Show Summary Details

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD HANDBOOKS ONLINE (www.oxfordhandbooks.com). © Oxford University Press, 2018. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Handbooks Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 30 May 2020

(p. 743) Index

(p. 743) Index

A
Abdalonymos (‘Abd’elonim) 390
Abdashtart I (ʻAbdʻaštart; Straton I the Philhellene) 92, 101, 389
Abdera (modern Adra) 436, 586, 590, 593–4, [link] , 598, 648
Abdi-Milkutti 60, 62–3, 67
ʻAbdmelqart (Hamilcar the Magonid) 150–1, 161, 282
Abi-Baal 58, 69
Abu Simbel (Ipsambul) 70, 228, 280–1
Abydos 228, 280–1
Acca (Acre; Akko), see Tel Akko
Achilles Tatius (Tatio), Leucippe and Cleitophon 618, 620, 681, 693
Acholla (Ras Bou Tria) 560
Achziv, see Akhziv
Acqua Acetosa Laurentina 515
Acragas, see Agrigento
Adad-nirari III 11, 66
ʻAddirmilk 396
adobe bricks (mudbrick) 131, 447–8, 546, 588–9, 607–10
adon 276; see also Adonis
Adonia 117–18, 276
Adonis 15, 117–18, 121, 263, 278
Adonis River (Nahr Ibrahim) 119–20
Adra, see Abdera
Aeneas 117, 263, 680
Aesculapius (Asklepios) 278, 284, 688; see also Eshmun
Agathocles (Agathokles of Syracuse) 159–61, 177, 456, 622, 638, 675
Agenor(ids), house of 100, 108, 721
agriculture, treatise on 156, 186, 257, 266
Agrigento (Agrigentum; Acragas)
allied with Carthaginians 162
bull of Phalaris 163
Greek polity of 150–1, 161–2, 537, [link] , 543
Punic Wars 172, 177
sack of 156, 161–2
under Punic control 544
Ahiram sarcophagus 58, 298, 352–3, 394–5, 718
Ain el Helwe rock-tombs 718
Aion 261–2
Akhziv (Achziv)
funerary stone stelae 135, 228, 353
iron weapons and tools 408
Phoenician city 10, 128
tombs 135, 304–5
ustrinum 135, 300
Akkar Plain 40, 44–7, 58, 126–8, 353, 355
Akko (Acca; Acre), see Tel Akko
Akra megale polis, see Rusaddir
Akragas, see Agrigento
Al-Bass (Tyre)
C14 dating 126
demography of burials 305–6
excavations 49–50, [link] , 278
family units in tombs 305
funerary rituals 278, [link] , 298, 300–3, 306, [link] , 608
funerary stelae 226, 278, 304, 353
incineration practices 135, 300–1, 487
(p. 744) Phase II necropolis 75
Phase III necropolis 78–9
alabaster 359, 364, 592, 605
Alalia (Aléria), Battle of [link] , 148–9, 515, 574
Alashiya/Alashya (Cyprus) 228, 262, 481, 484
Alcáçer do Sal [link] , 608–9
Alexander the Great
Carthage 165–6, 625
causeway 49, 719
coinage 104, 390–2, 396, 398–9
conquest of the Levant 99–101, 107, 109, 135, 390
cult of Baal/Melqart of Tyre 102, 625
deified 104, 621, 624
historiography 102, 393
imperialism 103
kinship with Herakles 104–5
Sidon 103, 390
siege of Tyre 102, 489, 622, 676, 680, 693
Alexandria 114, 116, 257
Almaraz [link] , 605
almond (tree) 83, 162, 300, 465, 590, 594
alphabet transmission 245, 247–51, 512
Althiburos (Médeina)
cult of Baalshamem 287
excavations 149, 184
iron production 412
suffetes 188
tophet 288, 312, 315–16
Amanus Mount 62, 472
Amarna letters
attestation of Baal 276–7
attestation of Canaan 9
diplomatic and exchange practices 44–5, 65, 423, 481
second millennium Semitic language 204–5, 212
Amathous (Amathus) 280, 320, 354–5, [link] , 483, 487–9, 704
Amilcas the Carchedonian, see ʻAbdmelqart
Amos, Hebrew Bible 65, 334, 664–6
Ampurias (Emporion) [link] , 578, [link]
Amrit (Marathus)
figurine production 355, [link] , 485
funerary monuments 295
kingdom of Arwad 127
Maʻabed inscription 91, 351
scaraboid seal workshop 363
source shrine 366
temple 91, 132–3, 276
terracotta sarcophagi 353, 355
amulet(s)
Amathous 487
burial gift 135, 298, 305, 315, 460
Crete 496
Cyclades 499–500
Egyptian (influenced) 14, 129, 359, 364
western Mediterranean market 473
glass 298, 364
Hera sanctuary, Samos 499
Ibiza 578
inscribed funerary 231
Italian mainland 507
Malta 258, 563
Phoenician papyri 229–30, 258
Amun (Amon) 45, 105
Amurru 45, 467
Amusicus 176
Anaphe 246, 494
Anat (ʻAnat) 275, 280, 376, 395, 485
ankh sign 353, 359
Annaeus Florus 679
Antas 26, 149, 230, 284
Antilebanon 112, 120
Antioch 113, 116, 122
Antonine itinerary 632, 634–8
Antonios Diogenes, Wonders beyond Thule 693
Aphaca 120, 122
Aphrati 496–7
Aphrodite
as part of Hellenistic koine 107
Euploia 280
Paphia 489
sanctuary at Eyx 284
sanctuary at Kythera 494
sanctuary at Piraeus 485–6
sanctuary on the Cyclades 499–500
temple slaves 703–4 see also Ashtart (Astarte); Venus
(p. 745) Apollo
Alexander the Great 102, 676
allegorized as the sun 688
as part of Hellenistic koine 107
as witness of treaty between Hannibal and Philip V 264, 283
bronze statue from Gela 622
Daphnephoros 248
shrine in Carthage 283
syncretism with Reshef 280
Tyrian women to serve as slaves at Dephi 673 see also Eshmun
Appian 179, 185, 442, 679
Aradus (Arados), see Arwad
Aram [link] , 65, 471, 666; see also Damascus
Aramaean(s) 25, 202, 470–1, 473, 667
Aravah copper mines 402, 408
Arca (Caesarea Ituraeorum) 112, 114–15, 121
archive(s)
Amarna 9, 44, 65, 424, 481
Byblos 11
Cádiz (Gadir) 79, 258
Carthage 12, 258
Idalion 12, 228–9, 235
Phoenician 11–12, 361, 363
temple 546
Tyre 11, 77, 142, 258, 663
Ugarit 44
Aristotle
Politics 155–6, 159–60, 166, 575, 674, 700
Carthage compared with Greek poleis 166, 266, 676
