Show Summary Details

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD HANDBOOKS ONLINE (www.oxfordhandbooks.com). © Oxford University Press, 2018. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Handbooks Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 03 August 2020

(p. 512) Index

(p. 512) Index

(p. 513) Note: Tables and figures are indicated by an italic t or f following the page number.

A
Abreu, D. 222, 223
action-formation mechanism 233
actions, execution of 123, 126–127
actor characteristics 55–56
Adamatti, D. 40
Adams, G. S. 31
adaptation, gossip as 304–305
adaptive decision making 233–234
adaptive problems 304–305, 328
Adkins, K. 5
admiration, as consequence of gossip 159, 160
adolescents
gender and gossip 364–365
gossip as informal sanction 362
Hungarian secondary school study 366–372
descriptive statistics 367–368, 367t
implications of findings 371–372
measures 366–367
results of empirical analysis 368–371, 369t
ostracism through gossip 362
overview of gossip among 359–361
peer victimization 313–314
relational aggression in 363
social bonding in schools 361–362
social network perspective 365–366
stage model of gossip and reputation 140–141, 143t
status, impact of gossip on 11
status competition in 363–364
adrenarche 144–145
adulthood, gossip and reputation in 140–141, 143t
affective meaning, in speech 88
affiliation 158
age
interest in same-age relationships 179, 185
stage model of gossip and reputation 141–144, 143t
adulthood 140–141
early childhood 134–136
infancy 133–134
middle childhood 136–139
middle to late adolescence 140–141
preadolescence and early adolescence 139–140
agent architecture 476n4
agent-based computational modeling (ABCM)
agents in 234
applications of 234
cumulative advantage 235–236
general discussion 232–234, 244
social inequality, emergence of 234–239
status differences, emergence of 236–239
status differentiation model, emergence of 239–244
agent based modelling 58, 60
agent models 466
aggression. See also indirect aggression; social aggression
in adolescents and adults 141
interpersonal, gossip motivated by 423–424
intrasexual competition 307–308
non-physical
evolutionary approaches to 281–283
gender and 278–279
(p. 514) maladjustment and 279
types of 276–278
over resources 283–284
physical
evolutionary approaches to 279–280
gender and 282–283
indirect aggression versus 9, 291–292
territorial competition and 284–285
in with-in group competition 291–292
in preadolescents and adolescents 140
relational 140, 183–184, 276–278
Albæk, S. 405
Alexander, R. D. 254, 265
alliances 286–287, 293
Allport, G. W. 57
alter 500–501, 501t, 503
altruism 24, 37, 162, 265
competitive 30
in online markets 393, 396n4
reputation as motivation for action 73–75
in social dilemmas 208–209
Altuntas, S. 421, 422
Amazon 395, 469
Amish People 390
amygdala 124, 125
ancestral societies
gossip in 51, 330
resource competition in 288–289
Anderson, M. 411
Anderson, E. 124
anger 112, 155
as antecedent of gossip 157
as consequence of gossip 159, 161–162
animal societies
communication in 84
differential parental investment in 307
dominance hierarchies 280
resource competition 286–287
selective association in 134
sociality 50
socioecological model 286–288
territorial competition 284–285
antecedents of gossip, emotions as 157–158
anthropology 6. See also evolutionary anthropology
antisocial gossip 36t, 38, 173
antisocial punishment 38, 173
Antón, S. C. 284
anxiety 155, 157, 158
apology
in online reputation systems 492–493
reputation repair 90–91
appearance, gossip about 310–311
Appiah, A. 76–77
Archer, J. 140, 141, 277, 278
Argonauts of the Western Pacific (Malinowski) 101
Arluke, A. 173, 326, 422
Arnocky, S. 303, 307, 309, 311, 313, 315
ART Testbed 468
asymmetric information 218, 223
attractiveness, gossip about 310–311
attribution, act of 1
Austin, J. L. 85
autonomous agents 234
Axelrod, R. 196
B
Backus, D. 219
bad gossip 178–179
Bailey, F. G. 106
balance theory 446
Balliet, D. 39, 178, 351, 424
bandwidth hypothesis 440, 443
Banerjee, A. 408
Barclay, P. 177, 200
Bar-Isaac, H. 401
Barkow, J. 178, 289, 305, 335
Barrow, C. 255
Baumeister, R. F. 326, 347, 422, 503
Baxter, L. A. 422
Bayesian updating 499
Bayes’ rule 228n2
Beersma, B. 5, 12, 153, 154, 156, 157, 158, 162, 163, 165, 178, 181, 201, 207, 208, 290, 344, 345t, 346, 347, 351, 353, 354, 418, 422, 423, 424, 426, 427, 428, 441
behavioral heterogeneity 127–128
behavioral responses to gossip 161–162, 163
behavioral type models 8, 8–9, 218–220
belief, reputation as rational justification for 77–79
belief emergence models 238
(p. 515) Bénabou, R. 223
benign distortions 58–59
Ben-Ze-ev, A. 327
Bergen travelers 388
Berger, C. 365
Bergmann, J. R. 54, 92
Bering, J. M. 208, 227, 424
Besnier, N. 6, 103, 104, 105, 106, 108, 109, 110, 113, 254, 259, 263, 264, 360
between-group competition for territory 284–285
betweenness centrality 450
Big Five model of personality 57
bilateral nucleus accumbens 125–126
binocular rivalry experiment 124
Bird, E. S. 329
Björkqvist, K. 277
Blakely, J. A. 419
Blithe, S. J. 422
Bloom, P. 291
Boas, F. 101, 102
Boehm, C. 4, 33–34, 38, 40, 177, 187, 255, 258, 263, 268, 306, 345
Boero, Riccardo 119
Bolton, G. 412
Bolton, G. E. 392, 493
bonding, social. See social bonding
Boorstin, D. 331
Bordia, P. 174
Börner, K. 235
Bosson, J. K. 425, 503
Bowles, S. 224
Boyd, R. 334
brain networks
evaluation of choices 125–126
execution of actions 126–127
meta-representations 124
overview 6–7
perception of stimuli 123–124
Braithwaite, V. A. 41
Brandt, H. 224
Brennan, G. 75–76
Brenneis, D. 108
Brewer, M. B. 492
Bricker, V. R. 264
Brison, K. 109–110
Britton, J. 256–258
brokerage 36t, 32, 34–35, 441
brokers 440–441, 450
Bromley, D. 3
Brown, P. 87
Brusk, J. 471
Buffett, W. 209
bullying 363, 365, 423
Burkhardt, M. 388
Burt, R. S. 34–35, 59, 440, 441, 443, 444t
Buskens, V. 387
Buss, D. M. 281, 283
buyers. See markets
C
Cabral, L. 401, 404, 410, 509n5
Campbell, A. 281, 309, 312
CAPE service, University of California at San Diego 503
Card, N. A. 277, 278–279, 308
Castriota, S. 403, 405–406, 407, 408, 410
catharsis, gossip as 157
celebrity gossip
audiences of 333–337
celebrities, defining 331–332
celetoids 332
creation of celebrities 331–333, 335–337
mass media gossip 329–330
overview 10–11
prosumers 335–336
reputation gossip and strategy learning gossip 327–329, 338
role of reputation gossip 332–333
social bonding with 180
Centorrino S. 200
centrality, network 442, 450, 451
Çevik Akyil, R. 421, 422
Champagne fairs 388, 389
Chang, K. 425
Chapais, B. 293
character 56–57
cheap talk 2
Cheng, J. T 38
Chevalier, J. 409, 411–412
children
early childhood 134–136
infancy 133–134
late onset of gossip in 7
(p. 516) leveling mechanism of gossip 111
middle childhood 136–139
middle to late adolescence 140–141
overview 132–133
