- The Oxford Handbook of the Brazilian Economy
- The Colonial Economy
- The Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries
- Brazilian Structuralism
- Brazil’s Import-Substitution Industrialization
- Experiences of Inflation and Stabilization, 1960–1990
- Leviathan Captured Neoliberalism as Solution and Problem in Brazil
- Growth Volatility and Economic Growth in Brazil
- The Brazilian Development Bank
- The Evolution of Brazil’s Banking System
- Brazil’s Macroeconomic Policy Institutions, Quasi-Stagnation, and the Interest Rate–Exchange Rate Trap
- Evolution and Sectoral Competitiveness of the Brazilian Manufacturing Industry
- The Agricultural Sector
- Traditional Agriculture and Land Distribution in Brazil
- Brazil’s Agricultural Modernization and Embrapa
- Manufacturing, Services, and the Productivity Gap
- Energy in Brazil: Past and Future
- Trade Policy from the 1930s to the Present
- Regional Disparities
- Brazil’s Northeast
- Changes in Income Distribution in Brazil
- The Development of Brazilian Education: A Tale of Lost Opportunities?
- Anti-Poverty Transfers and Poverty Reduction
- South-South Cooperation for Social Development: Brazil and Africa Examined
- Labor Market Development in Brazil: Formalization at Last?
- Environmental Issues
- The Economics of Health in Brazil
- Brazil, the BRICS, and the Changing Landscape of Global Economic Governance
- Brazilian Trade and International Economic Prospects in an Anti-Globalization Era
- The Evolution of Foreign Direct Investment in Brazil
- Multinational Corporations from Brazil
- The Rise and Fall of State Enterprises
- Antitrust and Competition Policy in Brazil
- Corruption Scandals, the Evolution of Anti-Corruption Institutions, and Their Impact on Brazil’s Economy
Abstract and Keywords
This chapter begins with an overview of the nature of neoliberalism. As markets evolved and globalization made progress, governments introduced reforms meant to adjust policies and regulations to a more open and competitive environment and reduce the relative weight and role of the state. Policies such as privatization and trade liberalization were introduced in Brazil shortly after a civilian, Fernando Collor de Melo (1990–1992), was elected president. But the neoliberal agenda was relegated to second place as all energy was turned toward the fight against inflation and the debt crisis. After a first term dedicated to consolidate public finances, President Cardoso (1995–2002) introduced a number of “market-oriented” reforms aimed at flexibility and efficiency. Under President Lula (2003–2010), social programs were improved, transfers were increased, and the minimum wage was raised. Since 2009, a recession has threatened the joint imperatives of forced development and social justice.
Philippe Faucher, Associate Professor, Department of Political Science, University of Montreal
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