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date: 25 July 2021

(p. 629) Index

(p. 629) Index

Note: Tables and figures are indicated by an italic ‘t’ and ‘f’, respectively, following the page number.

Abbott, A. 523, 525, 526
abductive inference 123
A/B testing 545, 556n4, 569
accounts, for web scraping 544
Accra 496
Ackland, R. 5
activity-driven networks 74–84
epidemic spreading and 79–82, 81f
preferential attachment model for 75
random walks in 76–79, 78f
rumor spreading and 82–83, 84f
actors
in agenda setting 29
between centrality of 96
in crisis events 166–67
in politics 352
reciprocity of 232
Adamic, L. A. 423
Adblock Plus 551
adjacency matrix
for epidemic spreading 80
for unweighted networks 70–71, 72f
Adler, P. S. 224
Affective Norms for English Words 355
Agarwal, S. D. 141
agency
in agenda setting 31
digital trace data and 526–27
social capitalization and 228–29
agenda convergence 34–35
agenda setting 26
actors in 29
agency in 31
audience fragmentation and 35, 36
audience members for 29, 30
big data and 36
bottom-up 32–33
challenges of 35–37
complexity reduction in 33–35, 34f
concept association ties in 30–31
cumulative advantage in 33
degree centrality in 32
digital trace data for 36
dyadic attributes in 31
information sources for 29, 30
interorganizational ties in 30
issue adoption ties in 29, 31
media use ties in 29–30
network model for 27–35, 32f, 34f
obtrusiveness in 31
in politics 315, 361
public opinion and 34
sampling in 36
agent-based models (ABMs) 526
aggregation services, retweets by 48
agile ethics 567
agility, of communication 439–42
AirBnB 554
Albert, R. 6, 14
alcohol advertising, GIS and 477–78
Amazon 138
Amazon Glacier 541
Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT) 119, 525, 545–46
Amazon Web Services 541
American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) 598–99
American National Election Study 364–65, 371n8
Al-Ani, B. 424
annealed networks
epidemic spreading on 79, 80
random walks and 77, 78
timescales of 68
anonymization
on Chinese Internet 606–7, 610
in data collection 540, 552
on social media 562–63
anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) 294
anterior insula (AI) 294
anticipatory coupling, in information sharing 295
application programming interfaces (APIs)
authentication of 542
for data collection 542–43
digital trace data from 528, 531
for Facebook 237, 528, 543
for Instagram 237
libraries for 543
for New York Times 292
for online communities 175, 187
rate limits on 542–43
sampling of 528
for server-side logs 117
for social media 118, 528
ToS for 543, 547–48
for Twitter 44–45, 57, 97, 160, 528, 531, 543
apps, for cell phones 17, 256, 485, 489, 497
Arab Spring 417
hashtags for 130
on social media 418–21
triangulation in 420
Twitter and 419–20, 424, 431
Aral, S. 114–15
ArcGIS 473
for alcohol advertising 477
for assault risk 480–81
for teen mobility 484
argument mining, deliberation and 334–35
argument quality, in deliberation 337–40, 338t
Armstrong, B. K. 476
artificial intelligence (AI)
for digital research 519
organizational dynamics and 132
aspiration, in satisficing semantic search 404, 408–9
assault risk
place for 480–81
points of 482–83, 482f
retrospective data collection for 480–83, 482f, 483f
space for 480
Association of Internet Researchers (AoIR) 583
Ethical Decision Making and Internet Research of 599, 610
attention
concentration, on Internet 23–24
in crisis events 381–86, 382f, 383f, 384t, 385f, 385t
dynamics of 380–86
information sharing and 380
scarcity, with information proliferation 23
on social media 378–92
strength of weak ties hypothesis and 380–81
audience
for deliberation 339
of drag culture 468
fragmentation of, agenda setting and 35, 36
of information sharing 294–95, 296–97
members, for agenda setting 29, 30
audio analysis 25
audit trail, for data cleaning 531
authentication, of APIs 542
automated text 25
available alternatives, in satisficing semantic search 404
available dose, from cigarette advertising 476–77
avatars
gender of 202
Proteus effect on 202
in virtual worlds 197, 202
Avle, Seyram 442
Avnit, A. 49
Aycock, J. 567
(p. 631) backchannel, social media as 165
Backstrom, Lars 181
backups, for data collection 541
Baker, W. E. 30
Bakshy, E. S. 24
Banchs, R. E. 410
Banerjee, Indrajit 502–3
Banet-Weiser, S. 458
Bangladesh, blogs in 532
Barabási, A. L. 6, 14
barnstars, in Wikipedia 177
Baym, Nancy K. 246
beautifulsoup 545
Belmont Report 7, 513, 533
Benevenuto, F. 45, 50
Bennett, W. L. 22, 140, 180
Bernulli, D. 79
betweenness centrality 96
Bezos, Jeff 138
big data 4, 84
agenda setting and 36
broad data and 115
in China 601
digital trace data in 521
from Facebook 18, 515
hubris 378
information flow and 14–16
from little teams 116
for mobility 486
risks of 17–18
from social media 17, 559–70
surveillance from 441
Bimber, B. 140
Bingbot 550
Bit by Bit: Social Research in the Digital Age (Salganik) 5
BitLocker 541
blogs
in Bangladesh 532
for drag culture 455
flaming on 331
Huffington Post as 139
Martin, T., and 181
mass media and 23
mentions in 29
in Middle East 419
for well-being early detection 263
blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) 286
blue team dynamics 18
Borgatti, S. P. 91, 229
Borge-Holthoefer, J. 389–90, 423, 424
Boston Marathon bombing crisis 158
bots 18
bottom-up agenda setting 32–33
boundary spanning 120
Bourdieu, P. 227
Bowker, G. C. 530
bridges
in Middle East 419–20
on social media 380–81
broadcast media. See mass media
broad data 115
Brooklyn, drag culture in 441–42, 454–68
Bruns, Axel 419–20, 588
Bryant, J. A. 136
bubbles, on social media 331–32
Buchanan, E. A. 567, 602
bullying 273
Burgess, J. E. 455, 588
burstiness
random walks and 78
of time-varying networks 73
Burt, R. S. 227, 229
Butler, Brian S. 182–83
Butts, C. T. 162, 166
Byrnes, Hilary 484
C++ 543
California Report Card (CRC) 329
Campbell, K. E. 226, 244, 246
Carey, James W. 441
Carr, C. T. 4
Carroll, G. 136
cascade model
for agenda setting 33
for word-of-mouth 56–57, 56f
casperjs 544
Cattuto, C. 119
celebrities
on Chinese Internet 607
influence of 48, 49
(p. 632) Martin, T., and 180
propagation phenomena and 59
as trendsetters 52
cell phones
apps for 17, 256, 485, 489, 497
from China 494, 502
cost reduction for 493–95
data bundling on 496, 497f, 498f
encryption for 586
entrepreneurship with 502–3
Facebook on 496
face-to-face and 500
gender and 494–95
in Ghana 490–91
in global South 488–505, 492f, 493f, 497f, 498f
GPS on 502
ICT and 501
innovation with 502–3
Internet on 497–98
mapping with 501–2
mobile data on 496, 497f, 498f, 499–504
mobile payments with 495–96
mobility and 501–2
prepaid 491–93, 492f, 493f
scratch cards for 491–93, 492f, 493f
SIM cards for 489, 493, 494
SNA for 499–500
social media on 500
subsidized connectivity for 498–99
tie strength and 499–500
time-varying network burstiness for 73
for well-being 501
women with 494–95
Center for Epidemiologic Students Depression Scale (CES-D) 266
Center for Open Science 124
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 266, 384
Cha, M. 45, 50
Chaffee, S. H. 21
Chalmers, M. 567