Arpad (Bit Agusi) 63, 472
Arrian 102, 303
arrowheads, inscribed 202, 225
Arslan Tash (Hadatu) 227, 361, 375, 472
Artaxerxes III 390, 394
Arwad (Arvad; Aradus; Arodos)
Alexander the Great 102–3
coffins with anthropomorphic lids 353
cults 276
Ernst Renan 717
Greek-Phoenician bilingual inscription 12, 115, 200
in ancient Greek novels 693
in the Hebrew Bible 659, 666–7
northern boundery of Phoenicia 25, 40, 465–6, 468, 470
Phoencian kingdom 125, 127
rulers 68–9
reliefs 365
Tiglath-pileser I’s expedition 44
under Assyrian control 62–4, 66–8, 467, 471
under Babylonian control 69
under Persian control 386, 392–3
under Roman rule 112
under Seleucid control 112
workshop 361
ʻAšerah cult (Baʻlat-Gubl/Gubal) 395; see also Asherah
Ashdod Ad Halom 472, 474–5
Asherah 285, 397, 607
Ashtart (Astarte; Athtart)
“Breast” 354, 358
“double deities” 94, 277, 279, 613
“Lady of Byblos” 118–20, 263, 276
bilingual dedication to 229
Bustan esh-Sheikh 94, 277
Carthage (foundation myth) 146, 262, 283, 439
Cyprus 229, 262–3, 280, 287, 485, 489
Egypt 280
Gozo 561
Iberia 231, 285, 588, 593, 611
identification with Europa 118
Israel 285
Khirbet et-Ṭayibeh inscription 226
part of divine couple 92–4, 275–9, 613
Sardinia 284
Sicily 284, 548–9
Sidon 92, 94–5, 118, 277–8, 286
Tas Silġ 26, 28, 284, 554, [link] , 561–3
temple at Kythera 647
temple slaves 703
Tyre 58, 278–9, 286, 618
and Etruscan Uni 148, 230, 284–5, 514
worship by Solomon 663 see also Anat; Aphrodite; Uni; Venus
(p. 746) Ashurbanipal 68, 515–16
Ashurnasirpal II 59, 62, 64, 66, 472
Asklepios (Aesculapius) 278, 284, 688; see also Eshmun
askoid jugs, Nuragic 525–6
Atargatis 118, 121
Athens
amphorae from Gadir 594
battles with Persian Empire 387, 674
coins 391
exotic imports from the Near East 500
Hadrian of Tyre 116, 687
Kitians 485–6
Kleitomachos (Hasdrubal) 266
Phoenician inscriptions 230, 501
Porphyry (Malchus) 116
Protoattic ware 373
relationship with Carthage 162
Sidonians 101–2
Athlit [link] , 128
Athtart, see Ashtart (Astarte)
athyrmata 379, 507, 512
Attica
alphabet 246, 250
and Phoenicia 95
and Sidon 101
exotic products from the Near East 500–1
imports from 94, 151, 557–8, 592, 595, 636, 638, 652
Phoenician communities 501
Phoenician inscriptions 230, 501
weight standard 389, 391–2, 394, 399
Augustine of Hippo 200–1, 258, 681
Auza 61, 77
Azib Slaoui 627, 632, 639
Aznalcóllar galena ores 407, 409
B
Baʻlšallim I (Bet-shin) 388, 398
Baal (Baʻl)
a smiting god 356
Jezebel’s worship of 663–4
of Berytos (Beirut) 276–7
of Byblos 92, 276
of Lebanon 482
of Sidon 277
of Tyre, see Baalu of Tyre; Melqart
of Ugarit 275
worship in Israel 285 see also entries for hyposthases of Baal
Baal Addir 276
Baal Arwad (Arvad) 355, 394
Baal (Baʻl) Hadad 349, 395, [link]
Baal Hammon
ancestral and paternal god of Tyre 279
and Tanit (Tinnit) 146, 165, 233, 282–3, 289, 313, 317, 321
Carthage 165, 282, 288, 439, 621, 675
Cyprus 262
Iberian Peninsula 285
North Africa 283, 637
patron of the tophet 282, 284, 288–9, 313, 316–17, 675
Sardinia 284
Sicily 284, 548
syncretized with Saturn/Kronos 12, 276, 282–4, 288, 313, 316, 394, 677
Baal Malage 279
Baal Marqod 277
Baal Mgnm 283
Baal Ṣaphon 234, 279–80
Baal Shamem (Shanȋm; Baʻl Šamem) 58, 276, 279, 282, 284, 392, 395
Baalat (Baaltis) 92, 276; see also Baalat Gubal
Baalat Gubal (Ba‘lat-Gubl; Lady of Byblos) 119, 263, 276, 395
Baalbek, see Heliopolis
Baalshamen (Baʻlšamem) 219, 279, 287
Baalshillim inscription 92
Baalu of Tyre 60, 67–8
Babylon 69, 692
Babylonia 30, 68–70
Bagradas River 77, 159
Baʻlšallim I 388–9, 398
Bajo de la Campana shipwreck 410, 429, 432, 592
Balawat, gates at 59, 62, 66, 401–2, [link] , 425, 471
Balearic Islands [link] , 149, 407, 532, 569, 577–81, 648; see also Ibiza
Banasa (Iulia Valentia Banasa; Sidi Ali bou Djenoun) 627, [link] , 630, 639
banquet
ceramics associated with 334–5, 339, 513, 515
(p. 747) funerary 303
Greek sociability at 100
Phoenician metal bowls 358, 512–14
pixedes 361
ritual 287, 289, 515 see also feast; conviviality
Bar-Hadad inscription 63, 243, 472
barley 83, 455–6, 590, 594, 611
Batroun, see Botrys
Bastet 283, 500
Batnoam inscription 91, 226, 286
Battle
of Aegates 172, 180
of Alalia 148–9, 515, 574
of Crimisus 161, 675
of Cumae 161, 674
of Himera 61, 150–1, 157, 162, 543, 674
of Qarqar 63, 65–6, [link] , 471
of Salamis 61, 151, 386, [link] , 650, 674
of Thapsus 187
of the Egadi Islands 430–1, [link]
of the Saw 173
of Zama 177, 581, 689
Bay of Cádiz 410, 589, 597, 614
Bay of Ibiza 569, 572, 574
Bay of Málaga, see Málaga
bead
faience or glass 473, 500, 512, 578, 612
production 49, 473
Beirut, see Berytos
Bekaa Valley 112, 114, 120, 122
berît (covenant; agreement) 65, 665–6
Bernardini and Barberini tombs (Palestrina) 512, 514
Berytos (Beirut; Biruta; Colonia Iulia Augusta Felix Berytus)
cemeteries 128, 134–5, 349, 358
during the Roman Empire 111, 113–17, 120–2
Eshmun-Asklepios of 688
harbor 128
industrial areas 94, 129
ink ostraca 226
Iron Age remains 127–9, 468
in Amarna letters and Ugaritic tablets 44
mint 112, 117
pier and rubble technique 94, 130
residential architecture 129, 132, 436
Sanchouniathon of 116–17, 264, 275, 394, 690