preadolescence and early adolescence 139–140
stage model of gossip and reputation 141–144, 143t
status, impact of gossip on 11
Chiu Loke, I. 137
choices, evaluation of 123, 125–126
citation networks 235, 236, 244–245
Claessens, N. 336
Clark, A. 421
Clark, H. H. 85
cliques 280, 293, 440–441, 446
closure hypothesis 448
coalitional indirect aggression 10
coalition models 25f, 36t, 32–35
brokerage 36t, 34–35
social bonding 36t, 31–34
coalitions 293, 448
collective reputation 402, 405–406
resource competition 286–287
coalition triads 32, 349
Coates, J. 88–89, 93
co-authorship of publications 244–245
coauthors of gossip 108
coevolution of gossip and reputation 435, 436–439, 437f
cognitive dissonance 476n5
cognitive models of gossip 471
Coleman, J. S. 36
collective reputation 12
general discussion 401–403
importance of 404–405
public good nature of, problems with 405–407
weakening information content, problems with 407–408
word-of-mouth and 410–412
common knowledge 78
communicated images 466
communication chains, information loss in 59–60
community lost model 51–52
comparative consciousness 74–75
comparative passion 71
comparisons, social 160, 345t, 346–347
competence 384
competence-based violations 492
competition. See also within-group competition
cost of gossip 31
evolutionary adaptation of gossip 175–176
gossip as strategy 9
in small-scale societies 255–256
competitive altruism 30
competitor derogation 281, 283, 313–314
complex decision making 123
computational systems
future research directions 475
gossip models 471–474
interplay between gossip and reputation in 474–475
overview 461–463
reputation models 463–470, 464f
Concentration Ratios (CRn) 405
conformity to norms 215, 221–224
consequences of gossip, emotions as 159–162
constraint, network 450
constraint hypothesis 448
Conte, R. 24, 40, 351, 463–464
contempt, as antecedent of gossip 157
content of speech 86
content of women’s gossip 310–313
context dependent 3
contract law 394
conversation analysis 85, 89
conversation flow 89–90, 93–94
cooperation 208–209. See also work groups
brokerage 34–35
coalition models 25f, 32–35
conformity to norms in game theory 221–224
general discussion 25f, 38–40
gossip as form of maintaining 351
indirect reciprocity 30
models of 35t
overview 23–26
prosocial gossip 37–38
punishment models 25f, 37–38
relational signaling 36–37
(p. 517) reputation models 25f, 26, 30–31
social bonding 31–34
social capital 36
social control models 25f, 35–37
social dilemmas 8
weak reciprocity 30–31
cooperative equilibrium 396n3
Cooperative Principle 85
copying celebrities 333–334
Correll, S. J. 237
Corten, R. 34
cost-benefit analysis 123
costly signaling 31
Cox, A. 311
Coyne, S. 140, 141
Craik, K. H. 438
credit reference agencies (CRAs) 390–391
credit scores 390–391
Crime and Custom in Savage Society (Malinowski) 385
criticism of others 53
CRn (Concentration Ratios) 405
Crothers, L. M. 423
cryptomarkets 394
Cubillo, M. 139
cultural-institutional context 24, 30
cultural representations 78–79
culture
effect on language for reputation management 91
ethnography of gossip 103, 107–111
market relationships 385
minimal responses of listeners 93–94
social context of gossip 106
cumulative advantage 235–236
Cushman, F. 137
cyberbullying 145, 184–185, 313–314
cyberstalking 314
D
Damasio, A. 155
Dark Triad personality traits 181
dark web 394, 396n5
Darwall, S. 76
data collection and analysis, ethnographic approach to 101–104
data corruption, motivated 60–61
Davis, H. 330
De Backer, C. J. S. 9, 183, 185, 187, 304, 326, 327, 330, 333, 345t, 346, 348, 350, 446
decentralized rating systems 391–395
decision-making models 233–234
Dedden, L. 281, 283
degree centrality 450, 451
Delmastro, M. 405–406, 407
democratizing gossip 504–505
Den Bak-Lammers, I. 136–137
density, network 442–443
Derech-Zehavi, A. 181
derogation of competitors 281, 283, 313–314
De Scioli, P. 293
detection of gossip 473
developmental aspects of gossip and reputation 7
developmental psychology 132
de-voicing of societies 334
dictator games 73–74, 154, 178, 207–208, 227
Diekmann, A. 386, 390, 391, 392, 393, 396n4, 447, 453, 480, 482, 483, 491
differential parental investment 307
DiFonzo, N. 174, 444t
digital word-of-mouth 469
collective reputation and 410–411
fakery in 411–412
individual reputation and 409–410
online reputation systems 499–500
social learning and 408–409
Dijkstra, M. T. 181, 360, 363, 364, 365, 423, 426
direct observation, of children 138
direct reciprocity 195, 195f
discounted utility 228n3
discounting 60
Discourse upon the Origin and the Foundation of Inequality among Mankind (Rousseau) 71
distributed averaging 472, 474
dominance hierarchies 280, 281, 288, 306
dorsal striatum 126
dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) 126–127
Dos Santos, M. 31, 41
Dover, Y. 411–412
Doyel, R. 312, 314
dramatic realization 61
dramaturgic approach to language 85
(p. 518) “Drei Schwätzer” (Three Gossipers) (Seemann) 201f
Driffill, J. 219
dual thinking system theory 164
Duchenne smile 200
Dun, T. 422
Dunbar, R. I. M. 2, 5, 84, 173, 203, 258–259, 305, 347, 348–349, 355, 387, 503
Duncan, N. C. 347
Dyson, F. J. 196–197
E
early adolescence, gossip and reputation in 139–140, 143t
early childhood, gossip and reputation in 134–136, 143t
earth mover’s distance (EMD) 476n6
eBay
democratizing gossip 504–505
estimating effect of reputation 484–485
field data from 481
general discussion 498–499
gossip, defining 499–502
interventionist approach 407
overview 479–480
positive effect of seller reputation 481–483
referrals 505
regressing sales price on reputation scores 485–491
reputation-based public governance 505–507
reputation model 465–466, 469, 482f
semantic feedback 396n4, 491–493
strong reciprocity and 393
word-of-mouth 409–410, 411
Ebbers, J. J. 444t, 449
echo hypothesis 33, 39, 440, 443
economic game theory 154
economics of gossip and reputation
collective reputation 401–403, 410–411
importance of reputation 404–405
individual reputation 401–403, 409–410
institutional reputation 401–403
public good nature of collective reputation 405–407
weakening information content, problems with 407–408
word-of-mouth 408–412
economic transactions, gossip and reputation in 11. See also markets
economies of scale 405
economy of esteem 75–76
Eder, D. 93, 139, 352
educational attainment, gender differences in 240, 241f
effectiveness of work groups, effect on gossip on 424–426, 427–429
ego-centric network structures 449–451
egoistic gossip 348
EigenTrust 470
Elements of Law and Natural Politics (Hobbes) 71
Ellwardt, L. 2, 32–33, 34, 156, 158, 180, 187, 201, 266, 345t, 348, 349, 350, 352, 353, 354, 363, 366, 418, 423, 441, 442, 443, 444t, 446, 448, 451, 452
embedded agents 234
EMD (earth mover’s distance) 476n6
Emler, N. 24, 25, 48, 49, 52, 53, 54, 55, 59, 60, 61, 82, 153, 156, 164, 174, 176, 187, 291, 306
