- The Oxford Handbook of the Brazilian Economy
- The Colonial Economy
- The Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries
- Brazilian Structuralism
- Brazil’s Import-Substitution Industrialization
- Experiences of Inflation and Stabilization, 1960–1990
- Leviathan Captured Neoliberalism as Solution and Problem in Brazil
- Growth Volatility and Economic Growth in Brazil
- The Brazilian Development Bank
- The Evolution of Brazil’s Banking System
- Brazil’s Macroeconomic Policy Institutions, Quasi-Stagnation, and the Interest Rate–Exchange Rate Trap
- Evolution and Sectoral Competitiveness of the Brazilian Manufacturing Industry
- The Agricultural Sector
- Traditional Agriculture and Land Distribution in Brazil
- Brazil’s Agricultural Modernization and Embrapa
- Manufacturing, Services, and the Productivity Gap
- Energy in Brazil: Past and Future
- Trade Policy from the 1930s to the Present
- Regional Disparities
- Brazil’s Northeast
- Changes in Income Distribution in Brazil
- The Development of Brazilian Education: A Tale of Lost Opportunities?
- Anti-Poverty Transfers and Poverty Reduction
- South-South Cooperation for Social Development: Brazil and Africa Examined
- Labor Market Development in Brazil: Formalization at Last?
- Environmental Issues
- The Economics of Health in Brazil
- Brazil, the BRICS, and the Changing Landscape of Global Economic Governance
- Brazilian Trade and International Economic Prospects in an Anti-Globalization Era
- The Evolution of Foreign Direct Investment in Brazil
- Multinational Corporations from Brazil
- The Rise and Fall of State Enterprises
- Antitrust and Competition Policy in Brazil
- Corruption Scandals, the Evolution of Anti-Corruption Institutions, and Their Impact on Brazil’s Economy
Abstract and Keywords
This chapter analyzes the emergence of disparities in income and development levels between Brazil’s main regions, in particular the gap that exists between the comparatively rich South and Southeast and the poorer North and West regions. Economic activity and the population are concentrated in a small part of the territory. Even within this reduced area, the geographical distribution is highly uneven. Besides concentration, regional inequalities are marked in the country in terms of per capita income, education, access to public services, and so on. This scenario of concentration and inequality is quite persistent, as the data available indicate. We conclude with a discussion of regional policy, both intended and unintended. The present levels of inequality shows the failure of the traditional place-based regional policies implemented in the past. The people-based policies implemented in recent decades have been the most effective way of reducing regional inequality.
Carlos R. Azzoni, Professor of Economics, Faculty of Economics and Administration, University of São Paulo
Eduardo A. Haddad, Professor of Economics, Faculty of Economics and Administration, University of São Paulo
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