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date: 05 December 2019

(p. 469) Index

(p. 469) Index

Figures are indicated by an f and tables by a t following the page number.

25 Commandments for Journalists, 458
Absolute risk, 447–448
Accessibility bias, 405
Accountability, for selective exposure and judgment, 383
Accuracy
heuristics in inferences about, 370
in selective exposure and judgment, 383
Accuracy goals, 383
Acid deposition (rain), Clean Air Act and evidence on, 245–246
Acquiescence bias, 66
Actively Open-minded Thinking (AOT), 364–366
Adaptive risk management, 145
Advancing Informal STEM Learning program (AISL), 264
Advertising industry, 314
Affect heuristic, 448–449, 457
GMOs and, 410–411
mad cow disease vs. BSE and, 392–393
numeracy on use of, 392–393
Affective meaning, 395
Affirmation, on selective exposure and judgment, 383–384
Age of denial, 39–40, 39f, 40f
Agreed-upon grounds, 15–16
Akin, Heather, 80
Albarracín, Julia, 384
Alert systems, for misinformation and retractions, 346–347
Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, 215, 217
Algae, genetically engineered, 202–203
Allison, David, 121
AllTrials campaign, 91
Allum, Nick, 65, 68
Altmetrics, 193
Ambiguity, calculated, vs. precise specification, 20–22
American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), 254
bridging theory and practice in, 185
Center for Public Engagement with Science and Technology of, 181–182
founding and membership of, 180
goals of, 180–181
impact of, 185–186
science communication by, 181–182
Analytical systems, 446
Analytic-deliberative process, 143
Analytic process, 151
Ancient Aliens, 296
Anderson, Craig A., 436
Anthrax, Pasteur’s discovery of, 364
Anti-science sensibilities, 39, 39f, 40f
Anxiety
GMOs and, 412
in selective exposure and judgment, 384
Arctic sea ice, 18–19, 399, 400f
Argumentative format, 312
Article processing charge (APC), 191
ArXiv, 194
Asian pears, 415
Associative networks, 410
Assumption reinforcement, 76
Asymmetry, 96
A Trip to the Moon, 302
Attacks on science, 4–5
climate science in, 4
identifying and overcoming challenges of, 127–129
statistical biases and, 107
Zika in, 4–5
Attention
competition for, 352, 353, 356–357
to important information, drawing, 395
selective, 456
top-down vs. bottom-up, 315
Attention economy, 315
Attentive capacity, 351
Attitude-discrepant information, 284
Attribute frames, 393
Attribution
false causal, 434–435 (See also False causal attribution)
substitution, 353
Audience
aspects of, 28–30
behavior changes in, 52–53
beliefs about science of, scientific information and, 378–379
Autism
causal factors in, 435
diagnosis and prevalence of, 435
vaccines and, 73–74, 341–342, 421
Availability heuristic, 410, 416n1, 448–449, 457
GMOs and, 410, 416n1
Avraamidou, Lucy, 312
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Corn 176, 17–18
Baltimore, David, 464
Barnum, P. T., 206
Barron, Annie, 89
Bast, Joseph, 90, 91
Bauer, Martin W., 116n1, 158–160
Baum, Matt A., 324
Bayesian methods, 108
Bayesian problems, 447
Baym, Geoffrey, 322–325
Begley, Sharon, 279
Behavior
audience
change in, 52–53
science-based entertainment on, 292
science journalism and, 57
risk communication on, 445
theory of planned behavior and, on scientist–media interactions, 265–266
Belief-Adjustment Model, 404
Beliefs
about climate change
bias on, 374
climate science literacy tests and, 45, 45f
local warming effect on, 353–354
political affiliation on, 352–353, 450
about environment,
entertainment industry on, 305–307
false, countering, 341–348 (See also False beliefs, countering)
about science, scientific information on, 378–379
correct, 458
entertainment media on, 292
normative, 265–266
on science interpretation, 29–30
Bell, Larry, 208
Bellamy, Rob, 149, 151
Benefits, of scientific controversies, 75
Berger, Jonah, 228
Bernauer, Thomas, 357
(p. 470) Bias (cognitive), 30, 80–81, 370–371. See also specific types
accessibility, 405
acquiescence, 66
avoiding perception of, 257
citation, 106
cognitive, 30
in data interpretation, 403
debiasing judgment and, 372–373, 374
definition of, 93, 370
endpoint, 403–406
extrapolation, 404
fear and uncertainty on, 457–458
information processing in, 370
myside, 366
optimism, 372
in polarized political era, overcoming, 7–8
politically induced status quo, 353, 355–356, 358n4
processing, of time series data about climate, 399–406 (See also Climate change time series data processing, overcoming biases in)
publication, 93–100 (See also Publication bias)
recency, 405
reporting, 94
research confirming, 374
in satirical news, 326–327
in science understanding, understanding and mitigating, 373–374
societal, 30
statistical, 103–108 (See also Statistical bias)
uncertainty and, 105
Bias blind spot, 371–374, 457
eliminating, 373
information processing and, 369–370
Biased estimation process, 95
Bias replacement, 373
Bijker, Wiebe E., 245
Bik, Elisabeth, 122
Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, 215
Biobanks, 235
Biological significance, 103
BioMed Central, 191
Bioshock, 291, 295
Biotechnology. See also specific types
government communications on, 202
Biotechnology and GM food in Europe, 158–163
Eurobarometer Survey on, 158, 159f
future research and policy implications in, 163–164
history of, 158
media representations of, 159–161
policy debates on, 158–159
public perceptions and attitudes on, 161–163
applications of biotechnology in, 162–163, 162t
information, communication, knowledge in, 161
perceived impact of biotechnology in, 161–162, 161t
Bode, Leticia, 436
Bohr, Niels, 403
Bolsen, Toby, 354, 355, 356, 381–382
Books, scholarly
business model for, 190–191
open access to, 191–192
Bore, Inger-Lise Kalviknes, 326
Bottom-up attention, 315
Boundary organizations, 257n1
Bounded rationality, 370
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), 20, 133–134
affect heuristic and, 392–393
epidemiology of, 134
food safety communication on, 133–139 (See also Food safety communication, “mad cow” crisis on)
Breaking Bad, 294, 296
Brechman, Jean M., 225
Brennan, Richard P., 65
Brewer, Paul R., 323, 325, 326
Brighton, Henry, 370
Broken, science as, 86–87, 87t
Brown, Kaye, 373
Brumfiel, Geoff, 286
Burden of proof, in scientific controversies, 76
Burke, Kenneth, 20
Burns, William C. G., 152n1
Burnyeat, Myles, 314
Busch, Jonah, 400–401
Cain, Victoria E. M., 207, 208, 209
Calculated ambiguity, vs. precise specification, 20–22
Caldeira, Ken, 219
Cameron, Fiona, 209
Captain Planet, 306
Career pressures, 114
Carman, Kristin L., 239
Carmines, Edward G., 285–286
Carnegie, Andrew, 214
Carnegie Corporation of New York, 214
Carson, Rachel, 305–306
Casadevall, Arturo, 120
Caulfield, Timothy, 116n1
Center for Evidence-Based Medicine Outcome Monitoring Project (COMPare), 100, 129
Center for Public Engagement with Science and Technology, 181–182
Central processing, 370
for overcoming endpoint bias, 405–406
Chapman, Frank, 207
Chappell, Rick, 263
Chemical exposure, EPA studies on, 198
Cherry-picking data, 401–402
Childbed fever, Semmelweis’s discovery of cause of, 364–365
Chunks of information, 351
Cialdini, Robert B., 384
Cicerone, Ralph, 261
Citation bias, 106
Citation network analyses, 106
Citizens’ Assembly, 234
Citizen science, 219
Citizens’ Juries, 234–235
Citizen social networks, 225–227
Citizens’ Panel, 239
Citizens’ role, 362–363
Citizens’ use of science, philosophical impediments to, 361–366
citizens’ role in, 362–363
cosmopolitan view in, 362–363
decision-making in, consequences of, 361–362
government role in, 363
nature of science and actively open-minded thinking in, 364–366
utilitarianism in, 361–363
Clapper, James, 463
Clean Air Act, science and policy in regulatory mechanisms of, 245–246
