eating vs., 162
Emotional Eating Scale, 339
emotional experiences
potentiation of
sensory sensitivities in SE and, 430
emotionality
negative ( see negative emotionality)
emotional processing constructs
types of, 240
emotional processing deficits
AN and, 176–177
emotional vulnerability
defined, 334–335
emotion-focused therapies
emotion recognition
attentional biases to, 240
emotion regulation strategies, 240
endocrine system
AN effects on, 224
endogenous opioid neuropeptides
positive mood related to, 159–160
endophenotype(s)
described, 80
enhanced CBT (CBT-E), 214, 272–276, 413
for AN, 278–280
broad (CBT-Eb), 272
focused (CBT-Ef), 272
“enjoyment of food” measure, 160–161
environment(s)
family
in etiology of EDs, 320–321
mealtime
in SE management, 434–435, 434t
environmental variables
large-scale
impact on body image and eating concerns, 189–191
epidemiology
of EDs, 34–43 (see also specific disorders, e.g., anorexia nervosa (AN))
epigenesis
described, 80
erythromycin
for BN, 375
esophagus
Barrett’s
BN and, 225
ESP
in EDs assessment, 217
ESS-KIMO, 512, 513
“ES[S]‌PRIT,” 512
estimation
examples of, 404t
estradiol
for AN, 361t, 367
ethical concerns
Internet-based interventions for EDs–related, 506–507
ethical issues
in CBT for EDs, 282
ethnoscape(s), 200–201
evaluative conditioning
in SE, 432–434, 432f
Evolution, 262
executive functioning
sensory sensitivities and
in SE, 431
exercise(s)
CBT with
in BN management, 130
experiential cognitive therapy (ECT), 482
CBT vs., 482
experimental measures of outcome
of CRT for EDs, 404–406
exploratory questions
in IPT for EDs, 298
Extrinsic Affective Simon Task (EAST), 142, 143
F
Facebook
EDs on, 263
factor mixture modeling (FMM)
in ED classification, 11–12
family(ies)
EDs “running” in, 81
IPT for
adaptations of, 311
family-based therapy (FBT). see also family therapy
AFT vs., 323
family environment
(p. 535) as factor in EDs, 320–321
lack of evidence to support causal role of, 82
family meals
SE effects on, 423
family studies
of EDs, 3
family therapy
conjoint, 321
for EDs, 319–333
acceptability of, 327
in adults, 329–330
future directions in, 330–331
history of, 319–320
theoretical model of, 320–321
treatment manual for, 322–324
separated, 321
family therapy for adolescent AN (FBT-AN), 321–322
acceptability of, 327
BFST in, 322
CFT in, 321
EOIT in, 322
first family therapy trial outside UK, 321–322
French study, 323
Melbourne study, 324
multifamily therapy, 327–329
seminal study, 321, 322
SFT in, 321
six-site study of FBT and SFT, 323–324
Stanford dosage study, 323
Sydney study, 323
treatment manual for, 322–324
without prior hospitalization, 321
family therapy for adolescent BN (FBT-BN), 324–327
studies of, 325–327
fasting
as part of rituals in Judaism, 201
“fattest nations”
Belize as one of, 201
fatty food
in pain alleviation, 160
FEATBACK, 414, 512
Federal Drug Administration (FDA)
on BN treatment, 522
feeding
of infants
“on demand” vs. “on schedule,” 191
feeding behaviors
altered
in AN and BN, 48–49, 49t
normal
brain imaging studies of, 60–61
regulation of
neuropeptides in, 49–53, 54t55t
feeding disorders
DSM-5 on, 10
feminist theory
in ED prevention programs, 251
fenfluramine
for BN, 374
Fiji
dieting in, 200
EDs in, 200
finance
impact on body image and eating concerns, 201–202
First International Night Eating Symposium, 439, 440t
5-HT3 receptor antagonists
for BN, 370t, 373
fluid consumption
high-calorie
after bariatric surgery, 463
fluorodeoxyglucose
defined, 68
fluoxetine
for AN, 361t, 362
for BN, 369, 370t
flutamide
for BN, 370t, 373
fluvoxamine
for BN, 370t, 371
focal psychodynamic therapy (FPT), 413
food
communal socialization of
impact on body image and eating concerns, 191
conflict around
in SE, 426
fatty
in pain alleviation, 160
images of
in appetitive regulation in AN and BN, 62
tastes of
in appetitive regulation in AN and BN, 62–63, 62f
food addiction
after bariatric surgery, 465–466
Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 158
food cues
emotional responses to
AN and, 174–175
BED and, 169–170
BN and, 166
food deprivation
effects of
studies of, 48–49, 49t
