Show Summary Details

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD HANDBOOKS ONLINE (www.oxfordhandbooks.com). © Oxford University Press, 2018. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Handbooks Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 05 July 2020

(p. 507) Index

(p. 507) Index

Note: Page numbers followed by f and t indicate figures and tables, respectively. n indicates an endnote, and b indicates boxed material.

A
ABC (Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-up), 71–72
ABC News/Washington Post Polls, 337t, 349n4
Abu Ghraib military scandal, 488
Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, 379
Accident and Emergency service (A&E), use by homeless people, 466
Accommodation, of partner transgression in relationship, 308–309
Accuracy
empathic. See Empathic accuracy
interpersonal, 300f, 301
Action
appropriate, determination of, compassion training and, 229–230
compassion and, 238, 401, 403
compassionate. See also Heroism
leaders’ modeling of, 444t, 451–452
social class and, 323–325
in compassionate health care, 459
heroism and, 488
organizational compassion and, 437f, 438
legitimizing, 441f, 443t, 447–448
in organizations, leaders’ role in, 441f, 444t, 451–453
Action compassion, 42, 42t, 46
Action-phase model
of compassion, 357–360, 359f
evidence for, 360–363
implications of, 363–365
of goal pursuit, 354–357, 355f
Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (APIM), 303–304
Adaptive coping, CCT and, 222–223
Adler, A., Understanding Human Nature, 491
Adolescent(s)
compassion and caring behavior in
interventions to encourage, 101
neurodevelopment and, 153
compassion training for, outcomes, 223
empathy in, 153–154
immune function, CBCT and, 223, 251, 253
personal fable of, 372
prosocial behavior in, 55
self-compassion in, 153
social identity of, 153
Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs), 93
Affect. See also Emotion(s)
actual, 277
avoided, 277
American–German differences in, 277–278, 279f
compassion training and, 222–223
ideal, 277, 281–282
negative
avoiding, cultural differences in, 277–278, 279f
compassion training and, 140
positive
and compassion, distinction between, 266
compassion training and, 223–224
regulation of
attachment and, 97
in compassion-focused parenting, 97–99
Affection, development of, in CBCT, 22, 248, 249t, 250
Affective chronometry, 136
of compassionate neural responses to suffering, 142–143
Affective sharing, 46
Affect valuation theory (AVT), 277–280
Affiliative/altruistic strategies, 409
lower class and, 319
Agentic traits, temporal trends in, in U.S., 339t, 344
Aggression, 300f, 302
altruistic, empathy-induced, 32
empathic distress and, 117–118
empathy/compassion and, 304–306
non-U.S. evidence, 306
inhibition of, empathy-induced altruism and, 31–32
relational, 305
in students, 475
Aggressive strategies, 406, 406t, 408–409
Aging. See also Older adults
compassion in, 154
Agreeableness, 411
Airline(s). See also Southwest Airlines
recovery after September11th attacks, 428
Alcohol use, self-compassion and, 376
Alexander the Great, 488
Altruism, 44, 332. See also Empathy-altruism hypothesis
and compassion, differentiation of, 6
cultural differences in, 275
definition of, 27, 53
empathy-induced, 30
benefits of, 31–33
evolution of, 30–31, 34
expansion of, 37
liabilities of, 33–36
evolutionary theories of, 161–162
moral elevation and, 126
neuroscience of, 110
reciprocal, 47, 161, 163
Altruistic disposition, 36
Altruistic motivation, 28–29
Ambition, temporal trends in, in U.S., 339t, 344
American Freshman Survey, 333–335, 336t340t, 344
Americans, and Germans, differences in avoided negative affect, 277–278, 279f
Amygdala, 8, 11, 127, 251–252
activity
CBCT and, 223, 251–253
meditation and, 251–252
in caregiving, 166
compassion training and, 139, 151
in parenting, 67–72, 110
and social behavior, 180–181
in stress response, 166, 168
Ancient rituals. See Ritual(s)
Anger, 46f, 47
altruistic, empathy-induced, 32
chronic pain and, 460
and compassionate behavior, 402, 411
with others’ suffering, 4–5
Angst, 278
Animals. See also specific animal
attitudes toward, empathy-induced altruism and, 33
cruelty to, 408
nonhuman, helping behavior in, 175–176
(p. 508) Antecedents
of compassion, 4, 8, 150
of empathic concern, 30, 300, 300f
Anterior cingulate cortex
in caregiving, 167
in compassion, 111, 113–114, 115f
in empathy, 110, 151–152
in parenting, 67–72, 110
Ants, helping behavior in, 175
Anxiety
attachment, 81
and caregiving, 82–83
and caregiving in romantic relationships, 83–85
and caregiving to strangers, 85–87
CCT and, 243
and compassionate behavior, 402
homelessness and, 466
in hospitalized patient, 458
in illness, compassion and, 458
neurobiology of, 180–181
parenting-related, neurophysiology of, 69–70
postpartum, 69–70
self-compassion and, inverse association of, 374, 381
Appeasement behavior, 407, 411
Applied compassion, 11–12
Appraisal making, 9, 46, 46f
Appreciation
development of, in CBCT, 21–22
for others, development of, in CBCT, 248, 249t
Approach motives, and empathy, 210
Approach response
compassion mediation and, 136–137, 136f, 141
hormones mediating, 178
neurobiology of, 180
Arête, 424
Arhat, 18
Aspirational compassion, 42t, 43
in CBCT, 22
Association(s)
direct, 300f, 301
language-mediated, 300f, 301
Attachment, 5–6, 401
adult, 79–81
link to caregiving, empirical evidence for, 83–87
temporal trends in, in U.S., 333, 336t
anxious, 80, 122
and caregiving, 82–83
avoidant, 80
and caregiving, 82–83
and caregiving, to strangers, 85–87
caring system and, 97
and child’s level of compassion, 101
components of, 97
infant
and adult caregiving/compassion, 164
theories of, 163–164
insecure/disorganized, 66, 164, 333
parenting and, 65–66
parents’ own models of, and compassionate parenting, 68
science of, 66
secure, 66, 80–81, 95, 164, 333
contextual heightening of, and empathic response, 87
and optimal caregiving, 82–83
working models of, in infants, 164
Attachment anxiety, 81–87
Attachment behavioral system, 79–81
and caregiving behavioral system, interplay of, 82–83
deactivation of, 80
hyperactivation of, 80
primary attachment strategies and, 80
secondary attachment strategies and, 80
and security, 80
Attachment figures, 80
Attachment-related avoidance, 81
Attachment style, 80–81
Attachment theory, 79
Attention
and compassion, 400–401, 403
and compassion collapse, 263
development of, in CBCT, 21–22
and organizational compassion, 437f, 438
to suffering, in organizations, leadership moves and, 441f, 442–446, 443t
visual, to suffering, compassion training and, 139
Attentional engagement, 446
Attitudes
other-focused, temporal trends in, in U.S., 333–334, 336t
self-focused, temporal trends in, in U.S., 340t, 344–345
Attractiveness
physical, 407
as strategy, 406, 406t
Austerity, primary care in setting of, 465–466, 465b
Authoring compassion, 445
Autism
child’s, parents’ adjustment to, self-compassion and, 375
oxytocin gene and, 124, 178, 184
Autonomic nervous system, 4, 9, 190
activity, CBCT and, 251, 253
and affect regulation, 97
evolution of, 192–193
moral elevation and, 126–127
response hierarchy of, 193–194
response to stress, Cognitively Based Compassion Training and, 251
and social behavior, 180, 184
and socioemotional functions of oxytocin and vasopressin, 179–180, 184
subsystems of, 193–194
and visceral homeostasis, 179, 194
Autrey, Wesley, 27
Aversion, 46f, 47
Aversive responding, compassion training and, 224–225
Avoidance, 46f, 47
attachment-related, 81
compassion mediation and, 136–137, 136f, 139
as coping style, 373
dispositional
and caregiving in romantic relationships, 83–85
and caregiving to strangers, 85–87
hormones mediating, 178
neurobiology of, 180
threat system and, 358–360, 364, 411
Avoidance motives, and empathy, 210
Awe, emotional states associated with, 125
B
Baboons, intra- and inter-sexual competition in, 407
Baby Boomers
definition of, 332
volunteering by, 334, 336t
Baby names, temporal trends in, in U.S., 341t, 345, 349n3
Balzac, H. de, Père Goriot, 33
Baroreceptors, 197
Bats, helping behavior in, 175
Batson, Daniel, xxi. See also Empathy-altruism hypothesis
Beauty, cultural construction of, 273–274
Beck, Aaron, 281
Behavior. See also Helping/helping behavior; Prosocial behavior; Social behavior
anti-relationship, 302
appeasement, 407, 411
caring, CCT and, 243
compassionate, 4, 403
compassion training and, 230
control theory of, 278
cooperative, compassion and, 288–289
motivation and, 29
other-focused, temporal trends in, in U.S., 334–335, 336t–338t
perception and, 44
personality and, 295