Climate Central, 217
Climate change
ClimateWorks and foundation-funded progress on, 218–219
controversies over, 73
The Daily Show and The Colbert Report on, 326
deficit model of communication on, 297
Kahan on, 278
language for, 22
Pielke Jr. on, 277–278
research on, complexity of, 351–352
science communication on, attacks on, 4–5
terminology on opinions of, 358n1, 438
utilitarian cosmopolitanism and, 366
Climate change beliefs
bias on, 374
climate science literacy tests and, 45, 45f
local warming effect on, 353–354
political affiliation on, 352–353, 450
Climate change time series data processing, overcoming biases in, 399–406
endpoint bias in, 403–405
central processing of variability within a trend in, 405–406
(p. 471)
extrapolation bias in, 404
peak-and-end rule in, 404
principles of, 403–404
recency or serial position effects in, 404–405
National Snow and Ice Data Center’s Annual Arctic Report Card, September 2013 in, FoxNews reporting on, 399, 400f
trends in
Arctic sea ice extents and, 399, 400f
bias in interpreting data on, 403
importance of, 399–401
misuse of data on, 401–403, 402f, 403f
understanding trend lines for, 401
Climate research
challenges of, 248–249
evidence-based policymaking and, 248–249
ClimateWorks, 218–219
Clinical significance, 103
ClinicalTrials.gov, 97, 98
CNN, 378
Cobb, Michael D., 236
Cognitive bias. See Bias (cognitive); specific types
Cognitive dissonance, 284
Cognitive effort, reducing, 394–395
Cognitive reflection, on political polarization, 45, 46f
Cognitive shortcuts, 29
Cole, K.C., 21
Collective good, 427
Collingridge’s dilemma, 145
Colorectal cancer, meat consumption and, 447
Comedy, late-night, assumptions about science in, 321–328. See also Satirical news, assumptions about science in
Comic books, scientist image in, 291–298. See also Popular images of science
Commandments for Journalists, 458
Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), 115–116
on retractions, 119–120, 343
Communication. See also specific topics
about science, 9–10, 25
training in, on scientist–media interaction, 266, 335
Communication confidence, increasing, 228
Communication methods
for risk communication, 447
working with heuristics, biases, and values in, 458–459
COMPare, 100, 129
COMPASS
Leopold Leadership Program of, 219
Public Lab, and civic science in, 219–220
Competition for attention, 352, 353, 356–357
Complexity, 80
of climate change research, 351–352
of nanotechnology, 148–151 (See also Nanotechnology)
scientific, honoring, 174
of upstream science and engineering issues, 148–151
Comprehension problems, vs. recognition problems, 43–45, 43f, 44f, 45f
Compression, 352, 458
Computer games, images of science in, 296–297
Condit, Celeste, 116n1
Confidence, 449
defensive, 384
vs. trust, 449–450
Confidence level, 19
Confirmation bias, 371–372, 378, 457. See also Selective exposure and judgment
eliminating proclivity for, 373
information processing and, 369–370
reasoning styles in, 45
in science understanding, understanding and mitigating in, 373–374
in scientific controversies, 76
Conflicts, in statistical biases, 106–107
Conn, Steve, 211
Consensus, closure through, 77
Consensus Conferences, 234
Consensus frame, 355–356, 358n5
Consensus studies
in scholarly presses and journals, 188–189
Consequences, in decision-making, 361–362
Consequentialism, 361
Conspiracy theories, 347
Constructivist view, of scientific knowledge, 245
Content factors, heeding, 228–229
Context, placing results in, 107
Contractor, Noshir S., 226
Contradictory evidence, vs. selective evidence, 18–19
Controversies, scientific, 73–78. See also specific types
climate change in, 73
closure in, reaching
consensus, 77
force, 77, 78
loss of interest, 77
negotiation, 77
problems, 78
sound arguments, 77
evolution vs. creationism in, 73
frustrations about, among scientists, 74
genetically modified organisms in, 74
key issues in
burden of proof, 76
confirmation bias, 45, 76, 371–372
group dynamics, 76
reinforcement of assumptions, 76
values, 76
vested interests, 76
as methodological tool, 75
politics and stakeholders in, 75
research on, 74–75
scholarly fixation on, 36
scientists’ methods and conclusions in, 75
stem cells in, 74
tension in, recognizing, 74
tensions in, recurring
benefits vs. risk, 75
efficiency vs. equity, 75
political priorities vs. environmental values, 76
regulation vs. freedom of choice, 75
science vs. traditional values, 75
vaccines and autism in, 73–74, 341, 421
Conversations
controversial science, museums in, 209
in social media and mass media, 224
Converse, Philip, 286
Corn
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Corn 176, 17–18
genetically engineered, 17–18, 411
Corner, Adam, 327
Correct beliefs, 458
Corruption, in scientific work
blunting overgeneralization from individual retractions in, 90–91
editorial generalization about, 89–90
partisan generalization about, 90
Cosmopolitanism, 362–363
Cost-benefit analysis processes, 247
Counterframing, 356–357
Creative Commons, 191
Credibility
of information sources, 357
maintaining, 257
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, variant, 20
food safety communication on, 133–139 (See also Food safety communication, “mad cow” crisis on)
CRISPR/Cas9, 461, 462, 463–464
CrossCheck, 343
CrossMark, 344
Cross-national science, 461
Cross-partisan frame, 354–355
CSI, 291, 296
CSI effect, 304–305
Cultural affinities, science communication and, 168–169, 334
(p. 472) Cultural cognition, 166–167, 227, 449
HPV vaccine and, 166–167
Cultural Cognition Project, on vaccines, 427–429, 428f, 429f, 430f
Cultural commitment, 45–46
Cultural indicators
recent findings on, 304–305, 304f
science and, 302–303
Cummings, Carlos, 209
Custodians of knowledge
failures of, 16–17
National Academy of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine as, 16
National Academy of Sciences as, 16
in protecting knowable from distortion, 15–16
Custodians of scientific knowledge
cultivating trust in, 256–257
status of, 16
Dahlstrom, Michael, 312
Dangers of science, media images of, 295
Daniell, Katherine A., 245, 250
Darwinian evolution, intelligent design vs., 17
Das, Dipak K., 121
Data
availability of, on publication bias, 99
interpretation of, 29, 403
human bias in, 403
repositories of, 97
David and Lucile Packard Foundation, 218, 219
Davies, Martin F., 435
Davies, Sarah R., 150–151
Day, Amber, 325
Debate. See also specific types
engaged, 16
face-to-face, 236
on journalism science, scholarly, 56
policy, science’s evidentiary status in, 16
prospective, 141–142
public, about “wicked problems,” 465t, 466
Debiasing human judgment, 372–373, 374
DeChurch, Leslie A., 226
Decision-making
consequences in, 361–362
locus of, private to public shift of, 461–462
systematic biases in, 370
Decision-relevant science (DRS), four theses on, 41–47
accept more than they can possibly understand, 41–42
acquire insights of DRS by reliability recognizing it, 42
polluted science communication environment, 45–47
recognition problem, not comprehension problem, 43–45, 43f, 44f, 45f
DEEPEN project (Deepening Ethical Engagement and Participation with Emerging Nanotechnologies), 150–151
Defensive confidence, 384
Deference, to scientific authority, 30
Deficit model, of science communication, 219, 269
on climate change, 297
mad scientist image in, 293
Delayed publication of results, 95
Deliberation
mediated, 284, 287
pitfalls in, avoiding, 238–239
Deliberative democracy, 284
Deliberative Polls, 234–235, 238, 239
Deliberative processing, 390, 390f
Deliberative reforms, 234
Deliberative spaces, 149–150
Delli Carpini, Michael X., 328
Demand
in evidence-informed policymaking, 245–246
