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date: 01 June 2020

(p. 895) Index

(p. 895) Index

abbreviations, 278, 295
custom, 336
recommendations for use, 293
Abenaki-Penobscot, 764
Abenguni Revival Association, 621
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Data Archive, 353
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Justice Commission, 876–77
Aboriginal Language and Culture Nests, 448
Aboriginal Language Revitalization Program, 237–39
Aboriginal peoples, 85, 763, 863–65, 875–76, 879–80
A/B testing, 855
Abui, 745–49
academia, 406f, 408–9, 755, 765
academic linguists, 206
Academy of Mayan Languages, 829, 833–34
Academy of the Basque Language (Euskaltzaindia), 535n5, 536n9
Accelerated Second-Language Acquisition (ASLA), 452
accessibility, 284–85
access to archives, 362–64
access to culture, 653
access to online resources, 525–26
restricted access, 422–23
accommodation, 87, 89t, 90, 651, 653
Aconitum spicatum, 728
activism, 799, 824–41, 893
adaptation, 731
Adi culture, 727–28
adjectives, 297
Administration for Native Americans (ANA), xiii, 151–52, 159, 561–62, 799–801
Esther Martinez fund, 447
grants, 792
adpositionals, 297–98
adult language learning, 444, 451–56. See also language learning
Advances in Linguistic, Ethnobotanical, and Botanical Sciences through Documentation of Traditional Ecological Knowledge, 150
adverb, adverbial, 260, 291, 297, 299
advisory visits, 581, 585, 585n16
advocacy, 1, 204, 228, 352, 511, 648–49, 661, 687, 800, 889
Advocates for Indigenous California Language Survival, 452–55
AEK (Alfabetatzeko eta Euskalduntzeko Koordinakundea [coordinating body for literacy and Basque language teaching]), 536n9
Afghanistan, 728–29
Africa, African, x–xi, 16, 26–27, 31, 35, 37t, 39–41, 92–93, 95–98, 333–34, 338, 401, 405, 477, 518, 623–24, 642, 646, 677, 679, 692, 715, 722, 761, 889, 891. See also specific African countries
African languages, 27, 96, 470, 477, 518, 614–19, 623, 625–626
bilingual/multilingual education, 97
biocultural diversity, 664
demographic trends, 39
extinction crisis forces, 677
indigenous language rights, 85
language conservation, 673, 674t
language diversity, 662–64, 666–67
language families, 674–75
language revitalization, 470, 472, 613–26
language shift, 614, 623, 679
literacy, 624–26
orthographic development, 624–26
safe languages, 614
(p. 896)
sign languages, 616
small languages, 618–22
species diversity, 663–64
threatened languages, 614, 722
urbanization, 401
vigorous languages, 614
African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights, 646
African Union (AU), 646n9
Afrikaans, 75, 87
Afro-Asiatic, 671–75
Afrotropical realm, 674–77, 675t, 676f, 676t
aging, 877
Ahtna, 52–53
AIATSIS (Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies), 454
Aikuma app, 149–50, 233, 240, 845f, 848
Aikuma Project, 850
AILDI (American Indian Language Development Institute), 156–57, 836–37
AILLA (Archive of the Indigenous Languages of Latin America), 349, 355, 828, 832
Aissen, Judith, 835
Ajami, 625
Akie, 619
Akkadian, 3, 109
Akuntsú, 38, 58
Alaska, xii, xiii, 748, 763–64
Alaska Native Language Archive (ANLA), 355–56
Alaska Native Language Center, 355–56
Alaska Native Languages, xiii, 749
Albanian, 638n2
Albany, New York, 407
Aleut, 270
Alfabetatzeko eta Euskalduntzeko Koordinakundea (AEK, coordinating body for literacy and Basque language teaching), 536n9
Algeria, 616–17
Algerian Jewish Sign Language, 616
Algonquian, 114, 553–54, 557–60
Alia, Valerie, 238
All Blacks, 603
Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE), 665
allophone, allophonic, 296, 334–35
Alocasia (elephant ear taro), 744
Alor, 747
Alor-Pantar languages, 745
Alphabet Design Workshop (SIL Papua New Guinea), 336–37
alphabetization, 178–80, 316–17
alphabets, 603–4
ALs (academic linguists), 206
Altaic languages, 672f, 673–75
Alyawarr, 27
Alzheimer’s disease, 877
Amazon, Amazonian, 9, 96, 130, 209, 353, 664, 679–80, 819t, 832
Amazonian languages, 129, 819t, 832
Amazon Conservation Team, 209
Ambonese Malay, 76
Amelanchier spp. (shadbush or serviceberry), 727
American Convention on Human Rights, 646
American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Language (ACTFL), 563
American English, 305n1, 769, 887
American Hungarian, 68
American Indian Language Development Institute (AILDI), 156–57, 836–37
American Indian languages, 1n1, 4. See also Native American languages
American Indian Library Association, 354
American Philosophical Society (APS), 358
American Polish, 68
American Sign Language (ASL), 22, 616
Americas, 421, 673, 674t, 678–79
Amery, Robert (Rob), 460–61, 877–78
Amharic, 95–96, 677
Amis, 582
Amish, 413–14
Amith, Jonathan, 150, 355
Amos, Buo Makpa, 425
ANA. See Administration for Native Americans
Anasazi culture, 723–24, 730
An Crúbadán, 512n2, 513
Andaman Islands, 62, 692–93
An-de Kindergarten (Qowgan Village, Taiwan), 582, 585
Anderson, Gregory D. S., 22
Andes, 96, 663–64, 664f
An Gaodhal, 414n17
Anglian, 514
Anishinaabe, 242
Anishnaabemowin, 236
Anki app, 854
ANLA. See Alaska Native Language Archive
annotated resources, 521–22
annotation, 231–32, 259–60
anonymity, 434
ANR HimalCo project, 251, 270
AntCon (software), 263
anthropology, 1n1, 148, 308, 311, 364, 370–73, 377, 389, 394, 556, 711, 733, 740, 745, 761–63, 797, 831, 831. See also linguistic anthropology
armchair anthropologist, 761
Anuradhapura, 723
Aotearoa/New Zealand. See New Zealand
Apache, 149, 693–94
Apartheid, 621
Apple, 519
applied endangerment linguistics, 893
apprenticeships, 154, 239, 452–53, 470, 862–63
service learning, 818–19
appropriation, 857
Apresjan, Jurij, 770
APS. See American Philosophical Society
APSL (Asia-Pacific Sign Linguistics) Research and Training Program, 170–71
Arabic, 72, 330, 332, 513, 518, 615, 624, 638n2, 771, 777n13
Arandic Songs: Aboriginal Verbal Art in Central Australia, 255, 269
Arapaho, 452
Arapesh, 423–25
Arawakan languages, 673–75
Arbresh, 647
Arcadia, Arcadia Foundation, 160–61, 799
Archive of the Indigenous Languages of Latin America (AILLA), 349, 355, 828, 832
archiving, 323, 347–69, 426–27, 433, 809–11, 890. See also specific archives
digital, 348