pro-relationship, 302
situational factors and, 295
submissive, 407, 411
traits and, 295
Behavioral contingency, in compassionate parenting, 67, 67f, 72
Behavioral system(s), 79–83. See also Attachment behavioral system; Caregiving behavioral system
primary strategy of, 80
working models of self and others in, 80
Behavioral transfer, compassion mediation and, 137–138
Behaviorism, 163. See also Conditioning
Biofeedback, in schools, 480
(p. 509) Biology, xxii. See also Neurobiology
of compassion, 8–10
Blaming the victim, 32, 46f, 47
Blocks. See also Fears, blockers, and resistances (FBRs)
definition of, 400
Bodhicitta, 19
Bodhisattva, 18–19, 401
Bonobos, helping behavior in, 175
Books, American
collectivist words in, temporal trends in, 335, 338t, 348n1
individualistic word use in, temporal trends in, 340t, 345, 348n1
Bowlby, John, 79–82, 96, 164, 401
Brain. See also Neurocircuits
activity
CBCT and, 223
empathy and, 275
meditation and, 289
bidirectional communication and, 193
Cognitively Based Compassion Training and, 251–252
and compassion, 8–9
compassionate states
multivariate representation of, 142
spatial and temporal variability in, 142
compassion training and, 8–9, 110, 139, 230
culture–gene coevolution with, 148
developing, culture, compassion, and empathy in, 152–154
functions
and compassion-focused parenting, 99
related to compassion, 110
imaging. See Neuroimaging
infant, parental neglect and, 95
maternal
future research areas, 72–73
plasticity in postpartum period, 68–69
prospective studies of, 73
structural changes in, 73
parental, 67–72
interventions and, 71–72
and parenting-related anxiety, 69–70
paternal, plasticity in postpartum period, 69
plasticity
and acquisition of new skills, 112
and compassion, 72
compassion training and, 110–114, 116
culture and, 148
parental, in postpartum period, 68–69, 72
positive/optimistic orientation of, 429
pregnancy and, 73–74
response to signals of suffering, 223
stress response, compassion and, 458
structures, and modulation of compassion, 179–180
threat system in, 96
Brain stem
and social engagement system, 195–196
and socioemotional function, 179
and visceral regulation, 179
Breastfeeding, moral elevation and, 127
Breath, neurophysiology of, 191, 191t, 195, 197
Breathwork, in schools, 480
British Petroleum (BP), 422–423
Bronfenbrenner, U., ecological theory of human development, 345–346, 346f
Buddhahood, 18–20
Buddhism, 10–12, 17, 36, 43, 228, 400
compassion in, 18–20, 275, 282, 400. See also Global compassion
and compassion training, 220
and contemplative model of compassion, 20–21, 24
and distress tolerance, 402
Drikung Kagyu tradition of, 134
four immeasurables of, 18, 224
Mahāyāna, 18–20, 23, 400
meditation in, 289
mind training tradition of, 248, 479
and modern contemplative programs, 20–21, 24
New Kadampa Tradition, 223
Noble Eightfold Path of, 18
and self-compassion, 381
suffering in, 43
tantric practice, 19–20
Theravāda, 18, 21
Vajrayāna, 18–20, 23–24
Bullying
among students, 475
definition of, 347
temporal trends in, in U.S., 342t343t, 347–348
Burnout, 34–35, 47, 295
in health care professionals, 466–467
in primary care practitioners, 464
protection against, self-compassion and, 379
Business education, and support for hierarchical systems, 497
Bystander effect, 287, 292, 400, 409
Bystander role, 4
C
6 Cs, of health care, 459
California Personality Index, 339t
California Psychological Inventory, 344
Callousness, 404
Call to Care, 23, 479
Cancer, immune function and, 169
Cancer patient(s), care for, compassion in, 460
Cancer survivors, caregiving by adult spouses of, attachment and, 83
Capitalism, 405, 425
Care. See also Self-care
extending, in SCT model, 23
receiving, in SCT model, 23
relational dimension of, 479
Caregiving, 6. See also Parenting
brain circuits of, 9
compulsive, 82–83
controlling, 83
deficits
in anxious persons, 83–87
in avoidant persons, 83–87
evolution of, 401, 403–404
impairment of, 82
link to adult attachment, empirical evidence for, 83–87
mammalian, 401
neural substrates of, 110–111
optimal, 81–82
responsive, 83
in romantic relationships, 83–85
to strangers, 85–87
Caregiving behavioral system, 81–82
and attachment behavioral system, interplay of, 82–83
extension of, 81
Caregiving motivation, 5, 8
Caregiving Questionnaire, 83
Caregiving system, 79, 162–164
mammalian models of, 165
mechanism of action of, 164–165
neurobiological model of, 165–167, 166f
empirical tests of, 167
Care Quality Commission (CQC; U.K.), 457, 459, 464
Caring, 30
context and, 44
costs of, 404–405
evolution of, 399
Caring behavior, CCT and, 243
Caring role, costs of, 404
Caring system motive, and parenting, 96–97
Caudate nucleus, in compassion, 111
Cause(s)
proximate, 400
ultimate, 400
Chambers, John, 452
Chanting, neurophysiology of, 197, 199
Charitable giving
compassion training and, 140
social class and, 323–324
temporal trends in, in U.S., 334–335
Chief Nursing Officer’s (CNO) conference (U.K.), 459
Child(ren)
compassionate, 53–63
compassion-focused parenting and, 95–96, 102
empathic parents and, 101
future research areas, 60
interventions to encourage, 101
compassion-focused parenting and, 95–96, 102
corporal punishment of, 92
(p. 510) dispositional emotionality, and sympathy, 57–58
emergence of compassion in, 477
empathy in, 153–154
from inner cities, community violence and, 99
prosociality in, social class and, 324
self-regulation, and sympathy, 57–60
smacking of, 92
socioemotional orientation of, effects of, 304
temperament of, and sympathy, 57–58
Child deaths
by homicide, global statistic, 92
violence-related, 92
Child development
compassion-focused parenting and, 96
father’s role in, 69
and prosocial behavior, 477
social-emotional, compassion and, 96
Childhood experiences, 6, 401, 405
and self-compassion, 380
Child maltreatment, 92–94, 98–99
risk factors for, 92–93
and self-compassion, 380
Chimpanzees, helping behavior in, 175, 489
Christen, Pat, 450
Christianity, and compassion training, 220
Cingulate cortex, in compassion, 223
Circle of Security, 71
Cisco Systems, 452
Civic engagement, temporal trends in, in U.S., 335, 338t
Class. See Social class
Cognitive generalization, and evolution of empathy-induced altruism, 30–31, 34
Cognitively Based Compassion Training (CBCT), 17, 19–22, 221, 228, 477–480
active ingredients of, 249–250, 249t
anti-inflammatory effects of, 223, 250–252
differential effects in different populations, 253
effects
on body, 223, 250–251
on brain, 251–252
moderators of, 253–254
practice time and, 254
future research areas, 253, 253b
modules of, 248–249, 249t
outcomes, 223–224
and oxytocin system, 254–255
practice of, 248–249
science and, 24
theoretical basis of, 248
Cognitive networks, elaborated, 300f, 301
Cognitive performance, meditation and, 289
Cognitive reappraisal, 113–114, 137, 222–223, 230
and compassion collapse, 264–267
Cognitive regulation, CCT and, 242–243
Cognitive representations, of self and other, 300f, 301–302
Cognitive therapy, 281
Cohort effects, 332
Collectivism, 10, 148–149
and compassion, 321
and compassion collapse, 265
and cultural shaping of compassion, 282
ecological and environmental factors and, 150
and empathy–forgiveness association, 310–311
and expression of compassion, 150
and parenting, 153
temporal trends in, in U.S., 335, 338t
College students
adjustment to college, self-compassion and, 375
American
other-focused variables in, changes over time, 333–344, 336t339t
self-focused variables in, changes over time, 339t341t, 344–345
empathy-building interventions for, 207, 208t
Common good, and empathy-induced altruism, 35–36
Common Group Identity Model, 211
Communal traits, temporal trends in, in U.S., 339t, 344
Community, and society, 346–347
Compassion
action-phase model of. See Action-phase model
active
in CBCT, 22
in CCT, 22
affective component of, 238
and altruism, differentiation of, 6
assessment of, 189
behavioral patterns of, 4
in Buddhist thought and practice. See Buddhism
capacity limit on, 263
cognitive component of, 238
vs. compassionate behavior, 262
and compassion training, relationship between, 222–226
competencies of, 95–96, 174, 400–403
components of, 3–4, 95, 238, 400–401, 477, 498
conception of, cultural shaping of, 274–275, 274f
contingent, 47
cross-cultural studies of, 274–277
as cultivated attitude, 4
cultivation of. See Cultivation of compassion
cultural neuroscience study of, 148–154
cultural shaping of, 274, 274f
as cultural value, 5
definition of, 3–4, 28, 42, 53, 95, 110, 133, 147, 174, 189, 222, 237–238, 273, 288, 320, 331, 353, 371, 389, 400, 421, 436, 457, 477, 498
