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date: 29 February 2020

(p. 769) Index

(p. 769) Index

Page numbers followed by f and t indicate figures and tables, respectively. Numbers followed by n indicate notes

ABC (Agência Brasileira de Cooperação, Brazilian Cooperation Agency), 536, 538–41, 543, 548
Abertura Comercial (Trade Opening), 98
ABM Amro, 216n32
abusive practices, 727
ACC (Merger Control Agreement), 726
action plan for combating deforestation in the Amazon (PPCDAm), 583, 585
activity fronts, 291
Administrative Council for Economic Defense. See Conselho Administrativo de Defesa Econômica (CADE)
Aerospace Technology Centre (CTA), 690–91
AES (Applied Energy Services), 137–38
Afghanistan, 662n2
Africa, 149
imports from Brazil, 408, 409t
share of world exports, 407, 407t
slave trade, 19–21, 27–28, 28t, 36n12, 268
South-South cooperation, 535–51
Africa-Brazil Program for Social Development, 543–44
African Union (AU), 543
Agência Brasileira de Cooperação (ABC, Brazilian Cooperation Agency), 536, 538–41, 543, 548
Agência Nacional de Saúde (ANS, National Health Agency), 601–2, 610
Agency for Studies and Projects (Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos, FINEP), 505, 689–90, 712
AGF program, 278–79, 282
agribusiness, 284–85
Certificate of Agribusiness’s Receivable Assets (CRA), 282, 285
Notes of Agribusiness Credit (LCA), 282
agricultural frontier, 291–92, 302–4
agricultural research, 312, 314–15, 319–24, 332n12, 406
agricultural technology, 12, 272, 295
agricultural trade, 410–12, 652–54, 653t
Agricultural Warrant (WA), 282
agriculture, 41–42, 266–87. See also specific crops
activity fronts, 291
areas of cultivated land, 270–72, 270t
average earnings, 566
average hours worked per week (AHWPW), 568
census indicators, 272–73, 274t
climate change and, 587
colonial cycles, 268–69
competitiveness, 411
croplands, 272–73, 274t
crop production, 276, 276f, 277, 277t, 297
demand for products, 328, 329t
diversification, 272–75
employment, 564–65t, 566
expansion of, 275–85, 292–94, 297, 311
family farming, 283
foreign direct investment in, 674, 675t
foreign-market-oriented, 272, 278, 311
GDP growth, 297
government expenditures, 282–83
historical perspectives, 20–21, 32–34, 42–43, 58n44, 268–69, 272, 291–97
imports, 281–82, 281f
incentives for, 334n24
informal workers, 557–61, 559f
inland, 272–75
land distribution, 289, 290t
(p. 770) low pay and wage inequality, 567, 567t
mechanization, 313
modernization, 292–93, 296–304, 309–37
productivity, 325–28, 326t, 343, 343f, 346, 347f, 411
real agricultural product, 92–93
regional disparities, 426–29, 427t, 429–30
science-based, 315–28
share of GDP, 93–94, 93t, 102, 266, 340–41, 341f
share of labor, 93–94, 93t, 102
slave labor, 28, 28t, 32
small producers, 298–300
storage capacity, 285
support for, 298
sustainability of, 325–27
traditional, 288–308
tropical, 293–94
types of, 327–28
union density, 568
value chains, 326
working poverty, 566
world exports, 407, 407t
Agronomic Institute, 273
Agropensa (Embrapa’s Strategic Intelligence System), 320
agroprocessing, 281–82, 281f
Ahlstrom Corporation, 733
aircraft industry, 675, 690–91
air pollution, 578, 582, 590n7
airports
contemporary challenges, 384–85
PAC program, 386–87
Projeto Crescer projects, 389
SOEs, 712, 713f
Alcohol and Sugar Institute (IAA), 117
Alfonsin, Raul, 648
Alliance for Progress, 67–68
altruism, 548
Alves, Eliseu, 10, 301
Amann, Edmund, 12–13
Amazon, 581, 583–86, 585f, 590n8
Amazonas, 305–6n17, 434, 438–39
Amazônia, 303–4
AMFORP (American and Foreign Power Company), 358
Amorim, Celso, 641n30
Anaconda Operation, 748–49, 756
Ananias, Patrus, 543–44
Andean Community, 417n7
ANEEL, 139
Anglo-Saxon countries, 562, 563t
Angola, 187, 536, 541, 691–92
Angra I, 365
Angra II, 365
animal hides, 43t
anões do orçamento (budget dwarves), 747, 756
Anonymous Societies, 202
ANP, 139
ANPEC (Brazilian Association of Graduate Programs in Economics), 81
ANS (Agência Nacional de Saúde, National Health Agency), 601–2, 610
Antarctica-Brahma, 730
anti-competitive behavior, 727
anti-corruption efforts, 754–55, 758–59, 762
anti-corruption institutions, 741–68
anti-dumping investigations, 403
anti-globalization, 656–61
anti-poverty transfers, 511–34
Antitrust Agency of the Americas award, 736
anti-trust policy, 718–40
apparel (clothing)
main exports, 635, 635t
production index, 257t
Applied Energy Services (AES), 137–38
Aracruz, 138–39, 688
Arbache, Jorge, 11–12
Argentina, 9, 130, 142n5, 541, 691–92
anti-corruption efforts, 759–60
Brazilian MNCs in, 692–93
Brazilian population, 655–56, 656t
comparison with Brazil, 128
crisis of 2001–2002, 209, 237
economic growth before WWI, 53–54
export share, 651f
health expenditures, 609
immigration from, 654
import substitution, 76–78
investment in, 187
literacy, 490
per capita GDP, 50, 56n20
(p. 771) per capita income growth, 156t
publications, 506
railroads, 379
school enrollment, 50
services sector, 563t, 569
trade restrictiveness, 652–54, 653t
Treaty of Asunción, 647t
urbanization rate, 50
Armenia, 640n24
Arrow, Kenneth, 593
Arroyo Abad, Leticia, 47
ASEAN (Association of Southern Asian economies), 626, 640n24
Asia, 149, 166–67, 407, 407t
Asian Tigers, 149. See also specific countries
Asia Pacific Trade Agreement, 626
assassinations, 305–6n17
Association of Southern Asian Economies (ASEAN), 626, 640n24
associative contracts, 737n9
Attorney General. See Procuradoria Geral
AU (African Union), 543
Auditoria Geral da União (General Accounting Office), 748
Australia
cooperation with, 318
economic growth before WWI, 53
exports, 171n17, 651f
migrant population, 654–56, 655t
per capita income growth, 156t
services sector, 563t
trade restrictiveness, 652–54, 653t
Austrian School, 126–27
automobiles, 1–2, 52, 236, 359, 398–99
ethanol engines, 363–65
flex fuel vehicles, 364
foreign direct investment in, 674
performance indicators, 251
production index, 257t, 260
requirements for fuel efficiency, 374
tax rebates, 404
Auxilio Gás, 519
average hours worked per week (AHWPW), 568
Ayrton Senna Institute, 500
Azzoni, Carlos, 13
Bacha, Carlos, 10
Baer, Werner, 6–7, 13, 72, 84n42, 103n8, 612n1, 645
Bahia
agriculture, 272, 283–84, 314
coffee production, 279, 279t, 280, 284
colonial period, 20–21, 23, 29, 31–32
credit before banks, 200
first private banks, 202
petroleum, 359
slavery, 29
sugar industry, 31–32
bail-out operations, 184
Bair, Scott, 640n23
balance of payments, 404, 412–14, 412f
Banco Central do Brasil (BCB, Central Bank of Brazil), 109, 112–13, 206–8, 214, 222
Focus Report, 228
PROER program, 209
PROES program, 209–10
Banco Comercial do Rio de Janeiro, 202
Banco da Amazônia, 193n6, 712
Banco da República do Brasil, 203