participant-driven language archiving (PDLA), 353
Arctic languages, 663, 727
Aretyry dialect, 204
Argentina, Argentinian, 73, 78, 286
Aristotle, 109
Arizona, 693–94
armchair linguist, 336, 403
armed conflict, 10, 724–26
Arrernte, 131
artefacts, 847
artificial multilingualism, 85
artificial selection, 731–32
artists, 406f, 412–13
Arunachal Pradesh, 727
ASCII, 335, 517
Asia, 97, 470, 673, 674t, 677–79. See also specific countries
Asiampong, Nana Kwaakwaa, 616
Asia-Pacific Sign Linguistics (APSL) Research and Training Program, 170–71, 178
ASL. See American Sign Language
ASLA (Accelerated Second-Language Acquisition), 452
ASNAPED (Association de Sauvegarde de la Nature et de Protection de l’Environnement du Douiret), 617
assimilation, 408n12, 413–14
Association de Sauvegarde de la Nature et de Protection de l’Environnement du Douiret (ASNAPED), 617
Association for Tribal Archives, Libraries, and Museums, 354
Association of Natives and Friends of Maputo (Ngiyana), 622
Assovute, 622
Assyrians, 724
astronomy, cultural, 741, 744, 748–50, 750f
Asusuigbo Teta, 624
Atanarjuat: The Fast Runner, 237
Atayal, 582
Atlas of the World’s Languages in Danger, 50
at risk, languages at risk, 26–35, 42–43, 118, 340, 533–34, 614
Auckland, New Zealand, 606
audio books, 238
audio recording(s), 227, 230
digital file formats for, 361
hands-on practice with, 810
legacy recordings, 231
(p. 898) Austerlitz, Robert, x
Austin, Peter K., 300, 349–50, 420, 428, 431n12, 789, 807, 810
Australasia, 674–75, 675t
Australian Arandic songs, 255
Australia National University, 357, 403n7
Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies (AIATSIS), 454
Australian languages, 26n5, 27, 230, 454, 477, 672f, 673–75, 673t, 675t, 678
Australian Linguistic Society, 434n16
Austria, 644n6
Austro-Asiatic languages, 672f, 673–75, 673t, 675t
Austronesian languages, 74, 76, 128–29, 306, 578, 668, 671, 672f, 673–75, 675t, 771
Austronesian Malayo-Chamic languages, 58
authenticity, 459, 553
authorship, 276–77
automated transcription, 232–33
awakening languages, 4n6, 27–35, 42–44, 62n3, 454n3, 468–69, 477, 893
re-awakening languages, 469, 575, 893
awareness, 550–51
Awetí, 253, 255, 269
Awjila, 624
Awu Laya, 2
Aymara, 96
AZE (Alliance for Zero Extinction), 665
Aztec, 110
Baba Malay, 289, 303
Babanki, 478t, 479t
Babatana, 708
Babylonian, 109, 724, 748
Bakole, 35–36
B’alam, 831–32
balanced bilingualism, 72–73, 76–77, 501
Baldwin, Daryl, xv, 241, 456, 471, 553–56, 562, 864, 878
Baldwin, Karen, 556
Bali, 171n5
Balinese, 477–78, 479t, 482–83
Balochi, 75, 78
Baluchistan, 75
Bangkok Sign Language, 200
Bangladesh, 33–34
Ban Khor Sign Language, 171, 200
Barai, 136
Barcelona, Spain, 415–16
Bardi, 303
Baré, 94
Barí, 77–78
Basaa, 622
Basic Oral Language Documentation (BOLD), 149
Basili, Michael, 620
Basilwizi Trust, 623
Basque, 29, 68, 531n1, 532–42, 547, 549, 638n2
Basque Country, 535, 542
Bates project, 230
Bayaya, Iddi, 622
Bear Clan, 868
Beaver, 255, 269
Beaver, Frank, 558
Bechert, Johannes, 481
Begay, Kayla, 455
Belgium, 88
“believe” (word), 772, 772n7
Belize, 825
Bella Coola, 869–70
benevolent associations, 407
Benson, Edwin, 2
Benton, Richard, 599
Berber, Berber languages, 616–18, 623–24
Berber Academy (Académie Berbère or Agraw Imazighen), 624
Berez, Andrea L. (Berez-Kroeker, Andrea L.), xvi, 257, 289, 347–48, 359, 433, 810, 812
Berkeley Language Center, 356
Berkeley Linguistics Society, 163
Berne Convention, 363–64
Berria, 536n10
Bhutan, 33–34
Bible, 289, 328, 457, 617, 622, 640, 774n9, 777n13, 779–80, 847, 889. See also Bible translation
(p. 899) Bible translation, 289, 328, 617, 622–23, 777n13, 780, 831, 847, 889
Bible Translation and Literacy (BTL), 623
bibliography, 279, 300
BIE. See bilingual/intercultural education
Biesele, Megan, 621
Bih, 58, 58n1
bilingual dictionaries, 307, 307n5, 313, 319–21
bilingual education, 95–97, 448–49, 472, 873
bilingual/intercultural education (BIE), 96
bilingualism, 10, 67, 72–73, 76–77, 79, 339, 491, 498–503, 653, 876
balanced bilingualism, 72–73, 76–77, 79, 501
stable bilingualism, 592
subtractive bilingualism, 339
transitional bilingual, transitional bilingualism, 67, 75–77, 79
bilingualized dictionaries, 322
Bing translator, 523, 523n13
Bininj, 70
biocultural conservation, 689–95
biocultural diversity, 657–781, 887–88
biocultural studies, 14
biogeographic realms, 674–77
biological conservation, 702–4
biological diversity, biodiversity, 659–62, 660f, 665–66, 677–80, 703–6, 713, 715, 878
biology, biological, biologist, x–xi, 403, 661, 685, 701, 708, 713, 740–44, 754–55, 761, 763–64, 766, 797, 887. See also ethnobiology
Bird, Steven, 229, 412, 810
Blackfoot, 135, 875–76
Blench, Roger, 618
Bliss-Span, Laura, xiii
blogs, blogging, 162, 512
boarding schools, 866–67, 873
Boas, Franz, ix, 1n1, 11, 111, 114, 131, 141, 227, 347–48, 358, 372–73, 683, 762–63
Boasian, 11, 131, 141, 813
Bloomfield, Leonard, ix, 111–13, 404
body calendars, 728–29
Boise, Idaho, 407
BOLD. See Basic Oral Language Documentation
Bolinger, Dwight, 891
Bommelyn, Pyuwa and Ruby, 445
Bong’om, 619–20
Bong’om Language Project, 619–20
Boran languages, 129
Borneo Evangelical Mission, 774n9
borrowing, 76, 78, 295, 429, 456–58, 468, 771, 833, 889
Boruca, 30
Bosnian, 515
botany, botanical, botanist, 148, 150, 308, 311, 709, 733, 740, 742, 744–47, 754–58, 810, 887. See also ethnobotany
Botswana, 614–15, 617–18
boundary maintenance, 73
boundary objects, 847, 858
Bowern, Claire, 303, 399, 431n14, 805, 807
Brahui, 75–76, 78
brain, 876–77
brain drains, 402
brain gains, 402
Brazil, xi, 73, 253, 281n6, 329, 453, 663, 722, 819t
Breath of Life, 357, 454–56, 459, 469
Breath of Life Language Restoration Workshop for California Languages, 454–55
Breton, 69, 405, 413, 459, 469–70, 478t, 479t, 481
Bribri Sign Language, 200
British Columbia, Canada, 233, 869–70
British idioms, 887
broadcast media, 597–98
Broadwell, George Aaron, 407n11
Brody, Hugh, 621
Brunca Sign Language, 200
Brunei, 35n8
Bsuring Kindergarten (Hsiulin Village, Taiwan), 582, 585
BTL. See Bible Translation and Literacy
Bulgaria, 644n6
Bulmer, Ralph, 711, 747, 757
The Busy Intersection Model, 626
Cacaopera, 67, 542
calendars, 727–29