scholars from 116–17
school of Roman Law 114, 685
shrine 133
betyls 261, 353
bilingual inscription(s)
Greek and Latin [link] , [link]
neo-Punic and Latin 304, 598
(neo-)Punic and Libyco-Berber 188–9
Phoenician and Cypro-syllabic 485–6
Phoenician and Etruscan 412
Phoenician and Greek 12, 115, 229–30, 500–1, 553, 623–4
Phoenician and Luwian 227, 376
Bir Massouda (Carthage) 78–9, 82, 293–4, [link] , 412
bireme 646, 721
Bithia (Bitia)
incineration necropolis 527
inscription 202
tophet 284, 288, 320, 527
boat models 355, 508, 510
Bodashtart 92, 226, 277
Borġ in-Nadur 556
Botrys (Batroun) 59, 77, 470, 494, 716
Bou Regreg 630, 639
bovines, see cattle
brazier 303, 316, 353, 358, 446–7
bread ovens (tannūr; tabouna) 132, 444, 446–7
bucchero, Etruscan 84, 148, 514
bulla (bullae) 12, 361, 363
Bustan esh-Sheikh 91, 94, 132, 226, 277, 352, 387
Byblos
tenth century BCE inscription 58, 69, 224–5, [link] , 243, 469–70, 718
Amarna letters 44
archive 11
cemetery 134, 718
(p. 748) coalition against Shalmaneser III 63–4, 66, 471
excavations 126–9, 717, 719
Hellenistic period 102, 225
ivory (carving production) 360–1, 472
in the Hebrew Bible 667
natural harbor 716
neo-Assyrian period 63–4, 66–8
pantheon 92, 119, 121, 276, 285
Persian-age inscription 91, 225, 286, 363
Phoenician dialect of 203, 211–12
Report of Wenamun 12, 44–5
Roman period 112–14, 118–20, 226
rulers 12, 44–5, 67–8, 396
Tiglath-pileser 1, 44, 467
Byrsa hill, Carthage
cemeteries 293–4, [link] , 412
Decumanus Maximus Quarter 78, 435, 440–1
Hannibal Quarter 435, 438
houses built against the 178, 443, 445–6
name explained in foundation myth 144, 146, 680
southern slope 157
Byzantium (Byzantion) [link] , 111, 122, 693
C
Cabezo del Estaño [link] , 590
Cádiz (Gadir; Gades; Gadeira)
Casa del Obispo 295–8, 301, 306
in ancient sources 61, 261–2, 587, 589, 595–6, 617–23, 676
relationship with Rome 596–8
salted fish production 413, 594
sanctuary of Melqart (Herakleion) 261–2, 265, 285, 618–21, 624
Teatro Cómico 78–9, 231, 436, 589
Tolosa Latour plot 300 see also Castillo de Doña Blanca; Chiclana
Cadmus (Kadmos)
brings alphabet to the Greeks 116, 673, 687, 689, 693, 723
Europa and 263, 720–1
founder of Thebes 108, 494, 673
lineage of 100, 108, 117
Said Aql 723
Caere (Cerveteri) 31, 148, 505, 511, 513–15; see also Regolini-Galassi tomb
Caesarea Ituraeorum (Arca) 112, 114–15, 121
Cagliari 284, 288, 294–5, 436, 439, 527–8
Calabria 264, 507–8, 516
Campania 507–8, 510, 512, 580
Can Partit necropolis (Ibiza) 592
Canaanites
ancient 720
in biblical sources 42, 120, 274, 659
in Egyptian sources 42
in Mesopotamian sources 42
participating in seaborne trade 261, 424, 587
potential unifying name for Phoenicians 199, 657, 699
Cape Bon 149, 158–9
Cape Gammarth 163, 437, 458
Cape Gelidonya shipwreck 424
Cappidazzu (Motya) 79–80, 541–2, 547–8
Caracalla 111, 113, 620, 687, 690
caravan routes 469, 474
Carchemish (Karkemish) [link] , 64, 68, 467, 472, 497
Carmel, Mount 40, 122, 125, 128, 279–80, 664
carpological remains 78, 162, 456, 590, 611
Cartagena, see Carthago Nova
Carthage (Karkhedôn; Qart Hadasht) site(s), see Bir Massouda; Byrsa hill; Chapelle Cintas; Cothon harbor; Sainte-Monique necropolis
Carthago Nova (Cartagena; Qart Hadasht) xvii, 141–2, 174, 397, 399, 410, 436, [link] , [link] , 634
casemate wall 589–90, 594, 610–11
cash crop 170, 178, 455
Cassius Dio 691
Castel di Decima [link] , 511, 513, 515
Castillo de Doña Blanca
archaeobotanical evidence 456, 594
domestic architecture 436, 589
faunal evidence 457
inscriptions 231, 611
parallel with Lixus 631
lead 410
Castro Marim [link] , 610–11
(p. 749) Castro dos Ratinhos 407, [link] , 606–7, 613
Cato the Elder (Porcius Cato, Marcus) 156, 179, 453, 581, 677, 701
cattle (bovines)
as offering or eaten at funerary feast 285, 301, 303, 563
as sign of wealth 457
as tribute to Shalmaneser III 402
breeding 413, 453, 455, 457, 590, 639
as draft animal 413
cauldrons, metal 372, 500, 514, 524, 592
Cebel Ireis Daği, Phoenician inscription 200, 227, [link]
cedar (Cedrus libani)
Byblos 44, 349, [link]
Hiram I 58, 65, 660
in Lebanese flag 719
Nabonidus 69
Psammetichus I 69–70
Report of Wenamun 45
Tiglath-pileser I 44
Cerro del Villar
early Phoenician 79, 82–4, 436, 447, [link] , 590, 613
food preparation and consumption 31–2, 456
House 2 2, 436, 439, 442, 447
workshop 82–4, [link] , 438, 446
Cerveteri (Caere) 31, 148, 505, 511, 513–15; see also Regolini-Galassi tomb
Ceuta (Septem Fratres) 435, 627, [link] , 633, 639
chaîne opératoire 341, 345
chamber tombs 134, 460, 487, 549, 560, 592
Chapelle Cintas, Carthage 146, 320
Chhim 127, 129
chicken (domestic fowl) 302, 454, 457, 563, 590, 605, 611
Chiclana 589, [link]
Chronicles, Hebrew Bible 660–2, 721
Cicero (Tullius Cicero, Marcus)
De lege agraria 679
De oratore 266
De republica 678–9, 703
In Verrem 28, 163, 165, 557–8, 562
Pro Scauro 677–8
Tusculanae disputationes 185–6
Cilicia
11th and 10th centuries BCE 469
Assyrian control 474
Early Iron Age 467–8
kingdom of Tarhuntassa 467
Persian period 389–90, 396, 399, 472, 475
Phoenician influence on art of 473
Phoenician inscriptions 62, 227, 472–3