for science news and information, in digital media, 283–288 (See also Supply and demand, for science news and information in digital age)
De Marchi, Giada, 248
Demystifying science, 295–296
Denial, age of, 39–40, 39f, 40f
Descriptive norms, 384
Design to Win, 218
Dewey, John, 238
Dialogue
among scientists, policyholders, and other key stakeholders, 216
model, 26, 27t, 465t, 466
public, in upstream public engagement, 143–144
Dialogue brokers, 276–277
Dietz, Thomas, 148
Digital media. See also Internet
citizen media content preferences in, 283
niche segments and median voter in, catering to, 284
supply and demand factors for science news and information in, 283–288 (See also Supply and demand, for science news and information in digital age)
Directional goals, 382, 383
Discursive integration, 323
Disgust, GMOs and, 411–412
Divine command theory, 365
Donsbach, Wolfgang, 273–274
“Don’t know” (DK) answers, 66
Doris Duke Charitable Foundation, 218
Dot Earth blog, 275–276, 277
Drought, GMOs and, 412–413
Dr. Strangelove, 302
Druckman, James N., 354, 356, 358n4, 381–382, 458
Drummond, Caitlin, 68
Dual process theory, 346, 390, 390f, 457
thinking vs. feeling in, 390, 390f
Dudo, Anthony, 224–225, 292, 293, 294, 305, 307
Dunwoody, Sharon, 56, 225
Durant, John, 65
Earle, Timothy C., 449–450
Ebola outbreak, 179
Echo chambers, 181
Economic Prospect, 158, 160
Eddy, David M., 246
Efficiency
vs. equity, 75
in scientific controversies, 75
Egalitarian communitarians, 227
Egan, Patrick J., 353
Egger’s test, 96
Einstein, Albert, 20–22
11th Hour Project, 219–220
Eliminative reasoning, 371
Emerging technologies, 142
nanotechnology risk in, 142–143
Emphasis framing, 27, 456
Endorsement frame, 354–355
Endpoint bias, 403–406
extrapolation bias in, 404
overcoming, central processing of variability within a trend in, 405–406
peak-and-end rule in, 404
principles of, 403–404
recency or serial position effects in, 404–405
Energy Foundation, 218
Enforcement structures, science, 18
Engaged debate, 16
Engagement, 255
models of, 26, 27t, 465t, 466
participatory, 233–234
public, 255–256
scientist–media interactions vs., 267
Entertainment, narrative functions in, 311–317, 334
attention economy in, 315
case example of, 311–312
as dumbing down, 314–315
entertainment-education, 315–316
exemplification, identification, and transportation in, 313–314
expository, argumentative, and narrative formats in, 312–313
future research on, 316–317
narratives, schema, scripts, and frames in, 312
power of, 313
(p. 473) Entertainment, science-based, 291. See also Popular images of science
on audience knowledge, beliefs, and behavior, 292
Entertainment-education, 315–316
Entertainment industry, portrayal of science by, 301–308
beliefs about environment in, 305–307
cultural indicators in
recent findings on, 304–305, 304f
science and, 302–303
excitement about science from, 301
film influences in, 307–308, 308f
on growth of science, 301
mainstreaming in, 303, 303f, 305, 306f
more complex picture of, 305, 306f
natural hypothesis on, 302
Entertainment media
on audience knowledge, beliefs, and behavior, 292
images of science in, 291
Enumerative reasoning, 371. See also Numeracy
Environment
beliefs about ( See also Climate change; Global warming; specific topics)
entertainment industry on, 305–307
values on, in scientific controversies, 76
Environmental chemicals, 141
Environmentalism, GMOs and, 411
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), regulatory science communications of, 197–204, 254–255
on biotechnology, 202
definition of, 197
formal, 199
lessons learned on, 202–203
on nanotechnology, 200–202
peer-reviewed literature and conferences in, 198–199
purpose and role of, 203–204
science and policy in, 198
scientific information sources of, 198
on toxicity studies, 198
underdetermined scientific hypotheses in, 198
Episodic frames, 86
in Obokata retraction, 88
Equator initiative, 108
Equity vs. efficiency, 75
Equivalence framing, 27
Error, prevention and addressing, 128
Ethical, Legal, and Societal Implications program (ELSI)
of evolving techniques, 9–10
of nanotechnology, 200–201
Ethics, 158, 160
Ettling, John, 215
Eurobarometer Surveys, 158, 159f, 161t, 162t, 163t
eight frames in, 158
Europe, communications about biotechnology and GMOs in, 157–164
background on, 157–158
communication research on biotechnology in, 158–163
Eurobarometer Survey on, 158, 159f
future research and policy implications in, 163–164
history of, 158
media representations of, 159–161
policy debates on, 158–159
public perceptions and attitudes in, 161–163
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), 135–136
Evidence
contradictory vs. selective, accounting for, 18–19
in evidence-informed policymaking, 245–246
poor communication of, 249
Evidence-based medicine, 246
Evidence-informed policymaking, 243–250, 256. See also Policymaking, evidence-informed
Evolution vs. creationism, 73
Excess of significant findings, 96
Excess significance, 105–106
Executive functions, 315
Exemplification theory, 313
Exoneration frame, 88–89
Experiences, prior
power of, in heuristics and innumeracy, 391–392
on scientist–media interactions, 265
Experiential systems, 446
Experts
on HPV vaccine, 169, 170f
perceived relative expertise of, 357
scientific, deference to, 30
Expository format, 312
Exposure, selective, 377–385, 456. See also Selective exposure and judgment
Extraordinary science ignorance, 35–47. See also Ordinary science knowledge sources
Extrapolation bias, 404
Eysenbach, Gunther, 224
Facebook, 336
misinformation on, 344
network properties on belief stickiness in, 347–348
Face-to-face debate, 236
Fahy, Declan, 274
Failed study, 95
Failures, 5
of custodians of knowledge, 16–17
scientific, media focus on, 86–87, 87t
False beliefs, countering, 341–348
autism and vaccines in, 341–342, 421
decision trees for, 347, 347f
emerging media on, 347–348
network properties on belief stickiness in, 347–348
overcoming, psychological mechanisms and communication strategies for, 345–346
dual process theory and counterarguments to misinformation in, 346
mental model theory and arguments supporting misinformation in, 345–346
misinformation domains and correction in, additional findings on, 346
persistence of discredited findings in, 341–342
recommendations for, summary of, 347, 347f
retraction persistence in, communication for reducing, 342–345
detailed retractions in, 343
linking retraction/correction to misinformation in, 344
prompt retraction and correction in, 342–343
tracking retractions in, monitoring and alert systems for, 344–345
wide dissemination in, 343–344
False causal attribution, 434–435
necessary and sufficient causes in, 439
necessary and sufficient conditions in, 439
pre-existing attitudes on, 440
False causal attribution, MMR–autism association, 433–440. See also Measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine, autism and
False discovery–based approaches, 108
False reassurance, avoiding, 174
Fan, David P., 228
Fang, Ferric C., 120, 124
Fauci, Anthony, 179–180
Fear, in selective exposure and judgment, 384
Fear of unnatural, overcoming, 413–416, 458. See also Genetically modified organisms (GMOs), fear of unnatural in
fundamentals of, 413–414
social accountability in, 414–416
GMO labeling in Brazil and U.S. in, 415–416
Mark Lynas in, 414
unnatural products in everyday life, 414–415
Feather, Norman T., 379
Feder, Barnaby, 286
Feeling vs. thinking, 390. See also Dual process theory
(p. 474) Feldman, Lauren, 323, 324, 326, 378
Feral risk communication, 422–429
anti-science trope in, polarizing impact of, 429, 430f
evidence-uninformed communicators in, 422
feral vaccine risk communication in, 422–425, 423f, 424f, 425f, 426f
HPV vaccine and, 422
miscommunicators in, 422