California, 4, 450–51, 454–55
California Language Archive (CLA), 356
CALR program, 237
Cambodia, 35n8, 171–72
(p. 900) Cambodian Sign Language, 170n3, 172, 175, 186, 189, 191f, 192, 193f, 194–98, 199f
Cambridge Handbook on Endangered Languages, 328–29
Cameroon, xi, 332, 425–26, 615, 617, 622, 796
Caminsky, Dibella, 808
Campbell, Eric, 817
Campbell, Lyle, xv, 123, 127, 129, 419, 466, 543
Canadian Aboriginal Syllabics, 458
Cannon, Chris, 748
Cantonese, 22, 606
Cape Floristic Region, 722
Cape Khoe, 620
Capell, Arthur, 230, 230n15
capitalization, 330
Carey, William, 328
Carib, 204n4
Cariban, 9, 204
Caribbean, 30, 31n6, 37t, 39–41, 355, 675t
Carnegie Mellon University, 523
Carson, Rachel, x
CASAS. See Centre for Advanced Studies of African Society
Castilian, 647
Catalan, 499, 647
Catalinian, 111
Catalogue of Endangered Languages (ELCat), xi, 3–4, 21n1, 23–43, 56–57, 62n3, 63, 66, 147, 471, 473, 475–477, 515n6, 603
Caviñena, 303
CBLA. See Community-Based Language Archive
CBLR. See community-based language research
CDs, 238
cell phone, cellular telephone, mobile phone, 234, 242, 323, 410, 511, 852, 857
Celtic, Celtic languages, 68, 70, 454, 638
cellular telephone. See cell phone
Center for Indigenous Languages of Latin America, 831–32
Center for Native American Indigenous Research (CNAIR), 358
Central Africa, 664. See also specific countries
Central America, 30, 31n6, 37t, 39–41, 542. See also specific countries
Central Asia, 674–75, 675t. See also specific countries
Central Okinawan, 55
Centre for Advanced Studies of African Society (CASAS), 625
Centre for Sign Linguistics and Deaf Studies (CSLDS), 170–71, 178
Centro de Investigaciones y Estudios Superiores en Antropología Social (CIESAS), 835, 837–39
cerebral plasticity, 495
Cerf, Vint, 228n9
Chacach, Martín, 829–30
Chachi (case study), 379–87, 380f, 381f, 383f, 386f
Chaco languages, 832
Chadian Arabic, 328
Chaga, 615
Chalcatongo, Mexico, 162
Chandler, Michael, 878
chant, danced (haka), 603–4
Cha’palaa, 370, 379–87, 380f, 381f, 383f, 386f, 389–90, 392
character transformation (Mojibake 文字化け), 517
Charles Darwin University, 848–49
Charley, John, 558
Charlottesville, Virginia, 407
charts, 281–82
Chatino, 837
Chebanne, Andy, 618
Checklist Recorder App, 851–53, 852f
Chelliah, Shobhana, xvii, 147, 160, 422n1, 433, 768, 806
Chemawa boarding school, 866–67
Chen, Victoria, xvii
Cherokee Language Technology Program, 518
Cheyenne, 7, 116, 134
Chiang Mai Sign Language, 168, 200
Chibchan languages, 831–32
Chichewa, 621
Chickasaw, 237, 239–40
Chilanga, 67, 542n14. See also Salvadorean Lenca.
(p. 901) child language acquisition, 492, 492t, 493t, 765–66
child learning, 444–51, 540–41, 548
Chile, 96
Chilkat, 879f
China, 29, 304, 674–75, 675t, 677
Chinese, 317, 503, 513, 584, 769–70, 779
Chinese benevolent associations, 407
Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK), 170–71, 178
Chingoni, 621
Chinook Jargon, 74
Chintang, 250, 269, 888
Chiquimulilla Xinka, 30. See also Xinka
Chitimacha, 237
Chitumbuka, 621
Chochenyo, Chochenyo Ohlone, 454–55
choice, language, 6
Choiseul, 708
Chol, 134–35
Chomsky, Noam, ix–xi, 335, 373, 765–67
Chomskyan, 765–66
Chorote, 73
Chou, Hsuan-Chen, 579n6
Christensen Fund, 620
Chugach Corporation, xiii
Chumash, 478t, 480t
Church Slavonic, 639
Cibecue Community School (Arizona, US), 693–94
Cicero, 111
CIESAS. See Centro de Investigaciones y Estudios Superiores en Antropología Social
CILLA. See Conference on the Indigenous Languages of Latin America
city linguistics, 402–4
City University of New York (CUNY), 409
civil conflict, 724–26
CLA. See California Language Archive
cladogenesis, 667–68
CLAN, 231–32
Classical Nahuatl, 110. See also Nahuatl
classifier, 129–30, 186–89, 277, 290, 297
climate change, x, 16, 677, 715–16, 720–38, 740, 892
clinical linguistics, 885, 889, 893
clitics, 297, 330, 335
CMDI, 232
CNAIR. See Center for Native American Indigenous Research
Cochrane Smith, Fanny, 225
code sets
ASCII, 335, 517
HTML, 513
Unicode, 517–19
code-shifting, 623–24
co-design, 848, 858
code-switching, codeswitching, 6, 72–73, 75, 151, 429, 623–24, 889–90
Coeur d'Alene, 478t, 479t, 481
cognitive theory, 767–71, 877
Cohen, Bill, 873
Cohen, Felix, 82–83, 97
Cojtí Cuxil, Demetrio, 829, 832
CoLang (Institute for Collaborative Language Research), 150, 156–57, 819t, 824–25
Colectivo Tzunhejekat, 546
collaborative cultural mapping, 209
collaborative documentation, 203–24, 709–11, 739–60
collective rights, 88–90
Colocasia (taro), 720–21, 744
Colombia, 10, 23, 73, 281n6
colonial education, 92–93
Colonial Zapotec, 230. See also Zapotec
Columbia University, 409
Comcaac (Seri), 687
Committee for Publication Ethics, 156
communication
electronically mediated communication (EMC), 510–12, 518, 526, 891
(p. 902) ethnography of communication, 12n13, 370–78, 385–86, 394
wider communication, 40, 52t, 280, 288, 741
communicative event, 125, 129, 252–53
communicative competence, 376
community-based documentation and revitalization, 445, 462, 599–600
in Africa, 619
research under community control, 421–22
Community-Based Language Archive (CBLA), 353
community-based language research (CBLR), 204
community grammar, 275
community language development, 444, 560–63
community of practice, 376, 408, 691
Community Partnerships Model (CPM), 204
community relations, 807–9
comparative analysis, 98, 466–67, 470–72, 484, 712
comparative grammar, 275
comparatives, comparative construction, 134n5, 261, 298, 768
complementizers, 297
complex verbs, 136–37
computational linguists, 523, 525–26
Condition C effects, 138
Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe (CSCE), 646n8
Conference on the Indigenous Languages of Latin America (CILLA), 153
conflict, 10, 38, 399, 407, 536, 615, 645, 724–27, 887
language, 72, 118, 316, 337–338, 479t
Congrès Mondial Amazigh, 618
conjunctions, 297
consent, informed, 433, 435, 855–56
conservation, xii, 14, 679–80, 685–88, 692–95
biocultural, 689–95
biodiversity, 703–4
biological, 702
confounding issues, 713–16
cultural, 685–88, 713
interdisciplinary programs, 733
knowledge legacies and, 707–12
language, 13–15, 44, 63, 126, 199, 234, 240–42, 407, 504, 673, 674t, 679, 686, 703, 716, 793