emotions. See also specific emotions
as antecedents of gossip 157–158
consequences of gossip 159–162
defined 155
functions of 155–156
future research directions 163–166
general discussion 162–163
of gossip receivers 159–160
of gossip targets 160–162
overview 5, 7, 112, 152–154
primary 155
relationship to gossip 155–157
rewards of gossip 158–159
secondary 155
venting, as work group gossip motive 421
empathy 124
engagement, work 420
Engel, S. 135, 137, 139
Engelmann, J. 137, 138
Enke, J. L. 93, 139, 352
entertainment, gossip as 420–421
entry barriers 406
entry deterrence 219
epidemic algorithms 476n7
epistemic modal forms 87–89
epistemological value of gossip 5
epistemology of reputation 70, 78–79
Epstein, A. L. 6
Erdogan, B. 444t, 451
escrow service 393–394
ESF (expectation states framework) 236–238
esteem 71, 75–76
ethics in research 103
ethnography 6
of communication 102
data collection and analysis 101–104
defining gossip 105–106
future research in 111–113
gossip, analysis of 104–105
language 85, 102–103
overview 100
social and cultural context of gossip 107–111
evaluation of choices 123, 125–126
evolution
adaptation of gossip 304–305
competition in 193
developmental stage theory 132–133
gender differences in aggression 364–365
gossip as evolutionary adaptation 175–176
of language 84
reputations and 265
role of gossip and reputation in 9
evolutionary anthropology
case history 256–258
competition 255–256
defining gossip and reputation 254–255
evolution of reputation 265
gossip as tool for 259–260
gossip chains 260
gossip in organizations 265–266
media gossip 266–268
natural history of gossip 258
norm enforcement and gossip 268–269
origin of gossip 258–259
overview 253–254
personal uses of gossip 263–264
public gossip 264
reputations 261–262
witchcraft 263
evolutionary base 2
evolutionary game theory 224
execution of actions 123, 126–127
expectation states framework (ESF) 236–238
Expedia 411–412
experience recording methods 52
experimental games 225–226
externalities, reputational 405, 411
extortion, in prisoner’s dilemma 196–197, 197f
Eyssell, K. 350
F
facial expressions 200, 202
fake reviews 411–412
false-belief understanding 135–136
false gossip 202
Fararo, T. J. 237
Farley, S. D. 53, 181, 182, 345t, 348, 350, 352, 353, 425
Farrar, M. 133
Faust, K. 237
fear 155, 159
Fehr, D. 408
Fehr, E. 37–38, 39, 225–226
Feinberg, M. 38, 53, 205–206, 226, 346, 351, 352, 423
Festinger, L. 422
fidelity, gossip about 311–313, 337
Fiji 264
Fine, G. A. 326
finitely repeated games 217, 221–222
firms
importance of reputation 404–405
individual, collective, and institutional reputation 401–403
public good nature of collective reputation 405–407
weakening information content of reputations 407–408
word-of-mouth
collective reputation and 410–411
fakery in 411–412
individual reputation and 409–410
social learning and 408–409
(p. 520) Fischer, C. S. 52
Fisher, M. L. 101, 183, 185, 309, 310–311, 315, 326, 330, 346
Fishman, A. 402, 405, 410
fitness 304
Flache, A. 233, 238, 240, 244
flooding algorithm 472
fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging) 121–122
folivores, social relationships of 287
folk theorems 222, 223
food competition 286–287, 288–289
form of speech 86
Foster, E. K. 326
Foster, G. 263
Fox, R. 288
France 106
franchise companies 402
fraud 392, 395, 411–412
Freeman, C. 112
free riders
collective reputation 405–406
gossip-related social skills 177
prosocial gossip 346
punishment models 37–38, 40
social capital 36
social dilemmas 201
weak reciprocity 30–31
friendships
bonding through gossip 179–180
coalitional competition 293
gossip-related social skills 182–184
intrasexual competition 309
during preadolescence 139
social bonding 349–350
workplace gossip 420
Frith, C. D. 24
Frith, U. 24
frugivores, social relationships of 286–287
Fu, G. 138
Fudenberg, D. 219, 408
Fujii, T. 138
full model of status differentiation 242, 243f
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) 121–122
functions of gossip 345t
group protection 344–346
negative influence 347–348
social bonding 348–351
social comparison 346–347
status enhancement 347–348
Funder, D. C. 58
funeral eulogies 264
future expectations, managing 214, 215–221
G
Gächter, S. 37–38, 38, 39, 225–226
Galen, B. 140
Gambetta, D. 3
game theory. See also specific games
behavioral type models 218–220
conformity to norms 221–224
evolutionary models 224
experimental games 225–226
finitely repeated games 217
gossip and reputation games 224–227
imperfect monitoring and reputation 223
information, signaling, and reputation 217–218
managing future expectations 215–221
Nash Equilibria 216
neuroscientific experiments using 120–121
overview 8, 214–215
product quality game 215–221
reputation versus trust 499
strategic type models 220
subgame perfect Nash equilibria 216
trust problem and 384–385
Garbarini, F. 124, 125, 127, 128
Gardner, R. 225–226
gatekeepers 440–441
Geary, D. C. 281, 283
Geertz, C. 101
gender. See also men; women
adolescent gossip 364–365
bonding models 33
brain network activation 127
in brokerage mechanism 35
indirect aggression and 281, 282–283
interest in same-sex relationships 179, 185
intrasexual competition 306–313
non-physical aggression and 278–279
physical aggression and 280, 282–283
prevalence of gossip among women 9
(p. 521) reputation and status dynamics 231
social context of gossip 106
social media use 185
social skills 182–184
status differentiation models 239–244
territorial competition and 285
work group gossip 423
genetic competition 50
Georganta, K. 425
Gergaud, O. 403
Giardini, F. 9, 25, 30, 31, 38, 40, 54, 59, 108, 110, 161, 200, 201, 202, 230, 245, 290, 344, 345, 351, 360, 422, 501
Gilbert, N. 236
Gilmore, D. D. 264
Gilovich, T. 60
Gil-White, F. J. 334
Gintis, H. 224
global network structures 439–443
Gluckman, M. 5–6, 107, 245, 262, 343
goal-framing theory 41
Goffman, E. 61, 85, 337
Goodman, R. F. 3
Goodwin, M. 111
Goodwin, M. H. 140
gossip. See also specific perspectives; specific types of gossip
definitions of 105, 153, 254–255, 326, 344, 436, 499–502
linguistic study of 84–85
natural history of 258
norm enforcement and 268–269
in organizations 265–266
origin of 174, 258–259
personal uses of 263–264
prosocial 35t, 37–38, 178, 346, 348, 352
reputation 11, 304, 327–329, 332–333
rumor versus 173–174
in social dilemmas 200–202
strategy learning 304, 327–329, 338
gossip algorithms 470, 471, 472–473, 474, 476n7
gossip and reputation games 224–227
“Gossip and Scandal” (Gluckman) 107
gossip chains 260
gossip columns 105
gossip consumers 55, 60, 62
Gossip Effect 448
gossip episodes 91–94
gossiper’s dilemma 202–203
gossip models, in computational systems 471–474
gossip triad 25, 436, 438, 447
coalition models 32–35
punishment models 37–38
reputation models 26, 30–31
social control models 35–37