vaccine science communication environment in, 425–429
logic of reciprocity and illogic of fact-free vaccine risk communication in, 427–429, 429f, 430f
social amplification of risk in, 426–427, 428f, 429f
Festinger, Leon, 284
Feynman, Richard, 18
Films
scientist image in, 291–298 (See also Popular images of science)
on views of science, 307–308, 308f
Filter bubbles, 181
Findlen, Paula, 206
Finucane, Melissa A., 449
Fiorino, D., 143
First-order model of thinking, 134–135
Fischhoff, Baruch, 2, 68, 145, 247, 249, 446
Fischhoff, Ilya, 145
Fisher, Edwin B., 227
Fishkin, James S., 238
Flegal, Jane A., 152n1
Fleming, Alexander, 414
Flexner, Abraham, 216
Flicker, Eva, 294
Flower, William Henry, 206
Food
“natural,” on food labels, 409
RASFF (Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed) for, 136
Food, genetically modified, 157, 412
communication research in Europe on, 158–163 (See also Biotechnology and GM food in Europe)
Johnson’s Grist.org on, 277
public knowledge of, 40–41
Food Safety Commission (FSC), 135–136
risk of no-risk messages of, 136
Food safety communication, “mad cow” crisis on, 133–139
aftermath of, 135–136
analysis of crisis of, 136–138
bovine spongiform encephalopathy in, 133–134
communication in EU vs. Japan on, 134–135
as crisis of trust, 136–137, 138
culture in, 139
food safety reforms from, 135
models of thinking in
first- and second-order, 134–135
third-order, 137
public communication in, 134–136
risk communication in, 135–136, 137
Force, closure through, 77, 78
Forensic Files, 296
Found, Bryan, 370
Foundations, in science promotion, 213–221, 254
Andrew Carnegie and John D. Rockefeller in, 214–215
case studies on strengthening civic role of science in, 217–220
ClimateWorks and progress of climate change in, 218–219
COMPASS, Public Lab, and civic science in, 219–220
Robert Wood Johnson Foundation’s fight against tobacco in, 217–218
future directions in, 220
intermediaries’ roles on, 213–214
number and budgets of, 215
research on, 214
of science engagement and evidence-based policy, 215–217
assessing influence of, 217
building new fields of inquiry for policy formation in, 215
dialogue among scientists, policyholders, and other key stakeholders in, 216
efforts to advance policy in, 216
engagement to expand public understanding and acceptance of science in, 216–217
research to inform policy questions in, 216
science-promotion role and approaches of, 213
Fox, Fiona, 114
Fox News, 378
Frames and framing, 27, 351–358, 393–394, 456
attentive capacity limitations in, 351
attribute, 393
chunks of information in, 351
compression in, 352
(scientific) consensus, 355–356, 358n5
consequences of, 175
counterframes in, 356–357
cross-partisan, 354–355
definition of, 352
effective scientific communication and, 353–356
attribution substitution in, 353
competition for attention in, 352, 353, 356–357
cross-partisan, justification, and endorsement frames in, 354–355, 358nn2–3
local impact of issues in, 355
local warming effect on, 353–354
politically induced status quo bias in, 353, 355–356, 358n4
political polarization in, 352–353, 354
emphasis, 352, 456
endorsement, 354–355
in entertainment, 312
episodic, 86, 88
equivalency (valence), 352
exoneration, 88–89
in-party, 354, 358n2
issue, 352, 456
justification, 354–355
limitations of, 356–357
need for, 351–352
over-time, 354
perceived commonality of interests in, 357
perceived relative expertise in, 357
policy and information, balanced, 148–149
politicization, 355–356
of retractions, 91
risky-choice, 393
of scientific information, challenge of, 458
source credibility in, 357
thematic, 86
ubiquity and inevitability of, 352
Francis, Gregory, 96
Frankenstein, 295, 302
Franklin, Benjamin, 390
Fraud in science, 105–106, 128
detection vs. commission of, 128
in retractions, 120
Freedman, Leonard P., 123–124
Freedom of choice, in scientific controversies, 75
Free will, 315
Frequencies, natural, 450
Fringe, 295
Fujii, Yoshitaka, 122
Funding, in publication bias, 97–98
Funding organizations, 213–221. See also Foundations, in science promotion
Funnel plots, 95–96
Galinsky, Adam D., 373
Gamson, William A., 307
Garfield, Eugene, 192
Garrett, Laurie, 276
Gaskell, George, 158–160
Gene editing, human, 461, 462, 463–464
Gene technology, risk and uncertainty in views of, 451
Genetically modified foods, 157
communication research in Europe on, 158–163 (See also Biotechnology and GM food in Europe)
corn, 17–18, 411
(p. 475)
Johnson’s Grist.org on, 277
public knowledge of, 40–41
Genetically modified organisms (GMOs)
algae, EPA communication on, 202–203
background on, 157–158
controversies in, 74
for extinction prevention, 413, 416n5
labels for, 157
language for, 21
Genetically modified organisms (GMOs), fear of unnatural in, 409–416
fear of unnatural in
drought in, 412–413
food and nutrition in, 412
health in, 413
fear of unnatural in, overcoming, 413–416, 458
fundamentals of, 413–414
social accountability in, 414–416
heuristics in
affect heuristic, 410–411
availability heuristic, 410, 416n1
naturalistic fallacy, 411, 416n2, 457–458
“natural” on food labels and, 409
political ideology and, 416n4
predispositions in, 416nn3–4
anxiety, 412
disgust, 411–412
environmentalism, 411
morality, 412
radiation induced mutagenesis in, 415, 416n4
religion and, 416n4
Gerbner, George, 302–305, 303f
Ghost Hunters, 296
Gifford, Robert, 355
Gigerenzer, Gerd, 370, 447, 449, 451
Ginsparg, Paul, 194
Globalization, 158
Global warming
politics vs. science on, 19–20
science communication problem on, 36
selective judgment on, 380
terminology on opinions of, 22, 358n1, 438
Goals
accuracy, 383
of communication, identifying, 394
directional, 382, 383
God particle, 22
Golden rice, 412
Goldman, Steven, 296
Good, Jennifer, 307
Goode, George Brown, 206
Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, 217
Gore, Al, 18–19
Governance, scientific advice in, 245
Government, role of, 363
Government Accountability Office (GAO), 246–247
Governmental organizations, regulatory science communications of, 197–204, 254–255
on biotechnology, 202
formal, 199
information sources in, 197–198
lessons learned on, 202–203
on nanotechnology, 200–202
National Institutes of Health in, 197
peer-reviewed literature and conferences in, 198–199
regulatory science in, 197–198
science and policy in, 198
underdetermined scientific hypotheses in, 198
Governmental regulatory agencies, 254–255. See also specific types
Gravity, 291
Green, Melanie C., 313, 314
Green biotechnology label, 157
Greenwald, Anthony G., 436
Grey literature, 97
Grist.org, 277
Group dynamics, 76
Group process, 235–236
Guidelines for Good Science Communication, 116, 128
Gurian, Elaine Heumann, 208
H1N1 influenza virus vaccine, 227
Hall, Neil, 224, 268
Hallman, William, 81
Hamlett, Patrick W., 236
Hansen, James, 275–276
Hard energy path, 278
Hardy, Bruce W., 324
Harthorn, Barbara, 175
Hartz, Jim, 263
Hawking, Stephen, 19
Haynes, Roslynn D., 292, 293
Head, Brian W., 246, 248, 249
Health, GMOs and, 413
Healy, Andrew, 405
Henry, John, 279
Hepatitis B (HBV) vaccination, 39
Herd immunity, 427
Heterodox Academy, 91
Heuristics, 29, 80–81, 389–396
accuracy inferences from, 370
affect, 448–449, 457
GMOs and, 410–411
mad cow disease vs. BSE and, 392–393
numeracy on use of, 392–393
affective meaning in, 395
attributes in, 353
availability, 410, 416n1, 448–449, 457
cognitive effort in, reducing, 394–395
in contentious domains, 396, 396f
on decision under uncertain conditions, 448–449
dual processes of thinking vs. feeling in, 390, 390f
as endemic to humans, 370
fast and frugal, 370
under fear and uncertainty, 457–458
GMOs and, naturalistic fallacy in, 411, 416n2, 457–458
goals of communication in, identifying, 394