legacy, legacies critical for, 701–19
of nature, 685–88
conservationists, 709–11
conservation status, 670–71, 671t
constructed languages, 513
control verb, 136
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, 755
Convention on the Rights of the Child, 644
conversation, conversations, 125, 128–29, 151–52, 212, 249–50, 256, 270, 277, 340, 375, 379–82, 385–86, 388, 408, 451, 456, 460, 494, 521, 558, 692, 805, 812, 817, 874
analysis, 377–78
discourse transcription, 811–12
multilingual, 73
traditional, 149–50
conversational competence, 577, 587
Cooley, Bessie, 864
Coon, Jessica, 134–35, 162
cooperation, 429
copyright, 363–64
Cornish, xii, 29, 70, 454, 456–57, 459, 469, 478t, 479t
Costa, David, xvii, 553–56, 562
Costa Rica, 200
Costa Rican Sign Language, 200
Council of Europe, 646
Council of Indigenous People (CIP) (Taiwan), 571, 579n6
Coyote stories, 149
CPM. See Community Partnerships Model
CREATIV (Creative Research Awards for Transformative Interdisciplinary Ventures) initiative, 798
Cree, 32, 94, 875–77
Plains, 865
Creolized Hawaiʻi Sign Language, 200
critically endangered languages
comprehensive breakdown, 42–43, 42t
domains of use, 60, 60t
ELCat scale, 476t
intergenerational transmission, 57–58, 58t
(p. 903)
regional trends, 26–35
speaker numbers, 58–59, 59t
critically endangered species, 670
Croatian, 515
crops. See food crops
cross-disciplinary collaboration, 795
cross-referencing, 292
crowdsourcing, 524. See also under participatory
Crowley, Terry, 324, 403
An Crúbadán, 512n2
Crystal, David, xvii, 10, 885
CSCE (Conference on Security and Co- operation in Europe), 646n8
CSLDS (Centre for Sign Linguistics and Deaf Studies), 170–71, 178
CUHK (Chinese University of Hong Kong), 170–71, 178
cultural astronomy, 741, 744, 748–50, 749t, 750f
cultural comments, 292
cultural conservation, 685–88
cultural continuity, 500, 649–50
cultural differences, 711, 808
cultural diversity, 436, 715
cultural endangerment, 720–38
cultural heritage, 363–64
cultural history, 723–24
cultural identity, 649–50, 892
cultural keystone species, 720–21
cultural knowledge, 422
Culturally Deaf, 168–70
cultural mapping, 209
cultural medicine, 878
cultural relativism, 761–63
culture(s), 394, 604
access to, 653
integrated documentation of language and, 371
island, 729–30
land connections, 871–72, 871f
language and lexicon and, 767–71
practices that conserve biodiversity, 713
culture areas, 664–65
culture-based language classes, 579–80
culture calendars, 315
culture clashes, 419, 434
culture death, 761–81
culture industry, 412–13
Cuna, 378
CUNY (City University of New York), 409
Cupeño, 303
Curripaco, 355
curving speech (kinguy), 391
Cushitic languages, 620
Cyrilli scripts, 332
Czaykowska-Higgins, Ewa, 204, 352, 401n3, 807
Czech, 78, 649
Daakaka, 128
Daats’iin, 614
Danish, 640
Darwinian, social Darwinian, 763
Darwin, Charles, 661, 683–84, 761
data
elicited, 250–51
metadata, 232, 257, 525
primary, 258–59
structural, 258–59
types of, 36–37, 37t, 124–25
data collection and management, 809–11
for documentation, 160–63
guidelines for, 433
hands-on practice, 811
methods for, 581–82
with physical evidence, 712
data loss, 228n9
data ownership, 753
data recording(s), 809–11. See also audio; video
Davis, Wade, xviii, 425n3, 726, 761
dead languages, 13, 62n3, 117, 553, 879
Deaf communities, 168–69
Deaf Culture, 168–70
deafness, 169
Declaration of Belém (ISE), 684
Declaration on Race and Racial Prejudice (UNESCO), 644
Declaration on the Rights of Persons Belonging to National or Ethnic, Religious and Linguistic Minorities (UN), 645–46
declarative sentences, declarative clauses, 192, 193f, 194f, 196f, 299
definitions
in dictionaries, 319–21
personal, 704–6
dekang tree (Gymnocladus burmanicus), 728
DEL. See Documenting Endangered Languages Program
DELAMAN (Digital Endangered Languages and Music Archives Network), 231, 347, 349, 354–58, 360, 363, 525
Delaware, 70
Delaware Pidgin, 74
Democratic Republic of Congo, 625
demographics, 5, 39
demonstratives, 130, 297
Dena’ina, 749
Dena’ina Topical Dictionary, 741, 749
Dene languages, 150, 748
Dëne Su̜ɬiné, 135
Desa Kolok, 171n5
de Sardan, Oliver, 432
descriptive grammar, 273–74, 814, 893
descriptive linguistics, 253–54
descriptive metadata, 362
determiners, 139, 297
Devanagari scripts, 330
developing languages, 51–53, 52t
Dholuo, 623
diabetes, 875
diacritics, 330
dialectology, 151–52
dialects, 69, 606–7
endangered, 69
in grammars, 282, 295
Diamond, Jared M., 711
diaspora communities, 890
fieldwork, 400–401, 400n2
language documentation in, 399–418
language revitalization and maintenance, 618
linguist works, 399
diaspora words, 403n7
Dickens, Patrick, 621
dictionaries, 115–16, 604, 887–88
archiving, 323
audience, 309–10
bilingual, 307, 307n5, 313, 319–21
bilingualized, 322
compiling, 305–26, 741–42
comprehensive, 310
considerations for, 312–13
corpus-based, 310
definitions, 319–21
design and construction, 313–23
distribution and support, 323
of endangered languages, 305–26
entries, 314
entry core elements, 317
ethical issues, 324
fake entries, 324
field testing, 323
general purpose, 316
headwords, 314–15
legal issues, 324
macrostructure, 314–17
megastructure, 322–23
microstructure, 317–22
new words, 456–57
ordering entries, 316–17
planning, 308–13
production of, 813–15
publishing, 323
research required for, 307–8
sample phrases or sentences, 321
scope, 310
sign phonological language for alphabetization in, 178–80
size and scope, 316
software selection for, 312
staffing, 311–12
steps for compiling, 306
strategies for collecting headwords, 314–15
thematic, 310
traditional knowledge entries, 708–9
types of, 310, 310n11
Dictionary Development Process (SIL), 308
Dictionary of Kalam, 741
digital archives, 348. See also archiving
digital divide, 233–34
digital documentation, 230–32, 293
Digital Endangered Languages and Music Archives Network (DELAMAN), 231, 347, 349, 354–58, 360, 363, 525
digital file formats, 361
Digital Himalaya, 358
digital storytelling, 238
(p. 905) digital technology, 891–92
digitization, 230–31
Diidxazá, 478t, 479t
Dimmendaal, Gerrit, 617
Diné, 91–92, 240
dirty feet linguists, 403