governance, in online reputation systems 12–13, 505–507
grain market in ancient Rome 387–388
Green, L. G. 423
Greif, A. 388–389, 407
Greiner, B. 412
Grice, H. P. 85
grim trigger equilibrium 222
Grooming, Gossip, and the Evolution of Language (Dunbar) 173
grooming, social 305
gross cheaters 177
Grosser, T. J. 349, 352, 420, 444t, 449
group benefits of gossip 5
group protection motive 344–346, 345t, 423
groups, effect of gossip in 14, 351–352
group selection 208
Grow, A. 233, 234, 238, 240
Guala, F. 40
Guerin, B. 347
guilt 155, 157, 161
Gumperz, J. 102
H
Haddon, A. C. 101
Hagen, E. H. 2, 10, 59, 60, 184, 202, 281, 283, 285, 289, 291, 293, 303, 306, 330
Hamlin, K. 134
Hannerz, U. 326–327
happiness 155, 160
Hardin, G. 193
Hartung, F. M. 421, 422
Hauert, C. 224
Haux, L. 138
Haviland, J. 103–104, 106, 112, 254, 262–263
Hawley, P. H. 288–289
hedonic regression 487–488, 493
(p. 522) Heider, F. 446
Heilbron, N. 277
Henrich, J. 334
Herfindahl–Hirschman Index (HHI) 405
Herrmann, B. 38
“he-said-she-said” confrontation 140, 141
Hess, N. H. 2, 10, 59, 60, 159, 178, 184, 202, 256, 281, 283, 289, 291, 293, 303, 306, 330, 363
heterogeneity 127–128, 484
heterogeneous agents 234
heterophobia 362
heuristic decision making 233
HHI (Herfindahl–Hirschman Index) 405
hierarchical distribution of gossip 353
hierarchy, in local network structures 448, 448f
Hilbe, C. 31
Hill, V. 138
historical markets, reputation in 387–391
Hobbes, T. 71
Hogan, R. 57
Holliday, H. 309
Holmes, J. 89, 91
homicide, gossip surrounding 256–258
honor 71, 76–77
hormonal changes in adolescence 144–145
Hortaçsu, A. 410
Hu, D. 444t, 449
Hu, R. 473
Huberman, B. A. 245
Hughes, S. 421, 423
Hui, X. 407
human sociality 49–52
Humphrey, N. K. 50
hunter-gatherers 292
Hymes, D. 102
I
illegal goods markets 394
images 463–464
image-scoring 138
immunity to gossip 110
imperfect monitoring 223
impression management theory 337
inclusion, effect of gossip on team members 424–426, 428
incomplete information, in game theory 217–218
indexical value of language 104
indirect aggression
evolutionary approaches to 281–282
gender and 281, 282–283
general discussion 276–278
intrasexual competition and 10, 308–309
in preadolescents and adolescents 140, 363, 364
social bonding and 33
in with-in group competition 291–292
indirect interest 72–74
indirect reciprocity
evolutionary approaches 265, 290
gossip in 203–205
in infants 134
in middle childhood 138
in public goods game 198
reputation models 26, 35t, 30
reward systems 125
social control compared to 39
in social networks 438
strategies for 40
Indirect Reciprocity game 198, 199
individual benefits of gossip 5
individual cognition 6–7
individual network structures 449–451
individual reputation
general discussion 401–403
importance of 404–405
word-of-mouth and 409–410
industrial revolution, effect on social relations 51
infancy, gossip and reputation in 133–134, 143t
infinitely repeated games 222, 228n1
informal sanction, gossip as 362
informal status hierarchy 353, 363
information, in game theory 217–218
informational power 347
informational warfare 10, 293
information centrality 450
information exchange, as gossip motive 421–422
information gathering 347
(p. 523) information loss in communication chains 59–60
information sharing
analytical levels 439f
in global network structures 439–443
in individual network structures 449–451
in local network structures 443–449
overview 438–439
Ingram, G. 95, 132, 134, 135, 136, 140, 145, 202, 281
in-group/out-group boundaries 177
inherited reputation 465, 466
initiators, of gossip 92–93
participant structure of gossip 108
perception by others 182
social status and 353
institutional regulations of markets 386
institutional reputation
general discussion 401–403
importance of 404–405
weakening information content of, problems with 407–408
interactional hierarchies 236–239
interdependent agents 234
interindividual level 14
Internet
attacks on reputation 469
cyberbullying 145, 184–185, 313–314
cyberstalking 314
fake reviews 411–412
online markets, reputation in 391–394
parasocial relationships with celebrities 335–336
revenge porn 312
social dilemmas and 209
word of mouth and reputation 409–412
Internet-based reputation systems. See online reputation systems
interpersonal aggression, as gossip motive 423–424
interpretive mind, beginning of 138
intersexual competition 282, 307
interventionist platform 406–407
intradisciplinary progress 13–14
intraindividual level 14
intrasexual competition 282
competitor derogation 313–314
content of gossip 310–313
future research directions 314–315
gossip as strategy for 306–309
preference of women 306–309
intrinsic rewards of gossip 158
investment games 121, 126
Iwasa, Y 40
Izuma, K. 124, 125
J
Jaeger, M. E. 182, 352, 425, 444t, 451
Jansen, W. 162
Janssen, O. 5, 38, 112, 152, 154
Jefferson, G. 85
Jeong, H. S. 185
Jeuken, E. 423
Johnson, A. B. 425
joint-action theory of language use 85
joint attention 133
Jones, E. E. 61
K
Kahneman, D. 164
Kalahari foragers 268–269
Kashima, Y. 53, 421
Katok, E. 493
Keizer, K. 41
Keltner, D. 423
Kenny, D. A. 56–57, 58–59
Kim, P. H. 492
King-Casas, B. 126
Klomek, A. B. 313
Knauft, B. M. 292
Knez, M. 441, 443, 444t
Knoch, D. 127
Kokkinos, C. M. 276, 277
Kollock, P. 385–386, 392
Koudenburg, N. 90
Krambeck, H. 424
Kraybill, D. B. 390
Kuo, C. C. 425
Kurland, N. B. 500
Kurzban, R. 293
Kuttler, A. F. 139
Kwan, H. K. 425
Kwon, S. 473
(p. 524) L
Labianca, G. 444t
Labov, W. 102–103
laissez-faire platform 406–407
language 50–51
apology 90–91
concepts of reputation and gossip 83–84
conversation flow 89–90
effects on reputation in childhood 138–139
ethnographic approach to 102–103
evolutionary approach 84, 290–291
gossip episodes 91–94
linguistic study of gossip and reputation 84–85
overview 82–83
politeness 87–89
in reputation management 86–91
managing social relations 87–90
reputational signals 86–87
reputation repair 90–91
role in gossip 5
Lanz, H. 2
late adolescence, gossip and reputation in 140–141, 143t
lateral social comparison 347
laws regarding gossiping 62n4
Leaperand, C. 309
Lee, I. 425
legal sanctions on gossip 174
legibility of the State 506–507
legitimacy, in brokerage mechanism 35
lethal competition 284–285
Levin, J. 173, 326, 422
Levine, D. 219
Levinson, S. C. 87
Lex Mercatoria 388, 389, 391, 393
Li, A. 135, 137, 139
liberal social theory 72
Liebe, U. 32
limit-pricing model of quantity competition 220
Lindenberg, S. 41
linguistic anthropology 102
linguistic study of gossip and reputation 84–85
Lipinski, J. 423
Lippert, S. 406
Lips-Wiersema, M. 420
listener responses 92–94, 108
Livat, F. 403
Livingston, J. A. 483, 484
local network structures 443–449, 448f
Loch, C. H. 245
Locke, J. 334
Lu, C. Y. 425
Luca, M. 412
lying 86
Lyons, M. T. 421, 423
M
Ma, J. 425
macro-micro-macro scheme of explanation 233