important information in, drawing attention to, 395
numeracy on use of, 391–394
framing effects in, 393–394
power of experience and, 391–392
numeracy vs., 29
numeric information in, providing, 394
quantitative, 457
Hibbard, Judith H., 395
Hierarchical individualists, 227
Higgs boson, 22
Hirsch, Eric Donald, 65
Hoffrage, Ulrich, 447
Hogg, Tad, 228
Holbert, R. Lance, 307
Homebrew Sensing Project, 219–220
Hooper-Greenhill, Eilean, 208
Horgan, John, 274–275
Horton, Robin, 364
Hostile media phenomenon, 380
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, 217
Hulk, 291
Human gene editing, 461, 462, 463–464
Human papillomavirus (HPV), 421
epidemiology of, 165
Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, 35–36, 39, 165–171
cultural cognition of, 166–167
experts on, 169, 170f
fast-tracking FDA approval of, 165–167, 167f
feral risk communication on, 422
history of, 165–166
legislative mandates campaign for, 168, 171nn1–2
Merck’s strategy on, 167–169
nationwide campaign for school approval of, 167–168
scientific opinion on, weight of, 169, 170f
universal immunization of adolescent girls with, 166, 421
Hunter, John, 206
Hybrid journals, 191
(p. 476) Hype problem, 111–116
addressing and avoiding, 115–116, 116n8
addressing incidence of, research needs for, 116
cumulative force of, 116n1
definition of, 112
importance and impact of, 112–113, 116nn1–3
media reports in, 111–112, 114
in science journalism, 275
vs. scientific communication principles, 113
sources of, 112
structural and exogenous changes favoring, 113–115, 116nn4–7
Hypotheses, scientific
natural, in entertainment industry’s portrayal of science, 302
underdetermined, 198
Identification, 313
Identity groups, 30
Identity-protective cognition (IPC), 46–47
Ignorance, self-attributed, 45, 66
Ignoring the denominator, 35–36
“Imaginaries,” 143
Impact factor (IF), 192
Impact of scholarly work, measurement of, 192–193
Important information, drawing attention to, 395
Incentives, in science
career, 114, 128
realignment of, for best practices, 128–129
system and structure of, 114, 127–128
Indicators surveys, 65, 67
Influenza A (H1N1), 21–22
Information
social networks spread of, encouraging, 227–229
strategies based on, for selective exposure and judgment, 381–382
Information processing, 369–370
system 1 in, 315, 346, 369–370
system 2 in, 315, 346, 369–370
Information selection, 456
Ingelfinger, Franz, 263
Ingelfinger Rule, 263
Injunctive norms, 384
Innovation, 104
in science and technology, 141 (See also Nanotechnology)
Innumeracy, overcoming, 389–396
affective meaning in, 395
cognitive effort in, 394–395
in contentious domains, 396, 396f
goals of communication in, 394
important information in, 395
numeracy in
on understanding and use of scientific knowledge, 390–391
on use of common heuristics, 391–394
numeric information in, 394
Inoculations. See also Vaccines
for science politicization, 382–383
In-party frame, 354, 358n2
Institution, science as
contemporary scientific dangers in, 295
demystifying science in, 295–296
fictional media and computer games on, 296–297
popular images of, 294–297
studies on, recent, 294–295
Institutional animal care and use committees (IACUCs), publication bias detection by, 95–96
Institutional review boards (IRBs), publication bias detection by, 95–96
Institutions, scientific, 179–186. See also specific types
American Association for the Advancement of Science, 180–182
communicating clear public health (science) vs. research-based messages by, 179–180
communication and audience interests of, 180
impact of, 185–186
National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, 180, 182–185
science communication by, 6
theory and practice in, bridging, 185
Instrumental argument, 143
Intelligent design, 17
Interaction
creating spaces for, 227–228
interpersonal, 224
Interests, perceived commonality of, 357
Inter-Governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
on Arctic sea ice extent, 18–19
author guidelines of, uncertainty in, 19–20
Intermediaries, in science communication, 253–257, 257n1, 262. See also specific types
overview of, 253
public policy and science in
evidence-based policy in, 256
public engagement in, 255–256
scientific institutions in, 254–255
governmental regulatory agencies in, 254–255
museums in, 254
professional societies in, 254
scholarly presses and journals in, 254
social networks and social networking sites in, 255
themes and challenges in
awareness of identify, authority, and message of elite scientific associations in, raising public, 5–6, 256
credibility in, 257
custodians of scientific knowledge in, trust in, 256–257
perception of bias in, avoiding, 257
stakeholder engagement in policy-relevant science issues, 257
university information offices in, 255
International Patient Decision Aid Standards Collaboration, 394
Internet. See also Digital media
on incentive structures of media, 335–336
as media source, 27–28
polarized information environment of, 284
preprint servers on, 194
on scholarly publishing, 189–190
science knowledge and use of, 305
science–media interactions via, 267–268
Internet of Things, 195
Interpersonal interaction, 224
Interpretation, of data/results, 29
beliefs on, 29–30
bias on, 403
numeracy on, 29
probability information in, 447
reasoning in, 456
source of scientific information on, 382
with statistical biases, 108
values on, 29–30
Interpretive packages, 27
Ioannidis, John P., 96
Irony, in satirical news, 326–327
Issue framing, 456
James, William, 315
Jamieson, Kathleen Hall, 15–22, 29, 81, 85–91, 399–406, 433–440, 461–466
Jang, S. Mo, 371, 379
Johnson, Ann, 327
Johnson, Hollyn M., 434–435
Johnson, Nathanael, 277
Jones, Jeffrey P., 324
Journalism, knowledge-based, 273–280, 335
background on, 273–274
definition of, 273
dialogue brokers in, 276–277
knowledge brokers in, 274–276
policy brokers in, 277–279
process knowledge in, 274
(p. 477)
in turbulent times, 279–280
Journalism, science
audience behavior on, 57
changes in, 53–56
in profession, 53–54
in science news coverage, 54–56, 55f
contexts and contextual cues in, 56
fluctuations and trends in, 54–55, 55f
future studies on, 56–57
history of, 53
online media on, 54
vs. public relations, 114
roles of, 54
scholarly debate on, 56
source-driven reporting in, 55–56
working conditions in, 53–54
Journals, scholarly, 187–194, 254. See also Scholarly presses and journals
article processing charge for, 191
business models for, 190–192
hybrid, 191
impact of scholarly work in, measurement difficulties, 192–193
novelty in submission descriptions to, 9
open access, 191
on publication bias, 99
open access for, 191
opportunities and challenges in, 193
pervasive computing and future of, 194–195
PLOS ONE in, 193
retractions in, 121–123
in scientist’s life, 188
upheaval in, 193–194
web on, 189–190
Joyce Foundation, 218
Judgment
debiasing, 372–373, 374
Jurassic Park, 298, 301, 307
Jurassic World, 307
Justification frame, 354–355
Kahneman, Daniel, 315, 346, 352, 370, 390, 393, 447, 448, 457
Kardashian index, 268
Katz, Stanley N., 215
Kavli Foundation, 215
Kay, Adrian, 248
Kenski, Kate, 457
Kett, Joseph F., 65
Khandelwal, Shashank, 223, 227
Khushf, George, 463
Kim, Hyun Suk, 228
Kim, Soo, 380
Klayman, Joshua, 373
Klein, Ezra, 279
Klein, Naomi, 278–279
Knobloch-Westerwick, Silvia, 371, 379
Knoepfler, Paul, 268
Knowledge-based journalism, 273–280, 335. See also Journalism, knowledge-based
Knowledge brokers, 274–276
Knowledge deficit model, 26, 27t, 464, 465t, 466
Kranzberg, Melvin, 245, 250
Kray, Laura J., 373
Kugler, Mathew B., 373
Kuhn, Thomas S., 268
Kunda, Ziva, 383
Kutzbach, Tara, 88
LaCour retraction, 89–90
Language of science
precise specification vs. calculated ambiguity in, 20–22