Phoenician port (Myriandros) 62, 125, 472, 494
Phoenician trade with 468–9, 474
Que 62, 67
satrap of 389–90, 396, 399
Çineköy inscription 200, 227
cinnamon 32, 297, 403, 469
cippus (cippi) 229, 313, 353, 497, 553, 623–4, 618
Cirta, see Constantine
Claudius Iolaus 620, 680
coffin
Ahiram sarcophagus 58, 298, 352–3, 394–5, 718
anthropomorphic 134, 304, 353, 355, 485, [link] , 487, 500, 718
architectural 354, 485
basalt 353
Egyptianizing 226
Eshmunazor II sarcophagus 91, 226, 304, 718
marble 134–5, 163, 353, 485, 500
“priestess of St. Monique” sarcophagus 163
Tabnit sarcophagus 32, 91, 226, 304
terracotta 355, 553
wooden 135, 301, 560
Colline Metallifere 411, 512
colonia Iulia Augusta Felix Berytus, see Berytus
colonia Iulia Augusta Felix Heliopolis, see Heliopolis
Columella (Lucius Iunius Moderatus) 266, 453, 456, 597
Conímbriga [link] , 610
connectivity
maritime 556, 558, 560–1, 563, 565
Late Bronze Age 43
Mediterranean-wide 103, 533
(p. 750) North Africa 188
studies in 100–1, 397–80, 505–8
Constantine (Cirta)
El-Hofra sanctuary (tophet) 234–5, 288, 314
inscriptions 189
suffetes 187–8
port of 638
conviviality 304, 514–15; see also banquet; feast
Corinthian pottery
Carthage 162
Iberian Peninsula 592, 595, 610
Ibiza 577
Italian Peninsula 508, 510
Cortijo de Montañez [link] , 84
Cortijo de San Isidro 80, [link]
Cothon harbor 179
Crete
“Green” alphabet 246
Aristotle comparing Carthage’s constitution with 266, 700
Dictys of 259, 681, 693
Europa 721
Late Bronze Age 43
modern identity of 729
Phoenician artifacts 343, 356–8, 495–7, [link] , 647
Phoenician cippi 497, [link]
Phoenician inscription 229, 248, 493
sea routes via 365, 493, 501, 648
transmission of Phoenician alphabet 248–9 see also Eleutherna; Knossos; Kommos; Tekke
Crimisus, Battle of 161, 675
Cruz del Negro-type urn 608, 610–11, 630–1, 635
Cuccureddus di Villasimius [link] , 529
Cumae 161, 511, 674
Cypro-Phoenician kingdom 481, 484–6, 489
Cypro-Phoenician artifacts 363, 376, 408, 494–7
Cypro-syllabic script 376, 485–7
Cyrus Cylinder 69
D
Dagon 393
Damaskios 259, 688
deer 315, 458, 590
Delos 277, 500
Demeter cult 151, 161, 283, 285, 548
Demetrias, Greek-Phoenician bilingual inscriptions 230
Deuteronomy, Hebrew Bible 659, 661
diaspora
Heliopolitan triad 122
of Lebanese merchants 704, 720
of Leventine mythological heritage 274, 279, 281
of Phoenicians in Sardinia 521, 526, 531–3
of Phoenicians in the Nile Delta 350
of the tophet 320–2
Phoenician 28, 30, 77, 99, 183, 413, 454, 585, 725
Tyrian 622, 624–5
Dictys of Crete, Journal of the Trojan War (Ephemeris Belli Troiani) 259, 681, 693
Dido, see Elissa
Diodorus of Sicily (Siculus)
Historical Library 156
on Carthage and Carthage’s hinterland 158–62, 548, 622, 675–6
on child sacrifice 318
on Cyprus 488–9
on Gadir 619
on Ibiza 147, 571
on Malta and Gozo 428, 560
on Punic treachery 677
on Rhodes 494
on Sicily 150–1, 161–2, 540, 543, 675
Dionysius (Dionysios) I 161, 539, 544–5
Dionysius II 162
Dionysos (Bacchus; Bakchos) 122, 261, 673
Dios (Dius) 10–11, 58, 60, 264, 662–3, 680
Djed pillar 351, 366
Djerba, island of 560, 733
dog 302, 458, 590
dolphin iconography 391–2, 399, 546
donkey 454, 611
Dor
a Tjeker (Tjekker)/Sikil settlement 45, 466­
Babylonian period 475
(p. 751) incorporated into kingdom of Israel 40, 470
part of Canaan of the Hebrew Bible 659
part of Iron Age I Phoenicia 10, 40, 45, 466–9
Persian period 125, 128, 475
Phoenician inscriptions 228
“pier and rubble” wall 130
Dorieus, the Spartan 149, 543
Dougga (Thugga)
probably called Tocae (Tokai) by Diodorus 159
inscriptions in Libyco-Berber alphabet 251
Punic heritage 735
Republican period 185
Roman colonist and religious rituals 190
suffetes 188
tophet 322
tower 165, 295
Drepana 172, 430–1
duoviri 187–8
E
Ebesos (Ebusus), see Ibiza
Egadi islands, Battle of the 430–1, [link]
El Carambolo 406, [link] , 587–8; see also Seville
El Haouaria quarries 149, 158
El-Hofra sanctuary (Constantine) 234–5, 288
El Sec shipwreck 454, 595
Elagabalus 115, 681, 689–91
El-Amrouni inscription 304
Elephantine 280–1
Eleutherna (Eleftherna) [link] , 358, 495–7, [link] , 647; see also Crete
Eli-Baal 58, 69
Elissa (ʻAlišat; Dido)
and present-day Punic heritage 729, 737
depiction on coins 117, 687–8
Justin (Justinus), Epitome 143–6, 262, 680
suicide 282
Menander of Ephesus 142
Timaeus of Taormina (Timaios of Tauromenion) 61, 142, 679–80
versions of foundation of Carthage 281–2, 679–80
Virgil’s Aeneid 142, 263, 281, 680
Elulaios, King of Tyre 483
Elymians (Elymes) 151, 537; see also Eryx
Elyssa (Elissa) shipwreck 339, 344, 425–8, 472
Emesa (Homs) 112, 690–2
Emporion (Ampurias) [link] , 578, [link]
emporion 145, 472, 565
Emsa-Lal-la Juimaa 633, 639
enchytrismos (enchytrismoi) burial(s) 295, 510
eparchia 543–4, 546–7
Eratosthenes 11, 675–6
Eretria 500–1; see also Euboea
Eryx Mount 149, 543
Es Cuyram Cave 231–2, [link] , 285
Esarhaddon (Esharhaddon)
annals 61–2, 408
palace in Nineveh 68, 482
period of 60, 63, 67–8
sack of Sidon 69, 351, 359, 363, 658–9
treaty with Baal of Tyre 64, 67, 264, 279, 474
Eshmun (Eshmoun; Esmounos; ’Ešmun)
Amrit 276
Arwad 276
–Asklepios 688
–Ashtart 279
Carthage 283
