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date: 02 June 2020

Index

Index

(p. 699) Note: Figures, tables and boxes are indicated by an italic “f”, “t” and “b” and notes are indicated by “n” following the page numbers.

A
abortion 28–29, 53
access to medications 605–22
actors involved in 615–17
antiretrovirals 108, 271, 303, 330–33, 613–16
antivirals 6, 89, 91, 541
barriers to 111, 396
global health initiatives for 607–8
global politics of 605–6, 612–22
history of concerns regarding 608–10
human rights and 4, 42, 544
importance of 606–7
innovation and 610–12, 618–19
intellectual property protection and 47–48, 287–88, 396
for NCDs 646
vaccinations 42, 188, 397, 536, 544–45, 607
Ackland, M. 647
Adger, W. Neil 153
administrative capacity of states 147
adolescents. See children and adolescents
Adorno, Theodor 91
Advocacy Coalition Framework (ACF) 335, 338
Afghanistan, tailgate medicine in 208–10
Africa
decolonization in 553
development assistance for 108, 308, 309, 313, 319n1
health inequality in 59
influenza pandemics in 532
pharmaceutical sector in 311, 312
third world movements in 25
tobacco markets in 663
vaccination campaigns in 587
agency forms of power 61, 65, 71–73
agenda setting 325–38
actors involved in 326–28
ascendance of issues in 334, 633–34
BRICS countries in 306, 317, 318
exclusionary practices in 69
future research needs 336–38
gender issues and 249–51, 253–54
in global health diplomacy 113
health security and 173
ideas in 328–30
institutional influences on 332–33
interests in 330–32
models for 335, 337–38
at national and subnational levels 335
for NCDs 328, 632
overview 325–26
WHO as venue for 303
Aginam, Obijiofor 389, 569
aging populations. See elderly populations
Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS Agreement) 428, 434
Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS)
advocacy groups on 356, 396, 610
affordability of medications and 434
BRICS countries’ negotiations on 111, 304, 306, 307
commodification of innovation through 452–53
cross-retaliation principle in 455
disadvantages for low-income countries 72, 360, 504
Doha Declaration and 333, 360, 475
on generic medications 48, 271, 333, 353, 360, 475, 559
AIIB (Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank) 10, 304–5
alcohol use
collective action for regulation of 391–92
cost of interventions for reduction of 632
deaths resulting from 391
gender differences in 241–43
in global health policy agenda 328
Global Strategy to Reduce the Harmful use of Alcohol 112b, 391
as NCD risk factor 629–31
promotion of responsible drinking 395
Alexander the Great 198
Allen, Luke N. 634, 647
Alma-Ata Declaration (1978)
as application of basic needs approach to health 449
economic affordability and 249
on human right to health 505
ideational legacy of 48
on new international economic order 505–6, 591
on primary healthcare 30, 44–47, 51, 224–25, 315, 329, 371
Amorim, Celso Nunes 669
Amsden, Alice 596
Annan, Kofi 145–46, 326, 560, 670
anthrax 6, 129, 130, 164, 182, 614
anthropology
analytical contributions of 479–80
conceptualizations of power in 62–64, 73
critical thinking in 89
in global health politics 7
medical 62, 63, 73, 353
militant 480
research methodology in 63–64, 75
antiglobalism 39, 53, 379
antimicrobial resistance (AMR)
from antibiotic overuse 131, 268
defined 130
governance of 273–74
pharmaceutical intervention and 5
R&D for 619, 621
as security threat 130–32, 134
antiretroviral therapies (ARTs)
access to 108, 271, 303, 330–33, 613–16
anticolonial views of 97
in BRICS countries 111, 307, 311
collective responsibility of international community for 500
as preventive therapy 562
prices for xiii475, 559, 613–15
production centers for 311
(RED) project for 413–14, 417
right to health and 502
antiviral medications
access to 6, 89, 91, 541
conflicts of interest in recommendation of 357
recognition of utility of 534
stockpiling of 130, 536, 539
apartheid 369, 553, 569–70
Appau, Adriana 399
Aristotle 245
Armbrister, Adria 70
Asia