in CBCT, 21
development of, 152–153
in CBCT, 249–250, 249t
directions of, 95
dispositional, 5–6, 295
and distress, 353
dyadic, 425
ecological model of, 150
as emotion, 4–5, 262, 288
and emotions, 353
and empathy, 6, 45–47, 190, 206, 261–262, 299
and engagement, 401–403
enhancement of, 289–294. See also Cultivation of compassion; Training, compassion
future research areas, 294–296
practice-specific mediators of, 295
social psychological approaches to, 289–294
subtle situational cues and, 294
evolution of, 174
experience of
cross-cultural considerations in, 282
cultural shaping of, 274–276, 274f
positive vs. negative in, 282–283
expression of
avoided negative affect and, 278–280, 279f
cultural shaping of, 274, 274f, 276–280, 279f
functions of, 190–191, 288
global. See Global compassion
as gut feeling, 179
in health care. See Health care
and helping, 353, 364
individual, 425
in organizational settings, 425
individual-level determinants of, 321
intentional component of, 238
leadership and, 495. See also Leadership
mammalian reproduction as evolutionary prototype for, 174–175
measurement of, 101
cross-cultural considerations in, 282
modern scientific model of, 24
as moral force, 288–290
as motivation, 4–5
motivational component of, 238
neural substrates of, 111
in nonhuman species, 173
for others, 498
assessment of, 500
(p. 511) and relationship between leadership and social dominance orientation, 503
to others, 95
physiology of, 190, 468
and positive affect, distinction between, 266
psychologies of, 402f
receiving, 95
and response/action, 401, 403
science of. See Science of compassion
in SCT model, 23–24
sex differences in, neurobiology of, 181
similarity/closeness and, 8
situational cues and, 288
social class differences in, 320–325
and social functioning, 303–311
as social process in organizations, 436–439, 437f
sociocultural context and, 149
and survival of species, xxi
sustainability of, 295
as trait, 4–6
typology of, 42–43, 42t
universality and cultural specificity of, 150
and vagal-mediated physiology, 190
and well-being, 353
in Western thought, 274–275
without action, 232
Compassionate joy (CJ), 47, 48n1
Compassionate Love Scale, 5
Compassionate mind training (CMT), 248, 477
for education, 479–480
Compassionate neurobiology
and behavioral interventions, 169
definition of, 159
and disease pathways, 169
future research areas, 184–185
and mental health, 169
Compassionate parenting. See Parenting
Compassion Based Cognitive Training (CBCT), 11
Compassion collapse, 8, 232, 295
as adaptive response, 269
capacity explanation for, 263
causal locus of, 266–267
causes of, 261, 263–266
contextual boundaries of, 267–268
counteracting, motivational interventions for, 268–269
definition of, 261–262
examples of, 261
expectations and, 269
vs. identifiable victim effect, 262
ideological factors and, 268
intergroup factors and, 267–268
laboratory studies of, 262
mechanism of, 266–267
motivational explanation for, 263–266
real-world studies of, 262
scope-severity paradox and, 262
socioeconomic status and, 268
Compassion core, and compassion fatigue resilience, 390
Compassion Cultivation Training (CCT), 10–11, 17, 19–23, 221, 228, 237–245, 248, 477
background of, 238
class structure, 239
empirical investigations of, 242–244
future research areas, 244–245
homework, 239–240
instructors, 242
outcomes, 222–224
gender differences in, 244
participants in, 239, 242
characteristics of, and CCT-related changes, 243–244
partner and small group sharing in, 240
practice of, 238–240
science and, 24
six steps of, 240–242, 240t
theoretical basis of, 238
Compassion fade, 266
Compassion fatigue (CF), 12, 35, 269, 295
antidotes for (protective factors), 390–391
causes of, 390, 404–405
culture and, 281
definition of, 387, 389
in healthcare professionals, 466–467
in organizations, future research on, 430
prevention of, 295, 396
protection against, self-compassion and, 379
risk factors for, 390
Compassion fatigue resilience
definition of, 390
genesis of, 395–396
Compassion Fatigue Resilience Model (CFRM), 388, 390–394, 391f
applications of, 395
case studies, 388, 394–395
Compassion-focused therapy (CFT), 95–96, 99, 199–201, 380–381
Compassion in Practice, 459
Compassion meditation (CM), 18, 20, 36–37, 490
and behavioral change, study methods, 133
and behavioral transfer, 137–138
and compassionate responses, 268
future research on, 295
mechanism of effect, 295
emotion-regulation model of, 134–136, 134f
empirical evidence for, 137–140
future research areas, 141–144
in management of chronic pain, 460
practice of, 133–134
response components, 134, 134f
and state-to-trait changes, 136–137
steps in, 134, 134f
strategies used in, 134, 134f
targets of, future research on, 143–144
Compassion satisfaction, 387
benefits of, 394
definition of, 394
for human service workers, 395
self-compassion and, 379
Compassion Skills Training (CST), 503–504
Compassion stress, 388, 390–391, 391f, 392
genesis of, 395–396
prevention of, 396
risk factors for, 395
Compassion transfer, compassion mediation and, 137
Competition, 403–404
and empathy avoidance, 210
and human nature, 160–161
inter-sexual, as compassion inhibitor, 407–408
intra-sexual, as compassion inhibitor, 407–408
and natural selection, 160
self-focused, 405–407
social, 405
strategies for, 406, 406t
Compulsive caregiving, 82–83
Concern, 28
Conditioning
classical, 300f, 301
operant, 163
Conflict resolution, 32
interpersonal, empathy/compassion and, 304–306
Confucianism, and self-compassion, 381
Connections, high-quality
among co-workers, 449
definition of, 449
leadership moves and, 449–450
Conscientiousness, 411
Constructivist models, 20–21
Consumer acceptability, of treatments and strategies, 100
Contact
inter-group, and empathy building, 207
social, cross-class, and social class differences in compassion, 327
Contemplative neuroscience, xxi, 189
directional causality in, 191
Contemplative practices
active pathway and, 192, 199–201
benefits of, 191–192
environment for, 192, 199
neurophysiology of, 191, 191t, 195
passive pathway and, 192, 197–201
and social engagement system, 196–198
and vagal mechanisms, 191–192, 191t, 195
Contemplative programs, modern
Buddhism and, 20–21, 24
compassion-based, 21–24
Cooperation
in conflict situation, empathy-induced altruism and, 32
origins of, 160, 163
(p. 512) Cooperative behavior, compassion and, 288–289
Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory, 339t
Corporate social responsibility (CSR), 423–424
Corporations, compassion collapse and, 262
Cortex, 9
and social engagement system, 195–196
Corticotropin-releasing factor, 180–181
Cortisol, 167–169
response to stress, Cognitively Based Compassion Training and, 250–251
Costs
of caring, 404–405
of compassion, 404–405
and compassion collapse, 263–268
of empathy, 212
and parental empathy toward children, 100
and prosocial behavior in children, 56–57
Counseling, cultural shaping of compassion and, 280–281
Courage, compassion as form of, 414
Courage of Care Coalition, 23, 479
C-reactive protein, buffering of, by Cognitively Based Compassion Training, 251
Cruelty, 287, 408, 411–412
Cultivating Emotional Balance (CEB), 224–225
Cultivation of compassion, xxi–xxii, 48, 469. See also Compassion Cultivation Training (CCT)
in Buddhist thought and practice, 18–19, 401
in compassion meditation, 134, 134f, 135–136
and education, 476
Cultural indicators
other-focused, temporal trends in, in U.S., 335, 338t339t
self-focused, temporal trends in, in U.S., 340t341t, 345
Cultural neuroscience, 147–154, 275
advances in, 151–152
definition of, 148
future research areas, 154
implications of, 154
research in, 148
scope of, 148
Cultural priming, 148
Cultural products, and historical trends in compassion-related variables in U.S., 332
Cultural reproduction, 153
Culture
affect valuation theory and, 277
and compassion, 10, 150, 273
future research areas, 281–282
in health care, 459–460
and compassion-related variables, temporal trends in, future research on, 348
definition of, 273–274
ecological theories of, 150
and emotions, 10
and empathy, 150
tightness and looseness
and compassion and empathy, 149
geography and, 150
Culture cycle, 273–274
Culture–gene coevolutionary theory
of compassion and empathy, 148–149
definition of, 148
Culture of companionate love, 450
Current Population Survey, volunteer supplement of, 336t337t
D
Dalai Lama, xxi, 12, 42–43, 492
Darby, Joe, 488
Dark Triad, 404–405
Darwin, Charles, xxi, 160, 273, 282, 403
Davidson, Richard, xxi
Davis, Mark, xxi
Deep Water Horizon oil spill, 422–423
