- The Oxford Handbook of the Brazilian Economy
- The Colonial Economy
- The Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries
- Brazilian Structuralism
- Brazil’s Import-Substitution Industrialization
- Experiences of Inflation and Stabilization, 1960–1990
- Leviathan Captured Neoliberalism as Solution and Problem in Brazil
- Growth Volatility and Economic Growth in Brazil
- The Brazilian Development Bank
- The Evolution of Brazil’s Banking System
- Brazil’s Macroeconomic Policy Institutions, Quasi-Stagnation, and the Interest Rate–Exchange Rate Trap
- Evolution and Sectoral Competitiveness of the Brazilian Manufacturing Industry
- The Agricultural Sector
- Traditional Agriculture and Land Distribution in Brazil
- Brazil’s Agricultural Modernization and Embrapa
- Manufacturing, Services, and the Productivity Gap
- Energy in Brazil: Past and Future
- Trade Policy from the 1930s to the Present
- Regional Disparities
- Brazil’s Northeast
- Changes in Income Distribution in Brazil
- The Development of Brazilian Education: A Tale of Lost Opportunities?
- Anti-Poverty Transfers and Poverty Reduction
- South-South Cooperation for Social Development: Brazil and Africa Examined
- Labor Market Development in Brazil: Formalization at Last?
- Environmental Issues
- The Economics of Health in Brazil
- Brazil, the BRICS, and the Changing Landscape of Global Economic Governance
- Brazilian Trade and International Economic Prospects in an Anti-Globalization Era
- The Evolution of Foreign Direct Investment in Brazil
- Multinational Corporations from Brazil
- The Rise and Fall of State Enterprises
- Antitrust and Competition Policy in Brazil
- Corruption Scandals, the Evolution of Anti-Corruption Institutions, and Their Impact on Brazil’s Economy
Abstract and Keywords
For most of the nineteenth century the Brazilian economy grew roughly in line with population expansion. As a result, increases in per capita incomes were modest at best and, even then, were visible mostly in the second half of the century. As the empire came to a close and the republic was ushered in, several obstacles that had previously stood in the way of faster growth were gradually overcome and modern economic growth set in. This chapter discusses the main factors accounting for this story of no/low economic growth, followed by faster per capita income increases from the turn of the nineteenth century onward. Inevitably, in such a complex story as that of economic growth over such a long period, social, political, and demographic factors will be combined with those more strictly “economic” to provide a more comprehensive account of the historical developments under examination.
André Villela, Researcher, Fundação Getulio Vargas–EPGE, Rio de Janeiro
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