discourse transcription, 812, 891
discovery, 525
disempowerment, 238, 873
dissemination, 163
distant reading, 227
diversity, 893
biocultural, 657–781, 887–88
biological (biodiversity), 659–62, 660f, 665–66, 675, 676f, 677–80, 703–6, 713–15, 878
causes of loss, 688–89
cultural, 715
ethical relationships, 435–36
hyperdiverse cities, 400–402
language or linguistic, 126–27, 606, 659–82, 660f, 663f, 664f, 676f
megadiversity, 662
microbial, 728
next generation of studies, 668–69
reasons to care about, 679–80
species, 659–82, 663f, 664f
superdiversity, 606
sustaining, 683–700
trends in, 675, 676f
units of, 659–61, 660f
DoBeS (Dokumentation Bedrohter Sprachen) archive, 255–56, 269, 358, 371, 753, 799
Dobrin, Lise, 423–25, 428–29, 431n15, 432, 808
documentary corpora, 525–26, 888
analysis of, 260–63
classification of, 249
comparable, 251
compilation and exploitation of, 248–70
contrastive, 250
creation of, 771–72, 810
discovery of, 525
distinguishing features of, 263–64
dynamic, 249
internet references, 269
multimodal, 252
for natural language processing, 519–26
opportunistic, 250
parallel, 252
preservation of, 524–25
sample, 250
shaping, 810
static, 249
structure for, 256
subcorpora, 249–52
tools for building and analyzing, 263
types of, 249–52
documentary linguist(s), 150–51, 158, 350, 352, 370–72, 375, 378, 380, 390, 394–95, 421, 461, 526, 744, 804
Documentary Linguistics Workshop (Japan), 819t
documentation, ix, xi–xii, 1, 7–16, 23, 40–41, 44, 50, 51t, 55, 63, 107–113, 114–18, 123–33, 135–37, 139–42, 147–65, 168n1, 170, 172, 199–200, 203–17, 219–21, 225–31, 234–35, 237, 239–41, 243, 248–50, 252–54, 256, 258, 264, 271–73, 275–77, 282, 285, 289, 293, 314, 347–60, 363–64, 370–89, 393–94, 399–412, 415–16, 419–24, 427, 430–36, 444, 450–61, 470, 473–74, 882, 515–18, 521, 523, 526, 539–43, 549, 553, 557–563, 567, 575, 579–80, 614, 617–22, 625–26, 687, 689, 693, 702–3, 707–8, 710–13, 739–44, 747–48, 752–58, 785–88, 792–800, 803–5, 808–19, 824–25, 837, 842, 845–49, 855, 869–70, 887–90, 893 See also specific archives; specific types of documentation
activity roles, 845, 845t
adequacy of, 108, 111, 114, 118
agreement on ethics and publication for, 155–56
Basic Oral Language Documentation (BOLD), 149
case studies, 150, 379–94, 380f, 381f, 383f, 386f, 388f, 389f, 391f, 392f, 393f, 744–52
collaborative, 203–24, 709–11
communication during, 847
community-based, 234–43
contributions to formal grammar, 135–39
contributions to linguistic typology, 129–31
courses related to, 818, 818t
cultural, 371
(p. 906)
current schools, institutes, and workshops for linguists, 819t
data management and workflow, 160–63
in diaspora commun
ities, 399–418
digital, 230–32
of endangered sign languages, 200–201
The Essentials of Language Documentation (Gippert, Himmelmann, and Mosel), 374–75
ethical encounters, 419–20
evaluation of, 163–65
expectations for, 108
ex situ, 403, 403n7
and formal grammar, 132–40
funding for, 157–59, 785–802
future directions, 200–201
genres, 254–56
goals of, 107–22, 148–54
guidelines for file naming, 161
hardware for, 159–60
ideologies, 427–31
of informed consent, 855–56
institutes, 818
integrated, 371
interdisciplinary, 739–60
for language description, 152–53
for language teaching, 153
learning from, 444, 453–56
legacy, 230
limits to, 254
linguistic theory and, 12–13
linguistic typology and, 131–32
management of, 160–63
metadata, 257
metadocumentation, 433, 890
methodology, 253–54, 741–42, 893
multipurpose, 243
online, 580–81
production of dictionaries, grammars, text collections, 813–14
rationale for, 125–27
registers, 254–56
requirements for, 11–12
research tasks and workflow, 160
revitalization and, 154
sociolinguistic, 151–52
software for, 159–60
standards of description in, 112–16
teaching, 803–23
teaching logs or records, 580–81
technology for, 243
text collections, 813–14
text types, 254
theoretical issues, 253–54
tools and technology for, 225–47, 263, 370–98
of traditional ecological knowledge (TEK), 150–51, 794, 797
training in, 804, 815–19
types of corpora and subcorpora in, 249–52
types of data in, 124–25, 257–60
workflow, 160–63
workshops, 818
Documentation of Endangered Languages archive. See DoBeS archive
Documenting and Revitalising Indigenous Languages (DRIL) Training Program, 239
Documenting Endangered Languages (DEL) Program, 158–59, 354, 359, 428n6, 792, 800–801
Dokumentation Bedrohter Sprachen (DoBeS) archive, 255–56, 269, 358, 371, 753, 799
domains of use, 3, 37t, 40, 54, 60, 60t
Dominican Republic, 703–4
Dongola Association for Nubian Culture and Heritage, 617
Dorian, Nancy C., 226, 468–69
dormant language(s), xii, 4n6, 13–15, 27–35, 42–43, 52t, 62n3, 453–54, 469, 893
comprehensive breakdown, 42–44, 42t
EGIDS description of, 51–53, 52t
regional trends, 26–35
Dravidian, 58, 73, 75, 78, 672f
Duala, 622
Dublin Core, 362
Dunn, Christopher P., xvii, 720
Dunn, Jacob P., 558–59
Dupaningan Agta, 61–62
du Plessis, Claudia, 621
Dwyer, Arienne, 54, 56, 208, 420, 431, 433
Eagleshield, Alayna, 870
Earth Summit (Rio de Janeiro 1992), 684
East African Centre for Professional Studies and Local Language Promotion, 618
East Asia, 28–29, 29t, 37t, 40. See also specific countries
Eastern Michigan University (EMU), 24–25
Eastern Penan, 771–76
Ebeye, 200
Eblaite, 109
Ebla tablets, 109
Ecolinguistics website, 650n11
ecological calendars, 727–29
ecological knowledge, 150, 564, 679, 686, 689, 707–8
indigenous, 713
legacy of, 714
local, 706, 713
traditional, 150–51, 435, 678–79, 686, 693, 706, 713, 723, 729–30, 798, 878
ecology, x–xi, 403, 649, 680, 693, 708, 720–22, 727, 745, 794
climate change, 715–16, 720–38
language, linguistic, 125, 426, 650, 653, 678, 726, 744, 815
macroecology, 668
risk components, 721–22
economic factors, 5
Ecuador, 370, 379
education. See also teaching
bilingual, 95–97, 448–49, 472
boarding schools, 866–67, 873
colonial, 92–93
culture-based language classes, 579–80
current schools, institutes, and workshops for linguists, 818, 819t
documentation of teaching processes and activities, 580–81
indigenous language rights in, 92–97
in situ service learning, 818–19
intercultural, 96
language documentation courses, 818, 818t