Defense(s), and compassion, 400, 402
Defining Issues Test, 336t
Deity yoga, 19
Delirium, in ICU patient, compassionate care for, 461, 461b
Dementia, patients with
care for, compassion in, 460
carers of, compassion for, 460
personhood of, 460
Denial, and compassion, 400, 402
Depression
amelioration, by CBCT, 251–252
in carers, 404
counteracting, helping behavior and, 167
homelessness and, 466
inflammation and, 251
postpartum, 71, 73
self-compassion and, inverse association of, 374, 380–381
self-compassion interventions for, future research on, 382
Derogation, of innocent victims, 32
Detachment
and compassion fatigue resilience, 390
in Compassion Fatigue Resilience Model, 391f, 393, 395
Development. See also Child development
human
Bronfenbrenner’s ecological theory of, 345–346, 346f
Greenfield’s theory of, 346–347, 346f
Developmental psychology, 53
Development effects, 332
Dictator Game, 324
Direct association, 300f, 301
Disease, compassionate neurobiology and, 169
Disgust, with others’ suffering, 4–5
Disney, 423
Dispositional Positive Affect Scale, 5
Dispositional Positive Emotion Scale (DPES), 321
Dissociation
and compassion, 400
defensive, 193
Dissolution
Jacksonian principle of, 198
in polyvagal theory, 198
Distal compassion, 43, 45
Distancing empathy, 46f, 47
Distress, 28. See also Empathic distress; Personal distress
workplace, social dominance orientation of leaders and, 497
Distress tolerance, 402
Divorce
adjustment to, self-compassion and, 375
temporal trends in, in U.S., 345
DNA methylation, 148
of oxytocin receptor gene, social and emotional effects of, 124
Domestic violence, 408
Dopamine, 9, 67
in active compassion, 250
and helping behavior, 166
and reward processing, 111
and social behavior, 180
Dorsal motor nucleus, of vagus, 194
Downsizing, and organizational performance, 425–426, 431n3431n4
Dual inheritance theory, of compassion and empathy, 150
Dyadic coping, 308
Dying patients, care for, compassion in, 460–461
E
Ecological model(s)
of compassion, 150
exosystem in, 345–346, 346f
macrosystem in, 345–346, 346f
mesosystem in, 345, 346f
microsystem in, 345–346, 346f
Ecological theory(ies)
Bronfenbrenner’s, of human development, 345–346, 346f
of culture, 150
Economic systems. See also Capitalism
justification of, 497–498
Education, 12. See also Medical education
compassion-focused framework for, 476–477. See also Prosocial education
challenges for, 481–482
future research areas, 481–482
opportunities with, 482
compassion in
(p. 513) compassion-based interventions and, 478–480
mindfulness-based interventions and, 478
and cultivation of compassion, 476
goals of, 475
prosocial, 476–477
somatic interventions in, 480
Educators
mindfulness training for, 481
professional development for, 481
Egoism
altruism and, 27–28. See also Empathy-altruism hypothesis
definition of, 27, 332
and empathy-induced altruism, 35–36
and prosocial behavior, 332
Ehrenreich, B., Bright-Sided, 278
Elephants, helping behavior in, 175
Elevation, moral. See Moral elevation
Emotion(s), 4–5
affiliative, and compassion-focused parenting, 96–97
anticipated vs. experienced, and compassion collpase, 266–267
vs. behavior, 262
and compassion, 238, 400
compassion training and, 222–223
cultural construction of, 274
and empathic concern, 28
empathy-related, 53–54
evolutionary functions of, 97–98, 147
experience of, CCT and, 242
facial expressions and, 45
moral, 125, 288
negative, 5
and children’s empathy-related responding, 57–58
resilience against, self-compassion and, 374–375
neurobiology of, 174
objective measures of, 143
in organizations, leaders’ role in, 441f, 443t
other-oriented, 28
parallel, 300f, 302
parents’ modeling of, and children’s empathy-related responding, 59
positive, 5
amplifying effects, 428
and children’s empathy-related responding, 57–58
individual propensity for, measurement of, 321
loving-kindness meditation and, 290
prosocial, 122
compassion training and, 140
reactive, 300f, 302
recognition of
biology of, 9
compassion training and, 223–224
empathy-building interventions and, 208t, 209, 209t
rejection, 140, 224
self-conscious, 147
self-oriented, 28
short-term, compassion and, 353–354
three-function heuristic approach to, 97–98, 98f, 99
timeline for, 45
triggers for, 45
visceral nervous system and, 179
Emotional alert database, 45, 48
Emotional connection, in compassionate parenting, 67, 67f, 72
Emotional contagion, 6, 44, 46, 402
in organizations, 441f, 443t, 449
Emotional resonance, 46, 46f
Emotional support, 306–308
organizational compassion and, 438, 498
Emotion regulation, 151, 153. See also Affect, regulation of; Compassion meditation (CM), emotion-regulation model of
brain networks of, 113–114
CCT and, 242–243
and compassion collapse, 264–267
compassion training and, 222–223
definition of, 135
Emotion-regulation systems, 98, 98f
affiliative/soothing, 98–99
and compassion-focused parenting, 99
drive-reward, 98
insecure attachment and, 101
threat/self-protect, 98–99
Empathic ability
in Compassion Fatigue Resilience Model, 391–392, 391f
interventions for, 206–209
experience-based, 206–207, 208t, 209, 213n1
expression-based, 206–209, 208t209t, 213n1
Empathic accuracy, 6
CBCT and, 223, 252
cross-cultural studies of, 276
neural networks in, 139
social class and, 320
Empathic arousal, 174
in nonhuman animals, 175
Empathic compassion, 42, 42t
Empathic concern, 3, 110, 116, 147, 174, 287–288, 302
antecedents of, 30, 300, 300f
and compassion, 302
overlap of, 332
in Compassion Fatigue Resilience Model, 391, 391f
cross-cultural studies of, 276
definition of, 28, 206, 302, 331
emotions and, 28
felt, and organizational compassion, 437f, 438, 441f, 443t, 448–451
and foregiveness of partner transgression in relationship, 310–311
and social support, 307–308
and sympathy, differentiation of, 332
Empathic distress, 3–4, 6, 42, 46f, 47, 110, 116–118, 332. See also Personal distress
Empathic distress fatigue, 12
Empathic joy, 109
Empathic response
in Compassion Fatigue Resilience Model, 390–391, 391f, 392, 395
compassion mediation and, 134–139, 134f
in infants, 153
Empathic sharing, 6
Empathy, 3, 44, 402
in adolescents, 153–154
affective, 6, 8–9, 300–301
altruism produced by, 30
evolution of, 30–31, 34
antecedents of, 30, 300, 300f
avoidance of, 210
benefits of, interventions emphasizing, 212
in children, 153–154
cognitive, 6, 46, 46f, 299–303. See also Perspective-taking
cultural differences in, 275
and social functioning, 311–312
and compassion, 6, 45–47, 190, 206, 261–262, 299
components of, 174
context and, 206
cultural differences in, 275
cultural neuroscience study of, 148–154
definition of, 6, 28, 46, 109, 147, 205, 299–300, 331
development of, 54–55
in CBCT, 248–250, 249t
dispositional
context and, 304
and hostility, 305
and social support, 306–308
temporal trends in, in U.S., 333, 336t
emotional, 6
cultural differences in, 275
ethnocultural, 281
expectations and, 269
experience of, cross-cultural studies of, 275–276
failures of, 205, 210
mindsets and, 211
gender and, 206
and goal relevance, 212–213
intergroup, neural basis of, culture and, 151, 151f
interpersonal outcomes of, 300f, 302
intrapersonal outcomes of, 300f, 301–302
limits of, 263
(p. 514) motive-based framework for, 206, 209–210
interventions oriented to, 211–213
limitations of, 213
neurophysiology of, 70, 109–110, 190
not linked to compassion, 403
organizational model of, 300, 300f
future research areas, 312
for pain, 109–110, 116, 190–191, 252, 254
culture and, 151–152
neural systems and, 151–152
parental, neurophysiology of, 70
person and, 300, 300f
physiology of, 190
positive, in children, 58
processes of, 206, 300–301, 300f
cognitive, 300–301, 300f
noncognitive, 300–301, 300f
and prosocial behavior, 53
similarity/closeness and, 8
situational factors and, 206, 212–213, 300, 300f
and social functioning, 303–311
in social relationships, 299
for suffering, 109
as trainable, 469
as trait, 205–206
universality and cultural specificity of, 150
younger people’s, older people’s perceptions of, temporal trends in, in U.S., 331, 333, 336t
Empathy-altruism hypothesis, 27–31, 280, 358, 489
current status of, 29–30
experimental tests of, 29–30
Empathy-appraisal, 46, 46f
Empathy avoidance, 34–35
Empathy-related responding, in children
age-related changes in, 57–59
origins of, 57–60
parenting and, 58–60
and prosocial behavior, 55–57
sex differences in, 58–59
Emptiness, doctrine of, in Buddhist thought, 18–19
Enactive compassion, 46, 46f
End-of-life care, compassion in, 460–461
Engagement. See also Social engagement system
attentional, 446