Banco do Brasil (BB), 110, 112–13, 133, 201–7, 211, 215n15, 215–16n29, 396, 688
Banco do Brasil Group, 712
Banco do Ceará, 202
Banco do Nordeste do Brasil (Bank of the Northeast of Brazil), 193n6, 458–59, 462n5, 712
Banco Nacional da Habitação (BNH, National Bank of Housing), 215n21
Banco Nacional de Desenvolvimento Econômico (BNDE, National Bank of Economic Development), 66–67, 70, 92, 132, 143n14, 216n37
Banco Nacional de Desenvolvimento Econômico e Social (BNDES, National Bank for Economic and Social Development), 80–82, 100, 103n3, 126, 132–33, 137–40, 143n14, 177–97, 216n37, 387, 549, 705, 708–14
establishment, 181, 193n7
fiscal costs, 190–92, 194n23
investment maintenance program (PSI), 186, 190
private companies, 713–14
subsidies, 178, 186, 190–93, 191f, 404
total assets, 177, 193n4
Banco Regional de Desenvolvimento do Extremo Sul, 193n6
Banco Santander, 210, 216n32
Bandeira, Moniz, 737n2
Bandeirante aircraft, 690
bandeirantes (fortune hunters), 269
bandeiras (expeditions), 22
Banespa (São Paulo State Bank), 210
Bank for International Settlements (BIS), 210–11
banking system, 45, 56n17, 198–220
central banks, 106
developmental banks, 178–81
financial fragility, 212–13, 213f
foreign banks, 209f, 210–11, 211f
non-earmarked credit operations, 209f, 210
private banks, 211, 211f
public banks, 211, 211f
reform and restructuring, 109, 208–11
total earmarked credit, 211–12, 212f
total lending, 211, 211f, 212
Bank of Brazil, 45
Bank of England, 112–13
Banks of Royal Credit, 202
Baptists, 499
Barbalho, Jader, 748
Barbosa, Rui, 203, 458
Barrientos, Armando, 12–13
Baumol cost disease, 355n19
BDC (Business Development Bank of Canada), 181
beans
crop production, 270–72, 270t, 277, 277t, 311, 322–23
domestic supply, 301
imports, 276
productivity gains, 325–26, 326t
beef cattle, 325, 326t, 411
Belarus, 369–70, 370t, 640n24
Belgium, 651f, 655–56, 656t
Belo Horizonte, 424, 590n7
Belo Monte hydropower plant, 367, 580–81, 714
Benchmark Interest Rate (Taxa Referencial, TR), 120
Benefício da Prestação Continuada (BPC, Continued Provision Benefit), 474, 511, 515f, 516–18, 526–30, 531n12
main components, 520–21, 520t
transfers, 517, 517f, 518, 522, 523f
Beneficio de Superação da Extrema Pobreza, 521
Benin, 541
Bergstrand, Jeffrey, 640n23
Bertelsmann Stiftung, 754–55
beverage industry. See food and beverages
BG group, 692
Big Mac index, 262n10
big monthly stipend (mensalão) scandal, 227, 749–50, 754–56
bill of exchange (letra de câmbio), 205
biodiesel production, 361
biofuels, 374
biomass, 374, 375t
BIS (Bank for International Settlements), 210–11
“black beans and rice” economic policy, 115
black book, 314
blacks, 555t, 556
bloodsucker (sanguessuga) scandal, 756
BNDE (Banco Nacional de Desenvolvimento Econômico, National Bank of Economic Development), 66–67, 70, 92, 132, 143n14, 216n37
BNDES-Ex (BNDES Exportações), 689–90
BNDESPar, 137
BNDESPAR, 177, 184, 709
BNH (Banco Nacional da Habitação, National Bank of Housing), 215n21
Boianovsky, Mauro, 65
Bolsa Alimentação, 519
Bolsa Escola (School Stipend), 474, 515f, 518–19, 527–29, 531n12
(p. 773) Bolsa Familía (PBF, Family Stipend), 13, 248, 262n11, 474–76, 511–14, 515f, 518–22, 527–30, 560
Conditional Cash Transfer (CCT) program, 2, 10
costs of, 190
main components, 520t, 521
number of participating households, 519, 519f
target households, 531n14
transfers, 520t, 521, 524, 524f, 531n17
books, 36n9
bourgeoisie, state, 128
Bradesco, 133
Brady Plan, 223
Bragantina, 584–85
Branco, Castello, 108
brand identity, 682–83
Brasil Carinhoso, 512, 515f
Brasil Foods, 724
Brasilía, 7, 690–91
Brasil Sem Miséria, 512
Braskem, 695–96
Braudel, Fernand, 64
Brazil. See also BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa) countries
Administrative Council for Economic Defense (Conselho Administrativo de Defesa Econômica, CADE), 732–33
agriculture, 266–308, 290t, 309–37
anti-corruption efforts and institutions, 741–68
antitrust and competition policy, 718–40
automotive regime, 236
balance of payments, 404
banking system, 45, 56n17, 198–220
BTI Transformation Index ranking, 754–55
capital inflow, 412f, 413
Civil Code, 581
Clean Company Act, 760–61
Código de Defesa do Consumidor, 722
coffee production, 279–80, 279t. See also coffee
colonial period, 17–39, 70–71, 199–203, 268–69
contemporary, 382–85, 650–56
Control of Corruption (CC) index ranking, 753, 753f
cooperation with Africa, 535–51
corruption, 741–68, 753f
current account, 233–34, 233f, 412, 412f
debt, 98–99, 639n9
demand for agricultural products, 328, 329t
Departamento Nacional de Obras contra a Seca (DNOCS), 457
desenvolvimento (development), 5–10, 12–13
developmentalism, 6–7, 63–88, 141, 185, 232, 378, 451–52
economic growth, 154–57, 155f, 161–68, 162f, 246–49, 377
economic integration, 433–34
economic miracle (1967–1974), 96, 147–48, 207, 401, 401t, 468
economic performance (1967–1980), 401, 401t
education, 489–510
employment, 570–71
energy, 358–76
energy consumption, 369, 371, 372t, 373f
energy supply, 360–61, 360f, 361f, 362f, 365
Estado Nôvo (New State), 6, 91, 130–31, 214–15n13, 703, 720–21
European settlers, 19
export price index, 649–50, 649f
export revenue, 649–50, 649t
external economic policy, 646–50, 647t
Extraordinary Ministry for Zero Hunger, 519
Federal Police (Departamento da Polícia Federal, DFP), 747–49, 756–57
Federal Public Prosecutors’ Office (Ministério Público Federal, MPF), 726, 746, 749, 756–57
financial policy, 71
financial sector, 118–19
financial system, 204–8
foreign direct investment, 1, 8, 379, 386, 398, 415, 636–37, 637t, 664–81, 674t, 675t, 676t, 678f, 679, 685–89, 685f, 686t
foreign exchange reserves, 91, 262n6
foreign policy, 535–36, 538–39
Geisel government, 116, 222
General Accounting Office (Auditoria Geral da União), 748
geography, 423–24, 594–95
global role, 1
global trade, 408
health economics, 593–618
health inequalities, 602–7, 603f
health resources, 597–99
health system, 596–602
historical perspectives, 15–174
hospital beds, 597–98, 598t
hospitals, 598–99, 598t
imperial period, 40–41, 44–50, 56n19, 269–72
imports, 90
import-substitution industrialization, 7–8, 77–78, 89–104
income distribution, 467–88
income inequality, 577
industrial growth, 89–90
industrial policy, 100–101
infrastructure, 377–93
inland occupation, 272–75
Institutional Act No. 5, 468
internal debt (dívida interna), 207
international prospects, 645–63
international support, 732–33
Joint Budget Committee of Congress (Comissão Mista do Orçamento, CMO), 747
judicial districts (comarcas), 23
labor force, 92–94, 93t
labor market, 552–76, 555t, 571t
labor productivity, 338–39, 339f, 339t
land distribution, 288–308, 290t
Land Law, 44