language education policy (LEP), 575–76
language immersion teaching, 577–78
language-in-education policy, 575–76
for language revitalization, 94, 96
language school(s) (kura reo), 598
majority-language schools, 450–51
Māori language schooling, 596–97
minority-language classes, 450–51
mother-tongue, 472, 621, 625
multilingual, 95–97, 878
pedagogical materials, 581
schools, institutes, and workshops for linguists, 818, 819t
survival schools (kura whakarauora), 605, 792–93
Western model, 625
educational languages, 51–53
educational outreach, 406f, 411–12
Education for All movement (UNESCO), 339
Eegimaa, 621–22
eelgrass (Zostera marina L.), 8–9
Eewansaapita Summer Youth Educational Experience (Miami Tribe), 556, 566–67
EGIDS (Expanded Graded Intergenerational Disruption Scale), 23, 48, 51–56, 63, 340–41, 532n2
Egunkaria, 536n10
Egyptian, Ancient Egyptian, 3, 72
Ekegusii, 618, 624
Ekialo Kiona Suba YouthRadio Station 99 FM, 623
ELA. See Endangered Language Alliance
ELAN (EUDICO Linguistic Annotator), 231–32, 238, 263, 812
ELAR (Endangered Languages Archive), 160–61, 255–56, 269, 349, 353, 356, 793
Elbert, Sam, 309–10
ELCat. See Catalogue of Endangered Languages
ELDP (Endangered Languages Documentation Programme), 356, 359, 473, 617, 793, 799–801, 819t
electronically mediated communication (EMC), 510–12, 518–26, 891
electronic grammars, 293
Electronic Metastructure for Endangered Language Data (EMELD) project, 349
elephant ear taro (Alocasia), 744
elicited data, elicited texts, elicited examples, 249–51, 259, 264, 277
Elimination of All Forms of Intolerance and of Discrimination based on Religion or Belief, 644
Elmolo, 620
El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), 724–25
ELP (Endangered Languages Project), xi, 25, 56–57, 63, 328n2
El Salvador, 537n11, 542, 542n13
EMC (electronically mediated communication), 510–12, 518–26, 891
EMELD (Electronic Metastructure for Endangered Language Data) project, 349
empowerment, 204, 238, 352, 401, 424, 579–80, 582–84, 690, 808, 873, 892
EMU (Eastern Michigan University), 24–25
enclicage, 432
encodings
ASCII, 517
language identifiers (ISO 639), 513–16
natural language processing (NLP), 519–26
Unicode, 517–19
endangered (as a degree of language vitality), x, xii, 3–4, 22–23, 26–35, 42–43, 49, 51, 54–55, 57–63, 471–72, 476t, 705
endangered dialects, 69
endangered knowledge, 713–14, 888
Endangered Language Alliance (ELA), 399–400, 415–16
collaborations, 410n15
ecosystem, 406–14, 406f
experiences, 404–14
history of, 404–6
Voices of the Himalayas project, 408
Endangered Language Fund (ELF), 473, 617, 793, 878
Language Legacy grants, 793
Native Voices grants, 793
Endangered Languages Project (ELP), xi, 25, 56–57, 63, 328n2
Endangered Languages, Endangered Knowledge, Endangered Environments conference (Berkeley 1997), 685
Endangered Languages and their Preservation symposium, 481
Endangered Languages Archive (ELAR), 160–61, 255–56, 269, 349, 353, 356, 793
Endangered Language Scale. See Language Endangerment Index (LEI)
Endangered Languages Documentation Programme (ELDP), 356, 359, 473, 617, 793, 799–801, 819t
Endangered Languages Information and Infrastructure (ELIIP) workshop, 24–25
endangered-languages movement, 684
Endangered Languages Project (ELP), 25, 56–57, 63, 328n1
endangered sign languages, 168–202, 891
endangered species, 670
endangerment linguistics, 885–94
applied, 893
pure, 893
endangerment of culture, 720–38
endangerment of science, 761–81
endangerment of species
forces driving, 677–80
threat status, 669–70
endemism, 659–60
England, 490, 793
England, Nora C., xvii, 153, 824, 827–32, 838–39
English, 40–41, 67–69, 78, 87–88, 94–97, 138–39, 252, 281n6, 316–17, 405, 413–14, 495–96, 501, 602, 605, 615, 708, 747, 768–69, 852, 869
borrowings from, 457, 771
development of, 494
documentation of, 112, 114, 116
dominance of, 620, 651, 663, 677–79
orthography, 330
semantic lacunae, 773–76
signed, 616
standard, 651, 651n13
standardization, 640
English as a Second Language (ESL), 449
English fairytales, 252–53
ENSO (El Niño/Southern Oscillation), 724–25
environmental change, 722–26
environmental knowledge. See ecological knowledge
environmental refugees, 731
(p. 909) epistemological classes, 579–80
Epps, Patience, 127, 129–132, 136, 139
Eritrean Sign Language, 616
Ersu, 304
Esau, Katrina (Geelmeid), 621
Esenç, Tevfik, 2
ESL (English as a Second Language), 449
Esperanto, 513
Esselen, 459
The Essentials of Language Documentation (Gippert, Himmelmann, and Mosel), 374–75
Esther Martinez fund, 447
Esther Martinez Immersion, 792–93
Estonian, 69, 638n2, 648–49, 728
ethics, 807–9, 818, 890
agreement on ethics and publication, 155–56
case studies, 420–27
vs compliance, 434–35
in dictionaries, 324
in diverse contexts, 435–36
in language documentation and revitalization, 419–40
policies on ethical conduct, 434n16
preparation for ethical fieldwork interactions, 808–9
protocols for, 434–35
ethics review, 434
Ethiopia, 95–96, 332, 614, 619
ethnic identity, 5–6, 52t, 108n2, 340, 620, 813
ethnic media, 414n17
ethnobiology, ethnobiologist, ethonbiological, 123n1, 403n7, 662, 684, 686, 693, 702, 707, 741, 758
ethnobotany, 564, 702, 707, 745–49, 756–58
ethnographic, ethnography, 15, 91, 93–94, 111, 151, 231, 292, 370, 347, 372–75, 377–94, 427, 436, 558, 564, 740, 771, 796, 890
case studies, 379–94, 380f, 381f, 383f, 386f, 388f, 389f, 391f, 392f, 393f
ethnography of communication, 12n13, 370–78, 385–86, 394
Ethnologue, x–xi, 4, 23, 43, 200, 340n5, 454, 473, 514, 623, 663, 671, 674, 764
ethnomathematics, 750–52, 752f
ethnopoetics, 374
ethnosphere, 726
Etruscan, 3
EUDICO Linguistic Annotator (ELAN), 231–32, 238, 263, 812
Euralex, 814
Eurasia, 4, 674–75, 675t
Europe, 722. See also specific countries
climate change, 725
conservation status of languages, 673, 674t
current schools, institutes, and workshops for linguists, 819t
endangered languages, 29, 30t, 37t
extinction crisis forces, 677–78
history of language, 637–43, 638nn1–2
language nests, 447
language revitalization, 470
language shift, 679
European Research Council, 796–97
European Union (EU), 646
Euskaldunon Egunkaria, 536n10