macroscopic ethnographic approach to gossip 104–105
Maghrebian merchants 388–389
Magruder, J. 411
Mailath, G. J. 220–221
maladjustment, non-physical aggression and 279
malicious gossip 164, 165
in adolescent networks 366–372
defined 359–360
Malinowski, B. 101, 385
Maner, J. K. 310
Manzoni, A. 496, 508–509
March, J. 265–266
markets
down side of reputation systems 394–396
gossip and reputation in 11–12
in historical and modern societies 387–391
importance of reputation to firms 404–405
individual, collective, and institutional reputation 401–403
online 391–394
overview 383–384
public good nature of collective reputation 405–407
trust problem and solutions 384–387
weakening information content of reputations 407–408
word-of-mouth 408–412
Marriott, A. 347
Martin, G. R. R. 152–153
(p. 525) Martinescu, E. 5, 152, 154, 160, 161, 162, 163, 165
Massar, K. 310
mass media gossip. See media gossip
mate value, gossip about 310–311
Matthew Effect 235, 236
Matzat, U. 12, 491, 492, 493
Mayzlin, D. 409, 411–412
McAndrew, F. T. 9, 32, 54, 60, 159, 174, 176, 179, 183, 185, 186, 187, 254, 264, 267, 291, 303, 305, 306, 309, 314, 327, 330, 334, 344, 345t, 346, 347, 348, 350, 352, 422, 423, 426
McDonald, K. L. 139, 444t, 451
McGuigan, N. 139
Mcleod, S. L. 330
McNulty, J. K. 310
meaning, in speech 84–85
media gossip 266–268
audiences of 333–337
creation of celebrities 331–333, 335–337
defining 329–330
overview 325–327
prosumers 335–336
reputation gossip 327–329
strategy learning gossip 327–329, 338
medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) 124
Mehra, A. 444t
men
bonding models 33
brain network activation 127
brokerage mechanism 35
gossip as social skill 182–184
indirect aggression in 281, 282–283
interest in same-sex relationships 179, 184–185
intrasexual competition 307–308
non-physical aggression and 278–279
physical aggression in 280, 282–283
social context of gossip 106
social media use 185
status differentiation models 239–244
territorial competition and 285
menstrual cycle, effect on gossiping 310
mentalizing network 122–123, 124, 129
Menzer, M. 139
Merton, R. K. 235
Meshi, D. 125–126
Mesoudi, A. 60
meta-representations, development of 123, 124
Mettetal, G. 137, 139
Mexico 106
Meyer Spacks, P. 34
Michelson, G. 349, 502–503
microscopic ethnographic approach to gossip 104–105
middle adolescence, gossip and reputation in 140–141, 143t
middle childhood, gossip and reputation in 136–139, 143t
migrants, control of social relations by 109
Milenkovic, M. A. 183, 185, 348, 422, 423
Milgrom, P. 219, 220, 388, 389, 393
Milinski, M. 3, 24, 39, 82, 138, 154, 196, 198, 199, 200, 201, 206, 208, 289, 359, 387, 424, 446
minimal responses of listeners 93–94
minimum quality standards 406
Minutolo, M. C. 423
Miyazaki, Y. 347
monopolizable resources, with-in group competition over 286–287, 288–289
Montenegro, Serbia 259–262, 263, 264
Montgomery, A. 425
moralist writings 70–71
morality
celebrity gossip and 336–337
childhood, understanding norms in 135–138
disagreement about norms of 108–109
gossip motivated by 53
moral evaluations of gossip 165
morality-based violations 492
overview 2
morally laden 2
moral philosophy
altruism 73–75
esteem 75–76
honor 76–77
overview 69–70
reputation as motivation for action 73–77
reputation as rational justification for belief 77–79
reputation in history of 70–73
moral revolution 76–77
(p. 526) MORE model 467
Morris, S. 221
motivated data corruption 60–61
motivation, for gossiping 53–54
in work groups 426–427
bonding 420
emotional venting 421
information exchange 421–422
integrating outcomes with 428–429
interpersonal aggression 423–424
maintenance of group norms/social order 422–423
overview 419–420
seeking entertainment 420–421
motivation for action, reputation as 73–77
MPFC (medial prefrontal cortex) 124
Mullen, E. 31
multifaceted theoretical constructs 1–4, 13
multi-level selection 208
multiple regression models 233
multiplexity 442, 446, 449
multipurpose social phenomena 2
murder, gossip surrounding 256–258
mutualism 24
mutual support, gossip motivated by 53
N
Nash equilibrium 216, 396n2
Nash reversion equilibrium 222
natural history of gossip 258
natural selection 175–176
negative gossip 178, 326
defined 359–360
emotional reactions to 160, 161–162
gender differences 182–184
indirect reciprocity and 203–204
in media 330
social bonding and 349
between women 309
in work groups 424–426
negative influence gossip 345t, 347–348
negative politeness 87
neighborhood reputation 466
Nelissen, M. 183, 185
network closure 440, 447
networks, social. See social networks
network structures
global 439–443
individual 449–451
local 443–449
neural systems 122–123
neurobiology 202
evaluation of choices 125–126
execution of actions 126–127
four-step approach 122–127
intersection between reputation and gossip 127–129
meta-representations, development of 124
overview 119–120
perception of stimuli 123–124
tools and approaches 120–122
Nevo, B. 181
Nevo, O. 181
newspapers, gossip in 267. See also media gossip
Niederhoffer, K. 425
Nijstad, B. 152, 154
non-physical aggression
evolutionary approaches to 281–283
gender and 278–279
maladjustment and 279
types of 276–278
norms
in childhood, understanding of 135–138
disagreement about 108–109
enforcement of 268–269, 346
normative function of gossip 164–165
violations of 36, 422–423
Nosko, C. 406–407, 411
Nowak, M. 40, 49, 52, 198, 224
Nukulaelae Atoll 106, 108, 110
O
Oatley, K. 180
object, of gossip 1
observation, reaction of children to 138
observational learning 422
Ochs, E. 91
Ochsner, K. N. 126
Ockenfels, A. 412, 493
Odbert, H. 57
offenses, apologies for 90–91
Ohtsuki, H. 40
one shot interaction 52
(p. 527) online markets. See also online reputation systems
fake reviews 411–412
platform shifts 406–407
reputation in 391–394
word of mouth and reputation 409–412
online reputation systems
democratizing gossip 504–505
estimating effect of reputation 484–485
field data from 481
future research directions 493–494
general discussion 498–499
gossip, defining 499–502
gossip in 502–504
positive effect of seller reputation 481–483
regressing sales price on reputation scores 485–491
reputation as a service 469
reputation-based public governance 505–507
semantic feedback 491–493
online social networks, effects in children 145
opinion sharing 59
organizations. See also work groups
gossip and reputation in 11–12, 265–266
importance of reputation 404–405
individual, collective, and institutional reputation 401–403
public good nature of collective reputation 405–407
weakening information content of reputations 407–408
word-of-mouth 408–412
Origgi, G. 69, 79, 344
origin of gossip 258–259
ostracism 362
Ostrom, E. 225–226
outcome-to-intention shift 137
Ouvrein, G. 330
P
P2P (Peer to Peer networks) 470
pain, empathic neural responses to 124
Paine, R. 5–6, 245, 262
Pál, J. 365