Change.org 180
Chevaliers’ Romance III 196
female participants in 198
China
big data in 601
cell phones from 494, 502
cybersecurity law in 613n1
data mining in 601
rumor spreading in 600
Chinese Internet 600–1
anonymization on 606–7, 610
content analysis for 606–7
crowdsourcing on 602
digital research on 599–613, 611t
ethics with 601–2
ethnography on 607–10
information leakage from 613n2
opinion leaders on 607
PII on 604–5
privacy on 601, 604–5, 606–7
social media on 602, 605
surveys on 604
vulnerable populations on 608
Choi, S. 333
Choudhary, A. 424
Chung, Cindy J. 269
cigarette advertising
available dose from 476–77
GIS and 475–77
Citizen Lab 586
citizen reporting, in crisis events 153
citizen science 560
CivilServant.io 119
Clauset-Newman-Moore algorithm 94
click fraud 550–51
cloud-based storage 541
clusters
homophily of 99
indegree influence in 98t
Jaccard coefficient for 103–4, 104t
Louvain algorithm and 98, 98t, 105
in mass media 134
persistent 104, 105f
in politics 97–98, 98t
proximity of 95
(p. 633) SNA for 94
subgraphs of 103
cognitive closeness 244, 251, 252
Cognos 61
Coleman, J. S. 227
“Collaboration of the Week,” on Wikipedia 181
collective action
in Arab Spring 421
with ICT 140
social capital and 223
collective sense-making, in crisis events 152–53, 156
collective social capital 224–25
Colorado Springs Police Department Public Affairs Section (CSPDPIO) 166
Columbia studies 13
command-and-control protocols, in crisis events 155
common pool source management 178
The Common Rule 548, 552
communication. See also specific topics
agility of 439–42
changing nature of 316–17
channels, information sharing on 298–99
data collection for 117–19
in deliberation 336
in democratic engagement 313–14
methods for 119–24
in Middle East 416–33
mobility of 439–42
organizational dynamics and 113–24, 132
in politics 311–17, 352–53
SNA and 93–95
tie strength and 246–47
Twitter for 140
Communication Explorer 248–49, 257nn12
communication infrastructure theory 30
community structure 94
of drag culture 468n2
complex networks methods 423
computational linguistics 25
Computational Methods Interest Group 4
computational social science 4, 378
for communication and organizational dynamics 113–24
data collection for 114–15, 117–19
DDR and 122–23
for individuals 116
methods of 119–24
new theories from 115–16
for online communities 176
PDR and 123
risks and benefits of 513
scale of 115, 116–17
social contagion and 115
TDR and 122–23
Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1984 (CFAA) 548
computer-mediated communication (CMC) 245–46
in drag culture 458–59
for well-being 269–70
concept association ties, in agenda setting 30–31
conceptual connections, in deliberation 340–43, 342f
conditional probability, of random walks 77
connective action 140
connectivity
SNA for 135
of time-varying networks 73
connectivity driven frameworks 68
connectors 50
Conover, M. 423
consensus-building 22
contact networks 79
contagion. See also rumor spreading; social contagion
emotional, on Facebook 357–58, 513–15, 521–22, 562
epidemic spreading 79–82, 81f, 262
frameworks, with agenda setting 33
content
cohesion 24
in deliberation 326, 327–28
of information sharing 297
personalization 21
content analysis 120
for Chinese Internet 606–7
of deliberation 333–34
(p. 634) in digital research 518
for gender 202–3
for virtual worlds 202–3
content polarization 424, 425f
convergent evolution 57
Coopersmith, Glen 263–64
Cordner, A. 581–82
core, of deliberation 335–37
cost of uncertainty, in social investment 230–31
cost-per-click (CPC) 551
cost-per-impression (CPM) 551
Couldry, Nick 451
Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) 566
Coviello, L. 358
CRAWDAD 555
crawlers 550
on Facebook 562
crisis events
actors in 166–67
attention in 381–86, 382f, 383f, 384t, 385f, 385t
citizen reporting in 153
collective sense-making in 152–53, 156
command-and-control protocols in 155
data collection on 160–61
degree dynamics in 157
digital trace data on 160
digital volunteerism in 153, 156
Facebook in 154
face-to-face in 154
future research for 169–70
ICT in 153
mass convergence in 156–59, 157f
mass media in 154
nodes in 166, 167f
retweets in 154
rumor spreading in 151, 153
social convergence in 114, 156–59, 157f, 169
social media in 150–70, 154f, 157f, 158f, 161f, 163f, 164f, 167f
Twitter in 153, 155, 160–61, 165–68, 167f
victim requests in 155
vocabulary in 384
crisis informatics 152
Cromby, John 269
crowdsourcing. See also Amazon Mechanical Turk
on Chinese Internet 602
for data collection 545–46, 549
IRB for 549
on mental health 266
in Qatar 430
crowdworkers 518
Cruz, Ted 405
Culotta, Aron 262
cultivation theory 273
culture
digital research and 516
ethics and 516
ethnography for 450
information sharing and 299
culture of fear 580, 583–84
cumulative advantage, in agenda setting 33
curl 544
customer-made data 119
cyberbalkanization 22
cyberbullying 273
cybersecurity law, in China 613n1
Dahlberg, L. 328, 329
Dao, Bo 263
dark networks 130
data bundling, on cell phones 496, 497f, 498f
data cleaning
agenda setting and 36–37
audit trail for 531
of digital trace data 530–31
Robots Exclusion Standard for 550
data collection. See also digital research; ethics of data collection; mobile data
anonymization in 540, 552
APIs for 542–43
backups for 541
(p. 635) click fraud with 550–51
from companies 541–42
for computational social science 114–15, 117–19
on crisis events 160–61
crowdsourcing for 545–46, 549
data donations for 546
of digital trace data 527–30
on emergency responders 160–61
harm to services from 553–54
harm to users from 552
on human subjects 548–49
impression fraud with 550–51
informed consent for 552–53
IRB for 548–49
legal issues with 546–51
on mass media 133–34
for media multiplexity 248–52
on mental health 562
of metadata 244
on mobility 472
opportunistic 117–18
on organizational dynamics 133–35
for politics 359–62
privacy in 553
reproducibility in 554–55
responsible disclosure in 554
retrospective, for assault risk 480–83, 482f, 483f
secure storage for 540–41
for sentiment analysis 359–62
from social media 559–70
technical aspects of 530–46
for teen mobility 484–85
for tie strength 248–52
web scraping for 543–45
data donations 546
data-driven research (DDR) 122–23
on virtual worlds 205–6
datafication 488
data fuzzing 565
data mining
in China 601
of social media 46
of Twitter Lists 61
Data Protection Directive, of EU 565, 566
data retention/deletion policy, on social media 565
data security
as arms race 276
with digital methods 584–85
for mobile data 504
data sharing. See information sharing
Data Sharing Service, of ICWSM 555
data storage 540–41
of digital trace data 529–30, 588
Dawkins, R. 31
death penalty 338–39, 338t
De Bruijn, Mirjam 501
De Choudhury, Munmun 218, 220
Declaration of Helsinki 566
decline, in organizational dynamics 143
deductive approach
abductive inference and 123
to digital trace data 527
for politics 317
Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA) 124
degree centrality, in agenda setting 32
degree dynamics, in crisis events 157
