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date: 22 September 2019

Abstract and Keywords

The material evidence recovered in the last years in archaic contexts in the West, as well as new radiometric dates obtained in some of the Phoenician colonies, urge us to revise periodically some hypotheses about the origin, aims, and first stages of the Phoenician expansion into the Mediterranean. The first Phoenician expeditions to the West must have been composed of small groups of merchants, accompanied by genuine experts in smelting, mining, and metallurgy. These were specialists in mining and metallurgical technologies, capable of recognizing the potential of these territories (particularly rich in mining resources) and technically prepared to assess, alloy, and smelt metals from which copper, silver, tin, and gold were obtainable.

Keywords: colonization, colonial strategy, environmental adaptation, regional market, metallurgy, Cerro del Villar, Málaga

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