Euskal Herria, 535, 535n7
euskaltegiak (evening schools), 536n9
Euskaltzaindia (Academy of the Basque Language), 535n5, 536n9
Euskara Batua, 538n12. See also Basque
Evans, Nicholas, 55, 129, 254, 259
Evenki, 7, 38
Everett, Daniel, 770
evolutionary anthropology, 762
Ewe, 625
exchange relations (case study), 423–25, 424f
executive function, 877
Exmaralda, 231–32
exogamy, linguistic, 73
exotic language, 778–79
Expanded Graded Intergenerational Disruption Scale (EGIDS), 23, 48, 51–56, 63., 340–41, 532n2
Extended GIDS (EGIDS), 23
expert knowledge, 711
Explanatory-Combinatorial Dictionary (ECD), 770
extinction forces, 68, 677–80
extinct language(s), (language) extinction, ix–x, xiii, 2–10, 21, 43–44, 50–53, 57–58, 62n3, 117, 126, 340, 371, 425, 453–54, 469, 514, 532n2, 553, 661–63, 671, 673, 674t, 676–78, 686
(p. 910) extinct species, (species) extinction, xii, 670, 720, 764
Eyak Preservation Council, xiii
EZText, 812
F4 (software), 231–32
Facebook, 226, 238, 242, 455, 524–25, 546, 617–18, 839
Colectivo Tzunhejekat group, 546, 546n23
LETS LEARN SHIYEYI page, 617
Salvemos el Idioma Náhuat (Let’s save the Nawat language) group, 546, 546n23
Facebook Instant Messenger, 849
facts, 704–5
fairytales, 252–53
faith communities, 733
family language programs, 455, 890
for revitalization, 444–46, 470, 556
talkative families, 492–94, 492t, 493t
fellowships, 787–88, 791
Fertile Crescent, 725–26
field guides, 741–43, 887
Field Linguistics for Amazonian Languages (workshop), 819t
field linguists, 162, 228, 262, 328–29, 371–73, 378, 679, 744, 756
Field Linguist’s Toolbox (SIL International), 263
field stations, 400–401
fieldwork, fieldworker, 25, 110, 126, 162–63, 204, 208, 228, 231–33, 243, 263, 271, 276, 354–55, 358–59, 389, 404, 408, 432, 747–48, 757, 765–66, 771, 780, 805, 819t, 825
current schools, institutes, and workshops for linguists, 819t, 827, 843, 851
funding, 792
in diaspora settings, 399–401
engineering, 857–58
ethical fieldwork, ethical interactions, 420, 422, 808–9
example course, 817
guides, 420, 768, 804
in situ service learning, 818–19
planning, preparation for, 805–9
semantic, 133, 768
testing, 323
training, training methods, 526, 815–19
urban, 416
Fieldworks Language Explorer (FLEx), 155, 161, 229, 262–63, 312, 812–15, 817
figures, 281–82
Fiinaka (fictional East African language), 338
Fiji, 200
file formats, 361
FileMaker Pro, 813
file management, 161
filmmakers, 406f, 410–12
Finding Nemo, 237, 240
FINE (Focused, Interesting, Naturalistic, Educational) grammars, 814
Finland, 10, 84–85
Finley, George, 558–59
Finnic languages, 76
Finnish, 116, 638n2
Finnish Sign Language, 616
First Nations, First Peoples, 84, 458, 470–71, 863–66, 874–76, 879–80, 879f. See also specific nations
First Peoples’ Cultural Council (FPCC), 235, 447, 470, 573, 576, 786
FirstVoices, 235
Fishman, Joshua, 2n1, 48–49, 54, 60, 235–36, 241, 339, 466n1, 468, 491, 504, 574, 578, 607, 649–50
Fitzgerald, Colleen, 819
flashcard apps, 854
FLEx (Fieldworks Language Explorer), 155, 161, 229, 262–63, 312, 812–15, 817
Florey, Margaret, 800, 824–25
Floyd, Simeon, xviii, 370
Focused, Interesting, Naturalistic, Educational (FINE) grammars, 814
focus group interviews, 583
folk classification, 744
folktales, 252–53, 623
font(s), 288, 291, 293, 516, 519, 524, 526
food crops, 8–9, 694, 709, 744
footnotes, 292
FORMABIAP (Indigenous Bilingual Education Teacher Training Program of the Peruvian Amazon Basin), 96
(p. 911) formatting
digital file formats, 361
for grammars, 277–82, 291
recommendations for, 290–93
Treasure Language, 412, 850
former Soviet Union, 69, 71
Formosan languages, 572
Foundation for Endangered Languages (FEL), 473, 793
Four Corners region, 723–24
FPCC. See First Peoples’ Cultural Council
Francis I (Pope), 733
Franco, Francisco, 535, 538
François Ier, 639n3
Frank, Crystal, 150–51
Frank, Kenneth, 150–51
Frank (Manriquez), L., 453n2
Fremont culture, 724
French, 32, 40–41, 87–88, 251, 405, 501, 557, 615
dominance, 624, 677
history of, 639n3, 640, 640n5, 641, 648–49
orthography, 330
translatability, 776
French Canada, 574
Frisian, 469, 614
Frog, where are you?, 251
Frysk, 469–70, 478t, 479t. See also Frisian
Fulani, 518
Fulbright Program, 807, 831
Fulfulde, 623
agencies, 789–90, 806–7
applications for, 785, 789–91, 793
calls for applications, 785, 789–90
categories of, 787–88
challenges, 754
for documentation, 785–802
guidelines for, 786–91
for language revitalization, 785–802
management of, 159
for projects, 788–89
resources, 800–801
submission of applications for, 790–91
ways to find, 792–94
ways to increase opportunities for, 799–800
writing applications for, 787–88, 790–91, 793
future directions, new directions, 300, 546, 695–96, 783–883
for documentation, 200–201
participatory archives, 350–53
for research, 668–69
steps to take, 878–80
Gaagigegaabaw, 241–42
Galibi, 204n4
Galician, 647
Gambian Sign Language, 616
Garabide, 535n5
Garifuna (Garífuna), 408, 413
gatekeeping, 363
Gatschet, Albert, 558–59
gaueskolak (evening schools), 536n9
Gbe orthography, 625
Geary, Quirina, 455
Ge’ez, 60
Genetti, Carol, xix, 285, 803
genocide, 72
genres, 11–12, 128–29, 151, 248, 250, 252–57, 262, 264, 277, 378–79, 385–86, 392–94, 460, 521, 534
subgenres, 467
wide range of, wide variety of, large range of, full range of, 11–12, 108, 111, 114, 231, 277, 281, 386
geographical factors, 5
geographic realms, 674–77
geography, 123n1, 150, 153, 740, 797
George, Tommy, 2
German, 69, 78, 87, 116, 330, 497, 543n15, 640, 642–44
Germanic languages, 638
Germany, 644n6
Gessner, Suzanne, 447
Ghana, 622, 625
Ghanaian Sign Language, 616
Ghana Institute of Linguistics, Literacy and Bible Translation (GILLBT), 622
Ghani, Mariam, 413
Ghomara, 624
ghost words, 324
(p. 912) GIDS. See Graded Intergenerational Disruption Scale
Gĩkũyu, 85, 615
GILLBT (Ghana Institute of Linguistics, Literacy and Bible Translation), 622
GIM (Grassroots Indigenous Multimedia), 235
global cities, 413
Global Directory of Revitalization Initiatives, 473–74, 484
globalization, globalizing, 5, 643, 651, 653, 677–78, 703–4, 711, 720–22, 726, 874
Global Survey of Language Revitalization Efforts, 467, 483–84
Globish, 651
glossary, 280