Panagopoulou, E. 425
Paolucci, M. 24, 40, 351, 463–464
Papua New Guinea 110
parasocial interactions (PSI) 335–336
parasocial relationships (PSR) 329, 334, 335–336
partial theories 109
participant observation 101–102
partner market 392
patience, in game theory 219, 228n3
pay-it-forward reciprocity 125
payment modes, in online markets 392
PDOs (Protected Designations of Origin) 403, 407–408, 413n1
Pearce, D. 222, 223
Peddel, L. H. 500
peer-monitoring system 387–388
Peer to Peer networks (P2P) 470
peer victimization 313
Peng, X. 126
perception 1, 56, 57, 123–124, 129
perfect monitoring 223
performance expectations 237
personality 55–57
gossip as source of information on 55–56
individual differences in gossip and reputation management 181
perception of 58–61
as reputation 49
personal relationships, during preadolescence 139
personal uses of gossip 263–264
person perception 58–61
Peters, K. 53, 421
Pettit, P. 75–76
PGIs (Protected Geographical Indications) 403, 407–408
Phan, K. L. 125
philosophy, moral. See moral philosophy
physical aggression
evolutionary approaches to 279–280
gender and 282–283
overview 9
territorial competition and 284–285
with-in group competition 291–292
Piaget, J. 132–133
Piazza, J. 138, 208, 227, 424
(p. 528) Picci, L. 497, 498, 502, 505, 506, 507
Pilkington, J. 89, 91, 93
Pillow, B. 138
Pinker, S. 180
Pinyol, I. 463
plausible deniability 140–141
pleasure, role in gossip 112
politeness 59, 87–89
politics, effects of gossip in 109–110
Popitz, H. 383
popularity 139, 363–364, 451
positive gossip 326, 354
emotional reactions to 160, 161–162
impact on status and power 10–11
indirect reciprocity and 203–204
in media 330
positive politeness 87
power. See also power inequality
defined 344
gossip and reputation linked to 10
gossip as form of 5–6
political consequences of gossip 109–110
weapons-of-the-weak mechanism 33–34
power inequality
gossip, power, and 352–354
group-level insights 351–352
group protection 344–346
negative influence 347–348
overview 343–344
social bonding 348–351
social comparison 346–347
status enhancement 347–348
preadolescence, gossip and reputation in 139–140, 143t
prediction 55–57
evidence of actor characteristics 55–56
meanings of 63n7
personality as reputation 57
reality of character and personality 56–57
prefrontal cortex 124, 126
Press, W. H. 196–197
pride 157, 161
primary emotions 155
primates
folivores 287
frugivores 286–287
resource competition 283–285, 286
socioecological model 286–288
Prince, The (Machiavelli) 71
Prinstein, M. J. 277
prisoner’s dilemma 121, 124, 196t, 499
conformity to norms 221–222
Nash reversion equilibrium 222
payoffs in 221f
reputation in 195–197
role of gossip in 226
private monitoring, imperfect 223
problem domains 14
product quality game 215–221
promiscuity, gossip about 311–313, 337
prosocial behavior
in infants 134
in middle childhood 137
prosocial gossip 35t, 37–38, 178, 346, 348, 352
prosumers 335–336
Protected Designations of Origin (PDOs) 403, 407–408, 413n1
Protected Geographical Indications (PGIs) 403, 407–408
prototypical gossip 164
Przepiorka, W. 12, 32, 386, 394
PSI (parasocial interactions) 335–336
PSR (parasocial relationships) 329, 334, 335–336
psychology
early research on gossip and reputation 48–49
human sociality 49–52
overview 5, 47–48
person perception 58–61
prediction, role of gossip in 55–57
social control 52–54
socialization theories 51
psychopathy, secondary 423
public goods games 154, 198f
general discussion 197–200
role of gossip in 205–207, 225–226
public gossip 225, 264
public governance, reputation-based 505–507
public monitoring, imperfect 223
Pulitzer, J. 329
punishment
cooperation and 351
(p. 529) gossip as 157
for gossiping 62n4
in public goods games 226
social capital 36
strong reciprocity 39–40
weak reciprocity 30–32
punishment models 25f, 35t, 37–38
antisocial gossip 36t, 38
prosocial gossip 35t, 37–38
Putnam, R. D. 11, 334
Pygmalion (Shaw) 82
Q
quality of gossip 181, 225
quantifying reputations 11–12
quantity of gossip 181, 225, 352
Quinton, S. 425
R
race, effect on brokerage mechanism 35
Rambaran, J. A. 365
random gossip algorithms 472
ratemyprofessors.com 503
rating market 392–393, 411
rational justification for belief, reputation as 77–79
Raub, W. 387
receiver, of gossip 1, 25
coalition models 30–31
emotions of 159–160
punishment models 30–31
reputation models 26, 30–31
social comparisons by 160
social control models 30–31
reciprocal reviews 412
reciprocity. See also indirect reciprocity
global network structures 442
in local network structures 446
in online markets 393, 396n4
weak 26, 30–31
reduced model of status differentiation 242, 243f
Reeder, G. D. 492
regional reputation 403
ReGreT model 466–467
relational aggression
in adolescent networks 363
in childhood 279
general discussion 276–278
intrasexual competition and 308
in preadolescents and adolescents 140
social skills 183–184
relational phenomena 436–439, 437f
relational signaling 37t, 35, 36–37
reliability of speakers 86
religious community membership, reputation and 390
religious sanctions on gossip 174
Renner, B. 421, 422
RepAge model 462, 467
repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) 121, 127
reproductive success 306–307
reproductive value, gossip about 310
reputation. See also specific perspectives
coalition models 32–35
definitions of 24–25, 254–255, 344, 401, 437
differing ideas of 54
ethnography and 111–112
general discussion 38–40
history in moral philosophy 70–73
linguistic study of 84–85
personality as 49, 57
product quality game 215–221
punishment models 37–38
reputation models 26
role in cooperation 23–26
social control models 35–37
in social dilemmas 194–196
status differentiation and 231
reputational entrepreneurs 438
reputational information flow 438
reputational information sharing 438
reputational signals 86–87
reputation as a service 468–469
reputation awareness, in children 142
reputation-based public governance 505–507
reputation-based reciprocity 125
reputation building, neuroscientific experiments on 125–126
reputation firms 390–391
reputation gossip 11, 304, 327–329, 332–333
(p. 530) reputation management 61, 94–95
apology 90–91
conversation flow 89–90
individual differences in 181
managing social relations 87–90
in markets 395
politeness 87–89
reputational signals 86–87
reputation repair 90–91
specialized abilities in humans 6
reputation models 25f, 26, 35t
computational systems 463–470, 464f
indirect reciprocity 35t, 30
weak reciprocity 35t, 30–31
reputation repair 90–91
reputation society 11
reputation systems, online. See also online reputation systems
reputation values 463, 465, 476n2
research ethics 103
resistance, power of gossip as 109–110
resource competition
in ancestral societies 288–289
between-group competition for territory 284–285
evolution of aggression 283–284