dedications to 231, 233, 280, 485
figurine 355
–Melqart 279, 573
North Africa 284
Sardinia 284
Sarepta 277
Sidonian 91–3, 276–8, 351, 388
temple at Bustan esh-Sheikh 91, 94, 132, 226, 277, 352, 387
Eshmunazor (Eshmunazar) dynasty 128, 277, 286, 398
Eshmunazor (Eshmunazar) II sarcophagus 91, 226, 304, 718
Ethbaal (Ithobaal; Itto-Baal)
father of Jezebel 660, 663
founder of Auza 61, 77
founder of Botrys 59, 77, 494
(p. 752) priest of Ashtart 286
Tyre, united with Sidon 470–1
Etruria
exchange network with Sardinia 510, 514, 527, 532
metal trade 411, 511
Phoenician presence in 511–15
relationship with Pithekoussai 510
trade with Phoenician colonies in western Mediterranean 162, 512, 595 see also Caere (Cerveteri); Etruscans; Pyrgi; Tarquinia; Thefarie Velianas; Vetulonia
Etruscans 148, 258, 543, 674, 678, 704
Euagoras (Evagoras) I 395, 488–9
Euagoras (Evagoras) II 390
Euboea (Euboia) [link] , 246, 248, 250, 356, 471, 500–1; see also Eretria
Euhemerism 275, 688
Euphrates 64, 112, 472–3
Eusebius (Eusebios) of Caesarea, Praeparatio Evangelica 11, 116, 275, 694
Evagoras, see Euagoras
Ezekiel, Book of 60, 475, 665–7, 717
F
faience
Egyptian 178, 496, 612
small artifacts 359, 364, 473, 497, 499, 500, 510
Uluburun shipwreck 424
workshops 362, 364, 499
favissa 133, 313, 351, 355
feast
as soft power strategy 175
at Għer ix-Xiħ shrine 563
at Tas-Silġ 563
burial of the divinity 285
funerary 301, 303–4
marzeaḫ (mrzḫ) 226, 287, 303 see also banquet; conviviality
fig (tree) 302, 456, 590, 594, 637, 701
figurine
Akkar Plain workshops 355
as part of burial assemblage 164, 299, 460, 487, 496, 500
bronze 497, 523–4
Deae Gravidae 355
Egyptian 129, 356
faience 499
of a worshiper 355
of a deity 355–6, 497, 499–500
of a musician 164, 299, [link] , 355
of a priest(ess) 163–4
stone 563
terracotta 26, 133, 164, 355, 366, 561
three-dimensial 360
Tyrian workshops 355
fish
consumption of 82, 413, 428, 563, 590
content of Phoenician amphora 82–3, 594
garum 403, 413, 563
plate 233, 633
remains at cemeteries 301–3, 315
salted 413, 578, 594, 596–7
symbol 439
fishing 355, 413, 576, 578, 590
Flavius Josephus, see Josephus
Flaubert, Gustave M., Salammbô 311, 703, 705
Fossa Regia 185–6, 191
foundation myth(s)
of Carteia (possibly) 623
of Carthage 142–5, 262–3, 679–80
of Gadir (Cádiz) 262, 619–20, 625
of Icisium 636, 639
of the Tartessians 263
of Thebes 494, 673, 723
of Tyre 261–2, 617–18
Francavilla Marittima, Macchiabate cemetery 508, [link] , 512
G
Gadir, see Cádiz
galena ores 407, 569, 572
galley
on coins from Aradus 393–4
on coins from Byblos 395–6, 399
on coins from Sidon 387–9, 398
on Sennacherib’s reliefs, Nineveh 425–6, [link]
two-banked (bireme) 646, 721
games 108, 113, 115, 672, 688
Gammarth, see Cape Gammarth
Gaulos, see Gozo
Gelon, tyrant of Gela and Syracuse 150–1, 674, 677
Genesis, Hebrew Bible 658–60, 665
Għajn Qajjet 556, [link]
Għar Barka [link] , 560
Għar ix-Xiħ 554, 563
glass
artifacts as part of burial assemblage 496, 499, 500, 508, 578, 612
beads 473, 500, 512, 578, 612
ingots 424
Phoencian production 90, 113, 364, 414, 475, 499, 577
Phoenician production in Portugal 605, 613
Phoenician production on Sardinia (Nuraghe Sirai) 530
Phoenician trade in artefacts of 95, 364, 473, 475
goat, see ovicaprids
goldsmith 158, 406, 412, 441, 496–7, 609
Gozo
Għar ix-Xiħ 554, 563
Ras il-Wardija 26, 556, 561
graffito
Aramaic 510
earliest Greek 248, 501
neo-Punic or Latino-Punic 189, 233
northernmost neo-Punic 233
Phoenician commercial 258
Phoenician in Egypt 70, 228, 280–1
Phoenician in the Grotta Regina 230, 284, 548
Phoenician on the Iberian Peninsula 231, 605, 612
Phrygian alphabet 250
Proto-Sinaitic 201
Tartessian or South-western script 608
grape(vine) 82–3, 335, 454, 456, 590, 605; see also wine
Great King
of Assyria 483
of Persia on Sidonian coins 387–9
Greek-Punic treaties (Sicily) 151, 544, 546
Grotta Regina 26, 230, 284, 548
Guadalhorce River 80–2, [link] , 84
Guadalquivir River 174, 409–10, 454
Guadiana River [link] , 610–11
Gulf of Oristano 524, 526, 528
Gulf of Tunis 145–6, [link] , 297
Gunigun (Gunugu; Sidi Brahim) 636
H
Hadad-Ezer of Damascus 471
Hadrian of Tyre 116, 687
Hadrumetum [link] , 159, 320–1
Halykos River [link] , 544, 546
Hamath (Hama) 64, 66–7, 473
Hamilcar the Magonid or Hannonid (ʻAbdmelqart) 150–1, 161, 282
Hamilcar Barca
coins 397
Iberian campaigns 174–5, 596, 623
Mercenary War 173
on modern banknotes 731, [link] , 737
Hannibal
and his elephants 737, 739
as avenging demon 169
biography by Cornelius Nepos 264, 678
comic book by Abdel Aziz Belkhodja 731–2
on Tunisian banknote 731
employed Greeks historians 264
erected narrative inscriptions 264
kinship relation with Iberians 175
second Punic War 176–8
suffete 178
tomb in Bithynia 689
treaty with Philip V of Macedonia 170, 176, 264, 283
visit to Melqart temple in Gadir 261, 620 see also Barcids
Hanno the Carthaginian, Periplus 12, 155–6, 159, 632
Hasan-Beyli Phoenician inscription 227
Hasdrubal (ʻAzrabaal), son of Mago 150
Hasdrubal (Kleitomachos) 266, 687
Hasdrubal Barca 174–6, 178; see also Barcids
Hathor 105, 276
Hazael of Damascus 470–1
Hecatompylus (Theveste) 159, 165, 172