food insecurity
impact on body image and eating concerns, 189–190
food neophobia
in SE, 425
food refusal
in SE, 426
food reward
greater anticipatory
chronic tendency toward overconsumption related to, 141–144
greater consummatory
chronic tendency toward overconsumption related to, 140–141
Food Scientist, 434
food variety
in SE, 424–425
Fragmented Pictures Task, 405
frontal operculum, 59
Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, 236
functional and task activation studies
in EDs, 61–66, 62f, 65f
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)
affect regulation–related
in BN, 239
in AN, 58–60
in BN, 58–60
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies
of appetitive regulation in AN and BN, 61–66, 62f, 65f
of normal feeding behavior in healthy individuals, 60
fussy eating, 419–437. see also selective eating (SE)
G
gambling
pathological, 234
gastric emptying
delayed
AN and, 223
gastroesophageal reflux (GERD)
in SE, 430–431
gastrointestinal (GI) problems
after bariatric surgery, 464–465
gastrointestinal (GI) system
AN effects on, 223–224
gay male subcultures
impact on body image and eating concerns, 194
gay men
body image dissatisfaction among, 194
gender
as factor in body image and eating concerns, 190–191, 196–198
as factor in response to liquid meal during hunger or satiation, 61
gene(s)
EDs related to, 80–105 (see also genetic influences)
identification of, 98–99
gene–environment interplay
in EDs, 84–85
complexities of, 83–85
General Health Questionnaire, 117
genetic(s)
of BMI, 83
Genetic Consortium for Anorexia Nervosa, 98
genetic influences
on behavioral disturbances, 81
on EDs, 80–105
AN and BN, 48
behavioral, temperamental, and personality factors, 83–84
BMI, 83
consistent evidence for, 82
future directions in, 100
gene–environment interplay in, 83–85 (see also gene–environment interplay, in EDs)
interactions between specific variants and environments, 99
lack of evidence to support causal role of family environment in, 82
molecular genetic studies, 98–99
overview, 81–82
recognition of, 82
studies of, 3
terminology related to, 80–81
genome(s)
defined, 81
genomewide association study (GWAS)
in EDs, 98–99
genotype(s)
defined, 81
genotype–environmental interactions
in EDs, 84–85
Getting Better Bit(e) by Bit(e)
in SH for EDs, 353
ghrelin
AN and BN and, 52–53, 55t
ghrelin agonists
for AN, 361t, 367
girl(s)
adolescent
body dissatisfaction among, 480
Girl Scouts, 262
globalization
characterizations of
body image and EDs related to, 199–202
technological advancements and, 201–202
global systems
from cross-cultural cataloging to
as factor in body image and eating concerns, 199–202
goal(s)
in IPT for EDs, 295–296
grazing
after bariatric surgery, 462–463
greater anticipatory food reward
chronic tendency toward overconsumption related to, 141–144
greater consummatory food reward
chronic tendency toward overconsumption related to, 140–141
greater impulsivity
chronic tendency toward overconsumption related to, 144–145
grief, 289
IPT for, 294, 294t
group(s)
in IPT for EDs, 300
growth
stunted
SE and, 422
guided self-help (GSH)
in CBT
for BED, 277
for BN, 275–276
DBT–, 339
for EDs, 351–358
apps for, 496–497
described, 352
future directions in, 355–356
Getting Better Bit(e) by Bit(e) in, 353
introduction, 351–352
Overcoming Binge Eating in, 352–353
psychoeducational videotapes in, 353
systematic reviews and meta-analyses related to, 353
treatment predictors, moderators, and mediators of, 354
via Internet-based interventions, 508–510
Guided Self-Help for Bulimia Nervosa, Therapist’s Manual, 509
Guidelines for the Practice of Telepsychology, 506
guilt
of chocolate “addicts” after eating chocolate, 157–158
gustatory cortex, 59
H
habit(s)
impact on body image and eating concerns, 191–193
Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAM-A) scores, 360, 362
Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, 377
harm avoidance
AN and BN and
PET data correlated with, 57–58
harm avoidance scores
in women with binge–purge behaviors, 237
harm reduction
in ED prevention, 248–249
Health and Human Services (HHS)