civic, temporal trends in, in U.S., 335, 338t
compassion and, 401–403
England, hospital care in, 458–459
Enlightenment, Buddhist, 18–20
Environment
childhood, long-term effects of, 99
and gene expression, 73, 91
neurological effects of, 73
nurturing, characteristics of, 93
Epigenetics, 148, 413
definition of, 124
of oxytocin receptor, 124, 178, 184
Equalizing and Exchanging Oneself with Others, 19, 22
Equanamity
in Buddhist thought and practice, 18–19
development of, in CBCT, 21–22, 248–250, 249t
Ethic of care, 479
Ethics, and compassion, 412
Eudaimonism, 425, 427
Event-related potentials, 148
Evidence-based parenting programs (EBPPs), 93–94
compassion-focused parenting approach in, 99–101
efficacy of, compassion-focused parenting and, 102
future research areas, 101–102
parents who are nonresponders to, 101
positive effects of, 94–95
Evolution, 8. See also Culture–gene coevolutionary theory
of altruism, 161–162
attachment and, 97
of autonomic nervous system, 192–193
of caregiving, 401, 403–404
of caring, 399
and compassion, 150, 403–404, 413
of compassion, 174
of competition, 160–161, 403–404
of cruelty, 408
of empathy-induced altruism, 30–31, 34
gene-centric theories of, 161, 170n1
and group selection, 161, 170n1
of helping behavior, 161–162
of oxytocin, 176
of parasympathetic nervous system, 193
of prosocial behavior, 160–161, 173–174, 399
of social behavior, 81, 174–175
of sympathetic nervous system, 193
of vasopressin, 176
Evolutionary psychology, 47
Exercise, self-compassion and, 376
Exosystem, in ecological models, 345–346, 346f
Expansion of empathy-induced altruism hypothesis, 37
Experience-sharing, 206, 262
in compassion meditation, 134f, 135
Expert meditators, and compassion training, 220, 229
Exploitation, threat of, minimizing, 162
Expressive suppression, 222
CCT and, 243
Extensivity, of compassion
development of, 60
future research areas, 60
F
Face–heart connection, 194–195
Facial expression, 4, 4f, 45
and neurophysiology, 192
responses to, compassion training and, 224
Familial compassion, 42–43, 42t, 47
Family
as nurturing environment, 93
structure, temporal trends in, in U.S., 341t, 345
Family medicine
compassion in, 462–464
European definition of, 463–464
Father, brain plasticity in postpartum period, 69
Fatigue. See also Compassion fatigue
definition of, 389
Fear(s)
of compassion, 411–412
reducing, 413
of compassion for others, 499
assessment of, 500
and relationship between leadership and social dominance orientation, 503
of compassion for self, 499
assessment of, 500
and relationship between leadership and social dominance orientation, 503
of compassion from others, 498–499
assessment of, 500
and relationship between leadership and social dominance orientation, 503
definition of, 400
in hospitalized patient, 458
of outsiders, 410
Fearfulness, in children, and empathy-related responding, 58
Fear of Compassion Scales (FCS), 5, 500
Fears, blockers, and resistances (FBRs), 400. See also Inhibition/inhibitors, of compassion
and evidence-based parenting programs, 101–102
Fears of Compassion Scale, 101
Felt security, 80
Females. See also Gender differences
and competition, 407
Fight-or-flight, 193–194
Financial crises, primary care in setting of, 465–466, 465b
Financial services industry, compassion in, 426–427, 427f
Fitness
in evolutionary theory, 160–161
inclusive, 81, 161
Fitness interdependence, 161–162. See also Stakeholder theory
Food Gatherers, 423
Forgiveness, 288, 300f, 302
communication of, 311
definition of, 309
empathy/compassion and, 309–312
(p. 515) in non-U.S. populations, 310–311
mindful, 413
of partner transgression in relationship, 309–311
as phasic virtue, 425
self-compassion and, 378
Frames, and contemplative practice, 24–25
Francis Report, 458
Freud, Sigmund, 163–164, 280
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), 148
and compassionate brain states, 143
empathy studies, 109–110
maternal mentalization studies, 70, 72
studies of romantic and maternal love, 111
Fundamentals of Care (FOC), 459
G
Gallup/Princeton Survey Research, 337t, 349n4
Game theory, 35
Gang desistance, 490
Gang members, former, as heroes, 490
Gemeinshaft, 346–347
Gender differences
in CCT-related changes, 244
in compassion, neurobiology of, 181
and empathy, 206
in empathy and interpersonal hostility, 305–306
in empathy/compassion and forgiveness, in non-U.S. populations, 310–311
in self-compassion, future research on, 381
Gene(s)
and evolution, 161, 170n1
expression, 91
shared, and fitness interdependence, 162
Gene–culture interaction, 150
General practice. See Family medicine
General practitioners (GPs)
burnout in, 464
compassion in, 462–464
Generational effects, and historical trends in compassion-related variables in U.S., 332
Generation X
civic engagement in, 335
definition of, 332
volunteering by, 334, 336t
Generosity, class differences in, 323–324
Genetics, 148–150, 184
at-risk environment and, 73, 91
and global compassion, 48
of oxytocin receptor, 122–124, 178, 182, 184
Genovese, Kitty, 287, 296n1
Germans, and Americans, differences in avoided negative affect, 277–278, 279f
Gesellschaft, 346–347
Giving USA, 334, 337t
Global compassion, 45, 48, 263
cultivation of, 48
definition of, 41
genetic predisposition and, 48
occasional, 42t, 43
promotion of, psychological science and, 43–48
Globus pallidus, in compassion, 111, 114f
Goal(s)
helping, commitment to, 358–360
deliberative mindset and, 362–363
future rersearch areas, 364
future research on, 365
instrumental, 29
other-focused, effects on self-focused goals, 361–362
self-focused, effects on other-focused goals, 360–361
self-protection, 358
threat-avoidance, 358–360, 411
factors affecting, 364
ultimate, 29
Goal pursuit, action-phase (Rubicon) model of, 354–357, 355f
Goal relevance, empathy and, 212–213
God, 412
Good Samaritan, 28, 44, 438
Google Ngram, 332, 338t, 340t
Gratitude, for others, development of, in CBCT, 248, 249t, 250
Greece, austerity/financial crisis in, and health care, 465–466, 465b
Grief, 28
counteracting, helping behavior and, 167
tolerance of, 402
Group dynamics, and empathy-building interventions, 211–212
Group-focused social dominance, 412
Group norms, and empathy-building interventions, 212
Guilt, 410
Guru yoga, 20
H
Hamilton, W., 161
Hancock, Graham, Lords of Poverty, 33
Happiness
compassion training and, 223
hedonic vs. eudaimonic well-being and, 233
Harlow, H. and M., 164
Harm
empathy-induced altruism and, 33
scope-severity paradox and, 262
Hate crime, 410
Headspace, 221, 225–226
Health. See also Mental health
Cognitively Based Compassion Training and, 250–251
compassion and, 11, 17, 24, 160, 353, 364–365, 498
compassionate brain and, 112–114
empathy-induced altruism and, 33
helping behavior and, 165, 364–365
oxytocin in, 167–168
meditation and, 289
population disparities in, cultural neuroscience and, 154
social relationships and, 164–165
social support and, 111, 164–165, 170n2
Health Behavior in School-Age Children Study, 342t
Health care, 12
in austerity/financial crisis, 465–466, 465b
compassionate, design of, 467–468
compassion in, 457
and action, 459
components of, 459
definition of, 459
future research areas, 470
increasing, 468–470
obstacles to, 466–468
physiological effects of, 458
societal conditions and, 464–466
cultural shaping of compassion and, 280–281
homelessness and, 466
hospital-based, compassion in, 458–460
humanity in, failures in, 458
patient-centered
and compassion, 464, 467
IOM definition of, 462–463
in primary care, 463
person-centered
and compassion, 462, 464
for dementia patients, 460
in primary care setting, compassion in, 462–464
Health care organizations
compassionate, 467–468
compassion in, 427, 427f428f
non-compassionate, 467
Healthcare practitioners. See Healthcare professionals; Human service workers
Healthcare professionals. See also Human service workers
compassionate approach to each other, 466
compassionate care for, 462, 462b
and declining empathy, 47
and distancing empathy, 47
empathy-building interventions for, 207–209, 208t, 213n1
loving-kindness meditation for, 468
Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) for, 379
self-care by, 466
self-compassion and, 379
support for, 466–467
well-being of, compassion and, 468
Health Enhancement Program (HEP), 229
(p. 516) Health problems, adjustment to, self-compassion and, 375
Health-related behaviors, self-compassion and, 376
Heart rate
compassion training and, 231
moral elevation and, 127
Heart rate variability
compassion training and, 231
fear of compassion and, 499
moral elevation and, 126–127
Heliotropism
