- The Oxford Handbook of the Brazilian Economy
- The Colonial Economy
- The Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries
- Brazilian Structuralism
- Brazil’s Import-Substitution Industrialization
- Experiences of Inflation and Stabilization, 1960–1990
- Leviathan Captured Neoliberalism as Solution and Problem in Brazil
- Growth Volatility and Economic Growth in Brazil
- The Brazilian Development Bank
- The Evolution of Brazil’s Banking System
- Brazil’s Macroeconomic Policy Institutions, Quasi-Stagnation, and the Interest Rate–Exchange Rate Trap
- Evolution and Sectoral Competitiveness of the Brazilian Manufacturing Industry
- The Agricultural Sector
- Traditional Agriculture and Land Distribution in Brazil
- Brazil’s Agricultural Modernization and Embrapa
- Manufacturing, Services, and the Productivity Gap
- Energy in Brazil: Past and Future
- Trade Policy from the 1930s to the Present
- Regional Disparities
- Brazil’s Northeast
- Changes in Income Distribution in Brazil
- The Development of Brazilian Education: A Tale of Lost Opportunities?
- Anti-Poverty Transfers and Poverty Reduction
- South-South Cooperation for Social Development: Brazil and Africa Examined
- Labor Market Development in Brazil: Formalization at Last?
- Environmental Issues
- The Economics of Health in Brazil
- Brazil, the BRICS, and the Changing Landscape of Global Economic Governance
- Brazilian Trade and International Economic Prospects in an Anti-Globalization Era
- The Evolution of Foreign Direct Investment in Brazil
- Multinational Corporations from Brazil
- The Rise and Fall of State Enterprises
- Antitrust and Competition Policy in Brazil
- Corruption Scandals, the Evolution of Anti-Corruption Institutions, and Their Impact on Brazil’s Economy
Abstract and Keywords
This chapter reviews some of the major trends in Brazilian trade and international economic policy, including its reaction to international commodity market and capital market shocks in recent decades and the politically driven emphasis on preferential trade. It also examines the question of how “open” the Brazilian economy is, even after some moves toward greater linkages to world markets. The chapter then considers some of the major anti-globalization trends in Brazil’s principal economic partners, and attempts to identify some of their causes. It argues that Brazil’s links to other economies through capital and labor markets are at least as important as are its commodity trade links. Trends in these markets may help explain some of the anti-globalization attitudes it may face in the future. With the half-century consensus in support of internationally open trade, capital, and labor markets seemingly under siege, the way ahead for Brazil is far from clear.
Donald V. Coes, former Professor of Economics, Department of Economics, University of New Mexico
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