de-identification, on social media 562–63
Delacroix, J. 136
deliberation
argument mining and 334–35
argument quality in 337–40, 338t
communication in 336
conceptual connections in 340–43, 342f
consensual version of 326
content analysis of 333–34
content in 326, 327–28
core of 335–37
criteria for 328–29
on death penalty 338–39, 338t
defined 324
on Facebook 332, 343
focus groups for 330
hierarchical classification of 335–36
models and measures for 321–44
outcomes of 326–27
phases of 329
on politics 341
proliferation of 335–37
(p. 636) reciprocity in 329
SNA on 332–34
on social media 330–37
stages of 325
talk through ideas in 338
on Twitter 332, 333, 343
web links and 333
deliberative democracy 324–25
Delli Carpini, Michael 7
democratic engagement 312–14
in Arab Spring 418–21
demographics
of media multiplexity of tie strength 251–52
of online communities 176–77
Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) 516, 548
Department of Homeland Security 155
dependent variable, for media multiplexity 250–51
depersonalization, in virtual worlds 200
depression 263–73
from Facebook 273
population-scale measurement for 267f
Desouza, Kevin C. 420
Dexter, S. 567
dictionary-based approach, for politics 353–55
diffusion (models, frameworks)
with agenda setting 30, 33
of Internet 419
in Middle East 419
organizational dynamics and 136
in population-level analysis 179–81, 181t
random walks and 76, 77, 78f
digital divide 490
digital ethnography. See ethnography
“Digital Mapping of Urban Mobility Patterns” (Wiebe and Morrison, M.) 442
digital methods
data security with 584–85
for digital research 582–88
ethics of 583
IRB for 582
risk of 583–88
digital research
AI for 519
challenges to 515–19
on Chinese Internet 599–613, 611t
content analysis in 518
culture and 516
difficult environments for 579–82
digital methods for 582–88
ecosystem 516
ethics of 513–19
on Facebook 513–15
informed consent in 516–17
IRB for 598, 599
on mass media 619–27
privacy and 518
technical and legal issues of 518
on terrorist networks 579
unintended consequences of 577–89
on vulnerable populations 516, 579
Digital Research Confidential (Hargittai and Sandvig) 5
digital rights management (DRM) 564
digital trace data
agency and 526–27
for agenda setting 36
analysis and reporting of 530–33
from APIs 528, 531
in big data 521
on crisis events 160
data cleaning of 530–31
data collection of 527–30
data storage of 529–30, 588
for discrimination 523–24
on emergency responders 160
ethics of 520–35, 534t
for ethnography 530
on Facebook 528
on gender 195, 203
generalizability from 521, 532
identity and 526–27
informed consent for 527–29
as naturalistic data 216
partition-specific network analysis of 90–107
personalization from 523–24
privacy of 527
(p. 637) research design for 522–27
self-report of 527
server-side logs and 118
on social media 216, 528
transparency with 530, 532
from triangulation 532–33
from Twitter 531
on virtual worlds 195, 203
digital volunteerism, in crisis events 153, 156
Dinakar, Karthik 263
disasters. See crisis events
Discourse Quality Index (DQI) 327, 329
discovery-driven research 560
discrimination, digital trace data for 523–24
discursive ego network 408
disruptions
from CMC 246
in organizational dynamics 132, 139–40
Dittrich, D. 567
dot-com bubble 122
drag culture
audience of 468
blogs for 455
in Brooklyn 441–42, 454–68
CMC in 458–59
community structure of 468n2
defined 456
focus groups for 455–56, 459, 461
geotagging of 455
in Manhattan 459–62
media imagery of 457–59
performances in 456–57
politics of 467–68
queer terroir and 465–67
reading in 461–62
safe spaces in 467–68
shade in 461–62
social media in 463
third-set oriented in 460
urban exceptionalism and 462–65
Drag Race (RuPaul) 456, 461
Dredze, Mark 262, 263–64
Durkheim, Emile 450
dust bowl empiricism 122–23
dyadic 4, 6
in agenda setting 31
media multiplexity and 252
dynamical processes
on activity-driven networks 76–84
with field dependence 69
in time-varying networks 67–85
dynamic consent 568
Eagle, Nathan 114, 500, 502
early adopters
of ICT 141
of organizational dynamics 136–37
of social conventions 57–58, 58f
trendsetters as 52
eating disorders 272
Ebola crisis 381–86, 382f, 383f, 384t, 385f, 385t
ecological dynamics, population-level analysis of 182–83
ecological networks 14
Editor & Publisher Yearbook 115, 134
effort, in satisficing semantic search 400–401
Egypt
polarization in 424, 425f
retweets in 425–26, 426f
Twitter in 425
eigenvalues
for epidemic spreading 80
of Lapacian matrix 70
Eilders, C. 329, 330, 335
Electronic Frontier Foundation 534, 585
Ellis, Darren 269
Ellison, N. B. 625
email
data security with 585
to Facebook 514–15
hyperedges for 122
time-varying network burstiness for 73
emergence, of organizational dynamics 139–40
emergency responders
data collection on 160–61
digital trace data on 160
keyword-based samples for 159
(p. 638) mass convergence and 158–59
routines and reactions of 162–65, 163f, 164f
social media for 150–70, 154f, 157f, 158f, 161f, 163f, 164f, 167f
Twitter and 160–61, 165–68, 167f
user-centric approach for 159–61, 161f
emotion. See sentiment analysis
emotional contagion, on Facebook 357–58, 513–15, 521–22, 562
emulative computational models 121
encryption 541
for cell phones 586
homomorphic 564, 565
END Framework 360
end user license agreement (EULA) 567
English, Robert C. 178–79
English, Wikipedia in 177, 186
enterprise social media platforms 131
entrepreneurship, in global South 502–3
epidemic spreading 79–82, 81f
geotagging for 262
instantaneous networks for 80
epidemic threshold 80, 81
epidemiology, mobility and 479–85, 482f
EQII. See EverQuest II
Erdoğan, Recep Tayyip 387
Erdős-Rényi network 83
Eslami, M. 515
Ess, C. 599
Ethical Decision Making and Internet Research (AoIR) 599, 610
ethical self-direction and correction 599
ethics. See also responsible research
with Chinese Internet 601–2
culture and 516
of digital methods 583
of digital research 513–19
of digital trace data 520–35, 534t
of Facebook 513–15
of information sharing 555–56
on Internet research 598–613, 603t, 611t
mental health and 273–77
reflexive research 581–82
of vulnerable populations 516
ethics of data collection 371n7
agenda setting 36
on Internet 539–56
organizational dynamics and 144
ethnography
on Chinese Internet 607–10
for culture 450
digital trace data for 530
on gender in virtual worlds 202
network 183–84
passing 451
in protests 444–52
semantic explanation for 525
virtual 450–51
European Union (EU)
Data Protection Directive of 565, 566
privacy in 605
evangelists 50–52
Everett, M. G. 229
EverQuest II (EQII) 114, 116, 117, 196
data quality and management for 204–5
female participants in 198, 200
gender in 204–8
gender swapping on 202
PUGS in 197
SNA on 206–8, 207t, 208t
evolutionary biology 398, 399
explanation
pragmatic 523–25
semantic 525
syntactic 526
extramedial level, for agenda setting 28
Eynon, R. 599
Facebook 260
accounts for 544
APIs for 118, 237, 528, 543
average time spent on 571n4
big data from 18, 515
bridges on 380
on cell phones 496
crawlers on 562
in crisis events 154