land tenure, 289, 290t
Law 8886/93 (Government Procurement Act), 746
Law of Economic Readjustment (Lei do Reajustamento Econômico), 205
Law of Fiscal Responsibility (Lei de Responsabilidade Fiscal), 134, 143n15, 435
Law of Similars (Lei de Similaridade Nacional), 647t
Lei da Cláusula-Ouro (Gold Clause Law), 198, 205
Lei de Usura (Usury Law), 198, 205
Lei Orgânica da Assistência Social (LOAS), 517
literacy rates, 44, 50, 55n13
long-term growth, 52–54, 147
macroeconomics, 175–240, 623
manufacturing, 243–65, 253t, 338–57
merchandise exports, 44–45
military government (1964–1985), 206–8, 275–80, 276f, 399, 483, 721
Ministério de Previdência Social, 516, 520t
Ministry of Agrarian and Social Development (Ministério do Desenvolvimento Social e Agrário, MDSA), 283, 305n12, 540–41
Ministry of Agrarian Development (Ministério do Desenvolvimento Agrário, MDA), 282, 300, 305n12, 530n3, 540
Ministry of Agriculture, 314, 332n8
Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply (MAPA), 282
Ministry of Education, 491, 505, 518–19
Ministry of External Relations (Ministério das Relações Exteriores, MRE) (Itamaraty), 536, 539–42
Ministry of Finance, 722, 724–25, 746
Ministry of Health, 519, 541, 544, 599, 610, 611f
Ministry of Justice, 722–25, 734, 749
Ministry of Labor and Social Assistance, 531n13
Ministry of Mines and Energy, 519
Ministry of Planning, 505, 547, 704–5, 707
(p. 775) Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation (Ministério de Ciência, Technólogia e Inovação, MCTI), 541
Ministry of Social Development (Ministério do Desenvolvimento Social, MDS), 283, 512, 530n3, 540, 543
Ministry of Social Development and Fighting Hunger, 305n12, 542, 547
Ministry of Social Development and Zero Hunger, 519
Ministry of the Environment, 578
National Agricultural Research System (SNPA), 315, 332n14
National Bank for Economic and Social Development. See Banco Nacional de Desenvolvimento Econômico e Social (BNDES)
National Bank of Economic Development (Banco Nacional de Desenvolvimento Econômico, BNDE), 66–67, 70, 92, 132, 143n14, 216n37
National Bank of Housing (Banco Nacional da Habitação, BNH), 215n21
National Coffee Council, 90
National Confederation of Industries (Confederação Nacional das Industrias, CNI), 66, 722
National Council of Justice (Conselho Nacional de Justiça, CNJ), 749, 756
National Council on Food Security (Conselho Nacional de Segurança Alimentar e Nutricional, CONSEA), 542, 545
National Energy Plan 2030, 372
National Household Sample Survey (Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios, PNAD), 470, 478–79, 484n1, 514, 604–7, 606t
National Institute for Space Research (INPE), 581–83
National Institute of Social Security (Instituto Nacional de Previdência Social, INPS), 515
National Monetary Council (Conselho Monetário Nacional, CMN), 109, 206, 535, 583
National Privatization Program. See Programa Nacional de Desestatização (PND)
National Program for the Strengthening of Family Farming (Programa Nacional de Fortalecimento da Agricultura Familiar, PRONAF), 546
National Rural Credit System (NSRC or SNCR), 278, 295, 313
National School Nutrition Program (Programa Nacional de Alimentação Escolar, PNAE), 542
National Security Council, 67
National Service for Industrial Apprenticeship (Serviço Nacional de Aprendizagem Industrial, SENAI), 498, 539, 541
National Steel Company (Companhia Siderurgica Nacional, CSN), 6, 91, 99, 116–17, 688
National Supply Superintendence (Superintedência Nacional de Abastecimento, SUNAB), 721
National System of Innovation, 689–90
National Transport Confederation, 755
National Treasury, 186, 190–93, 191f, 202, 206
National Treasury Bond (BTN), 115, 120
National Treasury Indexed Liabilities (ORTN), 109–11
National Treasury Liability (OTN), 111, 115
National Water Supply and Sanitation System (PLANASA), 384, 391n18
overseas development assistance, 536
per capita income, 150–54, 150f, 151f, 152t, 153f, 156t, 157, 157t
Polity IV rank, 631t, 632–33
population density, 424, 425f
population outside Brazil, 655–56, 656t
poverty, 511–34, 530n1
Presidential Decree 6, 321, 583
productive sectors, 241–419
Provisional Measure 1.801-10, 600
public sector, 45–46
railway network, 57n32
(p. 776) regional disparities, 13, 73, 94–95, 408–10, 423–45, 424f, 427t, 476. See also specific regions
regional policies, 457–60
savings rate, 388
school enrollment, 50, 490, 492, 496, 500–502
second National Privatization Program (PND II), 7–8, 97, 188, 229, 244–45
Secretaria de Acompanhamento Econômico (SEAE), 722, 724–25, 733
Secretaria de Direito Econômico (SDE, Secretary of Economic Law), 722–25, 734
Secretaria de Reforma do Judiciário (SRJ, Office for Judicial Reform), 749
Secretaria Especial de Controle de Empresas Estatais (SEST, Special Secretariat of State Enterprise Control), 704–5, 707
Secretariat of Internal Control, 746
services, 338–57, 563t
social debt, 514–15
socio-demography, 594–95, 594t
socioeconomics, 465–618
South-South cooperation, 535–51
state enterprises, 701–17
state role, 699–768
structuralism, 63–88
tariffs, 634t, 636
tax system, 408
technology made in, 506
Temer administration, 389
territory, 22, 423
trade agreements, 417n7
trade restrictiveness, 652–54, 653t
unemployment, 571, 571t
water and sanitation, 383–84, 383t
“Brazil-Africa Dialogue on Food Security, Fight Against Hunger and Rural Development” conference, 545
Brazil cost, 415–16
Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation. See Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (Embrapa)
Brazilian Agricultural Research System, 314
Brazilian and Portuguese Bank (English Bank of Rio de Janeiro), 202
Brazilian Antitrust System (SBDC), 722–23, 730, 734
Brazilian Association of Graduate Programs in Economics (ANPEC), 81
Brazilian Bar Association, 749
Brazilian Cooperation Agency (Agência Brasileira de Cooperação, ABC), 536, 538–41, 543, 548
Brazilian Development Model, 10
Brazilian Enterprise for Rural Technical Assistance and Extension (EMBRATER), 279
Brazilian Institute for the Environment and Renewable Natural Resources (IBAMA), 578
Brazilian Institute of Coffee (IBC), 117
Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE), 148, 300, 590n7
Brazilian multinational corporations, 12, 682–97, 687t
Brazilian Press Association, 749
Brazil Learning Initiative for a World Without Poverty, 547
Brazil–United States Joint Commission (CMBEU), 181
Brazil Without Extreme Poverty, 542–43
brazilwood (Pau Brasil), 20, 71, 267–68, 440n3
Bresser-Pereira, Luiz Carlos, 9, 80–81, 113–14, 124
Bresser Stabilization Plan, 106, 113–14, 114f, 121
Brexit, 657, 659
BRF, 687t
BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa) countries, 2, 10, 621–44. See also specific member countries