shaping, 9
Larrick, Richard P., 395
Lascoumes, Pierre, 244
Last Week Tonight with John Oliver, 322
Late-night comedy, assumptions about science in, 321–328, 334. See also Satirical news, assumptions about science in
Lederman, Leon, 22
Lee, Caroline, 151
Le Galès, Patrick, 244
Lenfest Ocean Program, 216
Lenz, Gabriel S., 405
Leopold Leadership Program, 219
Lerman, Kristina, 228
Leshner, Alan, 26, 261
Leveraging-involving-visualizing-analogizing (LIVA), 405–406
Lewandowsky, Stephan, 434, 437, 440
Lewenstein, Bruce V., 61, 64, 80, 81
Lewinski, Alison A., 227
Lewis, Justin, 436
Lezaun, Javier, 149, 151
Li, Nan, 458
Lichtenstein, Sarah, 449
Liersch, Michael J., 405
Lilienfeld, Scott O., 370
Limbaugh, Rush, 90, 91
Linden, 356
Lipkus, Isaac M., 394
Literacy deficit, 36
Littlejohn, Stephen W., 237
Local warming effect, 353–354
Logic of reciprocity, in vaccine science communication, 427–429, 429f, 430f
Loss of interest, closure through, 77
Low-information rationality, 370
Lu, Susan Feng, 123, 343
Luhmann, Niklas, 116n1
Luntz, Frank, 20–21
Lupia, Arthur, 357, 395, 458
Lynas, Mark, 414
Lynteris, Christos, 293
Macnaghten, Phil, 150–151
Mad cow disease, 20. See also Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)
affect heuristic and, 392–393
epidemiology of, 134
food safety communication on, 133–139
analysis of crisis of, 136–138
communication in EU vs. Japan on, 134–135
as crisis of trust, 136–137, 138
food safety reforms from, 135
models of thinking in, first- and second-order, 134–135
models of thinking in, third-order, 137
public communication in, 134–136
food safety reforms from, 135
Mad scientist, 292, 293
Mainstreaming, 303, 303f, 305, 306f
Mandating publication, 99
Manipulated public, 40–41
Marburger, John, III, 247
Marcus, Adam, 279, 344–345
Marcus-Newhall, Amy, 437
Market mechanisms
on academic incentive system, 114, 127–128
reducing, on publication bias, 100
Markowitz, Ezra M., 225
Martin, Brian, 76
Maslowski, Wieslaw, 18–19
Matheson, Donald, 276
McComas, Katherine, 306
McCubbins, Mathew D., 357
McGrath, Liam F., 357
McGuire, William J., 436
McKenzie, Craig R. M., 405
McKibben, Bill, 306–307
McKnight, Jessica, 325, 326
McManus, Mickey, 195
Mean world syndrome, 302
Measles, cases per year of, 423, 424f
Measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine, autism and, 341–342, 421, 433–440
debunking
challenges of, 435–437
strategies for, 437–439
false causal attributions in, 434–435
false causal information in, 434
future directions in, 439–440
Wakefield study and retraction on, 341–342, 433, 435, 438
Meat consumption, colorectal cancer and, 447
(p. 478) Media. See also specific types and issues
agenda-setting function of, 85
on biotechnology and GM food in Europe, 159–161
changes in systems of, 52–53
conversations in, 224
crisis in, 114
exposure to, attitudes and, 378–379
fiction, images of science in, 296–297
hostile media phenomenon in, 380
in hyped reports, 111–112
landscape of, 6–7
“news values” and science communication by, 114
priming by, 410
in science communication, 85
on science corruption, 89–90
in science literacy, 62
scientific failure focus of, 86–87, 87t
scientist–media interactions of, 261–269 (See also Scientist–media interactions)
Medialization of science, 28, 114, 266
Media structures, on science coverage, 51–57
changes in media systems and audience behavior on, 52–53
changes in science journalism in, 53–56
professions and models in, 53–54
science news coverage in, 54–56, 55f
implications and outlook for, 56–57
role of, 51
scholarly analysis of, 51
Mediated deliberation, 284, 287
Mediated science communication, 27–28
Mega-corrections, 121
Megaphilanthropy, 215
Mental model theory, 345–346
Merck, HPV vaccine failed strategy of, 167–169
Merton, Robert, 112
Meta-analysts, on publication bias, 97
Meta-consensus, 237
Meyer, Morgan, 276
Micro-targeting, 462
Mill, John Stuart., 364
Miller, Jon, 65, 67, 305
Misinformation
arguments supporting, generating, 345–346
counterarguments to, generating, 346
domains and correction of, 346
on Facebook, 344
from Internet, 63
linking retraction or correction to, 344
responsibility for, obliteration of, 114
self-misinformation in, 45
Misinformation campaigns, 40
Mitchell, Amy, 384
Modigliani, Andre, 307
Monolithic
science as, 266–267, 308
TV as, 305
Morality. See also Values
GMOs and, 412
Motivated reasoning, 29, 378, 457. See also Selective exposure and judgment
identity-protective cognition in, 46–47
Motivational strategies, for selective exposure and judgment, 382–383
Movies
scientist image in, 291–298 (See also Popular images of science)
on views of science, 307–308, 308f
Moynihan, Patrick, 385
MSNBC, 378
Muddiman, Ashley, 327
Mullin, Megan, 353
Museums, 205–211, 254
debates about, historical, 205
future research directions for, 211
historic changes and communication trends of, 205–208
modern
content and displays in, 209
controversial science conversations in, 209
displays and programming in, 210–211
public debate function of, 209–210
transparency on specimen acquisition in, 210
relevance and resources in, 208–211
Mutagenesis, radiation induced, 415, 416n4
Myers, Paul, 286
Myside bias, 366
Mythbusters, 295–296
Naïve realism, 372
Nanomaterials, 200, 201
Nanotechnology, 28, 141–152
complexity of upstream science and engineering issues and, 148–151
analytic process in, 151
balanced information and policy framings in, 148–149
broad values in, accessing, 150–151
deliberative spaces in, 149–150
participants in, 150
unframing in, 149
conclusion on, 151–152
definition and origins of, 142
as emerging technology, 142
as emerging technology risk, 142–143
ethical, legal, and societal implications of, 200–201
government communications on, 200–202
history of, recent, 142
media coverage of, debate on, 264
National Nanotechnology Initiative in, 142
public engagement on, upstream, 142, 143–146
public irrationality thesis and, 38
responsible development of, 145
uncertainties and novel risks of, 142–143
workshops on
cross-cultural differences in, 146–148
US–UK nanotechnology engagement, 146–148
Narratives, 312–313
“common sense,” 324
as dumbing down, 314–315
for MMR–autism debunking, 438–439
persuasion in, 313–314
in pharmaceutical marketing, 314
power of, 313
Narrowcasting, 462
National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (NASEM), 16, 254
bridging theory and practice in, 185
consensus studies of, 183–184, 188–190
founding, membership, and original mission of, 182–183
impact of, understanding, 185–186
narrow focus on, 183
Next Generation Science Standards of, 184–185
science communication by, 180, 182–185
National Academies Press (NAP), 191–192
National Academy of Sciences (NAS), 16
National Association of Science Writers (NASW), 64–65
National Issues Forums, 235, 239
National Research Council, 214
National Science and Technology Council Interagency Task Group, 247–248
National Snow and Ice Data Center’s Annual Arctic Report Card, 399, 400f
“Natural,” on food labels, 409
Natural frequencies, 450
Naturalistic fallacy, GMOs and, 411, 416n2, 457–458
Nature/nurture, 158
Nature of science, revolution in, 261–262
NBIC (nano, biotechnology, information technology, and cognitive sciences), 28
Negotiation, closure through, 77
Nelkin, Dorothy, 75–76
Nerlich, Brigitte, 116n1
Nestler, Steffen, 435
Networks of opinion, 106
Newell, Peter, 237
New Museum Idea, 206
News media
legacy, pressures on, 52
newspaper industry in, U.S., 52
New technologies. See also specific types
uncertainty and acceptance of, 451
Next Generation Science Standards, 184–185
Nickerson, Raymond, 372, 374
Nie, Norman H., 285
Nisbet, Erik C., 380
Nisbet, Matthew C., 225, 274, 292, 305, 307
Nishizawa, Mariko, 237