under HITECH Act, 499
Health Apps Library, 499
Health Information Technology Economic and Clinical Health Act (HITECH), 493
“Health of the 51%: Women”
from NHS, 283
heart
AN effects on, 222–223
Helping, Encouraging, Listening and Protecting Peers (HELPP) initiatives, 251
heritability estimates
in twin studies of gene–environment interplay, 86–92, 88t91t, 93t95t
high-calorie fluid consumption
after bariatric surgery, 463
HITECH Act
HHS under, 499
HIV
impact on body image and eating concerns, 191
Hollywood
Bollywood vs., 200–201
hormonal agents
for AN, 361t, 366–367
for BN, 370t, 373
HTC, 474
hunger
in EDs
fMRI studies of, 63
(p. 537) effects on emotions
EDs related to, 158–159
5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)
defined, 81
hyperlearning, 239
hypokalemia
BN and, 225, 226
hyponatremia
BN and, 225, 226
hypophosphatemia
refeeding
AN and, 223
hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis
AN and BN effects on, 50
I
ICD not otherwise specified, 234
iCounselor, 496
idea(s)
impact on body image and eating concerns, 193–195
ideal(s)
anti-ideals vs., 194
impact on body image and eating concerns, 193–195
image(s)
impact on body image and eating concerns, 193–195
Implicit Association Test (IAT), 142
impulse control disorders (ICDs)
characteristics of, 234
classification of, 234
EDs and, 234–235
impulsivity
greater
chronic tendency toward overconsumption related to, 144–145
“IN@”, 510
indicated prevention programs, 248
infant feeding
“on demand” vs. “on schedule,” 191
ingestion(s)
nocturnal, 439
inhibition
response
EDs–related alterations in, 65–66
norepinephrine in, 240
insecurity(ies)
food-related
impact on body image and eating concerns, 189–190
Institute of Psychiatry, 320
instrumentation
in EDs assessment, 215–218
insula
anterior, 59
intelligence
artificial, 493
values embedded in, 499
intermittent explosive disorder, 234
International Affective Picture System (IAPS), 175
International Classification of Diseases, 9th ed. (ICD-9)
on per-patient financial costs of EDs, 411
International Classification of Diseases, 10th rev. (ICD-10)
comorbidity eating disorder studies in, 236
International Journal of Eating Disorders, 2
Internet-based interventions
for EDs, 505–519
as adjunct to treatment and aftercare interventions, 510
benefits of, 506
career support–related, 512–513
confidentiality issues related to, 506–507
ethical concerns related to, 506–507
evaluation criteria for, 513–514
GSH and unguided SH, 508–510
implications of, 514–515
introduction, 505
methodological aspects of, 515–516
potential of, 505–507
prevention-related, 510–512
psychotherapy, 507–508
reflections on state of science related to, 520–523
types of, 507–513
Internet-based subcultures
impact on body image and eating concerns, 193
Internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), 496–497
“Internet-of-things”
developments in, 499
interoception
in EDs
fMRI studies of, 63–64
interoceptive processing
in appetite regulation, 59–60
interpersonal deficits, 289
IPT for, 294t, 295
Interpersonal Distrust Subscale
of EDI-2, 364
interpersonal formulation
in IPT for EDs, 291
interpersonal inventory
described, 313
in IPT for EDs, 290–291, 291t293t
interpersonal model for EDs, 288–289
interpersonal problem areas, 289–290
interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), 214
CBT with
for AN, 303–304
for BED, 302
for BN, 300–301
defined, 287
described, 287
in eating- and weight-related problems prevention
development of, 311–312
for EDs, 4, 287–318
adolescent and child/parent adaptations of, 311
basic concepts, 289–290
clarification in, 298–299
communication analysis in, 299
diagnosis and assignment of sick role in, 290, 291t
disseminating and implementing, 312
empirical literature relevant to, 300–310, 308t
encouraging affect in, 298
exploratory questions in, 298
focusing on goals in, 295–296
future directions in, 310–312
general therapeutic techniques in, 297–298
grief-related, 294, 294t
group in, 300
implementation of, 290–300, 291t294t
initial phase, 290–291, 291t294t
intermediate phase, 293–299, 294t
interpersonal deficits–related, 294t, 295