annual meetings, 626–28, 640n16, 641n25
asymmetries, 630–37, 631t, 634t, 637t, 641n34
Contingent Reserve Agreement (CRA), 549, 628–29
cooperation with, 535–36
current cooperative measures, 629–30
economic interdependency, 624–26, 625t
FDI asymmetries, 636–37, 637t, 642n45
(p. 777) future directions, 637–39
general trends, 623, 624t
intra-BRICS trade, 633–34, 634t
macro asymmetries, 630–33, 631t
main exports, 635, 635t
micro asymmetries, 633–37, 634t
New Development Bank (NDB), 2, 549, 627–29
objectives, 621–22, 630
poverty reduction, 530n5
Brito, João Rodrigues de, 201
BTI Transformation Index, 754–55
BTN (National Treasury Bond), 115, 120
Buarque, Cristovam, 530n10
budget dwarves (anões do orçamento), 747, 756
Budgetgate, 747
Buenos Aires Plan of Action (Plano de Ação de Buenos Aires, PABA), 537
Build-Own-Operate, Build-Operate-Transfer, and Build-Own-Operate-Transfer arrangements, 387
Bulhões, Otávio Gouvêa de, 65–66, 108
Burkina Faso, 541
Burundi, 662n2
Business Development Bank of Canada (BDC), 181
business services, 564–65t, 566
Bye, Maurice, 64
cacao exports, 43t
CACEX (Carteira de Comercio Exterior), 143n13, 402
Cadastro Único (Single Registry system), 521, 542, 550n1
CAIXA, 712
Caixa de Conversão (Conversion Office), 51, 58n36
Caixa de Estabilização (Stabilization Office), 52, 58n41
Caixa de Mobilização Bancária, 205
Caixa Economica (Savings Bank), 201–2
Caixa Economica da Corte (Court’s Savings Bank), 201–2
Caixa Econômica Federal, 211, 215n15, 215–16n29, 520t
Cameroon, 545–46
Campaign against Nationalization (Campanha contra a estatização), 706, 714
campaign finance reform, 750–51, 758–59
Campanha contra a estatização (Campaign against Nationalization), 706
Campino, Antonio, 613n1
Campos, Roberto de Oliveira, 70, 108, 140, 143n21, 239n10
Campos Basin oil fields, 691
Canico, 692
Cano, Wilson, 81
capacity building, 729–35
capacity utilization, 163t
CAPES (Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior, Higher Education Coordinagion Agency), 505, 509n16, 541
Cape Verde, 536, 541, 544
capital, 660
gross fixed capital formation (GFCF), 246, 248, 258
human, 317, 431
capital goods, 96–97, 103n4
capitalism, 57n26, 127
crony, 751
popular, 133
state, 141, 143n14
capitation, 27
captaincies (capitanias, capitãos hereditários), 20, 22–23, 25, 268
Cardoso, Fernando Henrique, 8–9, 74–75, 84n40, 100, 130–33, 223, 234, 386, 469, 640n13, 748
Plano Real (Real Plan), 9–11, 99, 105–6, 121, 121n3, 125, 133–34, 209, 214, 223, 239n4, 296–97, 470, 647t, 710–11
social development strategy, 531n12
Caribbean, 545, 562, 563t
Carson, Lindsey, 14
Cartão Alimentação, 519
Carteira de Comercio Exterior (CACEX), 143n13, 402
cartels, 730, 734–35
Car Wash scandal, 3, 14, 101, 387, 548, 686, 735, 744, 750–55, 758–59
Cash Transfer Program (Cape Verde), 544
Castro, Antonio Barros de, 80, 186, 305n3
Catholic Church, 200
Catholic schools, 80, 499, 502
cattle industry, 297, 334n23
caudilhos (chieftains), 23
Cavalcante, Ricardo, 11
Cavalcanti, Tiago, 613n1
CC (Control of Corruption) index, 753, 753f
CCT (Conditional Cash Transfer) programs, 2, 10, 537
CDA (Certificate of Agricultural Deposit), 282
CDCA (Certificate of Agricultural Credit Rights), 282, 285
Cease and Desist Agreements, 726
Cédula de Produto Rural (CPR, Rural Product Note), 279
CEMIG, 359
CENPES, 368–69
Center-South Brazil, 73–74
Center-West Brazil
agriculture, 277–78, 284
income, 476, 477t
land disputes, 305–6n17
population, 424, 425f, 476, 477t
soybean production, 280, 280t, 284
water and sanitation, 383–84, 383t
Central African Republic, 662n2
Central America, 407, 407t
central bank(s), 106
Central Bank of Brazil. See Banco Central do Brasil (BCB)
Central Brazil, 292
Centro Regional de Competencia para America Latina, 732
Cepel, 690
Cerrado, 278, 292–96, 303, 311, 324–25
Certificate of Agribusiness’s Receivable Assets (CRA), 282, 285
Certificate of Agricultural Credit Rights (CDCA), 282, 285
Certificate of Agricultural Deposit (CDA), 282
CESP, 359
CET (common external tariff), 402
CGE (computable general equilibrium) models, 436, 587
CGFome (Coordenação Geral de Ações Internacionais de Combate à Fome, General Coordination for International Action Against Hunger), 541–42, 545
CGU (Controladoria Geral da União, Comptroller General of the Union), 746, 748–49
Chad, 541
Chaebols, 684–85
challenges, 11–14
Chang, Ha-Joon, 127
Changing Production Patterns with Social Equity (CEPAL), 79–80
chemicals, 635, 635t, 674
Chicago School, 126–27
chicken flight, 125
chieftains (caudilhos), 23
child labor, 127, 512
Chile, 130
Brazilian MNCs in, 693
comparison with Brazil, 128
contribution of services to manufacturing in, 346
cooperation with Brazil, 537
economic growth, 54
export share, 650–52, 651f, 651t
GDP, 56n20
import substitution, 76–78
PSE/FGR, 283
trade agreements, 626
urbanization rate, 50
water and sanitation, 383
Chimeli, Ariaster B., 13
China, 149, 549. See also BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa) countries
demand for agricultural products, 328, 329t
economy, 5, 639n1, 641n32
environmental quality, 582
foreign direct investment in, 636–37, 637t, 673, 682
greenfields, 671
Harbin Embraer, 675
IMF quota, 638, 642n47
imports from Brazil, 408, 409t, 410–11
income growth, 156t
income per capita, 341–42, 341f, 370, 371t
labor productivity, 338, 339t
MNCs from, 688
oil consumption, 370, 371t
Polity IV rank, 631t, 632–33
poverty reduction, 530n5
PSE/FGR, 283
services sector, 342–43, 346, 563t, 569
tariffs, 634t, 636
trade restrictiveness, 652–54, 653t
China Development Bank, 193n4
China effect, 221, 411, 649–50
CIDE (Contribution of Intervention in the Economic Domain), 344–45
CIP (Conselho Interministerial de Preço, Interministerial Price Council), 721
Citizen Constitution, 119
Clean Company Act, 760–61
climate change, 438–39, 457, 587–88
Clinton, Bill, 640n13
clothing (apparel)
main exports, 635, 635t
production index, 257t
CLT (Consolidação das Leis do Trabalho), 316
CMBEU (Brazil–United States Joint Commission), 181
CMN (Conselho Monetário Nacional, National Monetary Council), 109, 206, 535, 583
CMO (Comissão Mista do Orçamento, Joint Budget Committee of Congress), 747
CNI (Confederação Nacional das Industrias, National Confederation of Industries), 66, 722
CNJ (Conselho Nacional de Justiça, National Council of Justice), 749, 756
CNPq (Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico), 505
coal and coke, 360f, 361, 361f, 362f, 365
COBRADI (Relatório sobre Cooperaçāo Brasileira para o Desenvolvimento International, Report on Brazilian Cooperation for International Development), 543
cocoa exports, 271t, 272, 311