Noah, Trevor, 322, 328
Normative argument, 143
Normative beliefs, 265–266
Normative influences, 459
Norms
appealing to, on selective exposure and judgment, 384
descriptive, 384
injunctive, 384
of science, 18
Norris, Stephen P., 314
Novelty
in journal submission descriptions, 9
in reward in science, 104, 112
in science news presentations, 56
Nuclear power, 141
Numeracy
on data interpretation, 29
definition of, 448
on heuristics, common, use of, 391–394
affect heuristic in, 392–393
framing effects in, 393–394
power of experience and, 391–392
on political polarization, 45, 46f
in risk communication, 448
on scientific knowledge, understanding and use of, 390–391
Numerical information
interpretation of, 29
misuse of, 107
providing, 394
Nutrition, GMOs and, 412
Nyhan, Brendan, 371–372, 435–436, 437, 439
Oak Foundation, 218
Obokata retraction, 88–89, 122, 268
O’Brien, Sarah J., 342
Obscure scientists, 38–39
Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs (OIRA), 247
Online deliberation, 236
Online media
emergence and growth of, 52
on science journalism, 54
on scientist–media interactions, 267–268
Opaque notices, of retractions, 120–121
Open access
for books, 191–192
for journals, 191
on publication bias, 99
Open science, 267–268
Opinion, networks, 106
Oppenheimer, Frank, 210
Optimism bias, 372
Oransky, Ivan, 279, 344–345
Ordinary science knowledge sources, 35–47
false starts in, four, 36–41
age of denial in, 39–40, 39f, 40f
fundamentals of, 36–38, 37f
manipulated public in, 40–41
obscure and partisan scientists in, 38–39
public irrationality thesis in, 38
risk perceptions in, 36, 37f
HPV vaccination in, of schoolgirls, 35–36
identity-protective cognition in, 46–47
ignoring the denominator in, 35–36
plurality of certifiers in, 47
scholarly fixation on controversies in, 36
science communication problem in, 35–36
theses of, four, 41–47
accept more than they can possibly understand, 41–42
acquire insights of DRS by reliably recognizing it, 42
overview, 41
polluted science communication environment, 45–47
recognition problem, not comprehension problem, 43–45, 43f, 44f, 45f
understanding and protecting science communication environment in, 47
Originality
exaggeration of, 5
in reward in science, 104, 112
Orthia, Lindy A., 293
Osborne, Jonathan, 312
Outreach, public, 26, 27t. See also specific types
Oversimplification, 458
Over-time frame, 354
Oxford Scale, 65, 67
Paling, John, 448
Paling Perspective Scale, 448
Pandora’s Box, 158, 160
Parsons, E. Chris, 224
Participatory engagement, 233–234, 255
Partisan scientists, 38–39
Pasteur, Louis, anthrax discovery by, 364
Patterson, Thomas, 273–274
Paul G. Allen Family Foundation’s Allen Institute for Brain Science, 215
P-curve, 95
Peak-and-end rule, 404, 457
Peale, Charles Willson, 206
Pearce, W. Barnett, 237
Peer review, 90
alternative processes, on publication bias, 99–100
failure of, 16
postpublication, 91
redundant, decreasing, 100
retractions and, 90
in science publishing, 192
statistical errors correction in, 106
Penicillin, 414–415
Perceived behavioral controls, on scientist–media interactions, 265
Perceived commonality of interests, 357
Perceived relative expertise, 357
Performance measures and rankings, in hype problem, 114–115
Peripheral processing, 370
Persuasiveness
of communication, 113
of humor in satirical news, 325
of narratives, 313–314
vs. risk communication, 446
Peters, Ellen, 390–391, 393–395, 457
Pew Charitable Trusts, 215, 216
Pew Research Center, 215
P-fiddling, 105–106
P-hacking, 94, 96, 105–106
Philosophical impediments, to citizens’ use of science, 361–366
citizens’ role in, 362–363
cosmopolitan view in, 362–363
decision-making in, consequences of, 361–362
government role in, 363
nature of science and actively open-minded thinking in, 364–366
utilitarianism in, 361–363
Philosophical Transactions, 188
Physical theory, 19
Piazza, Jared, 365
Pidgeon, N. F., 142, 143, 146–147, 175
Pielke, Roger A., Sr., 246
Pielke, Roger A., Jr., 277
Pinker, Steven, 229
Plagiarism, retractions for, 120
Planning Cells, 234
Plato, 313, 314
PLOS ONE, 193
Plurality of certifiers, 47
Pluralization, of public communication, 52
Poehlman, Eric, 121
(p. 480) Polarization
political (See Political polarization)
in scientific attitudes and understanding, 374
on scientific topics, 377
in society and media, 81
Polarized information environment, 284–285
science issues in, 285–287
Policy. See also specific types
debates on, science’s evidentiary status in, 16
process and, 244–245
Policy analysis
computational, 250
professionals in, 245
Policy brokers, 277–279
Policymaking, 244
in intergovernmental bodies, 244–245
in national governments, 244
process and, 244–245
public policy instrumentation in, 244
Policymaking, evidence-informed, 243–250, 256
applications of, 244
challenges in, 248–250
definition and scope of, 243–244
evidence in, 245–246
examples of, 244
future research in, 250
policy and process in, 244–245
supply and demand in, 246–248
Politically induced status quo bias, 353, 355–356, 358n4
Political polarization, 352–353, 354, 462–463
biased processing in, overcoming, 7–8
cognitive reflection on, 45, 46f
communicating science in, 10
framing and, 352–353, 354
numeracy, cognitive reflection, and other capacities on, 45, 46f
Politicization
causes and consequences of, 355
frame of, 355–356
of science news, 333–334
Politics, 26–28, 28t
on climate change beliefs, 352–353, 450
influence of, 174
mediated science communication and, 27–28
on science attitude, 39, 40f
science vs. political communications in, 16–18
in scientific controversies, 75, 76
Pollio, Gaius Asinius, 214
Polluted science communication environment, 45–47, 165
Popkin, Samuel L., 370
Popper, Karl, 45, 47, 275, 364
Popular images of science, 291–298
definition of, 298n1
entertainment media in, 291
on audience knowledge, beliefs, and behavior, 292
policy implications and future research on, 297–298
science as institution in, 294–297
contemporary scientific dangers in, 295
demystifying science in, 295–296
fictional media and computer games on, 296–297
studies on, recent, 294–295
scientist image in
demographics and quantitative studies of, 294
stereotypes in, new and changing, 292–294
women scientist underrepresentation in, 294
Popularization, 314
Porter, Eduardo, 278–279
Porter, James, 264
Positioning, on peer referral, 228
Post-normal science, 268, 336
Potti, Anil, 121
Precautionary principle, 463
Precise specification, vs. calculated ambiguity, 20–22
Predictive inferences, 403
Preference construction theory, 146
Premises, primal presupposed, 15–16
Preprint servers, 194
Presentation format, 228
Presses, scholarly, 187–194, 254. See also Scholarly presses and journals
Price, Vincent, 238
Priest, Susanna, 62
Priming, media, 410
Prion, 20
Prior, Markus, 285
Probabilities, 19
correct interpretation of, 447
understanding of, difficulties in, 450
Process knowledge, 274
Professional societies. See also specific types
elite, raising public awareness of, 5–6, 256
Pronin, Emily, 372, 373, 457
Prospective debate, 141–142
Prusiner, Stanley B., 20
Pseudo-science, on Internet, 63
Public
AAAS Center for Public Engagement with Science and Technology and, 181–182
communication with, scientist–media interactions vs., 267
definition and scope of, 238
manipulated, 40–41
museum debates for, 209–210
raising awareness of elite scientific associations in, 5–6, 256
understanding and acceptance of science by, foundations in, 216–217
views of, accounting for and validating, 174–175
Public Accountability, 158, 160
Publication
definition of, 93
of results, delayed, 95
Publication bias, 93–100
addressing or attenuating, strategies for, 98–100
alternative peer-review processes in, 99–100