glossing
conventions for, 286–88
Leipzig glossing rules, 137n8, 260, 286, 286n9
teaching, 811–13
Glottolog, 228, 304, 306n3, 514
Glottopol, 648n10
Godfroy, Gabriel, 558–59
Gómez Sampedro, Nardi, 544n20
Good, Jeff, xix, 419, 796
Google, 519, 522–23
Google Drive, 155
Google Earth, 849
Google Translate, 226, 226n4, 522
Gothic, 3
government-based immersion programs, 578–81, 587
government revitalization, 598–99
government-run programs, 448
Graded Intergenerational Disruption Scale (GIDS), 23, 48–49, 50t
advantages and disadvantages of, 53–56
Expanded GIDS (EGIDS), 23, 48, 51–56, 52t, 53t, 340n5
GRAID (Grammatical Relations and Animacy in Discourse), 251, 260
grammar(s)
abbreviations, 278, 292, 295
accessibility considerations, 284–85
acknowledgements, 278, 295
adjectives, 297
adverbs, 297
appropriateness of examples, 289
audience, 272–73
authorship, 276–77
back matter, 279–81, 300
bibliography, 279
community, 275
comparative, 275
context for, 283, 295
cross-referencing, 292
cultural comments, 292
and culture, 768–69, 779n15
description of, 262, 284–85
descriptive, 273–74nn3–4
electronic, 293
examples, 277, 286–90, 304
exercises for grammar-writing class, 814
FINE (Focused, Interesting, Naturalistic, Educational), 814
footnotes, 292
formal, 132–40, 275
format, 277–82, 291
front matter, 278
generative, 766–67
glossary, 280
glossing conventions, 286–88
goals of, 283
guidelines for writing, 271
index, 279–80
introduction, 283, 295
list of affixes, 281
maps, tables, charts, and figures, 281–82
materials in, 281–82
multimedia, 292
noun phrases, 297
nouns, 296
order of topics, 290–91
organization, 277–82
orthographic representations, 296
outlines/overviews/templates, 302–3
pedagogical, 275, 328, 342
practical, 275
preliminaries, 295
preparation for writing, 272–77
prescriptive, 830–31
presentation of, 282–93
previous work, 283, 295
(p. 913)
production of, 813–15
pronouns, 296
publisher requirements, 292
purpose of, 272–73
recommendations for, 271, 290–93
reconstruction of, 458–59
reference, 274
requisites of different speech styles, 300
sketch, 274
sources, 283, 289, 304
standards of description, 113–14
structuring of topics, 290–91
table of contents, 278–79, 295
template, 294–300
terminology, 285
texts, 281
theoretical approaches to, 275–76
and thought, 779n15
topics, 290–91
traditional, 274
types of, 273–76
typological profile, 283, 295
Universal Grammar, 766
unresolved problems, 300
user guide, 279, 295
verbs, 296–97
web-based, 293–94
grammar-checking, 520
grammatical analysis, 262
Grammatical Relations and Animacy in Discourse (GRAID), 251, 260
grammaticography, 262
grants, 787–89, 793
assignments on granting agencies, 806–7
first-time applicants, 791
Fulbright grants, 831
submission of applications for, 790–91
tools for finding, 801
writing, 805–7
Grantsmanship Center, 801
grapheme(s), 111, 316, 318, 330, 332–35, 343
Grassroots Indigenous Multimedia (GIM), 235
graveyards, 413–14
Gravier, Jacques, 557
Great Andamanese language, 692–93
Greenberg, Joseph H., 9, 499
greenhouses, 413–14
Greenland, 31n6, 84, 872
Greenlandic, 84
green revolution, 401
Grenoble, Lenore A., 329, 342–43, 349, 401n4, 420, 470, 504
Greymorning, Stephen Neyooxet, 7, 452, 577
grief, grieving, 219, 219n11
Grinevald, Colette, 420, 414n17, 431, 807
Grounds, Richard, 238
Guaraní, 84, 96, 135
Guatemalan languages, 826
Guide to Language Policy and Planning (FPCC), 786
Guinea, 619, 625–26
Guinea-Bissau, 429
Gura Pau, 620
Gurung, Nawang Tsering, 408
Guugu Yimithirr, 73
Gwama, 619
Gwich’in, 150–51, 693, 748–50
Gwich’in Social and Cultural Institute, 693
Gymnocladus burmanicus (dekang tree), 728
Haas, Mary, 426
Hadza, 615
Haiphong Sign Language, 171, 200
Haitian Creole, 522–23
haka (“danced chant”), 603–4
Hakka, 573
Hale, Kenneth (Ken), ix–x, 126, 135, 203, 374, 470, 425n3, 684, 764–65, 786, 835, 838
halfway house linguists, 403
Hall, Jaeci, xix, 862, 866–67
Hall, Millie Yéi Dulitssen, xix, 862
Halle, Morris, ix–x, 335
Hamer, 74
Han Chinese, 582
handling, 433
handshapes, 174–75, 175f
Ha Noi Sign Language, 171, 186–87, 192–95, 200
Hans Rausing Endangered Languages Project, 11, 111–12
Hardman, M. J., 826–27
Harmon, David, xix, 659
harmonization, 625
Hart, Betty, 492
Hasidic Yiddish, 416
Havasupai, 457
Haviland, John, 394, 835
Hawaiʻi, 22, 32n7, 94, 574
Hawaiʻi Sign Language (HSL), 22, 200
Hawaiian, 94, 97, 226n4, 310, 405, 411, 446, 448, 450–51, 457, 470–71, 594, 714
immersion schools, 97, 448–50, 500
language nests (Pūnana Leo), 94, 446–47, 471
language programs, 451–52
new vocabulary, 457
official language committees, 457
revitalization of, 309, 414, 470, 481, 502
Hawaiian Dictionary, 309–10
Hayton, Allan, 150–51
headword(s), 313–17, 319–22, 324, 854
Healing Through Language fund, 878
health
aboriginal, 865
assessments of, 879
benefits of indigenous language use for, 862–63, 865–70, 874–78, 875f
concept of, 864
connections with land and language, 871–77
mental, 865
terminology for, 864
health and humanities (academic field), 794
Hebrew, xii, 70, 414, 459, 469, 495–96
Modern, 70, 459
revitalization of, 444–45, 454, 469
Henke, Ryan, xix, 347, 453
Henry VIII, 639n3
Herderian equation, 429
heritage, cultural, ethnic heritage, 68, 263, 363–64, 537, 642, 653
heritage communities, 108, 108n2
heritage language, heritage tongue, linguistic heritage, 67, 69–70, 74, 83, 96, 108, 117, 205–6, 239n46, 341, 343, 356, 407, 410–12, 421, 423, 444, 446–54, 461, 500, 502, 537, 546, 553, 565, 572, 576, 593, 642
heteroglossia, 652
Hill, Jane H., 7, 303, 308, 374, 377, 382, 428
Hill, Jonathan, 355
Himalayan groups, 407
Himalayan Rai languages, 251
Himalayas, 270, 663–64, 664f, 727
HimalCo project (ANR), 251, 270
Himmelmann, Nikolaus, 11–12, 107, 110–11, 118, 125, 228, 253–54, 257–59, 271, 810, 813
Hindi, 58, 95, 606
Hinton, Leanne, xx, 317, 338, 341, 443, 453, 470, 574, 608, 786, 862
Hiri Motu, 74
historical information, 282
history, 8, 348–50, 723–24
Hittite, 3
Hixkaryana, 9
Hmong, 523
Hmong Daw, 523
Hñähñö, 96, 470
ǂHoan, 615
Hobart Museum, 225
Ho Chi Minh City Sign Language, 170n3, 171, 200
classifiers, 186, 188f
distinctive orientations, 176, 176f
lexical items for eating, 189,