Data Science of 555
deliberation on 332, 343
(p. 639) depression from 273
digital research on 513–15
digital trace data on 528
drag culture on 463
email to 514–15
emotional contagion on 357–58, 513–15, 521–22, 562
ethics of 513–15
friendship connection on 17, 94, 165, 237
functions of 451
information diet on 62
information sharing on 285
ISCS for 236
Martin, T., and 180
newsfeed 365
newsfeed algorithm for 515
online community of 175
parsing for 545
politics on 353, 354f, 356, 357–58, 362
psychosocial support from 268
re-identify data on 564
self-censorship on 567
social investment in 235–37
strong ties in 15
text analytics for 352
for well-being early detection 264
face-to-face
cell phones and 500
in crisis events 154
for democratic engagement 313
effort in 401
hyperedges for 122
information sharing 298
for politics 369
social media and 441–42
tie strength of 360–61
failure, in organizational dynamics 143
Faraj, Samer 183, 185
Faulkner, R. R. 30
Faust, Katherine 15
Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) 162, 166
Federal Trade Commission 516, 521–22
Feldman v. Google 547
females. See women
Ferriter, Michael 270
Fiandaca, Cheryl 158
field dependence, dynamical processes with 69
FileVault 541
first moments, for epidemic spreading 80, 81
flaming 331–32
Flanagin, A. J. 140
flash organizations 116
focus groups
for deliberation 330
for drag culture 455–56, 459, 461
followers
million follower fallacy and 47–49
nodes with 45
on Twitter 47–49, 51–52, 161, 165
formation, of public opinion 386–91, 388, 389–91f
Foursquare 455
re-identify data on 564
FOX News 24
fragmentation
of audience, agenda setting and 35
communication and 93
of mass media 34–35
in Qatar 427–31, 429f
free/libre open source software (FLOSS) 178–79, 181
Freelon, D. 118
French, Megan 515
frequency counts 120
Friess, D. 329, 330, 335
Fulk, J. 229
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) 115, 218, 286, 301
Garrett, R. K. 316
gatekeeping 22, 26
by mass media 24
Gawker 136–37
Gee, Laura K. 15
gender. See also drag culture
cell phones and 494–95
(p. 640) content analysis for 202–3
defined 201
digital trace data on 195, 203–4
in EQII 204–8
future research on 208–9
homophily for 206–7
on online communities 201–2
stereotypes for 199–200
in virtual worlds 194–210
genderfucking 456
genderqueering 456
gender role theory, for virtual worlds 199–200
gender swapping 115
messages in 207, 208t
in virtual worlds 198, 201–2, 207, 208t
General Inquirer 355
generalizability
from digital trace data 521, 532
from population-level analysis 176–78
of virtual worlds 196
Gentzkow, M. 24
geographic information systems (GIS). See also mapping
alcohol advertising and 477–78
cigarette advertising and 475–77
in health 472–86
lines in 473
in mobility 472–86
place in 474–75
points in 473
polygons in 472, 473
retrospective study design for 480–83, 482f, 483f
space in 474–75
vector layers in 473, 474f
geotagging
of drag culture 455
for epidemic spreading 262
geowebs 455
Gerbaudo, Paolo 441, 444–52
Gerber, George 440
Gerding, E. 568
Gezi Park protests 317, 386–91, 388, 389–91f
Ghana 442
cell phones in 490–91
mobile credit transfers in 501
mobile payments in 495–96
SIM cards in 494
Gil de Zúñiga, Homero 357
Github 121, 175, 185
Glance, N. 423
Glasius, M. 582, 586
Gleason, L. S. 316
Global Open Data Initiative 531
global position system (GPS)
on cell phones 502
in global South 502
for teen mobility 484–85
global South
cell phones in 488–505, 492f, 493f, 497f, 498f
entrepreneurship in 502–3
GPS in 502
innovation in 490, 502–3
mapping in 501–2
mobile data in 496, 497f, 499–504
poverty reduction in 490
prepaid cell phones in 491–93, 492f, 493f
well-being in 501
Goffman, Alice 530
Gold, V. 327, 333, 334
Golub, Adam 455
Gomer, R. 568
González-Bailón, S. 389–90, 410, 423
Goode, J. P. 581
Goodreau, Steven 16
Google
big data from 18
image-labeling system in 236
random walks and 76
VSMs at 120–21
Googlebot 550
Google Flu Trends 18, 144, 261
Google Inc. v. Auction Expert International L.L.C., et al, CV030560 551
Google Street View 568
Google Translate 577
(p. 641) Graeff, Erhardt 180, 181, 187
Grameen Foundation 495
Granovetter, Mark S. 15, 226, 231, 246, 380
graph analysis techniques, for social media 563–64
graphical user interface (GUI) 544
grassroots influencers 45, 50–52
Gray, M. L. 455, 463
Great Firewall of China (GFW) 600
Green, L. 580
Greenspan, Alan 122
Grimmer, Justin 352
group dynamics, of nodes 69
groupthink 331, 336
GSM Association (GSMA) 488
Gu, Bin 183
Guillory, Jaime E. 358, 513
Gummadi, K. P. 45, 50
Guo, L. 35
Habermas, J. 324
Haddadi, H. 45, 50
Halberstam, J. 454
Hall, Stuart 441
Hancock, Jeffrey T. 358, 409, 513
Hanhardt, C. B. 461
Hargittai, E. 5, 176–77
HARKing 124
Harman, Craig 263–64
harm from data collection
to services 553–54
to users 552
Harper, Kelley 272
Hartzler, Andrea 276
Harvard Dataverse 555
hash functions 540, 556n1
hashtags 62, 97
for Arab Spring 130
semantic sourcing and 405
Haythornthwaite, Caroline 245, 255
headless tools 544
health. See also mental health
GIS in 472–86
mapping for 471–86, 474f, 483f
social media and 561
Health Communities for Teens 484–85
heat maps 482, 482f
Henderson, T. 567
Hendler, Jim 115
hierarchical tree model 55–56, 55f
high-resolution data 121
Hmielowski, J. D. 24
Holbert, R. L. 24, 224–25, 316
homomorphic encryption, for social media 564, 565
homophily 22–23
of clusters 99
for gender 206–7
hubs and 94–95
SNA and 93–95
in social investment 230–31
of subgraphs 105
of tie strength 226
honeypots 562
Horst, Heather 495
Horvitz, Eric 276
hot cognition hypothesis 364
Howard, Philip N. 183
HTML 545
Huang, Wenyi 430
Huawei 494
hubs 50
in activity-driven networks 75
homophily and 94–95
Jaccard coefficient and 103
Huffington Post 139
human and computer interaction (HCI) 503
human-data interaction (HDI) 568
Hurricane Sandy 155
Hutton, L. 567
Hvizdak, E. 567
hyperedges 121–22
for relational event models 122
hypergraphs 121–22
for peer production 122
for team interlocks 122
hyperlinks. See web links
hypothesis-free research 560
ICT development (ICTD) 490, 504
identity. See also gender; individuals; privacy
digital trace data and 526–27
ignorant nodes, in rumor spreading 82
Ikeda, K. 225
image analysis 25
image-labeling system, in Google 236
impersonation 562
impression fraud 550–51
inadvertent exposure, on social media 22–23
indegree influence 49, 49f
adjacency matrix for 70–71
in clusters 98t
million follower fallacy and 47–48
by trendsetters 53–54, 54f
independent variable, for tie strength 251
Indignados, in Spain 423
individuals. See also privacy
computational social science for 116
information sharing and 295–96
network theory and 114
organizational dynamics and 139
PII on 561, 604–5
satisficing semantic search for 402
inductive approach
abductive inference and 123
to digital trace data 527
for politics 317
inferred mobility 502
influence/influencers. See also indegree influence; opinion leaders; outdegree influence; trendsetters; user influence
of celebrities 48, 49
grassroots 45, 50–52
mention 48, 49, 49f
of public figures 24
retweet 48, 49, 49f