interpersonal formulation in, 291
interpersonal inventory in, 290–291, 291t293t
interpersonal model, 288–289
interpersonal problem areas, 289–290
interpersonal role disputes–related, 294t, 295
making connections in, 296–297
outcome studies of, 300–310, 308t
problem areas to be addressed in, 294–295, 294t
redirecting symptom-related issues in, 297
roles transitions–related, 294–295, 294t
termination phase, 299–300
therapeutic relationship in, 299
therapeutic stance in, 295
therapeutic strategies, 295–299
treatment structure, 290
in excessive weight gain prevention, 305–310, 308t
interpersonal theory of, 287–288
introduction, 287
interpersonal role disputes, 289
IPT for, 294t, 295
(p. 538) interpersonal theory
of IPT, 287–288
intersectionality
from gender and race to
shifts in cultural factors in body image and EDs and, 196–198
interview(s)
in EDs assessment, 215–217
semistructured, 216
unstructured, 216
intradiagnostic heterogeneity
of EDs, 16
J
Jamaica
AN and BN in, 200
JIT interventions. see just-in-time (JIT) interventions
job subcultures
impact on body image and eating concerns, 192
Judaism
fasting as part of rituals in, 201
just-in-time (JIT) interventions
for EDs, 497
K
kleptomania, 234
L
laboratory-based eating
relationship of dieting to
prospective studies of, 128–129
lamotrigine
for BED, 376t, 380
for BN, 373
Lantern, 496
laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB)
prevalence of, 458
latent class analysis (LCA)
in ED classification, 11–12
Latent Profile Analysis, 238
laxative abuse
BN and, 226
in PD, 446
LD-score regression (LDSR), 83
LDX
for BED, 375–377, 376t
legislated minimum body mass index (BMI)
for models, 193
leptin
AN and BN and, 51–52, 54t55t
lesbian(s)
body satisfaction among, 194
life chart
described, 313
example of, 291, 292t293t
Life Smart, 251–252
linkage
defined, 81
liraglutide
for BED, 378
lithium
for AN, 361t, 367
for BN, 370t, 374
LOC eating patterns. see loss of control (LOC) eating patterns
longer-term caloric intake
assessment of
DLW in, 135
longer-term dieting
ED symptoms related to
experimental studies of, 129–131
loss of control (LOC) eating patterns
after bariatric surgery, 460
IPT in prevention of, 305–310, 308t
lower esophageal sphincter
self-induced vomiting effects on, 225
lung(s)
AN effects on, 223
M
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
major depressive disorder
alcohol abuse/dependence disorder related to, 233
making connections
in IPT for EDs, 296–297
malnutrition
AN–related
medical complications associated with, 223
marketing
of children’s toys and clothing
body image and eating concerns related to, 195
mass media models
ED prevention and, 261–262
MATCH (Modular Approach to Therapy for Children with Anxiety, Depression, or Conduct Problems), 26
Matching Familiar Figures Task, 405
Maudsley Hospital, 320
McArthur Foundation Research Network on Psychopathology and Development, 106
McKnight Longitudinal Study, 117
Me!, 262
meal size, timing, and habit
moods and emotions related to, 159
mealtime environment
SE effects on, 423
in SE management, 434–435, 434t
media
impact on body image and eating concerns, 193–195, 201
literacy and advocacy of
in ED prevention programs, 251–252
in promoting AN and BN, 262–263
medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC), 170
medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), 59
Media Smart, 251–252
medical conditions
sensory sensitivities and
SE related to, 430–431
Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, 411
men
bisexual
body image dissatisfaction among, 194
gay
body image dissatisfaction among, 194
mental disorders
EDs and, 164
mental health
mobile, 493
in clinical care, 499–502, 501f
metabolic acidosis
non-gap
BN and, 226
Metacognitions Questionnaire, 450
methylamphetamine
for BN
ADHD–related, 374
“metrosexual”
described, 194
mindful eating
in BED and BN management, 343
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) scores, 451
minority(ies)
sexual
ED prevention in, 261
Minority Stress Model, 261
mobile
defined, 493
mobile assessments
paper-and-pencil assessments vs.