folivores, social relationships of 287
frugivores, social relationships of 286–287
reputational manipulation via gossip 290–291
reputation and resource access 289–290
social behaviors in primates, impact on 286
socioecological model 286–288
resource differences 237–238, 240
respect, as consequence of gossip 160
restorative justice system 91
retaliation 53
retribution 53
revenge porn 312
rewards of gossip, emotions as 158–159
reward system 122–123, 125–126, 129
Ribeiro, V. E. 419
Richardson, D. R. 423
Richerson, P. J. 334
Ridgeway, C. L. 237, 239
Rind, B. 182
risk
brain network activation and 127
in gossiping 53–54
Rob, R. 410
Roberts, J. 219, 220
Rockenbach, B. 39, 498
Roddie, C. 220
Rodkin, P. C. 365
roles in status structure 55
romantic relationships. See also intrasexual competition
gossip in 183
romantic rivals, gossip about 314, 315, 348
social media use 185–186
Rome, grain market in ancient 387–388
Rooks, G. 444t
Rosen, S. 487
Rosnow, R. L. 182, 326, 425
Ross, H. 136–137
roster method 442
round-robin design 56–57, 59, 442
Rousseau, J.-J. 71
Rouvière, E. 406
rTMS (repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation) 121, 127
Rubner, Y. 476n6
rumor versus gossip 173–174
Rysman, A. 174
S
Sabater-Mir, J. 462, 463, 465, 467
SABMs (stochastic actor-based models) 365, 368, 372
Sacks, H. 85
Sadrieh, A. 498
Sahin Altun, Ö. 421, 422
Sahlstein, E. 422
Salovey, P. 3, 346
Samuelson, L. 220–221
sanctions. See also punishment
in adolescent networks 362
on gossip 174
in markets 407
SCENT (Self Enhancing Tactician Model) 160
schadenfreude 335
Schegloff, E. A. 85
(p. 531) Schein, S. 503
Schelling, T. C. 9
Schieffelin, B. 91
Schmitt, D. P. 281
schools, social bonding in schools 361–362
Schultz, C. 405
Schultz, M. 38
Scott, J. C. 33, 109–110
Searle, J. R. 85
secondary emotions 155
secondary psychopathy 423
second-order theory of mind 138
Seemann, K.-H. 201f
selective association 134
self-consciousness 160, 161
self-control system 122–123, 126–127, 129
self-disclosure 350
Self Enhancing Tactician Model (SCENT) 160
self-esteem 348
self-image, effect of gossip on 161
selfishness 162
self-organized institutions 386, 388, 392–394
self-presentation 61
self-promotion 160
self-protection 160
self-reinforcing structures 473
seller reputation 499. See also markets; online reputation systems
estimating effect of reputation 484–485
positive effect of 481–483
regressing sales price on reputation scores 485–491
semantic feedback 491–493
semantic feedback 491–493
Semmann, D. 424
sender, of gossip 1, 25
coalition models 30–31
punishment models 30–31
reputation models 26, 30–31
social control models 30–31
Seo, E. 473
separating equilibrium 220
sexual reputation, gossip about 311–313, 337
sexual selection 307
Shackelford, T. K. 179
Shah, D. 472
Shah, S. S. 186
Shakespeare, W. 47
shame 112, 155, 161
shared knowledge 78
sharing, act of 1
Sharma, A. 312–313
Shaw, G.B. 82
Sherman, C. 332
Siamwalla, A. 385
Sigmund, K. 49, 52, 198, 224
signaling, in game theory 217–218
silences in conversation 89–90
situational anxiety 158
situational mechanisms 233
Skelder, A. A. 425
Skleder, A. A. 182
Skvoretz, J. 237
Sloan, B. 329
small-scale societies
case history 256–258
competition 255–256
defining gossip and reputation 254–255
envy in 262–263
gossip chains 260
gossip in organizations 265–266
media gossip 266–268
natural history of gossip 258
norm enforcement and gossip 268–269
origin of gossip 258–259
overview 253–254
personal uses of gossip 263–264
public gossip 264
reputation and evolution 265
reputation in 261–262
universal tool for cultural anthropology 259–260
witchcraft in 263
Smith, A. 72
Smith, E. R. 58, 60
Snijders, C. 8, 12, 41, 73, 233, 365, 368, 392, 442, 483, 485, 491, 492, 493
soap operas 266–267
social acceptance 161, 162
social aggression 140, 276–278, 308
social approval of gossipers 182
social behaviors, impact of resource competition on 286
(p. 532) social bonding 154
in adolescent networks 361–362
coalition models 32–34
cooperation and 36t
enjoyment due to 158
functions of gossip 345t, 348–351
social skills 173, 179–180
in work groups 420
social capital 37t, 35, 36
social cognition 77
social cohesion 107–108, 334
social comparisons 160, 345t, 346–347
social control
emotions and 157, 162, 165–166
gossip among women 305–306
limitations of 54
models of 25f, 37t, 35–37, 39
relational signaling 37t, 36–37
social capital 37t, 36
natural history of gossip 258
risks and motivations for gossiping 53–54
social dilemmas 385
gossiper’s dilemma 202–203
gossip in 200–202
indirect reciprocity 203–205
overview 8, 193–194
prisoner’s dilemma 195–197
public goods games 197–200, 205–207
reputation in 194–196
tragedy of the commons 197–200
trust games 200–202, 207–208
social distancing 160
social embeddedness 11–12, 386–387
social entities 476n3
social exclusion 161, 162
social glue 334, 349
social grooming 305
social identity theory 348
social inequality, emergence of 235–236
social information 77–79
sociality, human 49–52
social justice 159
social knowledge, language as means to acquire 50–51
social learning, word-of-mouth and 408–409
social life of modern humans 51–52
social mechanisms
relationship between gossip, reputation, and cooperation 26
social theory 232–233
social media
cyberbullying 145, 184–185, 313–314
cyberstalking 314
effects in children 145
parasocial relationships 335–336
social dilemmas and 209
social skills and 184–186
social network analysis 12, 441
social networks 266
adolescent 365–366
coevolving relational phenomena 436–439
defined 437
effect on food competition 286–287
future research directions 452–454
global network structures 439–443
individual network structures 449–451
language, managing relations through 87–91
language as reputation signal 86
local network structures 443–449
management of 87–90
online, effects in children 145
overview 11–12, 435–436
revenge porn 312
social norms, children’s understanding of 135–138
social order 422–423, 462
social rationality theories 41
social skills
evolutionary adaptation of 175–176
individual differences 181–184
multi-dimensional nature of gossip-related 177–180
overview 173–175
social media, gossip on 184–186
social-structural context 24
social vertebrates 50
social visibility 61
socioecological model 286–288
sociolinguistics 102–103
sociological role theory 51
Sommerfeld, R. D. 203–205, 204f, 205f, 226, 351, 444t
(p. 533) Song of Ice and Fire, A (Martin) 152–153
sorcery 263
Sorenson, O. 230–231
Soubeyran, R. 406
Spagnolo, G. 406
Sparks, A. 202
speech act theory 85
speech communication 50
speech genre 105, 106
Stacchetti, E. 222, 223
stage model of gossip and reputation 141–144, 143t
adulthood 140–141
early childhood 134–136
infancy 133–134
middle childhood 136–139
middle to late adolescence 140–141
preadolescence and early adolescence 139–140