semantic sourcing and 405
social contagion and 115
on social networks 302n3
influentials 50
information communication technology (ICT) 131, 139
cell phones and 501
collective action with 140
in crisis events 153
early adopters of 141
ITU and 489
in Middle East 418–19, 420
information diet
on social media 62–64, 63f
on Twitter 62–64, 63f, 180
information flow
big data and 14–16
networks and 13–19
information leakage, from Chinese Internet 613n2
information sharing
attention and 380
audience of 294–95, 296–97
on communication channels 298–99
content of 297
culture and 299
defined 287
ethics of 555–56
impact of 293–95
individuals and 295–96
limits to 555–56
on mass media 299
neuroscience of 285–302, 286f
populations and 295–96
reach of 293–95
self-related processing of 289–90
sharer-audience interactions in 295
sharers of 293–94, 297
sharing contexts in 296–99
social cognition of 290–91
valuation of 288–89
value-based virality for 287–88, 288f, 291–93
information sources, for agenda setting 29, 30
information subsidies, satisficing semantic search and 403
informed consent 513
agenda setting 36
best practices for 516–17
for data collection 552–53
(p. 643) in digital research 516–17
for digital trace data 527–29
for social media 566–68
initiators, in hierarchical tree model 55–56, 55f
Innis, Harold 441
innovation/innovators
with cell phones 502–3
in global South 490, 502–3
of organizational dynamics 136–37
Instagram
APIs for 237
drag culture on 463
for eating disorders 272
instantaneous networks
for epidemic spreading 80
random walks and 79
institutional review board (IRB) 514, 516
for crowdsourcing 549
for data collection 540, 548–49
for digital methods 582
for digital research 598, 599
information sharing and 556
for social media 566
insurance premiums 501
intellective computational models 121
intellectual property, on Internet 450
intermedia level, for agenda setting 28
International Association of Public Participation (IAP2) 328–29
International Communication Association 4
International Conference on Weblogs and Social Media (ICWSM) 555
International Network for Social Network Analysis (INSNA) 90
International Telecommunications Union (ITU) 489
Internet. See also Chinese Internet; specific topics
attention concentration on 23–24
on cell phones 497–98
data collection on 539–56
diffusion of 419
drag culture on 441–42, 454–68
ethics of data collection on 539–56
intellectual property on 450
in Middle East 419
privacy policies on 527
publishers on 550–51
research on, ethics on 598–613, 603t, 611t
Internet Archives 115, 118, 133
Internet Movie Database (IMDb) 540
Internet social capital scales (ISCS) 224
for Facebook 236
Internet Success (Schweik and English) 178–79
interorganizational ties, in agenda setting 30
InVenture 501
IP address, rate limits and 544
Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) 379
isomorphism 181
issue adoption ties, in agenda setting 29, 31
Iyengar, S. 22
Jaccard coefficient 101
for clusters 103–4, 104t
hubs and 103
Jackson, Michael 50
Al-Jaidah, Mahmoud 431
Jana Mobile 504
Janssen, D. 328, 329
Javascript Object Notation (JSON) 542
Jive 118
Johnson, B. 158
Johnson, Steven L. 183, 185
Jones, C. 229
JQuery 545
JSTOR 548
Kadushin, C. 224
Kaggle 121
Kaltenbrunner, A. 410
K-anonymity 562
Karsai, M. 83
Katikalapudi, Raghavendra 263
Katz, E. 6, 26
Kaye, J. 568
(p. 644) “Keep America American” 398
Kelly, Anita E. 269
Kendzior, S. 584
Kenya 501
kernel density methods 482
keyword-based samples, for emergency responders 159
Kickstarter 177
King, G. 118, 607
King, J. H. 526–27
Kittur, Aniket 181, 183
Kitzinger, C. 588
Kitzinger, J. 588
KKK. See Ku Klux Klan
Kleinberg, Jon 181
Kobayashi, T. 225
Koch, N. 580
Kony 2012 421
Kovats-Bernat, J. C. 580, 581
Kozlowski, S. W. J. 120
Krackhardt 55
Kramer, Adam D. I. 358, 513
Kraut, Robert E. 181, 183
Ku Klux Klan (KKK) 398, 403, 408–9, 411
Kutcher, Ashton 49
Kwak, N. 224–25
Kweli, Talib 180
Kwon, S. W. 224
Lapacian matrix 70
Lasswell, Harold 440
latency, of time-varying networks 73
latent Dirichlet allocation 120
latent semantic analysis 120
Lawson, D. 607
Lazarsfeld, Paul F. 6, 48, 528, 619, 624, 627
Lazer, D. 4, 5, 369, 625
Ledbetter, Andrew 246
Lee, R. M. 579–80
Lee, Spike 180
Lee v. PMSI 548
legal issues
with data collection 546–51
with digital research 518
with social media 566–69
with ToS 547–48
legitimacy, organizational dynamics and 140–41
Leskovec, Jure 181
Levi-Strauss, Henri 450
Levy, Mark 502–3
liability of newness 178
libraries, for APIs 543
Lin, N. 227, 229, 230, 232, 237
lines, in GIS 473
Ling, Rich 495
Lingel, Jessa 441–42, 454–68
Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) 120, 333, 354–55
for semantic sourcing 408, 409
LinkedIn 175
Linux 174
Lippmann, Walter 619
Liu, Leslie S. 270
Louvain algorithm 94
clusters and 98, 98t, 105
nodes and 97
lxml 545
Lysenko, Volodymyr V. 420
machine learning 115, 123
politics and 353
for sentiment analysis 354
Malinowski 450
malleable encryption schemes, on social media 565
Manhattan, drag culture in 459–62
manipulation, of platforms 18
Mann, Chris 610
Manson, N. C. 566–67
mapping
with cell phones 501–2
in global South 501–2
for health 471–86, 474f, 483f
of mobility 471–86, 474f, 483f
of place 472
of space 472
of virtual worlds 196–97
for well-being 471
March, J. G. 401–2
Markham, A. N. 588, 599
(p. 645) Markov process 74, 339, 341
Markowitz, D. M. 409
Marsden, P. V. 226, 244, 246
Martin, Trayvon 180–81, 181t
Marvin, Carolyn 7
Marx, Karl 441, 450, 458
mass audience 26
mass convergence, in crisis events 156–57, 157f, 158–59
massively multiplayer online game (MMOG) 114, 116, 117, 118, 195, 196–97
female participants in 198
play styles, motivations, and performance in 198–99
resiliency in 142
mass media
clusters in 134
in crisis events 154
data collection on 133–34
defense of 23–24
for democratic engagement 313
digital research on 619–27
end of 22–23
evolution of 140
global concentration of 24
ICT and 131, 139
information sharing on 299
media fragmentation of 34–35
network science and 25–27, 27f
organizational dynamics and 132–35
proliferation in 22
public opinion and 22
Twitter and 24, 51–52
masspersonal communication 4
“A Mathematical Theory of Communication” (Shannon) 624
Mathwick, C. 225
McCombs, Maxwell 28, 29, 35
mCent 504
McMillan, D. 567
Media Cloud 180
medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) 290, 301
media multiplexity
analysis of 252–54, 253t
data collection for 248–52
defined 245
dependent variable for 250–51
social roles and 243–48, 255
tie strength and 243–57
media use ties, in agenda setting 29–30
memory, of time-varying networks 73–74
mental health. See also well-being
data collection on 562
ethics and 273–77
privacy and 261, 273–77
self-report on 262
social media for 260–78
surveys on 262
mention influence 48, 49, 49f
mentions
in blogs 29
on Ebola crisis 384
on Gezi Park protests 389f
in Twitter 45, 49
mentorship networks 206–7
Menzel 26
Meraz, S. 92
message design, satisficing semantic search in 400–3
metadata
data collection of 244
on Middle East 417
metapopulations 185–86