CODEVASF, 457–58
Codigo das Aguas (Water Code), 380
Código de Defesa do Consumidor, 722
Coelho, Duarte, 22
Coes, Donald, 9
coffee boom, 379
coffee culture, 280
coffee exports, 43t, 52, 94, 96–97, 271t, 272–73, 297, 311, 395, 399, 399f, 407, 411
coffee plantations, 267, 269–73, 274t, 284
coffee prices, 90, 272, 396
coffee production, 55n8, 270–80, 270t, 277t, 279t, 297, 426
Furtado on, 71–72
government support, 396
historical perspectives on, 29, 41–45, 52, 56n17, 58n37, 89–90
slave labor, 29
coffee trade, 396, 397f
Collor de Melo, Fernando, 8, 98, 125, 130, 132, 648, 709, 746
Collor de Melo, Pedro, 746
Collorgate, 746
Collor Plan (New Brazil Plan), 106, 116–21, 120f, 122n6, 223
Collor Plan II, 120
Colombia, 554, 691–92
Brazilian MNCs in, 693
cooperation with, 537
foreign direct investment in, 667–68
health expenditures, 609
income per capita and oil consumption, 370, 371t
minimum wage, 556
PSE/FGR, 283
colonialism, internal, 73, 75, 83–84n27, 84n33
colonial period, 17–39
agricultural cycles, 268–69
credit before banks, 199–201
The Economy of Colonial Brazil (Furtado), 70–71
first banks, 201–3
slavery, 27–30, 28t, 35
(p. 780) comarcas (judicial districts), 23
Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL, Economic Commission for Latin America and the Carribbean), 65–67, 70, 73, 75–78, 84n37, 95, 396, 671
Changing Production Patterns with Social Equity, 79–80
Economic Survey of Latin America: 1949, 82n15, 83n16
Comissão Especial de Desestatização (Special Privatization Committee), 708
Comissão Mista do Orçamento (CMO, Joint Budget Committee of Congress), 747
commerce, 712, 713f
Commercial Code, 202
commercial farming, 328
commodity boom (2006–2010), 221–22
commodity exports, 96–97, 225, 226f, 399, 407–8
Common Economic Zone, 640n24
common external tariff (CET), 402
Common Market of the Southern Cone (MERCOSUR or MERCOSUL), 1–2, 98–99, 435, 633, 638–39, 647t, 648
common external tariff (CET), 402
imports from Brazil, 408–10, 409t
trade agreements, 417n7, 626
communications
labor market, 564–65t
SOEs, 712, 713f
communism, 67, 82n14
community health services, 596–97
Community of Portuguese Language Countries, 535–36
Companhia de Obras e Infraestrutura, 194n18
Companhia Siderurgica Nacional (CSN, National Steel Company), 6, 91, 99, 116–17, 688
Companhia Vale do Rio Doce (CVRD), 705
competition policy, 718–40
competitiveness
agricultural, 411
Global Competitiveness Report (WEF), 340
manufacturing, 254–58, 260–61, 346–51
regional disparities, 429–32
services, 346–51
Comptroller General of the Union (Controladoria Geral da União, CGU), 746, 748–49
computable general equilibrium (CGE) models, 436, 587
computers, 257t, 260
Conditional Cash Transfer (CCT) programs, 2, 10, 537
Confederação Nacional das Industrias (CNI, National Confederation of Industries), 66, 722
confisco cambial (exchange rate confiscation), 84n29, 231–32
Conjuntura Economica (Business Cycle), 65–66
CONSEA (Conselho Nacional de Segurança Alimentar e Nutricional, National Council on Food Security), 542, 545
Conselho Administrativo de Defesa Econômica (CADE, Administrative Council for Economic Defense), 720–24, 732–33
Administrative Tribunal (Tribunal), 725–26, 728, 730, 733–34
agreements, 731, 735
Antitrust Agency of the Americas award, 736
capacity building, 729–35
cartel or abuse of dominance cases, 730, 734
Cease and Desist Agreements, 729
checks and balances, 737n8
competition cases judged, 729
composition of, 725
Department of Economic Studies (DEE), 725–26, 734
development of, 728–29
fines collected, 738n12
funding, 726
General Superintendence (SG), 725–28, 730, 734
guidelines for remedies, 735
Horizontal Mergers Guideline, 731
human resources, 733–34
internships, 733–34
investigative tools, 734–35
merger cases, 730
mergers approved by, 729
oversight, 726–27
Procuradoria Geral (ProCADE), 725
(p. 781) Regimento, 730
settlements, 726, 735
transparency, 731
Conselho de Desenvolvimento Econômico (Economic Development Council), 706
Conselho Interministerial de Preço (CIP, Interministerial Price Council), 721
Conselho Monetário Nacional (CMN, National Monetary Council), 109, 206, 535, 583
Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq), 505
Conselho Nacional de Justiça (CNJ, National Council of Justice), 749, 756
Conselho Nacional de Segurança Alimentar e Nutricional (CONSEA, National Council on Food Security), 542, 545
conservation, 585
conservative modernization, 293
Consolidação das Leis do Trabalho (CLT), 316
Constitution (Brazil), 119, 129–30, 206–7, 296, 305n5, 474, 511–12, 529, 542, 581, 597, 610, 721–22, 746–49
construction, 557–61, 559f, 564–65t, 566–67, 567t
constructivism, 499
Construtora Andrade Gutierrez S.A., 187
Construtora Norberto Odebrecht S.A., 187
consumer goods, 103n4
consumption
household, 247
immediate, 222
consumption function, 69
Conta Movimento, 112–13
Continental AG/Veyance, 733
Contingent Reserve Agreement (CRA), 549, 628–29
Continued Provision Benefit (Benefício da Prestação Continuada, BPC), 474
Contrato Soja Verde (Green Soybean contract), 279
Controladoria Geral da União (CGU, Comptroller General of the Union), 746, 748–49
Control of Corruption (CC) index, 753, 753f
Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions, 761
Conversion Office (Caixa de Conversão), 51, 58n36
converted Jews (cristãos-novos, New Christians), 19, 22, 268
cooperation
horizontal, 547
international, 318–19
South-South, 535–51
triangular, 543, 547–48
virtual, 547
Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES, Higher Education Coordination Agency), 505, 509n16, 541
Coordenação Geral de Ações Internacionais de Combate à Fome (CGFome, General Coordination for International Action Against Hunger), 541–42, 545
corn production, 277, 277t, 278, 297, 311, 411
areas of cultivated land, 270–72, 270t
productivity gains, 325–26, 326t
Correa, Sezerdelo, 458
correção monetária (monetary correction), 183
Corregedoria Geral da União, 748
corruption, 387–89, 741–68
institutional, 755–57, 755t
perception-based surveys of, 753–57, 755t
Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI), 753, 753f
Cortes, Gustavo, 11
Costa Póvoa, José Liberato, 756
Costa Rica, 563t
cost services, 348–51, 349f
Côte d’Ivoire, 545
cotton cultivation, 270–72, 270t, 277, 277t
cotton exports, 43t, 271t, 272–73, 297, 311
Council for Economic and Social Development, 136
Council on Public Transparency and Combating Corruption, 749
Court’s Savings Bank (Caixa Economica da Corte), 201–2
Coutinho, Luciano, 81, 186, 194n11
Coutinho, Ruy, 722
CPI (Corruption Perceptions Index), 753, 753f
Cpqd, 690
(p. 782) CPR (Cédula de Produto Rural, Rural Product Note), 279, 285