definition of, 429
virtuousness and, 429–430
Hell, 412
Helping/helping behavior, 6, 159–160
in chimpanzees, 175, 489
class differences in, 323–325
and compassion, differences between, 323, 364
compassion training and, 116–118, 225–226
cultural differences in, 275–276
enhancement of, subtle situational cues and, 294
and exploitation, 162
health benefits of, to provider, 165, 167, 364–365
oxytocin and, 167–168
in infants, 477, 489
and kin slection, 161
likelihood of, empathy-induced altruism and, 31
motivation and, 29, 166
motivations for, 323
neurobiology of, 165, 175
in nonhuman animals, 175–176, 489
other-oriented emotional states and, 287–288
in rats, 175–176, 489
real-world, 225–226
reliability of, empathy-induced altruism and, 31
self-benefit of, 29, 165, 362
sensitivity of, empathy-induced altruism and, 31
temporal trends in, in U.S., 335, 337t
in toddlers, 477
and well-being, 29, 165, 362
witnessing, elevation caused by, 124–128, 125f, 492
Helping behavior test, for rats, 175
Heroes
everyday, 491
social, 487, 490, 492
as social transformation agents, 490
traditional, 487
Heroic compassion, 44
Heroic Imagination Project (HIP), 10, 491–492
Heroism
and action, 488
attention in scientific literature, lack of, 488–489
banality of, 489
and compassion, difference between, 489–490
as contagious, 492
culture-bound, 488
definition of, 487–488
emergence of, 487
inspiring, 490–491
proactive (reflective), 488
reactive (emergent or impulsive), 488
social consensus and, 488
time-bound, 488
traditional perspective on, 487
training, 490–491
types of, 488
Hesiod, 333
Hierarchical systems, support for, business education and, 497
Historical trends, in compassion-related variables in U.S., 331–348
assessment methods, 332–333
cross-temporal meta-analysis of, 332–333
multi-year surveys and, 333
single time-point cross-sectional surveys of, 332
and trends in cultural products, 332
Hoess, Rudolf, 35
Homelessness, and health care, 466
HopeLab, 450
Hormones. See also specific hormone
and social traits and emotions, 173–174
Hospital(s)
compassionate, 467
health care in, compassion in, 458–460
Hostility, empathy/compassion and, 304–306
Household size, temporal trends in, in U.S., 341t, 345
Hubris, leaders and, 410–411
Hull, C., 163
Humanity, common, recognition of, 372–373
in Self-Compassion Scale, 373
Human service workers
characteristics of, 387
compassion in, 389
self-care for, 393
Huxley, Thomas Aldous, xxi, 160
Hypothalamic-pituitary axis (HPA), 9, 169, 177–178, 194
Hypothalamus, 127
medial pre-optic area
and caregiving system, 165–166
and parental behavior, 165
in parenting, 67
I
Identity
cultural, and group empathy, 152, 152f
meaningful aspects of, and empathy, 212–213
racial, and group empathy, 152, 152f
social
of adolescents, 153
and group empathy, 152
sociocultural, and neural response, 148
work as locus of, 435
Illness
acute, recovery from, compassion and, 458
adjustment to, self-compassion and, 375
chronic, management of, compassion in, 458
Imagery, and compassion collapse, 263
Immobilization
defensive, 193
reptilian, 193
Immoral action, empathy-induced altruism and, 35
Immune function
and cancer, 169
Cognitively Based Compassion Training and, 250–251, 253
compassion and, 250–251
self-compassion and, 376–377
stress regulation and, 167
Impartiality, development of, in CBCT, 21–22
Implicit Association Test, 225
Inclusive fitness, 81, 161
Income equality, and compassion, temporal trends in, in U.S., 346
Incredible Years Program, 93
Indifference, to others’ suffering, 4
Individualism, 148–149
in American cultural products, temporal trends in, 340t, 345
definition of, 345
ecological and environmental factors and, 150
and expression of compassion, 150
and parenting, 153
Inequality Game, 117–118
Infant(s)
attachment in, 163–164
compassion and, 152–153
empathy in, 54–55
maternal response to, neurocircuitry of, 68
moral judgment in, 429
social cognition in, 152–153
Infantile amnesia, 153
Inferior frontal gyrus, activity
CBCT and, 223, 252–253
and empathic accuracy, 139
Inferior parietal cortex, in compassion, 138
Inflammation
chronic, and disease, 169
compassion training and, 223
stress regulation and, 167
In-group(s). See also Proximity
and compassion, 21, 44, 176, 211–212, 267–268, 288
in children, 60
(p. 517) and empathy, 151–152
Inhibition/inhibitors, of compassion, 399–400
addressing, 413
proximate, 408–413
ultimate, 402–408
Innate Compassion Training (ICT). See Sustainable Compassion Training (SCT)
Innateist models, 20–21, 23–24
Insight training, in CBCT, 21–22
Institute of Medicine, definition of patient-centered care, 462–463
Instrumental support, 306–308
Insula
anterior, 8, 110, 152
in compassion, 111, 139, 223
compassion training and, 151
in empathy, 151
in parenting, 67
Intelligent kindness, 457
Intensive Care Unit (ICU), patients in, compassionate care for, 461, 461b
Intention, and compassion, 400
Interactionist approach, to prosocial behavior, 295
Interdependence, social, and compassion, 321
Inter-group bias, 211
Interleukin- 6, and cancer, 169
Interoception, 110
Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI), 5, 123
dispositional empathy measurement, 336t
Empathic Concern (EC) score
and relationship satisfaction, 304–306
and social support, 307–308
Personal Distress (PD) score, and social support, 308
Perspective Taking (PT) score
and accommodation of partner transgression in relationship, 309
and relationship satisfaction, 303–306
and social support, 307–308
Interpersonal relationships. See also Relationship(s); Romantic relationships
mistakes in, motivation to repair, 381
self-compassion and, 378
Intervention(s). See also Cognitively-Based Compassion Training (CBCT); Compassion Cultivation Training (CCT); Training
behavioral, compassionate neurobiology and, 169
cultural shaping of compassion and, 281
for empathic ability, 206–209
empathy-building, 206–209
group-based, 211–212
self-oriented, 211
situation-based, 212–213
social psychology and, 210, 213n2
Invertebrates, sociality in, 177
Isolation
health effects of, 160
and mortality, 164–165
in Self-Compassion Scale, 373
social, protection against, compassion and, 250
and social behavior, 180
stress caused by, 168–169
Israelis, as social transformers in Israeli-Palestinian strife, 490–491
J
Jinpa, Geshe Thupten, 228, 238, 248
Jinpa, Thupten, 21
Joy
in Buddhist thought and practice, 18
cultivation of, 18
Just-world hypothesis, 32
K
Kant, Immanuel, xxi
Kelleher, Herb, 449
Kindness, 457. See also Self-kindness
in health care, 458
intelligent, 457
Kindness Curriculum, 478
King, Martin Luther, Jr., 492
Kin relationships. See Proximity
Kin selection, 161, 163. See also Inclusive fitness
Kropotkin, P., xxi, 160, 163
Kurdi, Aylan, 262
L
Labeling, 300f, 301
Lady Gaga, 12
Langdon, M., Hero Construction Company, 491–492
La Rochefoucauld, F., 27
Leader(s)
organizational
and compassion processes in organizations, 441f, 443t444t, 453
felt presence of, 440–442, 441f
as models for compassionate action, 444t, 451–453
self-concepts, power of, 444
Leadership, 12, 410–411
adaptive, 444t, 451–452
authentic, 452
compassion and, 495
definition of, 436
heroic, 492
and organizational compassion, 439
positive, 496
assessment of, 500
compassion training and, 503–504
and social dominance orientation, 496–497
social dominance orientation and
individual differences in, various components of compassion mediating, 499–504, 501t
negative correlations between, 502–503
social-interaction view of, 436
symbolic, 445
transactional, 448
transformational, 448, 495–496
and performance, 496
social dominance orientation and, mediation of, 499, 499f
Leadership in Compassionate Care Program (LCCP), 469
Leadership moves
and attention to suffering, 441f, 442–446, 443t
definition of, 439
and organizational compassion, 439–446, 441f, 443t444t
and organizational culture, 439
related to compassion, 439
Learning theory, 159, 163–164
Lesch, M., Ein Jahr Hölle (One Year of Hell), 278
Lewin, Kurt, 29
Life demands, and compassion fatigue, 392–393
Life goals, temporal trends in, in U.S., 340t, 344–345
LinkedIn, 445–446
Loci training, 112
Lojong, 248, 479
Loneliness
protection against, compassion and, 250
stress caused by, 168–169
temporal trends in, in U.S., 341t, 347
Longevity
help-giving and, 33
social factors and, 164–165
Long-term care
burnout in, 295
compassion in, 462
Lost letter paradigm, 335, 337t
Love
in Buddhist thought and practice, 18
cultivation of, 18
neural substrates of, 111
Loving, 30
Loving-kindness meditation (LKM), 18, 20–21, 36–37, 227
acceptability of, in parenting population, 100