Metzger, M. J. 21
Microsoft Teams 118
Middle East. See also Qatar
blogs in 419
bridges in 419–20
communication in 416–33
diffusion in 419
ICT in 418–19, 420
Internet in 419
metadata on 417
NLP in 423
polarization in 423–27
social media in 416–33
Milgram, Stanley 14
million follower fallacy 47–49, 47f, 49f
Miyata, K. 225
Mobile Content Ltd. 496
mobile credit transfers 501
(p. 646) mobile data
on cell phones 496, 497f, 498f, 499–504
challenges of 503–4
data security for 504
in global South 496, 497f, 498f, 499–504
security of 504
mobile payments 495–96
mobile phones. See cell phones
mobility
big data for 486
cell phones and 501–2
of communication 439–42
data collection on 472
epidemiology and 479–85, 482f
future research on 485–86
GIS in 472–86
inferred 502
mapping of 471–86, 474f, 483f
One Boy’s Day: A Specimen Record of Behavior on 478–79
social media and 563
of teens 484–85
in virtual environments 486
modularity maximization 94
Molloy-Reed model, for random walks 77
Monge, P. 136
Moody, James 16
Moon, Youngme 268
Moore, Michael 105
Moreno, Megan 263
Moreno, Y. 389–90
Morris, Martina 16
Morrison, A. 567
Morrison, Christopher 442
M-Pesa 495–96, 501
MSNBC 24
Mubarak, Hosni 424
Mulligan, Deirdre 276
Multichoice 493
multidimensional network 26–27
Multinet 93
multiplayer online game (MMO) 196
multi-user dungeons (MUDs) 176
Munteanu, C. 567
mutuality. See reciprocity
MySpace 355
“The Myth of Massive Media Impact Revived: New Support for a Discredited Idea” (Zaller) 315
name generator/interpreter 222
National Institutes of health (NIH) 598–99
National Science Foundation (NSF) 124
naturalistic data
digital trace data as 216
on mental health 262, 265
natural language processing (NLP) 323, 330, 333, 335, 343
in Middle East 423
Nature Human Behavior 124
Nelimarkka, M. 329
Netflix 540
network agenda setting (NAS) 35
networked communication 3–9. See also specific topics
challenges of 625–27
defined 3
interdisciplinary work on 624–25
principles of 621–22
theoretical developments in 622–24
networks. See also specific topics
brokers 95–96
of conflict 426–27
effect 561
ethnography 183–84
information flow and 13–19
model of, for agenda setting 27–35, 32f, 34f
nodes in 14
science, mass media and 25–27, 27f
society 93
theory, individuals and 114
NetworkX 93
Neuhaus, F. 567
neural networks 14
neuroscience
of information sharing 285–302, 286f
reverse inference with 301–2
of viral information 299–302
Newman, M. 14
Newman-Girvan algorithm 94
(p. 647) news cycle acceleration 24
news media. See mass media
newspapers. See also New York Times
digital transformation of 133
New York City Fire Department (FDNY), on Twitter 157–58, 158f
New York Times
APIs for 292
on Gezi Park protests 387
value-based virality of 291–93, 291f, 292f
web links on 133
Nicolaides, C. 114–15
Nissenbaum, Helen 553, 567
nodes
of activity-driven networks 74
agenda convergence of 34
in crisis events 166, 167f
for epidemic spreading 79–82
with followers 45
group dynamics of 69
hyperedges for 121–22
Louvain algorithm and 97
million follower fallacy and 47–49
in networks 14
random walks and 76–79
of rumor spreading 82–83
SNA and 94
of static networks 69
subgraphs and 95–96, 100–101
on Twitter 166, 167f
NodeXL 93
Noelle-Neumann, E. 410
noise addition, on social media 565
nondisclosure agreements (NDAs) 117, 542, 549–50
information sharing and 556
reproducibility and 555
nonplayer characters (NPCs)
in virtual worlds 197
in WoW 195
nonprofit networks
ecological dynamics of 182
resiliency of 142
Nuremberg Code 566
OAuth 542
Obama, Barack 405, 406–7
obtrusiveness, in agenda setting 31
Occupy Wall Street 141, 387, 421
off-site backup 541
Oh, Hyun Jung 268
OkCupid 522
1Pass 586
One Boy’s Day: A Specimen Record of Behavior 478–79
“One Foot on the Streets, One Foot on the Web: Combining Ethnography and Data Analysis in the Study of Protest Movements” (Gerbaudo) 441, 444–52
O’Neill, O. 566–67
online communities
APIs for 175, 187
classification of 186
community-level variables in 178–79
computational social science for 176
demographics of 176–77
diffusion in 179–81, 181t
ecological dynamics of 182–83
gender identity on 201–2
generalizability of 176–78
multilevel processes of 183–84
on social media 174–88
of Wikipedia 177–78
online health communities (OHCs) 268
online social networks (OSNs). See social media
Onnela, J.-P. 15
OpenPDS 570
Open Science Framework 124
Opera 498
OpinionFinder 355
opinion leaders 26, 50
on Chinese Internet 607
in politics 363–64
semantic sourcing and 405
opinion mining. See sentiment analysis
opportunistic data collection 117–18
(p. 648) “Opportunities and Challenges for Research on Mobile Phone Data in the Global South” (Avle and Quartey) 442
organizational dynamics
AI and 132
broad shape of 135–38
caution with 144
communication and 113–24, 132
cycle of 137t, 138–44
data collection for 117–19, 133–35
decline in 143
diffusion and 136
across disciplines 131–32
disruptions in 132, 139–40
early adopters of 136–37
failure in 143
future research on 144–45
with ICT 131
individuals and 139
innovators of 136–37
legitimacy and 140–41
mass media and 132–35
methods for 119–24
new aspects of 130–45, 137t
new cookbook for study of 143–44
old aspects of 135–43
resiliency and 142
stability and 140–42
Twitter and 144
organizational dynamics (change), emergence of 139–40
organizational ecology 133, 138
O’Riordan, K. 459
Ortega, Felipe 177
Ostrom, Elinor 178
O’Sullivan, P. B. 4
“Our Stage, Our Streets: Brooklyn Drag and the Queer Imaginary” (Lingel) 441–42, 454–68
outdegree influence
adjacency matrix for 70–71
million follower fallacy and 47–48
Overbey, L. A. 92
overloading 22, 560, 570n1
Page, S. E. 332
PageRank 52–53
Paluck, E. 583–84
Panopticlick project 534
Papacharissi, Z. 92
Park, Minsu 263
Parks, Malcolm 4
parsing, web scraping and 545
partition-specific network analysis
of digital trace data 90–107
subgraphs in 95–105
passing ethnography 451
password management systems 586
Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) 264
Paul, Michael J. 262
Paxson, H. 465
peer production 116
hypergraphs for 122
peer-to-peer networks 17, 622
public recognition in 177
Pennebaker, J. W. 120, 269
Pentland, Sandy 119
Peritore, N. P. 584
Persily, N. 118
persistence, in social investment 231–32
persistent clusters 104, 105f
persistent subgraphs 104, 105f
personal communication systems 246
personalization
content 21
from digital trace data 523–24
personally identifiable information (PII) 561
on Chinese Internet 604–5
Peterson, J. D. 579–80
Pew Internet and American Life Project 357
Pew Project for Excellence in Journalism 34–35
Pew Research Center 23–24, 356–57
on mobile data 496
phantomjs 544
phenomenon-driven research (PDR) 123
pick-up groups (PUGS) 116
in EQII 197
place
for assault risk 480–81
mapping of 472
space with 474–75
points
of assault risk 482–83, 482f
in GIS 473
polarization
communication and 93
in deliberation 336
in Egypt 424, 425f
in Middle East 423–27
in politics 423–27
politics. See also protests
actors in 352
agenda setting in 315, 361
clusters in 97–98, 98t
communication in 311–17, 352–53
