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date: 04 April 2020

Abstract and Keywords

Monumental incised and raised texts and figural depictions were carved and painted on a variety of materials, including sedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous stones; wood; plaster; and metals such as gold and silver. The tools, including copper, bronze, and iron flat- and crosscut-tapered chisels and flint chisels, punches, and scrapers, together with the techniques employed to carve and paint reliefs were developed slowly over millennia by ancient workers, reflecting the challenges of creating writing and scenes in hard and softer stones, as well as in other materials. This chapter explores important archaeological evidence for creating reliefs in disparate materials and compares the results of experiments using replica and reconstructed tools. The physical conditions affecting ancient carvers and painters are also discussed.

Keywords: copper, chisel, flint, igneous, incised, metamorphic, raised, sedimentary

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