- The Oxford Handbook of the Brazilian Economy
- The Colonial Economy
- The Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries
- Brazilian Structuralism
- Brazil’s Import-Substitution Industrialization
- Experiences of Inflation and Stabilization, 1960–1990
- Leviathan Captured Neoliberalism as Solution and Problem in Brazil
- Growth Volatility and Economic Growth in Brazil
- The Brazilian Development Bank
- The Evolution of Brazil’s Banking System
- Brazil’s Macroeconomic Policy Institutions, Quasi-Stagnation, and the Interest Rate–Exchange Rate Trap
- Evolution and Sectoral Competitiveness of the Brazilian Manufacturing Industry
- The Agricultural Sector
- Traditional Agriculture and Land Distribution in Brazil
- Brazil’s Agricultural Modernization and Embrapa
- Manufacturing, Services, and the Productivity Gap
- Energy in Brazil: Past and Future
- Trade Policy from the 1930s to the Present
- Regional Disparities
- Brazil’s Northeast
- Changes in Income Distribution in Brazil
- The Development of Brazilian Education: A Tale of Lost Opportunities?
- Anti-Poverty Transfers and Poverty Reduction
- South-South Cooperation for Social Development: Brazil and Africa Examined
- Labor Market Development in Brazil: Formalization at Last?
- Environmental Issues
- The Economics of Health in Brazil
- Brazil, the BRICS, and the Changing Landscape of Global Economic Governance
- Brazilian Trade and International Economic Prospects in an Anti-Globalization Era
- The Evolution of Foreign Direct Investment in Brazil
- Multinational Corporations from Brazil
- The Rise and Fall of State Enterprises
- Antitrust and Competition Policy in Brazil
- Corruption Scandals, the Evolution of Anti-Corruption Institutions, and Their Impact on Brazil’s Economy
Abstract and Keywords
This chapter examines the progression of Brazil’s agriculture since the end of World War II, a period during which a highly concentrated pattern of land distribution remained basically unchanged, despite remarkable changes in agriculture. Three different phases are recognized: a phase of horizontal expansion, up to the early 1970s, in which agriculture remained essentially traditional; a period of substantial but conservative modernization of agriculture, from the early 1970s to the late 1990s; and a phase of consolidation of modernization. It highlights the development of two key elements: a modern segment, usually composed of large farm units; and “traditional agriculture,” constituted mainly of small farms. The chapter discusses their contributions to growing commodity exports and to the supply of food for domestic markets. The chapter concludes by examining events—affecting both the large-scale agriculture and small farm units—that led to the maintenance of the concentrated pattern of land tenure.
Charles C. Mueller, Professor Emeritus, Department of Economics, University of Brasilia
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