data collection for 359–62
deliberation on 341
democratic engagement in 312–14
dictionary-based approach for 353–55
of drag culture 467–68
experiments on 357–58
on Facebook 353, 354f, 356, 357–58, 362
face-to-face for 369
information diet for 63
machine learning and 353
network-based approaches for 358
nontextual approaches to 356–58
opinion leaders in 363–64
polarization in 423–27
proximity matrix for 99–100, 99t
public opinion in 410
in Qatar 430–31
satisficing semantic search in 400, 403
selective exposure and 24
semantic sourcing in 405
sentiment analysis and 350–70
social media and 350, 351–58
surveys for 356–57, 365–66
TDR on 358–69
on Twitter 353, 358, 362, 452
two-step flow of communication for 351
polygons, in GIS 472, 473
population-level analysis
community-level variables in 178–79
diffusion in 179–81, 181t
of ecological dynamics 182–83
generalizability from 176–78
limitations of 185–87
of multilevel processes 183–84
of social media 174–88
populations. See also vulnerable populations
defined 175–76
information sharing and 295–96
metapopulations and 185–86
vulnerable 271–73
population-scale measurement
for depression 267f
for health 261
of well-being 265–67, 267f
Portes, A. 227, 229
posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) 290, 301
postpartum depression (PPD) 264–65, 265f
poverty reduction, in global South 490
power-law distribution
for time-varying network burstiness 73
for word-of-mouth 57
preference utilitarianism 560
preferential attachment model
for activity-driven networks 75
for scale-free social networks 121
SNT and 92
for time-varying networks 68
prepaid cell phones, in global South 491–93, 492f, 493f
prestige effects 232
principle of least effort 402–3
privacy
agenda setting 36
on Chinese Internet 601, 604–5, 606–7
in data collection 553
by design, on social media 565–66
digital research and 518
of digital trace data 527
in EU 605
of locative media tools 455
mental health and 261, 273–77
norms for 513
policies, on Internet 527
practice evolution for 518
self-management 527
on social media 563–64, 564–69
(p. 650) proliferation
of data 121
of deliberation 335–37
of information, attention scarcity with 23
in mass media 22
of media multiplexity 244
Prolific.ac 119
propagation phenomena
celebrities and 59
in social media 44–65
prospective cohort study design 479–80
for teen mobility 484–85
protests. See also Arab Spring
ethnography in 444–52
Gezi Park 317, 386–91, 388, 389–91f
Occupy Wall Street 141, 387, 421
public opinion in 386–91, 388, 389–91f
SNT and 92
on social media 418–21
Twitter and 97–98, 98t, 105, 317
Proteus effect 202
proximity matrix 99, 99t
psychosocial support, for well-being 267–69
public data 553
public figures. See also celebrities
influence of 24, 48
on Twitter 48, 49
public opinion. See also opinion leaders
agenda setting and 34
defined 410
formation of 386–91, 388, 389–91f
mass media and 22
in politics 410
in protests 386–91, 388, 389–91f
satisficing semantic search on 410–11
on social media 378–92
terrorist networks and 379
publishers 550–51
Puff Daddy 49
PUGS. See pick-up groups
purposive action 227
in social capitalization 228
Putnam, R. D. 222, 224
p-values 122
Python
libraries for 543
lxml and beautifulsoup of 545
NetworkX for 93
TSM for 91, 96–97, 106–7
Qatar
crowdsourcing in 430
fragmentation in 427–31, 429f
social media in 427–30, 429f
Twitter in 427–31, 429f
QQ 605
quadratic assignment procedure (QAP) 407
qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) 525
qualitative text analysis 92
Qualtrics 605
Quan-Haase, Anabel 276
quantitative text analysis 92
Quartey, Emmanuel 442
queer terroir, drag culture and 465–67
QuestionPro 605
rainbow tables 540
Rak, J. 455
random walks, in activity-driven networks 76–79, 78f
ranking algorithms, on social media 52–53
raster layers, for assault risk 482, 482f
rate limits
on APIs 542–43
for web scraping 545
raw data 530–31
reading, in drag culture 461–62
Reardon, K. K. 4
re-broadcast data, on social media 564
receivers, in hierarchical tree model 55–56, 55f
reception-accept-sample model (RAS) 315
reciprocity (mutuality)
in deliberation 329
in social investment 232
reciprocity, in social investment 232
Reddit 175, 267
psychosocial support on 268–69
self-disclosure on 270–71
red team dynamics 18
Reeder, H. 162, 163
(p. 651) reflexive research ethics 581–82
re-identify data, on social media 564
relational event models 120
hyperedges for 122
Relph, Edward 472
Ren, Yuqing 182–83
replication/replicability 21
agenda setting and 36–37
in satisficing semantic search 401
in semantic sourcing 406
on Twitter 45
reproducibility, in data collection 554–55
reproductive number, epidemic spreading and 80
research. See also digital research; theory driven research
discovery-driven 560
hypothesis-free 560
PDR 123
responsible, on social media 559–70
research design
for digital trace data 522–27
prospective cohort, for teen mobility 484–85
retrospective 479–80
resiliency
agility and 439
organizational dynamics and 142
tie strength and 380
Resnik, D. B. 560
Resnik, Philip 263
resource heterogeneity 230
responsible disclosure, in data collection 554
responsible research, on social media 559–70
Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) 567
REST API 160
Restivo, Michael 177
retrospective data collection, for assault risk 480–83, 482f, 483f
retrospective study designs 479–80
retweets
by aggregation services 48
in crisis events 154
on Ebola crisis 384
in Egypt 425–26, 426f
on Gezi Park protests 389f
influence 48, 49, 49f
signals 46
of social conventions 58
of web links 55
reveal data, on social media 564
reverse inference, with neuroscience 301–2
RFID 119
Richards, N. M. 526–27
Right To Be Forgotten 565, 568
risk. See also assault risk
of big data 17–18
of computational social science 513
of digital methods 583–88
of digital research 517–18, 579, 583–88
Robots Exclusion Standard (robots.txt), for data cleaning 550
Rodriguez, Robert R. 269
Rogers, Everett M. 4, 179, 440–41
role-playing, in virtual worlds 202
Romney, Mitt 398, 403, 408–9, 411
Rubio, Marco 405–6
Rudder, Christian 522
rumor spreading
activity-driven networks and 82–83, 84f
in China 600
in crisis events 151, 153
on “Keep America American” 398
satisficing semantic search and 403
on social media 82–83, 84f
on Twitter 403, 408–9, 411
RuPaul 456, 461
Ruyter, K. D. 225
Ryan, Timothy J. 358
Sadelik, Adam 262
safe spaces, in drag culture 467–68
Salganik, M. J. 5, 117, 119
sampling
in agenda setting 36
of APIs 528
key-word based, for emergency responders 159
sandbox type, of virtual world 196
Sandvig, C. 5
Sandvig v. Sessions 547
(p. 652) satisficing semantic search
aspiration in 404, 408–9
available alternatives in 404
defined 401–2
effort in 400–401
for individuals 402
information subsidies and 403
in message design 400–403
in politics 400, 403
principle of least effort and 402–3
on public opinion 410–11
replication in 401
rumor spreading and 403
search costs in 401–2
semantic sourcing in 404–8
for text analytics 398–411
theory and measures of 404–9
Saunders, B. 588
scale