bias in self-report of, 498
mobile devices and applications (apps)
in EDs assessment and treatment, 492–504
controversies related to, 498–499
currently available technologies, 497–498
EMA in, 495
evaluating, 499–502, 501f
introduction, 492–493
JIT interventions, 497
(p. 539) mobile delivered interventions, 495–497
privacy and confidentiality related to, 499
promise and reach of, 493
as replacement for therapy, 498–499
values embedded in AI, 499
mobile mental health, 493
adoption of, 493–494
in clinical care
evaluation of, 499–502, 501f
mobile (including wearable) technology, 493
model(s)
legislated minimum BMI criteria for, 193
Modular Approach to Therapy for Children with Anxiety, Depression, or Conduct Problems (MATCH), 26
molecular genetic studies
in EDs, 98–99
monoamine(s)
in functioning of striatocortical loops, 240
monoamine systems
dysfunction of
EDs related to, 53, 55–58
mood(s). see also emotion(s)
characteristics of, 156
defined, 156
described, 156
EDs and, 155–186
clinical evidence, 164–177
future directions in, 178
introduction, 155–158, 156f, 157f
meal size, timing, and habit effects on, 159
mechanisms associated with, 158–164
emotions vs., 156
introduction, 155–158, 156f, 157f
negative
as maintaining factor for disordered eating behavior, 165
positive
endogenous opioid neuropeptides and, 159–160
Multifactorial Assessment of Eating Disorder Symptoms (MAEDS) scale, 217
multifamily therapy
for adolescent AN, 327–329
muscularity
nonfat
among young men in Samoa, 200
N
naloxone
for BN, 374
naltrexone
for AN, 368
for BED, 379, 381
for BN, 370t, 373–374
National Adult Reading Test, 402
National Comorbidity Survey–Replication Adolescent Supplement
on BN, 37
National Eating Disorders Association, 263
National Health Service
of UK, 493, 499
National Health Service eating disorders clinic, 274
National Health System (NHS)
“Health of the51%: Women” from, 283
National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE), 351
National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), 385
National Mental Health Surveys, 412
negative affect
binge eating due to
BED and, 171–173
BN and, 167–169
effects of, 238–239
chocolate- and emotions-related, 163–164
described, 238–239
eating attitudes and comfort eating related to, 161–164
overeating during, 161–164
restrained vs. emotional eating related to, 162
stress susceptibility and comfort eating related to, 162–163
negative affect lability
impact on AN and BN, 239
negative emotionality
AN and, 173–177
BED and, 169–173
BN and, 165–169
EDs and, 164
as maintaining factor for disordered eating behavior, 165
negative mood
as maintaining factor for disordered eating behavior, 165
negative valence systems
EDs and, 26–27
neophobia
food
in SE, 425
Nepal
body image in, 200
nervous system
AN effects on, 224
neurobiologic alterations
in AN and BN, 47–48
neurocircuitry
of appetite regulation
in AN and BN, 58–60
neuroendocrine alterations
in AN and BN, 49–53, 54t55t
neuroendocrine systems
feeding behaviors effects on, 50–53
neuropeptide(s)
endogenous opioid
positive mood related to, 159–160
in regulation of feeding behavior, 49–53, 54t55t
neuropeptide alterations
in AN and BN, 49–53, 54t55t
neuropeptide-Y (NPY)
AN and BN and, 51, 54t
neuroticism
EDNOS and, 119
nibbling
after bariatric surgery, 463
Night Eating Questionnaires (NEQs), 439–440
Night Eating Questionnaire total score, 382
night eating syndrome (NES), 40, 438–444, 440t, 443f
after bariatric surgery, 462
Clinical Global Impression-Improvement scale for, 382
described, 439
as distinct disorder, 439–441
epidemiology of, 40
history of, 439
models of, 439–443, 443f