Stanley, D. A. 125
statistical modeling of networks 442
status
in adolescent networks 363–364
beliefs 237, 238, 239–244
characteristics 237
emergence of 236–239
enhancement 345t, 347–348
expectation states framework 236–238
generalization 237
gossip and reputation linked to 10
hierarchies 8–9
status differentiation 231
citation networks 235–236
gossip and 244–245
models of
emergence of 239–244
reputation and 234–239
reputation and 231
status, defined 231
Steele, R. 343
Steg, L. 41
Steglich, C. 32–33, 444t, 451
Stellar, J. 423
Stewart, D. 245–246
stimuli perception 123–124, 129
stochastic actor-based models (SABMs) 365, 368, 372
storytelling 180
Stout, S. 245
stranger market 392
strategic behavior 2
strategic interdependence 8–9, 31
strategic manipulation 108
strategic type models 220
strategy learning gossip 11, 180, 304, 327–329, 338
Strating, A. 106
stress, as antecedent of gossip 158
striatum 125–126
strong reciprocity 37–38, 39–40, 393
structural equivalence 446, 447, 449
structural holes 440–441, 450
Stubbe, M. 89, 93–94
students, study of social networks of 366–372
descriptive statistics 367–368, 367t
implications of findings 371–372
measures 366–367
results of empirical analysis 368–371, 369t
subgame perfect Nash equilibria 216
subtle cheaters 177
Sugden, R. 222
suicide 313–314
surprise, as consequence of gossip 159
Sutter, M. 408
Swann, W. B. 425
swindling 395
Sybil attack 469
symbolic commodities 77
symbolic communication 84
System 1 164
System 2 164
system reputation 466
T
tabloid gossip 267, 329
Tadelis, S. 220, 401, 406–407, 411
target, of gossip 25
benefits to 110
coalition models 30–31
emotions of 160–162
gossip episodes 92
immunity to 110
leveling mechanism of gossip 111
(p. 534) ostracism of 362
punishment models 30–31
reputation models 26, 30–31
social control models 30–31
social status and 353
task performance, effect of gossip on 424, 428
team member inclusion, effect of gossip on 424–426, 428
teams. See work groups
team viability, effect of gossip on 425–426, 428
television, media gossip on 266–267
Temin, P. 387–388
temporal dynamics of gossip 92
Tendency to Gossip Questionnaire (TGQ) 181
Tennie, C. 24
ten Velden, F. S. 423
territory, between-group competition for 284–285
tertius 500–501, 501t
tertius gaudens 34–35
tertius jungens 34–35
TGQ (Tendency to Gossip Questionnaire) 181
theory of mind 135, 138, 144
Theory of Moral Sentiments (Smith) 70–73
“The Protestant Sects and the Spirit of Capitalism” (Weber) 390
thick description 101
third party, of gossip 25
coalition models 30–31
punishment models 30–31
reputation models 26, 30–31
social control models 30–31
Thomas, L. 326
Thöni, C. 38
Tiger, L. 288
Tirole, J. 223, 402–403
Tit-for-Tat reciprocity 50
Tomasello, M. 133, 135
topology of networks 473
toys, infant interactions with 134
tragedy of the commons 193, 197–200
trait anxiety 158
transformational mechanisms 233
transitive triads 449
transitivity 447
Traulsen, A. 31
triadic relation 1–2, 25
coalition models 30–31
emotions in 159–162
punishment models 30–31
reputation models 26, 30–31
social control models 30–31
TripAdvisor 411–412, 465, 469
Trivers, R. 73, 177, 307
trust. See also trust games
bonding models 32–33
computational trust models 466
created by gossip 158
effect of gossip on 31
in local network structures 446
neuroscientific experiments on 126
versus reputation 498–499
in reputation models 463
risk of losing 54
trust problem in markets 383–387
trust games
gossip in 207–208
neuroscientific experiments 121, 126
prosocial gossip 351
social dilemmas 200–202
trust problem 384–385
trustworthiness, in markets 11, 384
truthfulness of gossip 202
Turner, G. 336
Turner, M. M. 349
U
umbrella branding 404
Underwood, M. 140
universal currency 82
utility of gossip, in people perception 58–61
V
Vaillancourt, T. 183, 184, 303, 307, 308, 309, 310, 311, 312–313, 315
Vaish, A. 53, 135
validation 347
value, as relational concept 74
(p. 535) Van de Bunt, G. G. 444t
Van den Bulck, H. 329, 330, 333, 335, 336, 337
van Iterson, A. 349
vanity 71
Van Kleef, G. A. 153, 154, 156, 157, 158, 160, 163, 165, 178, 201, 207, 209, 290, 344, 345t, 346, 347, 351, 353, 354, 418, 421, 422, 424, 426, 427, 441
Van Lange, P. A. M. 39, 178, 351, 424
Van Leeuwen, J. 426
Van Vleet, K. 109
veracity of gossip 202
Vickrey auctions 485
Villatoro, D. 40, 351, 473
Vincent, D. 220
virtual gossipers 13
Vohs, K. D. 326, 422
Voulgaridou, I. 276, 277
W
Waddington, K. 180, 349, 421, 502–503
Walker, J. 225–226
warfare 284–285
Watanabe, T. 125
Watson, D. 33
Watts, C. 236
weak reciprocity 26, 35t, 30–31
weapons-of-the-weak mechanism 33–34
Weber, M. 390
Wedekind, C. 31, 41
Wert, S. R. 3, 346
whitewashing 395, 469
Whitfield, J. 181
Wielers, R. 32, 349, 350, 420, 423, 425, 444t, 448, 500
Wiessner, P. 268–269
Wijnberg, N. M. 444t, 449
Willer, R. 38, 423
Wilson, D. 60
Wilson, P. 111–112
Wilson, P. J. 336
Wilson, R. 404
wines, classification of 79, 405–406, 407–408
winner-takes-all dynamics 235
wireless sensor networks (WSN) 470
witchcraft, gossip and 263
within-group competition
aggression over resources 283–284
between-group competition for territory 284–285
folivores 287
friendships and cliques 293
frugivores 286–287
indirect aggression versus physical aggression 291–292
non-physical aggression
evolutionary approaches to 281–283
gender and 278–279
maladjustment and 279
types of 276–278
over monopolizable resources 288–289
overview 275–276
physical aggression 279–280, 291–292
reputation manipulated by gossip 290–291
resource competition 286, 289–290
socioecological model 286–288
witness reputation 466
Wittek, R. 2, 24, 25, 32–33, 34, 36, 37, 41, 73, 108, 110, 156, 157, 158, 180, 238, 240, 254, 266, 345t, 347, 349, 350, 353, 354, 360, 363, 366, 419, 420, 422, 423, 425, 426, 441, 442, 443, 444t, 446, 448, 451, 500
women
bonding models 33
brain network activation 124, 125, 127
brokerage mechanism 35
gossip among
as adaptation 304–305
content of 310–313
derogation of competitors 313–314
future research directions 314–315
intrasexual competition strategy 306–310
overview 303–304
social control 305–306
indirect aggression in 281, 282–283
interest in same-sex relationships 179, 184–185
non-physical aggression and 278–279
physical aggression and 280, 282–283
prevalence of gossip among 10
(p. 536) reputation and status dynamics 231
social context of gossip 106
social media use 185
social skills 182–184
status differentiation models 239–244
territorial competition and 285
work group gossip 423
word-of-mouth 469
collective reputation and 410–411
fakery in 411–412
individual reputation and 409–410
social learning and 408–409
work engagement 420
work groups
effectiveness of, effect on gossip on 424–426, 427–428
gossip motives 426–427
bonding 420
emotional venting 421
information exchange 421–422
integrating outcomes with 428–429