for argument mining 335
of computational social science 115, 116–17
scale-free social networks, preferential attachment model for 121
Schelling, T. C. 526
Schmidt, Eric 524
Schneider, S. M. 328
Schraefel, M. C. 568
Schramm, Wilbur 440
Schumpeter, J. 132
Schweik, Charles M. 178–79
science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) 8
Scott, James C. 440
scratch cards, for cell phones 491–93, 492f, 493f
scripted type, of virtual worlds 196
search costs, in satisficing semantic search 401–2
search engines
attention concentration from 23
random walks and 76
Second Life 117, 196
female participants in 200
second moments, for epidemic spreading 80, 81
secured consent 567
secure storage, for data collection 540–41
Segerberg, A. 140, 180
selective exposure 21
communication and 93
for politics 315
politics and 24
Selenium 544
self-censorship, on Facebook 567
self-disclosure 227
on well-being 269–71
self-interest, in social capitalization 228
self-perception theory 294
self-related processing, of information sharing 289–90
self-report
for cell phone use 500
of digital trace data 527
of information sharing 286
on mental health 262
in politics 356
for sentiment analysis 365–67
of social roles 244
on surveys 203
semantic aspiration, in semantic sourcing 408–9
semantic ego networks 409
semantic explanation 525
semantics, VSMs of 120–21
semantic sourcing
measures of 407–8
in satisficing semantic search 404–8
semantic aspiration in 408–9
statements in 405–6, 407, 409
semiautonomous consent 568
Sennett, Richard 441
sentiment analysis
data collection for 359–62
defined 353–54
machine learning for 354
politics and 350–70
self-report for 365–67
on social media 350–70
TDR on 358–69, 363f, 366f, 367f
Sentistrength 355
SentiWordNet 355
server-side logs 117
digital trace data and 118
(p. 653) Settle, Jaime E. 353, 356, 363–64
sexually transmitted diseases 270
Sey, Araba 493
shade, in drag culture 461–62
Shah, D. V. 224–25
Shamoo, A. E. 560
Shannon, Claude 624
Shapiro, J. M. 24
sharers 293–94, 297
sharing contexts 296–99
Shaw, Donald 28
Shin, J. 411
Short, Adrian 531
SIM cards
for cell phones 489, 493, 494
in Ghana 494
Simmel, Georg 450
Simon, H. A. 401, 404
Sina Weibo 605, 607
Singer, P. 560
Skype 450
big data from 18
data security with 585
Slack 118
Sleeper, M. 567
Sluka, J. A. 579–80
smartphones. See cell phones
Smith, Marc A. 358
Smythe, Dallas 441
SNAP 93
social capital
analysis of 222–40
collective action and 223
defined 224
future research on 237–40
outcome-oriented approach to 223–25
social capitalization and 237
social investment patterns for 225–27
social media and 215–21, 225
tie strength and 226–27
social capitalization
agency and 228–29
framework for 227–30
platform affordances for 229
purposive action in 228
self-interest in 228
social capital and 237
social choice theory 335–36
social cognition, of information sharing 290–91
social contagion 26. See also rumor spreading
computational social science and 115
influencers and 115
social conventions
on social media 57–59, 58f, 59f
on Twitter 57–59, 58f, 59f
social convergence, in crisis events 114, 156–59, 157f, 169
Social Data Initiative, of Social Science Council 118
social economic status, structural holes and 114
social investment
cost of uncertainty in 230–31
defined 227
diversity in 232–33, 233t
in Facebook 235–37
homophily in 230–31
persistence in 231–32
reciprocity in 232
for social capital 225–27
taxonomy of 230–32
tie strength in 232
uncertainty in 230–31, 233t, 234–35
social levelers, virtual worlds as 194, 197
social media (networks) 14. See also specific platforms
anonymization on 562–63
APIs for 118, 528
Arab Spring on 418–21
attention on 378–92
as backchannel 165
best practices for 564–69, 569t
big data from 17, 559–70
bridges on 380–81
bubbles on 331–32
on cell phones 500
challenges of 569–70
on Chinese Internet 602, 605
connective action of 140
(p. 654) in crisis events 150–70, 154f, 157f, 158f, 161f, 163f, 164f, 167f
data collection from 559–70
data fuzzing on 565
data mining of 46
data retention/deletion policy on 565
de-identification on 562–63
deliberation on 330–37
digital trace data on 216, 528
in drag culture 463
for emergency responders 150–70, 154f, 157f, 158f, 161f, 163f, 164f, 167f
enterprise platforms for 131
face-to-face and 441–42
flaming on 331–32
graph analysis techniques for 563–64
health and 561
homomorphic encryption for 564, 565
inadvertent exposure on 22–23
influencers on 302n3
information diet on 62–64, 63f
informed consent for 566–68
IRB for 566
legal issues for 566–69
malleable encryption schemes on 565
for mental health 260–78
in Middle East 416–33
million follower fallacy on 47–49, 47f, 49f
mobility and 563
noise addition on 565
online communities on 174–88
politics and 351–58
population-level analysis of 174–88
privacy by design on 565–66
privacy on 563–64, 564–69
propagation applications on 59–64, 61t, 63f
propagation patterns on 54–59, 55f, 56f, 58f, 59f
propagation phenomena in 44–65
protests on 418–21
public opinion on 378–92
in Qatar 427–30, 429f
ranking algorithms on 52–53
re-broadcast data on 564
re-identify data on 564
responsible research on 559–70
reveal data on 564
rumor spreading on 82–83, 84f
satisficing semantic search on 398–411
sentiment analysis on 350–70
social capital and 215–21, 225
social conventions on 57–59, 58f, 59f
social interaction on 215–21
as social observatory 421–22
social recommendations on 63–64
structural analysis of 16
subgraphs for 103
topical experts on 60–62, 61t
tracking by 23, 25
trendsetters on 52–54, 53f, 54f
two-step flow of communication of 26
user-centric approach for 570
user influence on 46–54, 47f, 49f, 51f, 53f
user types on 50–52, 51f
vulnerable populations on 271–73
well-being and 261–77
word of mouth on 55–57, 55f, 56f
social media depression index (SMDI) 266
social network analysis (SNA)
for cell phones 499–500
communication and 93–95
for connectivity 135
on deliberation 332–34
homophily and 93–95
research questions for 95–96
semantic explanation for 525
SNT and 91–93
on virtual worlds 206–8, 207t, 208t
social network theory (SNT) 90–91
preferential attachment model and 92
protests and 92
SNA and 91–93
strength of weak ties hypothesis and 92
structural holes theory and 92
social recommendations
on social media 63–64
on Twitter 63–64
social roles 24–25
media multiplexity and 243–48, 255
self-report of 244
on surveys 251
tie strength and 246, 247–48
(p. 655) Social Science Council, Social Data Initiative of 118
Social Science One (SS1) 118
social stigmas 270
social ties. See tie strength
sociometric badge 119
SocioPatterns 119
socio-technical assemblages 420
Solove, D. J. 527
SOPA/PIPA campaign 450
SourceForge 175, 185
South Africa, Multichoice in 493
space
for assault risk 480
in GIS 474–75
mapping of 472
place with 474–75
Space Time Adolescent Risk Study (STARS) 480, 484–85
Spain 423
Specht v. Netscape 547
Spiro, E. S. 158
spreaders
in hierarchical tree model 55–56, 55f
in rumor spreading 82–83
stability, organizational dynamics and 140–42
Stanford Large Network Dataset Collection 555
STARS. See