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date: 23 October 2020

Abstract and Keywords

Agriculture played a crucial role for the Phoenicians. Systematic study of the rural Phoenician world goes back only a few decades, thanks to archaeological surveys and excavations of non-urban structures and settlements. Despite our increasing knowledge of the subject, it is still difficult to define a single model. Still we can speak of some constant features. The chapter gives a view of coastal settlements producing an easily exported agricultural surplus, as well as husbandry, especially cattle, ovicaprids, and pigs. This was followed by a period of systematic occupation of the land, not necessarily welcomed by the native groups. Nevertheless, this occupation established organized and systematic exploitation and expansion of the “Mediterranean triad” (wheat, olive, wine). The success of this agricultural activity had a crucial role in the development of Phoenician-Punic cities.

Keywords: agriculture, Mediterranean triad, cash crop, Ibiza, farming, husbandry, grapes, olives

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