data availability in, 99
mandating publication in, 99
open access journals in, 99
study registration in, 98–99
time to publication in, 99
defining, 93–94
detection of
grey literature in, 97
institutional review boards in, 95–96
registries in, 97
statistical methods for, 95–96
eliminating, importance of, 95
factors driving, 97–98
reducing, incentives for, 100
result on publication probability in, 94–95
suggestions and research agenda in, 100
Publication probability, results on, 94–95
Public debates and deliberation, 233–234
about “wicked problems,” 465t, 466
open vs. closed approaches to, 149
in upstream public engagement, 143–144
Public deliberation, in public policy and science, 233–240, 255–256
conventional public involvement in, 233
definition of, 233–234
moral implications in, 233
pitfalls in, avoiding, 238–239
public meetings for, designing, 234–237
impact of deliberation on scientific matters in, 236–237
participants in, 234–235
process design in, 235–236
purpose of, 234
research agenda and policy implications in, 239–240
systemic perspectives on, 237–238
Public engagement and outreach, 26, 27t, 141–142, 255–256
on nanotechnology, upstream, 143–146
scientist–media interactions vs., 267
upstream, 142, 143–144
Public involvement, 137
(p. 481) Public irrationality thesis (PIT), 38
Public Laboratory for Open Technology and Science (Public Lab), 219–220
Public perspective, 25–26
Public policy and science
informing
evidence-based policy in, 256
public engagement in, 255–256
instrumentation in, 244
significance of, 103–104
Public relations (PR) communications, 112, 113
vs. science journalism, 114
Publish or perish, 127–128, 190
retractions and, 124
PubMed Commons, 122
PubPeer, 122, 345
P-value
beyond, alternative statistical methods in, 108
disproportionate attention to, 98
distributions of, 96
misconceptions of, 105
P-value fiddling, 94, 96
Quantitative data, interpretation of. See Interpretation, of data/results
Quantitative heuristics, 457
Rabin, Matthew, 371
Rader, Karen A., 207, 208, 209
Radford, Tim, 458
Radiation breeding, 415
Radiation induced mutagenesis, 415, 416n4
Radioactive waste disposal, 141
Randomized clinical trials (RCTs), 245–246
RASFF (Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed), 136
Rayner, Steve, 276–277
Read, Stephen J., 437
Reasoning, 455, 456–458
bias blind spot in, 457
confirmation bias in, 457
dual-system model of, 457
eliminative, 371
heuristics and biases under fear and uncertainty in, 457–458
interpretation differences in, 456
motivated, 29, 378, 457 (See also Selective exposure and judgment)
quantitative heuristics and biases in, 457
Reassurance, avoiding false, 174
Recency bias, 405
Recency effect, 404–405, 457
Reciprocity, logic of, 427–429, 429f, 430f
Recognition problems, vs. comprehension problems, 43–45, 43f, 44f, 45f
Red biotechnology label, 157
Registered reports, two-tiered, 99–100
Registries, study, 97
on publication bias, 98–99
Regnerus, Mark, 90
Regulation, in scientific controversies, 75
Regulatory agencies. See also specific types
governmental, 254–255
Regulatory science, 197–198, 254–255
governmental organizations communicating on, 197–204 (See also Governmental organizations, regulatory science communications of)
purpose and role of, 203–204
Reid, Grace, 326
Reifler, Jason, 371–372, 437
Reinforcement of assumptions, 76
Relative risk, 447–448
Religiosity, on science attitude, 39, 40f
Replication, 106
Reporting bias, 94
Repositories, data, 97
Reproducibility, retractions and, 123–124
Republic (Plato), 313
Reputation, 113
Research investigator paradigm, statistical significance in, 104–105
Resident Evil, 291, 296
Residual uncertainty, 108
Resnik, David B., 113, 116n1
Retractions, 87–89, 119–124
Committee on Publication Ethics on, 119–120, 343
difficult process of, 121
framing of, 91
fraud in, 120
increase in, 87–88, 115, 119–120
by field, 120
as good news?, 121–123
misconduct in, 120
on patients, 120
reasons for, 341, 342
indictments from, 88
International Committee of Medical Journal Editors guidelines for, 343
journal handling of, 121, 123
LaCour, 89–90
mega-corrections in, 121
“more eyeballs effect” on, 122
Obokata, 88–89, 122, 268
opacity and, 120–121
overgeneralization from, blunting, 90–91
peer review and, 90
persistence of, communication for reducing, 342–345
detailed retractions in, 343
linking retraction/correction to misinformation in, 344
prompt retraction and correction in, 342–343
retraction persistence in, communication for reducing, 344–345
tracking retractions in, monitoring and alert systems for, 344–345
wide dissemination in, 343–344
plagiarism in, 120
publish or perish and, 124
rarity of, 88, 91
rates of, by journal, 122
reproducibility and, 123–124
Retraction Watch checklist for, 343
slowness of, 16
transparency in, trust dividend from, 123
transparency index of, 123
university delay of, 121
Wakefield MMR–autism, 341–342, 433, 435, 438
Retraction Watch, 120, 279, 344–345
“Doing the Right Thing” of, 123
retraction checklist for, 343
Retrospective evaluations, 403
Reuben, Scott, 121
Revenge of the Nerds, 293
Revkin, Andrew, 275–276, 277
Rhetorical force, in science’s privileged cultural status, 15–18
Rice, golden, 412
Risk
comparisons of, 448
evaluation of, 198
management of, adaptive, 145
of no-risk messages, 136
perceptions of, 36, 37f
in scientific controversies, 75
Risk communication, 135–136, 137, 445–451, 457
adequate, meaning of, 446
analytical vs. experiential systems and, 446
behavioral change and hazards from, 445
future research on, 451
goal of, 446
heuristics in, 448–449
interpretation in, 450
vs. persuasion, 446
practical implications of, 450–451
for self-defined interest, 446
trust and cultural values in, 449–450
understanding communications on, factors for, 446–448
communication methods in, 447
numeracy in, 448
overview of, 446
relative vs. absolute risks in, 447–448
risk comparisons in, 448
Risk ladder, 448
Risky-choice framing, 393
(p. 482) Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 216
fight against tobacco of, 217–218
Rockefeller, John D., Sr., 214–215
Rockefeller Foundation, 215
Rockefeller Sanitary Commission, 214–215, 216
Rödder, Simone, 116n1
Rogers-Hayden, Tee, 142, 146–147
Rosen, Jay, 276
Runaway, 158
Russell Sage Foundation, 215
Saarela, Sanna-Riikka, 249
Sackler Colloquium on the Science of Science Communication, 217, 264
Sagan, Carl, 263
Sagan effect, 263–264
Salathé, Marcel, 223, 227
San Francisco Declaration on Research Assessment (DORA), 115, 128
on impact factors, 192
Sarewitz, Daniel, 246
Satire, 322–323
Satirical news, assumptions about science in, 321–328, 334
aggression and targets of, 323
as alternative journalism model, 323
on attitudes and perceptions, 325–326
background on, 321–322
bridging gap in science news attention and knowledge by, 324
on climate change and global warming, 323
“common sense” narrative in, 324
as corrective to mainstream news, 326
The Daily Show and The Colbert Report in, 322
deliberative discussion in, 324
discursive integration in, 323
distance from satire and humor in, 326
frame of reference in, 324
identity- and community-building in, 325
inspiration to take action in, 325
irony and biased processing in, 326–327
issues covered in, 323
long segments on, 323
persuasiveness of, 325
playfulness, audience engagement, and critical reflection in, 325
promise of, for engaging public with science, 322–326
satire defined in, 322–323
science communication goals vs. satiric performance authenticity in, 328
social divisiveness in, 327
unresolved issues and potential limitations of, 326–328
Satterfield, Terre, 145, 175
Scannell, Leila, 355
Schäfer, Mike, 81
Schema, 312
Scheufele, Dietram A., 2, 4, 9, 15,