CRA (Certificate of Agribusiness’s Receivable Assets), 282, 285
CRA (Contingent Reserve Agreement), 549, 628–29
crawling peg (minidesvalorações) policy, 647, 647t
credit, 262n8
agribusiness, 282
before banks, 199–201
BNDES-subsidized, 137
domestic, 163t, 164
rural, 278, 312–13, 332n5
total earmarked credit, 211–12, 212f
credit conditions, 247–48, 262nn8–9
credit operations balance, 247–48
cristãos-novos (converted Jews), 19, 22, 268
crony capitalism, 751
crowding-out effects, 187
“crushed rock” cartel, 734
cruzado, 111
cruzado novo, 115
Cruzado Plan, 105–6, 111–13, 113f, 121, 223, 401, 469
Cruzado II, 113
cruzeiro, 91, 96, 117, 417n2
CSN (Companhia Siderurgica Nacional, National Steel Company), 6, 91, 99, 116–17, 688
CTA (Aerospace Technology Centre), 690–91
Cuba, 42, 54, 67, 187, 541
GDP, 56n21
Mariel Port, 194n16
services employment, 563t
South-South cooperation, 536
cultural ties, 548
currency, 45
appreciation, 248
cruzado, 111
cruzado novo, 115
cruzeiro, 91, 96, 117, 417n2
devaluations, 262n10, 396, 404
historical perspective on, 51
milréis, 45, 58n41
real, 99, 236–37, 715n8
current account balance, Brazilian, 163–64, 163t
1930–2015, 412–14, 412f
1967–1980, 401, 401t
deficits, 233–34, 233f
Current Content, 505
Curitiba, 590n7
customs unions (CUs), 640n22
Cyrillo, Denise, 612n1
decentralization, 588
deforestation, 13–14, 578, 581, 583–86, 585f, 590n4, 590n8
deindustrialization, 101–3, 243, 245, 262n3
Delfim Netto model, 231–32
demand
for agricultural products, 328, 329t
for manufacturing, 249–54, 249f, 250f
demand-distorted growth, 69
demand-driven growth, 69
democracy, 631t, 632–33, 641n37
Democratic Popular Pact, 229–30
democratization, 469–70
demographics, 248–49, 424
historical perspective on, 19–20
and per capita income, 432–33
socio-demography, 556, 594–95, 594t
demonstration effects, 69
de Moura Castro, Claudio, 13
Denmark, 58n46, 369–70, 370t, 563t, 745
dependent-development, 125
dependent economies, 71, 450–57
Depression. See Great Depression
deregulation, 703
desenvolvimentismo (developmentalism), 6–7, 63–88
desenvolvimento (development), 5–10, 12–13
Desenvolvimento e Conjuntura (Development and the Business Cycle), 66
Desenvolvimento e subdesenvolvimento (Development and Underdevelopment) (Furtado), 67–68, 75, 84n32
devaluation
currency, 262n10, 396, 404
internal, 238
development
dependent-development, 125
desenvolvimento, 5–10, 12–13
educational, 489–510
environment and, 578–82
(p. 783) fazer o bolo crescer (make the cake grow) non-theory of, 139–42
human, 518–19, 529
labor market, 552–76
Productive Development Policy, 186
social, 535–51
state-led, 135, 142n12
development agencies (agências de fomento), 193n6
developmentalism, 185, 378
desenvolvimentismo, 6–7, 63–88
new, 141, 232
development banks, 178–81, 193n6
DFP (Departamento da Polícia Federal, Federal Police), 747–49, 756–57
Diamantina, Brazil, 358
diamonds, 23
Dirceu, José, 749
disability transfers, 516–21, 517f, 520t, 529
discrimination, 137, 143n17
distance education, 502
Distance to Default (Z-Score), 217n42
distensão, 131
distributive services
employment in, 562, 563t, 564–65t, 566–70
low pay and wage inequality, 567, 567t
Distrito Federal (Federal District), 431, 434, 480, 590n7, 654
dívida interna (internal debt), 207
dizimeiros, 27
DNOCS (Departamento Nacional de Obras contra a Seca), 457
do Couto e Silva, Golbery, 131
Doha round, 132
Doing Business survey, 340
domestic credit, 163t, 164
domestic services, 564–65t, 566, 569
Dominican Republic, 187
drought, 367, 457
Duesenberry, James, 69
dumping, 403, 417n8
Dutch disease, 57n25, 222, 231–33, 235–37
Dutch West India Company, 267–68
earnings
average, 566, 571, 571t
differences, 478–80
East Asia, 342
East Timor, 537, 541, 662n2
ECLAC (Economic Commission for Latin America and the Carribbean). See Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL)
A economia brasileira (The Brazilian Economy) (Furtado), 70, 83n23
Economia da Saúde (IPEA), 593
Economia de La Salud—Perspectivas para América Latina (Panamerican Health Organization), 593
Uma economia dependente (A Dependent Economy), 70, 83n23
economia popular (the people’s economy), 720–21
Economic Bulletin, 77–78
Economic Commission for Latin America and the Carribbean (ECLAC). See Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL)
The Economic Development of Latin America (Furtado), 68
The Economic Development of Latin America and Its Principal Problems (Prebisch), 68
The Economic Growth of Brazil (Furtado), 67, 70–72, 75, 82n12, 83n23
economic miracle (milagre econômico) (1967–1974), 96, 147–48, 207, 401, 401t, 468, 647t
economic policy
“black beans and rice” policy, 115
external economic policy, 646–50
macroeconomic, 175–240
Economic Readjustment Law (Lei do Reajustamento Econômico), 205
economic structuralism. See structuralism
Economic Survey of Latin America: 1949 (CEPAL), 82n15, 83n16
economy. See also specific sectors
corruption and, 741–68, 743t
dependent economies, 71
international prospects, 645–63
open, 650–56
simulations, 157–60, 158t, 159f, 160f
state role, 699–768
world, 1, 262n1, 621–97
(p. 784) The Economy of Colonial Brazil (Furtado), 70–71
Ecuador, 693
Edison, Thomas Alva, 358
education, Brazilian, 489–510
Base Curricular, 495
employment in, 564–65t
evaluations, 492–93, 504, 509n14
Exame Nacional do Ensino Médio (ENEM), 492–93
importance of, 478–79
primary schools (ensino fundamental), 490–92, 508n2
regional disparities, 428f, 429, 460, 461f
secondary schools (ensino médio), 490–92, 495–96, 508n2
Sistema de Avaliação da Educação Básica (SAEB), 492
teaching systems (sistemas de ensino), 500
technical, 497–99, 508n11
EFTA (European Free Trade Agreement), 640n24
EGF program, 278–79
EKC (environmental Kuznets curve) hypothesis, 577
elderly population, 594t, 595
Eldorado Florestal, 284
electrical equipment exports, 635, 635t
electricity, 358–59, 371, 375, 380
domestic supply, 360f, 361, 361f, 362f
new model, 367
PAC program, 386–87
potential expansion, 374, 375t
privatization of, 184
rural, 284–85
Electrobras, 126
Electropaulo, 137–38
Eletrobrás, 239n10, 359, 690, 712
Embraer, 84n42, 126, 133, 187, 683, 688–90
foreign assets, 687t
Harbin Embraer, 675
EMBRATER (Brazilian Enterprise for Rural Technical Assistance and Extension), 279
emerging market-based multinational corporations (EMNCs), 684–85, 694
emigration, 654
EMNCs (emerging market-based multinational corporations), 684–85, 694
employment, 554, 555t, 571
average hours worked per week (AHWPW), 568
formalization, 557–61, 559f
formal occupations, 247
full, 659
manufacturing industry participation, 244f, 246
modernization and, 298
new jobs, 247, 553
service sector, 561–70
total national jobs, 247
Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (Embrapa, Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation), 278–79, 286, 294–96, 303, 309–37, 406, 541, 712
Agropensa (Strategic Intelligence System), 320
establishment, 314, 332n8
human resources, 317, 333n17
Labex Program, 318–19
support for ProSavana, 546
“Vision 2014–2034,” 320–22, 321f
Empresa de Pesquisa Energética (EPE), 367
ENADE (Exame Nacional de Desempenho de Estudantes), 504, 508n7
Encilhamento, 45, 50, 203
ENEM (Exame Nacional do Ensino Médio), 492–93
energy, in Brazil, 358–76
consumption, 369–71, 370t, 371t, 372t, 373f
domestic supply, 360–61, 360f, 361f, 362f, 365
hydroelectric, 365–66, 366f, 367
nuclear, 360f, 362f, 365
PAC program, 386–87
planning, 369–72, 372t, 373f
renewable, 360f, 362f
thermoelectric, 367, 368f
total primary energy supply (TPES), 369
Engenho do Conde, 36n17
engenhos (sugar mills), 21–22, 25, 31–32, 36n15
Engenho Salgado, 31
(p. 785) engineering services exports, 187
England, 180. See also United Kingdom
English Bank of Rio de Janeiro, 202
ensino fundamental (primary schools), 490–92, 508n2
ensino médio (secondary schools), 490–92, 495–96, 508n2
Enterprise Survey (World Bank), 340
entrepreneurs, 71, 294
environmental economics, 582–89
environmental issues, 13–14, 577–92
environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis, 577
EPE (Empresa de Pesquisa Energética), 367, 712
EPPG (public managers or gestores), 733, 738nn19–20
Equalizing Premium Paid to Growers program (PEPRO), 283, 285
Equatorial Guinea, 692
Erber, Fabio, 81
Escada, 32
Escola Superior de Agricultura de Lavras, 314
Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz, 314
Espírito Santo
coffee production, 275, 279, 279t, 280, 284
oil fields, 691
population and reported income, 476, 477t
trade with other states, 434
O Estado de São Paulo, 705
Estado Nôvo (New State), 6, 91, 130–31, 214–15n13, 703, 720–21
Estevão, Luiz, 747
Estudos Economicos (Economic Studies), 66
ethanol
domestic energy supply, 361f, 362
energy curve, 364–65, 364f
environmental issues, 586–87, 590n10
production, 362–65, 374, 586, 590n10
ethanol consumption, 364
ethanol prices, 363
ethanol vehicles, 363–65
Ethiopia, 545
ethnic differences, 478–80
Eurasian Economic Union, 640n24
Europe. See also specific countries
immigration from, 654
incentives for farmers, 334n24
railway network, 382
services sector, 562, 563t
share of world exports, 407, 407t
SOEs, 705
trade, 658
European Economic Community, 68
European Free Trade Agreement (EFTA), 640n24
European settlers, 19, 43–44
European Union (EU), 416
general trends, 623, 624t
PSE/FGR, 283
support to agricultural producers, 298
trade, 408, 409t, 410, 652–54, 653t
Eurozone, 245–46
Evangelista de Souza, Irineu, 202
Everhardt, Allison, 391n26
Exame Nacional de Desempenho de Estudantes (ENADE), 504, 508n7
Exame Nacional do Ensino Médio (ENEM), 492–93
exchange rates, 56n16, 58n41, 71, 91, 99–100, 112, 115, 185, 224, 248
confiscation (confisco cambial), 231–32
effective, 239n6, 416
floating, 405–6
historical perspective on, 646–50, 647t
industrial equilibrium effective, 224, 224f, 234–35
interest rate–exchange rate trap, 221–40
Normative Instruction 70, 398
overvalued, 398
real, 405, 412–14, 413f
real effective, 224, 224f, 234–35
trade performance and, 405–12
expansion, economic, 9–10
expansion, territorial, 22
expectant mothers and infants, 519
exports
commodity, 96–97, 225, 226f, 399
export/GDP ratios, 48, 57n27, 94, 415
historical perspective on, 12, 41–43, 48, 55n2, 57n27, 90
nontraditional, 12
(p. 786) price index, 649–50, 649f
ex-tarifário, 417n5
factor proportions theory, 658
FAF (Financial Investment Funds), 120
Fajnzylber, Fernando, 78–80
family farming, 283, 546
Family Health program (Programa Saúde da Familia, PSF), 527, 597
Family Stipend. See Bolsa Familía
family subsidies, 519
A Fantasia Organizada (Furtado), 82n15
Faria, Vilmar, 531n12
Farias, Paulo César (“PC”), 746
farm areas, 278
farming. See also agriculture
commercial, 328
entrepreneurial, 294
family, 283, 546
incentives for farmers, 334n24
income per farms, 320
subsistence, 327–28
FAT (Fundo de Amparo ao Trabalhador, Worker Support Fund), 138
Faucher, Philippe, 8
fazer o bolo crescer (make the cake grow) non-theory of development, 139–42
Federal District (Distrito Federal), 431, 434, 480, 590n7, 654
Federal Police (Departamento da Polícia Federal, DFP), 747–49, 756–57
Federal Public Prosecutor (Ministério Público Federal, MPF), 726, 746, 749, 756–57
Federal Railroad Corporation (RFSSA), 380–81
Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, 80
Fernandez, Ramon Garcia, 81
Ferraz, Joao Carlos, 81
Ferrer, Aldo, 70
fertility rate, 594t
FGTS (Fundo de Garantia do Tempo de Serviço, Length of Service Guarantee Fund), 110, 133, 207
FGV (Fundação Getúlio Vargas), 65–66, 80–81
Fiat, 363–64
Fibria, 284
FIES (Fundo de Financiamento Estudantil), 503
FIESP, 389, 722
FIFA World Cup, 384–85
Figueiredo, João, 469, 708
FINAME (Financing Agency for Machinery and Equipment), 177, 689–90
FINAMEX (Financiadora de Maquinas e Equipamentos), 689–90
financeiras (Societies of Credit, Funding, and Investment; Sociedades de Crédito, Financiamento e Investimento), 215n20
Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos (FINEP, Agency for Studies and Projects), 505, 689–90, 712
Financial Investment Funds (FAF), 120
financial reform, 109
financial repression, 179
financial sector, 213–14
Brazilian MNCs, 688
domestic credit provided by, 163t, 164
employment, 564–65t
foreign direct investment in, 674
inflationary period (1986–2005), 208
SOEs, 712, 713f
value added, 118, 118t
financial system(s)
Brazilian, 204–8
types of, 180
Financial System for Housing (Sistema Financeiro da Habitação, SFH), 207, 215n21
financing
health care, 608–9
for national champions, 138–39
Financing Agency for Machinery and Equipment (FINAME), 177, 689–90
Fincef, 137
Finep, 509n15
FINEP (Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos, Agency for Studies and Projects), 505, 689–90, 712
Fiocruz (Oswaldo Cruz Foundation), 541, 544
Fiscal Responsibility Law (Lei de Responsabilidade Fiscal), 134, 143n15, 435
flex fuel vehicles, 364
Folha da São Paulo, 749
Fome Zero (Zero Hunger) initiative, 519, 522, 542
Food Acquisition Program (PAA), 282, 542, 545
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), 535–37, 541, 544–45
food and beverages
Brazilian MNCs, 687–88, 687t
exports, 635, 635t
growth rates, 91
historic perspective on, 51
imports, 275–80, 311
performance indicators, 251
productivity, 257t
SOEs, 712, 713f
food and catering services, 354n7
food costs, 84n31
food prices, 327, 327f
Ford, 52, 363–64
Ford Foundation, 81, 333n18, 504–5