Heliodorus of Emesa; Aethiopica (Aithiopika) 259, 681, 692–3
Heliopolis (colonia Iulia Augusta Felix Heliopolis; Baalbek) 111–12, 114–15, 120–2
Hera 264, 283, 499, 562
Herakleion, Gadir 261–2, 265, 285, 618–21, 624
Herakles (Hercules)
archegetes 624
and Alexander the Great 102, 105
and Geryon 263
and Hannibal 177, 261, 387, 620
on coins 104, 397
Egyptian 619, 624
foundation myth of Carteia 623
foundation myth of Icosium 636, 639
foundation myth of Tyre 261, 617–18, 620
foundation myth of Tingi 632, 639
Pillars of 261–2, 265, 619, 648–50, 653
treaty between Hannibal and Philip V 264, 283 see also Herakleion; Melqart
Herennius Philo of Byblos, see Philo of Byblos
Herodian 690–1
Herodotus (Herodotos)
Battle of Himera 150–1, 674
Cadmus (Kadmos) myth 723
Greek–Persian conflict 102
Herakles–Melqart 105
“Linos-song” 298
on Phoenicians 40, 647, 672–3, 675, 694, 715
origin of Greek alphabet 245, 723
Phoenician explorations 265, 649
Phoenicians and gold 412, 494
Phoenicians and slave trade 665–6
Phoenicians in the Aegean 494
temple of Herakles, Tyre 261, 278, 618–19, 666
Tyre and Carthage 621
Hiarbas 144, 146, 262, 282, 680
Hiero (Hieron) of Syracuse 155, 161, 171, 173, 674–5
Himera
Battle of 61, 150–1, 157, 162, 543, 674
foundation of 147
sack of 161–2, 544
Terillus, tyrant of 150
west necropolis 151
Hippo (Hippo Regius; Hippou; ʻAnnaba) 159–60, 173, [link]
Hiram I of Tyre
and “Land of Kabul (Cabul)” 469, 661–2
and Solomon 11, 60, 64, 645–6, 660–3, 666
building projects in Tyre 58, 662
expedition to Tarshish 60, 262
in Tiglath-pileser III’s inscription 59
and Kition 62–3
religious reforms in Tyre 58, 286, 618
Hiram II of Tyre (also of the Sidonians) 63, 65, 67, 408, 482
Hiram (Hiram-abi; Hiram Abi), the craftsman 65, 402, 660–1, 721
Ḫirbet Maktar 235, 251, 283, 288
Homer
Iliad 375, 493, 672
image of Phoenicians in 379, 657–8, 681–2, 694, 716, 723
Odyssey 376, 493, 672
Phoenician metal bowls 31, 356, 372, 376, 672
Phoenicians as slave traders 493, 665–6, 672
Homs (Emesa) 112, 690–2
honey 301–2, 336, 458, 475, 563
Honeyman stele 243, [link]
Ḥorbat Rosh Zayit 128, 132, 408
Hoya de los Rastros (Ayamonte) 300
Hr. el-Hami 312, 322
hypogeum 294, 298, 302, 305–6, 574, 576, 578
I
Iadnana (Cyprus) 482, 484
Ialysos 494, 499
Iamblichos 259, 691–2
Iberians 150, 175–6, 178
Icosium (‘yksm) 627, [link] , 636, 639
Iglesiente mines 149, 411
Illa Plana sanctuary [link] , 575
incense burners (thymiateria), see thymiateria
Incirli trilingual inscription 200, 227
ingot
copper 77, 424, 429, 525, 592
depicted on Shalmaneser III’s Balawat gates 402
glass 424
lead 429, 592
metal 404, 410
production 609
silver 385
tin 406, 424, 429, 592
ink inscription 226, 228–30, 233
Iôl (Iôl Caesarea) 627, [link] , 636
Ionian revolt 481, 488
Ipsambul (Abu Simbel) 70, 228, 280–1
iron
earliest objects in 406–7, 412
mines 149, 472
production and smelting, 50, 404, [link] , 407–8, 410–12
technology 408–9, 508
Isaiah, Hebrew Bible 60, 665, 700
Isis
dedications in Grotta Regina 284
figurine 500
priestess of 163, [link]
Tas Silġ, cult of [link] , 562
worshipped in Byblos 276, 285
worshipped in Carthage 165, 283
Isocrates 101, 103, 155, 488
Ithobaal (Itto-Baal), see Ethbaal
Ituraeans 112–14, 120
Iustinus, see Justin
ivory carving workshop 361, 375, 414, 438, 472–3, 496
J
Jablé Plain 127, 133
Jeremiah, Hebrew Bible 69, 660, 667
jewelry workshop 48, 349, 438, 496, 578
Jezebel 65, 375, 470, 660, 663–4
Jezreel (Plain, Valley) 58, 468
Joel, Hebrew Bible 660, 667
Jordan River (valley) 10, 58, 657, 661
Josephus (Flavius Josephus)
Against Apion 11, 142, 663
foundation of Carthage 142, 281
Hiram and Solomon 618, 662–3, 666
history of Phoenicia 62, 67–8, 114, 260, 483, 494, 694
history of Tyre 58–63, 65, 286
Jewish Antiquities 662–3
Phoenician archives 11–12, 258, 262–3 see also Dios; Menander of Ephesus
Joshua, Hebrew Bible 659–60, 663
Judah 65–6, 663, 667
Judges, Hebrew Bible 659–60, 663
Julian of Aeclanum 681
Julian, emperor 687, 691–2
Julius Caesar 186–7, 598, 624
Jupiter 122, 144, 146, 262
Justin (Iustinus), Epitome of Pompeius Trogus
foundation myth of Carthage 142–6, 262
foundation myth of Gadir 619, 622–4
history of Carthage 147, 150, 156, 159, 163, 537, 680
myth of Gargoris and Habis 263
oracle of Melqart-Herakles 620
K
Kach Kouch (Dhar el-Mouden) 627, 634
Kadmos, see Cadmus
Kalhu, Ashurnasirpal II’s palace 59, 64, 66
Karatepe
Phoenician inscription 200, 227, [link] , 280
reliefs 473
Kar-Esarhaddon 67, 474
Karkemish (Carchemish) [link] , 64, 68, 467, 472, 497
Kassiterides (Tin Islands) 648, [link] , 652
Kefar Veradim ribbed bowl 357
(p. 756) Kerkouane
domestic buildings 185, 435, 439, 441–2, 444–5, 447
elite burials 301
epigraphic evidence 160, 306
foundation 149, 159
trade with Rome 163
Khalde(h) (Tell Khan) 127, 134, 349, 358
Khirbet en-Nahas 408
Khorsabad 62, 364, 425, 475
kilns, pottery
Bay of Cádiz 597
bicameral 414
Cerro del Villar 82, [link] , 84
coast of Málaga 591
Nuraghe Sirai 530
Tell er-Rachidiyeh 339
Kinet Höyük 227, 468–9, 475
Kings, Hebrew Bible 660–4, 666, 721
Kition (Kittim; Larnaka)
“tariffs” 229, 234
and Hiram I 63
colony of Tyre 63, 77, 471, 483