and attitudes toward stigmatized groups, 225
benefits of, 113
effect on parenting practices, 100
for healthcare professionals, 468
and interpersonal functioning, 225, 290–291
outcomes, 231–232
and positive emotions, 290
and prosocial qualities, 290–291
Lynch, Phil, 451–452 (p. 518)
M
Machiavellianism, 404, 496
Macho role, 409
Macrosystem, in ecological models, 345–346, 346f
Making Caring Common Project, 101
Makransky, John, 23
Males. See also Gender differences
and aggressive nationalism, 410
and competition, 407
Mallozzi, Jim, 422–423
Marital satisfaction
empathy/compassion and, 303–304
social support and, 306
Master Cheng Yen, 445
Maternal care
mammalian models of, 165, 174
neurobiology of, 174
oxytocin receptor and, 124
variations, and development, 124
Maternal sensitivity, 66
and compassionate parenting, 71
neurocircuits in, 71
Mayr, Ernst, 400
Medical education
and compassion, 469–470
empathy-building interventions in, 207, 208t
Medical Home, 463
Medicine, clinical competence and compassion in, 457
Meditation, xxi. See also Compassion meditation (CM); Expert meditators; Loving-kindness meditation (LKM); Mindfulness meditation; Tonglen meditation
attention-based, 224, 227
and attitudes toward different social groups, 294
breath-focused, 22
Buddhist, 289
and compassionate responses, 276
compassion-based, 227
and compassion training, 226–227
and empathy building, 207
and experience of compassion, 276
and expression of compassion, 276
in modern contemplative programs, 21–23
and neural reactivity, 292
outcomes, self-report methods and, 291
and positive interpersonal outcomes, 289–291
and real-world compassionate responses, 226–227
scientific investigations of, 289
shamatha, 224
social psychological investigations of, 289–294
targets of, future research on, 143–144
and virtuous mental states, 289–290
Memory
autobiographical, development of, 153
neurocircuitry of, in pregnancy and postpartum, 74
Mental experience, of compassion, 4
Mental health
among students, 475–476
austerity/financial crisis and, 465
compassion and, 364–365
compassionate neurobiology and, 169
helping behavior and, 165, 167, 364–365
homelessness and, 466
meditation and, 289
Mentalizing, 6, 206
and empathy, 403
Mesolimbic system, compassion training and, 151
Mesosystem, in ecological models, 345, 346f
Microsystem, in ecological models, 345–346, 346f
Micro-trials
for compassion-based exercises with parents, 100
definition of, 100
Midbrain, in parenting, 67
Mid-Staffordshire Hospital (U.K.), 458, 467
Milgram, S., research on obediance, 287, 411
Millenials
civic engagement in, 335
definition of, 332
volunteering by, 334, 336t
Mimicry, 6, 300f, 301
Mind
in Buddhist thought, 18–20
constructivist models and, 20–21
culture–gene coevolution with, 148
enactive, 46
innateist models and, 20–21
models of, 20
Mind and Life Institute, 23
Mindfulness, 18, 20
in Cognitively Based Compassion Training, 248–250, 249t
and self-compassion, 373
future research on, 381–382
in Self-Compassion Scale, 373
Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT), 380
Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR), 20, 379
Mindfulness meditation
and compassionate behavior, 292–294
and compassionate responses, 268
future research on, 295
mechanism of effect, 295
outcomes with, 289–290
Mindfulness training
in education, 478
for educators, 481
for primary care practitioners, 464
Mindful Self-Compassion (MSC) training, 11, 220, 379–380
Mindset(s), 354
deliberative, effects on helping-goal commitment, 362–363
and empathic failures, 211
fixed, 211
growth, 211
development of, in CBCT, 248–250, 249t
mastery, development of, in CBCT, 248–250, 249t
Mind training, tradition, of Buddhism, 248, 479
Mind wandering. See Cognitive regulation
Minnesota Survey on Bullying, 342t
Mirror neurons, 148, 153, 252
Mobile phones, and social connections, 346
Moderators, of compassion, 8
Mom Power, 71–72
Monitoring the Future Study, 333–335, 336t342t, 344, 347
Moral attitudes, cultural and genetic basis of, 149
Moral development, temporal trends in, in U.S., 333, 336t
Moral elevation
biology/physiology of, 125f, 126–127
trait, 128
from witnessing compassion, 124–128, 125f, 492
Morality, and compassion, 412
Moral motivation, and empathy-induced altruism, 35
Moral reasoning
and compassion, 333
definition of, 333
temporal trends in, in U.S., 333–334, 336t
Mother
at-risk environment and, 73
brain plasticity in postpartum period, 68–69
empathy in, neurocircuitry of, 70
parenting-related anxiety in, 69–70
psychopathology in, and parenting, 71, 73
synchrony with child, neurocircuitry of, 70–71
Motivation
and altruism, 161
and behavior, 29, 161
and compassion, 238, 400
compassion-based, 288
and compassion collapse, 263–266
compassion training and, 222–223
and empathy, 206
extrinsic, definition of, 344
and helping, 29, 159–160, 401–402
intrinsic, definition of, 344
other-focused, 161–163
prosocial, 399
in rats, 176
self-compassion and, 101, 375–376, 499
in social relationships, 163–164
(p. 519) Motivational conflicts, and inhibition of compassion, 411–412
Motor mimicry, 300f, 301
Moves, 439. See also Leadership moves
Multidimensional Compassion Scale, 5
N
Narcissism, 404
temporal trends in, in U.S., 339t, 343t, 344, 347
Narcissistic Personality Index, 339t, 343t
National Crinme Victimization Survey, 342t
National Health Services Research Institute of the Netherlands (NIVEL), and quality of primary care, 463
National Survey of Children Exposed to Violence, 343t
Natural selection, xxi, 150, 160
NBC News, Season of Kindness Poll, 333, 336t
Need(s), 401
attention to, in health care, 459
global, and empathy-induced altruism, 34
mutual, and fitness interdependence, 162
perceived, 28, 30–31
magnitude of, 30
unmet, 8
Negi, Lobsang Tenzin, 21, 228
Neural network(s)
and compassion, 179–180
compassion training and, 112–116, 139, 223–224, 230–231
in empathy, 70, 109–110, 275
social class and, 320
in empathy for pain, 109–110
empathy-for-suffering training and, 114–116
in moral elevation, 125f, 126–127
shared, for firsthand and observed experiences, 110
and socioemotional function, 179
Neural reactivity, meditation and, 292
Neurobiology. See also Compassionate neurobiology
of avoidance, 180
of caregiving system, 165–167, 166f
comparative, of social behavior, 180–181
of emotion, 174
of gender differences in compassion, 181
of helping behavior, 165, 175
of maternal care, 174
of prosocial behavior, 174
of reproduction, 174
of safety, 184
of sociality, in prairie voles, 180–181
of socioemotional functioning, 179–180, 184
Neuroception, in polyvagal theory, 198–200
Neurocircuits
at-risk environment and, 73
and caregiving, 9
eand intergroup empathy, 151–152, 151f
and maternal synchrony with child, 70–71
memory-related, in pregnancy and postpartum, 74
and parenting, 67–72
and reward, 9–10, 67–68, 110–111, 141, 166
Neuroimaging. See also Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)
maternal–child synchrony study, 70
parental brain and empathy study, 70
studies of compassion, 111
studies of memory/learning, 112
studies of parent–child interactions, 74
Neuroscience, 8–9. See also Cultural neuroscience
of parenting, 67–72
Ngondro, 20
Nirvāna, 18
Noblesse oblige, 317
Nonhuman research, 4
Non-referential compassion, 42t, 43
Nucleus accumbens
and compassion, 140, 224
and helping behavior, 166
in parenting, 67–71, 110
Nucleus ambiguus, 194
Nurses. See also Healthcare professionals; Human service workers
attrition among, 467
training of, and compassion, 469
Nursing. See also Health care
compassion in, 457, 459
work in, qualitative evaluation of, 467
O
Obediance, Milgram’s research on, 287, 411
OckTV video, 317
OfficeMax, 423
Older adults
self-compassion in, 154
volunteering by, 334, 336t
Operation Underground Railroad, 488
Opiates, in affiliation and care, 111
Opioids, and social behavior, 180
Orbitofrontal cortex
in caregiving, 167
medial, in compassion, 113–114, 114f, 118, 141, 223
in parenting, 67–72, 110
in social connection, 110
Oregon Model of Parent Management Training, 93
Organization(s). See also Health care organizations
compassionate, 12
downsizing, 425–426, 431n3431n4
hierarchy-attenuating, 497
hierarchy-supporting, 497–498
rituals and stories in, and giving sense to suffering, 441f, 443t, 448
social capital in, 428
suffering in, 435
Organizational compassion. See also Health care organizations
across industries, 425–426
amplifying effects, 428
attributes of, 421
buffering effects, 428–429
contexts for, future research on, 430
as coordinated response, 422