foreclosure restrictions, 200
foreign banks, 202, 209f, 210–11, 211f
foreign-born population, 654
foreign debt, Brazilian, 229, 233–34, 233f, 400–401, 401t
gross external debt/export ratio, 413–14, 413f
foreign direct investment (FDI)
in Brazil, 1, 8, 44, 379, 386, 398, 415, 664–81, 674t, 675t, 676t, 678f, 679
corruption and, 741–44, 742t
functions of, 665–69, 671–72
global, 682–83
Hypothesis of the Three Sectors for, 677, 677f
intra-BRICS, 624–26, 625t, 636–37, 637t, 642n45
inward, 1, 684, 741–44, 742t
in Latin America, 670–73
outward (OFDI), 683–89, 685f, 686t
foreign exchange reserves, 91, 262n6
foreign investment, 386, 684
foreign-market-oriented agriculture, 272, 278, 311
foreign savings, 222, 233, 237
forests, 284
Formação econômica do Brasil (Furtado), 103n1
Fortaleza, 446
fortune hunters (bandeirantes), 269
fossil fuels, 367
Fox, Vicente, 130
Foz do Iguaçu, 508n5
France
Brazilian population, 655–56, 656t
colonization of Brazil, 33
exports, 651f
income growth, 156t
industrial development, 180
migrant population, 654–56, 655t
secondary schools, 495
services employment, 563t
Franco, Itamar, 8–9, 80, 121n3, 223, 746
Frank, Andre Gunder, 74–75
Free Trade Area of the Americas, 132
free trade areas (FTAs), 435, 626, 640n22, 640n24
Freyre, Gilberto, 21, 82n14
Fribol, 138–39
Friedman, Milton, 124, 126–27, 142n4
FTAs (free trade areas), 435, 626, 640n22, 640n24
Fuglie, Keith, 334n26
Funaro, Dilson, 113
Fundação Getúlio Vargas (FGV), 65–66, 80–81
FUNDEB (Fundo de Desenvolvimento do Ensino Básico), 491, 508n4
Fundo de Amparo ao Trabalhador (FAT, Worker Support Fund), 138
Fundo de Desenvolvimento do Ensino Básico (FUNDEB), 491, 508n4
Fundo de Financiamento Estudantil (FIES), 503
Fundo de Garantia do Tempo de Serviço (FGTS, Length of Service Guarantee Fund), 110, 133, 207
Furtado, Celso, 63–76, 81, 82n3, 82n10, 82n14, 83n19, 458, 646
Desenvolvimento e subdesenvolvimento (Development and Underdevelopment), 67–68, 75, 84n32
(p. 788) A economia brasileira (The Brazilian Economy), 70, 83n23
Uma economia dependente (A Dependent Economy), 70, 83n23
The Economic Development of Latin America, 68
The Economic Growth of Brazil, 67, 70–72, 75, 82n12, 83n23
The Economy of Colonial Brazil, 70–71
A Fantasia Organizada, 82n15
Formação econômica do Brasil, 103n1
“General Characteristics,” 72, 82n15
Operation Northeast, 75
“Sketch of a Program of Development for Brazil,” 66
Triennial Plan, 108
future directions, 14, 506–8, 547–50, 637–39
G20 countries, 155, 156t, 157, 157t, 170n7. See also specific countries
Gabon, 692
Galeão airport, 384–85
gambling, 749
gas. See oil and gas
gasohol, 364
GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade), 636, 641–42n40
GE Appliances, 682
Gemini, 735
gender differences, 478–80
General Accounting Office (Auditoria Geral da União), 748
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), 636, 641–42n40
“General Characteristics” (Furtado), 72, 82n15
General Inspectorate of Banks (Inspetoria Geral dos Bancos), 204
General Motors, 52, 363–64
genetic research, 334n28
genome editing, 334n28
geographic information system (GIS) transportation network model, 436
geography, 49, 54, 423–24, 447–49, 594–95
and per capita income, 432–33
territorial expansion, 22
Gerdau, 687t
German immigrants, 43–44
Germany, 117, 365
Brazilian MNCs in, 692–93
Brazilian population, 655–56, 656t
cooperation with, 318, 536–37
corruption, 754
export share, 650–52, 651f, 651t
income per capita, 156t, 341–42, 341f
migrant population, 654–56, 655t
secondary schools, 495
services sector, 341–42, 341f, 563t
SOEs, 705
germination points (growth poles), 70
gestores or public managers (EPPG), 733, 738nn19–20
GFCF (gross fixed capital formation), 246, 248, 258
Ghana, 542–46
Gini index, 470–72, 471f, 472f, 473
Glass-Steagall Act, 215n25
Global Competition Review, 732, 736
Global Competitiveness Report (WEF), 340
Global Corruption Barometer, 754–56, 755t
global economy, 1, 262n1, 621–97
globalization, 53, 645–50
anti-globalization, 656–61
happy, 135
global trade, 408, 623, 624t
Goiás, 277
Gold Clause Law (Lei da Cláusula-Ouro), 198, 205
gold excavation, 20–24, 28–29, 28t, 35–36n6, 426
Goldsmith, Raymond, 45
Gomes, Maia, 462n4
Gonzalez Casanova, Pablo, 84n33
Goulart, Joao, 67–68, 82n10, 108
Government Procurement Act (Law 8886/93), 746
graduate schools, 504–6
grains and oil Seeds, 311, 331–32n4
Granger causality test, 375n1
Great Britain. See United Kingdom
Great Depression, 68–69, 72, 198, 213–14, 406, 702–3
trade during, 395–97, 397f
(p. 789) Great Divergence, 53
Great Recession, 211–13, 406
Great Specialization, 53–54
greenfields, 671, 692
Green Soybean contract (Contrato Soja Verde), 279
gross domestic product (GDP), 577
agricultural, 297
Brazilian (1967–1980), 401, 401t
export/GDP ratios, 48, 57n27, 94, 415
general trends, 623, 624t
global, 262n1
growth rates, 92–93, 95–97, 238n2, 247, 258, 262n1, 397, 401, 401t, 404, 623, 624t
import/GDP ratios, 94, 96–97, 98t
income per capita and, 341–42, 341f
industrial, 401, 401t
manufacturing industry participation, 244–46, 244f
regional disparities, 426–29, 427t
sectoral, 93–94, 93t, 102, 340–42, 341f
simulations, 158–59, 159f
TPES per capita vs GDP per capita, 369, 370f
trade/GDP ratio, 132
gross fixed capital formation (GFCF), 246, 248, 258
growth, economic, 11–12, 40–41, 50–52, 147–74, 262n8, 377
1967–1980, 401, 401t
during accelerations, 161–62, 162f
annual per capita rate, 414
average rates, 155, 155f
during collapses, 161–62, 162f
corruption and, 741–44, 744t
demand-distorted, 69
demand-driven, 69
determinants of, 246–49
export-led, 281–85
foreign direct investment and, 665–69
GDP growth, 156, 221–22, 238n2, 246–47, 397, 401, 401t, 404
general trends, 623, 624t
income growth, 152–54, 152t, 153f, 155, 156t, 157, 157t, 334n27
infrastructure link, 385–86
jobs-rich, 553
resumed, 221
simulations, 157–60, 158t, 159f, 160f
volatility, 154–57, 155f
growth, industrial, 397–401, 401t
growth, productivity, 12, 354n6
Growth Acceleration Program (Programa de Crescimento Acelerado, PAC), 377–78, 386–89
growth hypothesis, 369
Grupo Misto CEPAL-BNDE, 66, 70
Guanabara, 82n14
Guanabara Bay, 577–78, 580
Guarantee Program for Agricultural Activity (PROAGRO), 279, 282
Guarulhos Airport, 384–85, 391n19
Guatemala, 537
Gudin, Eugenio, 66
Guinea Bissau, 536, 541
Haddad, Eduardo, 13
Haddad, Fernando, 493
Haiti, 537, 541–42, 548
Hall, Anthony, 10
Harbin Embraer, 675
Harrod-Domar model, 110
health care
community services, 596–97
employment in, 564–65t
hospital beds, 597–98, 598t
inequalities in outcomes, 605, 606t, 613n11
inequalities in use, 607, 607t
judicialization of, 610–12
lawsuits regarding, 610–11, 611t
preventive,