Cypro-Phoenician kingdom 280, 481, [link] , 483–9
epigraphic evidence 12, 228–9, 287
Milkyaton of 229
possibly Qarthadasht (Qart-hadasht) 63, 483–4
Pumayyaton 485, 489
Kleitomachos (Hasdrubal) 266, 687
Knossos (cemeteries) 493, 495–7; see also Crete
koine 107, 402, 550
Kommos
Phoenician artifacts 77, 471, 495–7
Phoenician inscription 229, 248
Phoenician shrine 497, 562
Kore (Persephone) cult 161, 283, 285, 548
Kothon sanctuary, Motya 80, 541, 547
Kourion Treasure 376–7
Kronos (Saturn) 12, 276, 282–4, 288, 313, 316, 394, 677
Kuass 627, 632, 639
Kulamuwa inscription, Zincirli 227, 243, [link] , 296
Kythera 494, 647
L
Las Chorreras
colonial settlement 585, [link] , 590–1
domestic architecture 436, 444, 446–7, 590
Nuragic material 532
La Fonteta 438, 457, 570–1, [link] , 590, 593
La Rebanadilla 80, [link] , 436, [link] , 588–9
“Land of Kabul” 65, 469, 661
Lapethos 487–9
Larnaka-tis-Lapithou [link] , 488
Las Cumbres 594
Latino-Punic script 189, 200
Latium 169, 171, 230, 511–15
Laurion silver mines 407
Le-Kef (Sicca Veneria) 159, 165, 172, 287, 704
lead
cargo in shipwrecks 429, 592
as indicator for silver production 405–7, 410
as tribute to Shalmaneser III 401–2
mines in eastern Iberia 406, 409–10
mines on Ibiza 569
mines on Sardinia 406, 411
pipes 442
production 412, 591
weights 83, 438
Lefkandi, Euboea 471, 500–1
Lepcis Magna 117, [link] , 149, 159, 187, 679, 689
Les Andalouses 627, 635, 639
Liber Pater 283, 689
libri punici 156, 189, 258
Libyan War (Mercenary War; Truceless War) 160, 172–4, 177
Libyco-Berber alphabet 188–9, 251
Libyphoenicians 160, 191, 265
Lilybaeum (Lilybaion; Lilibeo; Marsala)
amphorae from Malta 560
First Punic War 171–2, 544, 560
inhumation burials 301, 549
orthogonal urban layout 544–5
Phoenician and Punic cults 303, 548
(p. 757) primary cremation burials 549
shipwreck 172, 429–30
tophet 548
visit of Porphyry 116
wall construction 547
lion
depicted on coins 388, 395–6, 399
goddess with 496
head 358, 397
hunt 388, 512
skin 397
Lisbon, Phoenician inscriptions 231, 605, [link]
Livy (Titus Livius) 176, 178, 264, 557
Lixus (hill of Tšemmis)
analysis of carpological remains 456
analysis of faunal remains 457–8
in Classical sources 141, 587, 632
metallurgical activity 412
Phoencian levels 630–2
residential architecture 435
temple of Melqart 632, 639
Lucian of Samosata, De Dea Syria 118–20, 276
Lulî of Sidon 60, 63, 67, 425, [link]
Luwian language
bilingual inscription with Phoenician 62, 227, 376
inscription on metal bowl 376
personal name in Phoenician 12, 227
spoken in the Levant 374
trilingual inscription with Akkadian and Phoenician 227
Lykos/Platani River (Sicily) [link] , 544, 546
M
Maʻabed inscriptions 91
Macchiabate cemetery, Francavilla Marittima 508, [link] , 512
Magna Graecia 162, 164, 396, 595
Mago Barca 579
Mago of Carthage, agricultural treatise 156, 266, 453
Magonids 147, 150
Maktar, see Ḫirbet Maktar
Málaga (Malaka)
Bay of 80, [link] , 82
coinage 84, 580
development of city 84, 593
earliest horizon 84
in Roman period 596, 598
in Classical sources 586
Punic graffiti 231
Malchus (Malco; Mazeus) in Justin 147, 537, 543, 574, 622
Malophoros, temple of (Selinus) 547–8
Marsala, see Lilybaeum
Marsala shipwreck 172, 429–30
Marsascirocco cippi (bilingual cippi of Malta) 229, 553, 623–4
Marsaxlokk, Bay of 558, 562–3
“Marseilles tariff” (“Carthage tariff”) 234
marzeaḫ (mrzḫ) feast 226, 287, 303; see also banquet; conviviality; feast
Masinissa, Numidian king 177–9, 638
masks 26, 294, 364, 499, 539
Massalia (Marseilles) 148, 234, 529
Massyli 173–4
Mauretania
aristocracy 188–9
coins 397
kings of 189, 619, 638, 678
Mazaeus (Mazday) 389–90, 399
Mazzarón shipwrecks 410, 428–9
Melilla 627, 634
Melos 245–6, 494
Melqart (Milqart)
and Carthage 282–3, 622–3, 625, 675
and Hannibal 175, 177, 261, 620
and Hiram I of Tyre 58–9, 286, 618
bilingual dedication from Arados 115
cult of 275–6
depicted on coins 106–7, 391–4, 397, 618
foundation myth of Gadir 624
foundation myth of Tyre 261, 617–18, 620
on Mount Carmel inscriptions 279–80
on the Maʻabed inscriptions 91
(p. 758) on Aramaic inscription at Brayj (Brej; Bredj) 63, 353, 472
oracular deity 261–2, 617–20, 623, 625
temple at Lixus 632, 639
temple at Tell Suqas 94
temple at Thasos 647
temple at Tyre 618, 620, 623, 666
worshipped in Cyprus 280, 485, 488
worshipped in Hellenistic Tyre 105
worshipped in Sardinia 284
worshipped in Sicily 284, 546
worshipped in Ibiza 233
worshipped in Malta 284, 561, 623–4 see also Herakleion; Herakles
Menander of Ephesus (Menandros of Ephesos)
consulted and translated Phoencian archive 11, 77, 142
foundation date of Carthage 142
history of Tyre 10–11, 58–9, 67, 264, 469–70, 483, 662–3
Phoinikika genre 10, 680
his quotes in Flavius Josephus 663
Mercenary War (Libyan War; Truceless War) 160, 172–4, 177
Mersa Madakh (Medakh) 435, 635–6, 639
Mesha stele in Moab 57, 241, 243
Messina 171, [link]
Metagonians 637–8
Methone 501
Milkashtart 279, 283, 624
Milqart, see Melqart
mines
copper 77, 402, 404, 408
galena 407, 569
iron 149, 411
lead 411
silver 405, 409, 411, 455
turquoise 201, 241
Mochos(-Laitos) 259, 264, 680, 690