cross-cultural comparisons, future research on, 431
definition of, 421–422
future research on, 430
detrimental effects of, 430
dimensions of, future research on, 430
and downsizing, 425–426, 431n3431n4, 498
empirical underpinnings of, future research on, 430
four parts of, 436, 437f
future research areas, 430–431
heliotropic effects, 429–430
leadership moves and, 439–446, 441f, 443t444t, 453
leaders’ role in, 435–436, 439
legitimizing, leaders’ role in, 441f, 443t, 447–448
and organizational performance, 421, 425–430
organizational reinforcement of, future research on, 431
and prosocial behavior, 498
and resource allocation, 444t, 452, 498
as social process, 436–439, 437f
varieties of, 422–424
Organizational culture, 448
definition of, 422, 450
emotional, leaders’ role in, 441f, 443t, 450
leadership moves and, 439, 441f, 443t, 448–449
and organizational compassion, 422
social dominance orientation and, 496–497
Organizational theory, 436
Outcomes
affective, 300f, 302
cognitive, 300f, 301–302
interpersonal, 300f
intrapersonal, 300f, 301–302
motivational, 300f, 302
organizational compassion and, 437f, 438, 446, 498
other’s, valuing, 300f, 302
Out-group(s), and compassion, 21, 44, 211, 225, 267–268, 404
Over-identification, 373
in Self-Compassion Scale, 373
Oxytocin, 9, 121–124, 148, 169, 404
(p. 520) actions of, 177
sex differences in, 181
in affiliation and care, 111, 122, 177
behavioral effects of, receptor dynamics and, 178–179, 182–183
CBCT and, 254–255
and compassion, 122, 128, 180, 182
and compassionate parenting, 68, 71, 122
and emotional processing, factors affecting, 122–123
evolution of, 176
exogenous, effects of, 183–184
and health-related benefits of helping behavior, 167–168
physiological functions of, 122, 254
physiology of, 122
and progesterone levels, 168
in romantic partnerships, 122
and social bonds, 163
and social processing, factors affecting, 122–123
and social traits and emotions, 173–174, 176–177
socioemotional functions of, autonomic nervous system and, 179–180, 184
and stress response, 122, 165–166, 168, 177, 180–181, 254
and vasopressin, interactions of, 177–178, 181–183
and visceral nervous system, 179
Oxytocin receptor(s), 150, 177
and behavioral effects of oxytocin, 178–179, 182
epigenetic variations of, 124, 178, 184
gene methylation, social and emotional effects of, 124
genetic variations of, 122–124, 178, 182, 184
in primates, 183
in rodents, 183
P
Pain. See also Empathy, for pain
brain responses to, 109–110
chronic, management of, compassion in, 460
Pain triggers, and suffering in organizational contexts, 436, 437f
Palestinians, as social transformers in Israeli-Palestinian strife, 490–491
Pallidum, ventral
and helping behavior, 166
in parenting, 110
Parasympathetic nervous system (PNS), 9, 190, 224
and affect regulation, 97, 182
evolution of, 193
moral elevation and, 126–127
and sociality, 179, 182
Parental instinct
and evolution of empathy-induced altruism, 30–31, 34
human, 30
Parental investment, 96–97
Parental reflective functioning, and attachment, 66
Parental sensitivity, and attachment, 66
Parent–Child Interaction Therapy, 93
Parent–infant attachment, 5, 65–66
Parenting, 6, 405. See also Evidence-based parenting programs (EBPPs); Father; Mother
and altruism, 163
anxiety related to, parental brain and, 69–70
caring system motive and, 96–97
and children’s empathy-related responding, 58–60
and compassion, connections between, 58–60, 65–66
compassionate, 346
characteristics of, 66–67, 72
future research areas, 72–74
interventions and, 71–72
and parents’ own models of parenting, 68, 72
compassion-focused, 91, 95–101
affect regulation in, 97–99
benefits of, 102
competencies of, 95–96
definition of, 95–96
in evidence-based parenting programs, 99–101
future research areas, 102
and cooperation, 163
criticism and, 99
cultural bias and, 153
long-term effects on children, 6, 58–60, 91
neurocircuits involved in, 67–72
public health approach to, 91–95
as wide-scale compassionate action, 94–95
punitive, effects of, 98–99
and risk factors for child maltreatment, 93
science of, 66
self-compassion and, 98–101
shame and, 99
Parenting style(s)
authoritarian, 92
authoritative, 92
classification of, 92
coercive, and child outcomes, 92
demanding, 92
effects of, 92
indulgent, 92
lax, and child outcomes, 92
neglectful, 92
permissive, 92
responsive, 92
Parents. See also Father; Mother
caring for themselves, 99–100
compassion-based exercises with, 100
empathy toward children, costs to parents, 100
stress on, programs to reduce, 100
Paternalism, empathy-induced altruism and, 34
Patient care, imporvement, health system initiatives for, 459
Perceived suffering, 4–5, 44–45
Perception
and behavior, 44
and empathy, 47
Periaqueductal gray, in stress response, 168
Personal distress, 6, 54, 110, 147, 230, 332, 402. See also Empathic distress
compassion training and, 140
neuroscience of, 8–9
perceived suffering and, 4–5
Personality
and behavior, 295
and empathy, 300
Perspective-taking, 6, 46, 46f, 262, 300–301, 332
and accommodation of partner transgression in relationship, 309
antisocial effects of, 210, 213
and compassion, 302–303
in compassion meditation, 134f, 135
and empathy, 402–403
and empathy building, 207
and foregiveness of partner transgression in relationship, 310–311
and hostility/aggression, 305–306
non-U.S. evidence, 306
and relationship satisfaction, 303–304, 306
and self-compassion, 372
and social class differences in compassion, 326–327
and social support, 307–308
Philanthropia, 457
Philotechnica, 457
Photogenics of disaster, 35
Physiology. See also Neurobiology
of compassion, 190
compassionate behavior and, xxi–xxii, 4
compassion training and, 231
of empathy, 190
of moral elevation, 125f, 126–127
of oxytocin, 122
of ritual, 191, 191t, 197–198, 200–201
Pity, 3, 28
Planetree, 463
Point of Care Program (U.K.), and Schwartz Center Rounds, 468
(p. 521) Polyvagal theory, 9, 97, 192–194, 200–201, 201t
dissolution in, 198
neuroception in, 198–200
Popularity, empathy/compassion and, 304
Posterior cingulate cortex, in empathy, 152
Postpartum period
anxiety in, 69–70
parental brain plasticity in, 68–69, 72
Postpartum preoccupations, 69
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
diagnostic criteria for, 389
protection against, self-compassion and, 375
Postural gestures, 4
Posture, neurophysiology of, 191, 191t, 195
Power
and attention to suffering in organizations, 443t, 444
and inhibition of compassion, 405–407, 410–411
social, and compassion, 321, 326
social dominance orientation and, 497
Power distance, and intergroup empathy, 151
Prairie voles
epigenetic changes in, 178
neurobiology of sociality in, 180–181
Prefrontal cortex, 8–9, 401
activity, CBCT and, 223
and compassion, 153
dorsolateral
and compassion, 138, 224
compassion training and, 140
dorsomedial
activity, CBCT and, 252–253
and empathic accuracy, 139
medial
in empathy, 152
moral elevation and, 127
in parenting, 67–72
Pregnancy, brain changes in, 73–74
Prejudice, amelioration by moral elevation, 126
Primary care
compassion in, 462–464
core dimensions of, 463
and hidden or invisible healthcare problems, 464
Primary circular reaction, 300f, 301
Prisoner’s dilemma, 32
Progesterone, 111, 169
in compassion, 168
release, oxytocin and, 168
Pronoun use, Americans’, temporal trends in, 335, 338t, 341t, 345, 348n2
ProQOL Survey, 394
Prosocial behavior, 300f, 302
assessment, improvements in, 143
benefits of, 399
biology of, 9
in children, 53
costly vs. less costly, 56–57
development of, 54–55
empathy-related responding and, 55–57
individual differences in, 55
motivations and, 56, 60
origins of, 57–60
spontaneous vs. compliant, 56
class differences in, 323–325
compassion and, 17, 116–118
compassion meditation training and, 137–138
compassion training and, 225–226
culture and, 10
definition of, 332
deliberative mindset and, 362–363
in developmental psychology, 53
development of, 54–55, 477
emergence of, in young humans, 477
empathy and, 116–118
evolution of, 173, 399
facilitators of, 399
interactionist approach to, 295
measurement of, 291–292
meditation and, 291–293
moral elevation and, 124–128
motivators of, 53–54
neurobiology of, 174
in nonhuman species, 174
organizational compassion and, 498
situational factors and, 287
spread of, 294
Prosocial education, 476–477
future research areas, 481–482
integrated compassion-based framework for, 481
Proximal compassion, 43, 45, 48
Proximity, and compassion, 401, 404
Proximity seeking, and attachment, 97
Prudential Real Estate and Relocation Company, 422–423
Psychologists. See Human service workers