continuum with obesity, 442
continuum with other EDs, 441–442
continuum with sleep disorders, 442
evidence of diagnostic validity and clinical significance using, 443
NES as distinct disorder, 439–441
SRED, 442
pharmacotherapy of, 382
prevalence of, 439
research diagnostic criteria for, 439, 440t
research status on, 439
as secondary to other psychopathology, 442–443
noctural sleep-related eating disorder (NSRED)
after bariatric surgery, 462
nocturnal ingestions, 439
nonfat muscularity
among young men in Samoa, 200
(p. 540) non-gap metabolic acidosis
BN and, 226
norepinephrine
in response inhibition and sustained attention, 240
Norwegian twin study, 87, 92
novelty-seeking scores
BN and, 237
numbers needed to treat (NNTs), 252
nutritional supplements
for AN, 368
O
obesity
DRD2 deficiency and, 161
impact on body image and eating concerns, 194–195
NES and, 442
prevalence of, 458
prevention of
ED prevention programs in, 259–260
treatment of
VNS of splanchnic branch of vagus nerve in, 158
Object Assembly, 405
objectification
sexual
repeated experiences of, 480
objectification theory, 480
objective binge eating (OBE) episode(s)
BED and, 459–460
BN and, 460–461
observer’s perspective, 480–481
obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
alcohol abuse/dependence disorder and, 233
EDs and, 230
perfectionism and, 237
obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD), 237
Oculus Rift, 474
olanzapine
for AN, 361t, 363–364
Onslaught, 262
opioid(s)
for AN, 368
opioid antagonists
for AN, 368
for BED, 381
for BN, 370t, 373–374
opioid peptides
AN and BN and, 50–51, 54t
orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), 60, 61
amygdala and, 60
delayed medial activation reduction in BN, 60
medial, 170
posterior, 59
orlistat
for BED, 376t, 378
ornamental sports
impact on body image and eating concerns, 192
orthorexia nervosa (ON), 451–453, 452t
ARFID vs., 453
defined, 451
described, 451
diagnostic criteria for, 452, 452t
history of, 451–452, 452t
models of, 453
prevalence of, 452–453
status of
research needed to clarify, 453
other specified feeding or eating disorder (OSFED), 3, 438
BED and, 39
diagnosis of, 10
Eating Disorders Workgroup of DSM-5 on, 39
epidemiology of, 39–40
NES, 40
overanxious disorder of childhood
EDs and, 230
Overcoming Binge Eating, 277, 278, 509
in SH for EDs, 352–353
“Overcoming Bulimia Online,” 509
overconsumption
chronic tendency toward, 140–146
greater anticipatory food reward in, 141–144
greater consummatory food reward in, 140–141
greater impulsivity in, 144–145
origins of, 140–146
overeating
BN and, 460
during negative affect, 161–164
oxytocin
for AN, 361t, 367
for BN, 373
P
pain
alleviation of
fatty food in, 160
painful affects
IPT in encouraging acceptance of, 298
paper-and-pencil assessments
mobile assessments vs.
bias in self-report of, 498
parent(s)
as “generally the worst attendants,” 319
as “particularly pernicious,” 319
role in AN
history of, 319
pathological gambling, 234
Pathway to Mindful Eating, 342, 342t
peer support/school-based programs
EDs–related, 258–259
peptide(s)
opioid
AN and BN and, 50–51, 54t
peptide YY (PYY)
AN and BN and, 51, 54t
perfectionism
AN and, 236–238
OCD and, 237
peripheral nervous system
AN effects on, 224
persistence
AN and, 237
personal costs
EDs–related, 410–411
personality
EDs and
relationships between, 238
personality disorders
classification of, 235
clusters of, 235
defined, 235
diagnosis of, 235
EDs and, 235–236
types of, 235–236
personality traits
EDs and, 236–240
affect regulation, 238–239
cognitive processes, 239–240
RDoC components, 236
temperament, 236–238
PET-O15
defined, 68
pharmacotherapy
CBT vs.