molk (mlk) sacrifice 233, 280, 289, 312, 314–15, 317, 319–22
Mondego estuary 586, 607, 609–10
Monolith-Inscription 402
Mont’ e Prama [link] , 523–4
Monte Iato 435, 447, 547
Monte Sirai
agricultural center 495
burial rituals [link] , 294, 300, 302, 304–5
chronology and development 149, 527
domestic architecture 436
fortifications 79
Moscati, Sabatino 26, 521
tombs of wealthy Carthaginians 306
tophet 284, 288, 314
Monte Vetrano 508–10
Morro de Mezquitilla [link] , 79, 82, 585, [link] , 590–1, 594
mortar, hydraulic 440–2
mortise-and-tenon joinery (coagmenta punicana) 424, 429
Mottones (Muttines) 160, 171
Motya (Mozia)
Cappidazzu 79–80, 541–2, 547–8
Casa dei Mosaica/Casa dei Capitelli 444–5
epigraphic evidence 230, 304, 548
fortifications 537–8, 546
Kothon sanctuary, Motya 80, 541, 547
mentioned by Thucydides 147, 537
Moscati, Sabatino 26
necropolis 80, 541, 549
organization and development of the city 80, 150, 540–3, [link] , 545
Mount Carmel 40, 125, 128, 279–80, 664
Mount Eryx 149, 543
Mount Hermon 120–1
Mount Lebanon
Byblos at the foot of 719
forming an obstacle 40, 58, 70
Hivites on 659
Ituraeans on 113
timber from 58, 68
visit of Lucian of Samosata 118
mudbrick (adobe brick) 131, 447–8, 546, 588–9, 607–10
mules 266, 466, 475
multiculturalism 95, 117, 188, 191
municipium 187, 581, [link]
(p. 759) murex shells
crushed 129, 440
depicted on coins 391–2, 399
deposits 94, 365
purple dye from mollusks 403, 413 see also purple, dye production
Myriandros 62, 125, 472, 494
N
Nahr el-Kelb (Nahr al-Kalb) 69, 113
naiskos (small shrine) 320, 351, 366, 548
Nebuchadnezzar II 62, 68–9, 95, 573, 666
Necho II 70, 649
Negev 469–70, 472, 474
neo-Punic script 187, 190–1, 200, 202
Nepos, Cornelius 264, 678
Nile Delta 350, 356, 394, 719
Nimrud
gold-and-gem-work of Phoenician style 406
Phoenician ivories 360, [link] , 473
Phoenician metal bowls 356, [link] , 505, 512
Phoenician transport jar 474
tomb of Queen Yaba 359
Nineveh 67–8, 425, 482, 513
Nonnus (Nonnos) of Panopolis, Dionysiaka 261–2, 278, 617–19
Nora
seasonal stopover and trading post 530
settlement 436, 527
source shrine 366
survey 454
tophet 284, 288, 320–1
Numidia
institution of suffetes 188
rulers and élites 156, 165, 178–9, 185–6, 188–9
territory 149, 185, 187
numismatics
Aradus 93, 386, 392–4
Byblos 93, 394–6, 399
Carthage 164, 397–9
Cyprus 485, 488–9
Ibiza 578–81
Malaka 84, 580
mint “of the Lybians” 173
neo-Punic 189, 598, 632, 638
Numidia 189
Persepolis 386
Persian-period Phoenicia 93–6
Phoenicia after conquest of Alexander the Great 104, 117, 618, 677
Selinus 546
nuraghe S’Urachi [link] , 524, 530
nuraghe Sirai [link] , 530
nuraghi tower(s) 523, 527
nuts 162, 302, 594
O
olive
cultivation 454, 456, 459, 590–1, 594, 700
oil 48, 410, 554, 561, 564, 578, 581
presses 458
tree at Herakleion, Gadir 620
tree on Ambrosial Rock 261, 618
wood burnt during burial rituals 300, 303
Ophir 60, 403, 645–6
opus
africanum (pier-and-rubble masonry) 127, 130, [link] , [link] , 448
quadratum 448, 547
signinum 440, 550, 561–2
tesselatum 441
figlinum 441
Orientalism 121, 703–5
Orontes River 114, 471
Osiris 105, 119, 279, 285
Osorkon I 58, 69, 469–70
ostracon (ostraca)
from Akko 228
from Ashkelon 228
from Beirut 226
from Bustan esh-Sheikh 226
from Cádiz 79, 231
from Castillo de Doña Blanca 231, 611
from Dor 228
from Elephantine 281
from Gheriat el-Garbia 235
from Idalion 228, 485
(p. 760) from Motya 230
from Tavira 231, 611
ostrich eggshell
and Phoenician trade 460, 499–500, 578, 611, 639
cargo in shipwreck 424, 429, 592
decorated or inscribed 363, [link] , 429, 608, 611
Oulomos 259, 261
Oulpianos of Tyre, see Ulpian of tyre 
ovicaprids
as offerings or eaten at (funerary) feasts 285, 302–3, 315, 621
as tribute for Shalmaneser III 402
farming 413, 457, 558, 590
hides 639
P
paideia 101–3
palace
archive at Idalion 228, 235, 485
Assyrian, Nimrud 505
in Babylon 69
of Ashurnasirpal II, Kalhu 59, 64, 66
of Esarhaddon, Nineveh 68, 482
of Sargon II, Khorsabad 62, 425
of Sennacherib, Nineveh 425–6, [link]
Phoenician 361
Palaepaplos 481, [link] , 483, 489
Palermo (Panormus, Panormos)
cults of 548
domestic architecture 435
fortification wall 547
in Thucydides 147, 537, 539
necropolis 300–3, 305, 539
orthogonal urban layout 544–5
Paleapolis and Neapolis 539–60
Palestrina (Praeneste) 230, 360, 512–14
Palmyra 112, 115
Pani Loriga [link] , 527
Panormus (Palermo), see Palermo
Pantelleria 26, 199, 435–6, 441–2, 558, 560–1
papyrus
amulet 229, 258, 359
fragility of 11–12, 91, 96, 230, 249, 716
from Cádiz 79, 258
from Carthage 12
from Saqqara 228, 281
from Tal-Virtù 229
scroll 361, 363
Paros 245, 499–500
Pausanias 165, 260, 494, 688
Pentathlos 147, 543
periplus (periplous/periploi)
as an original Phoenician genre 265
of Hanno the Carthaginian 12, 155–6, 159, 632
of Himilco 365
of Pseudo-Skylax 125, 638
Pomponius Mela influenced by Phoenician 365, 671
Persepolis 386, 398, 423
Pescennius Niger 112, 115, 690
petrographic studies on pottery 129, 426
Pfeilertempel 547, 550
Philip V of Macedonia 170, 176, 264, 283
Philistia 51, 64, 200, 393, 474, 667
Philistines 39, 51, 68
Philistus of Syracuse 142
Philo (Philon) of Byblos
lost works 117, 260