bubonic plague in 21
influenza pandemics in 533, 534
state-led global integration in 47
third world movements in 25
tobacco markets in 663
vaccination campaigns in 587
Asian flu pandemic (1957) 533, 541
Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) 10, 304–5
Assunta, Mary 669, 672
Attaei, Marjan, 646
authority, sources of 275, 349
Avant, Deborah D. 275
avian influenza (H5N1/H7N9) 128, 155, 184–85, 188, 535–37
Aylward, Bruce 207
B
Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine 585–88
Baker, Michael G. 516
Ban Ki-Moon 226, 228, 327
(p. 701) Bankoff, Gregory 126
Barnard, David 504
Barnett, Jon 153
Barnett, Michael 349–50
Barnett, Tony 558
Barnett-Duvall typology 74–75
Bashford, Alison 125
Baumgartner, Frank R. 338
BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin) vaccine 585–88
Béhague, Dominique P. 329
Beltrán-Sánchez, Hiram 242
Benatar, Solomon R. 268, 271, 400, 445, 693
Bendavid, Eran 114
Bergh, Kristofer 113
Bero, Lisa 398
Berry, Christine 400
Bettcher, Douglas 667
Bhattacharya, Jayanta 114
Bhopal industrial disaster (1984) 169
biases. See discrimination; stigma
Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF)
Anti-Tobacco Trade Litigation Fund 437
on cause-related marketing 375
criticisms of 417–21
emergence of 112, 218, 270, 373, 409
functions of 325
funding for 225, 274, 412
GAVI Alliance sponsorship by 594
global health agenda of 53, 411–16
home base for 50
on influenza pandemic preparedness 538–39
tobacco control funding from 674
in transnational state 290
BINGOs (business-interest NGOs) 368, 377
biodefense 180–83, 191–92
biological weapons. See also bioterrorism
anthrax 6, 129, 130, 164, 182, 614
process for wielding 181
proliferation of 110, 180
Soviet program for 130
state-centric approach to 315
biopower 95–96
biosecurity 179–92
as biodefense 180–83, 191–92
as border security 189–92
censorship and 185, 192
defined 179–80
global health risks from 183, 185–86, 191–92
as health security 186–89
as information security 183–86, 192
security dilemmas in 181, 183
bioterrorism
agenda setting for 331
anthrax letters as 6, 129, 130, 164, 614
fears regarding 6, 110
preparedness planning for 132, 133
as security threat 103, 129–30, 132
bird flu. See avian influenza
Birn, Anne-Emmanuelle 507
birth control 27–28, 397–98
Black, Robert E. 421
Blair, Tony 5, 47, 267
Blindspot (Keshavjee) 222
Bloomberg, Michael 4, 647, 674
Bloomberg Philanthropies 437, 674, 677
Blume, Stuart 583
Bonita, Ruth 640
Bono 273, 414
Booth, Ken 164
border-based biosecurity 189–92
Bourdieu, Pierre 72
Bracht, Caroline 305
brain drain 38, 46, 52
Brazil. See also BRICS countries
bubonic plague in 21
civil-military relations in 202
conditional cash transfer programs in 285, 315
development assistance from 303, 308, 310, 311
on FCTC 669, 673
global health diplomacy by 108, 111, 306
pharmaceutical sector in 311, 614
Zika virus in 166, 201–3
breastfeeding 30, 31, 49, 450
breast-milk substitutes 31, 356, 392
Bricknell, Martin C. M. 209
BRICS countries 301–19. See also Brazil; China; India; Russia; South Africa
competing visions of 312
development assistance from 303, 308–13, 318
domestic health models of 307, 315–17
emergence of 42, 301
engagement with global health governance 302–7, 311, 317–19
global health diplomacy by 303, 306, 318
health challenges in 301–2, 309
institutional influence of 302, 305–8
material capabilities of 308–11
NCDs in 630
pharmaceutical sector in 311–12, 318, 597
state-centric approaches by 313–15, 319
venues for engagement by 303–5
British American Tobacco (BAT) 394, 395, 434, 663, 667–73, 676–77
Brown, E. Richard 418
Brundtland, Gro Harlem
background of 34
on disease and globalization 268
on enlightened self-interest 579
on investments in health 51
on partnerships 396, 518
promotion of global health issues 93, 272
on provision of services 562
tobacco control initiatives of 666, 670
travel restrictions issued by 351
Bryant, Toba 65
bubonic plague
biodefense activities involving 182
International Health Regulations on 25
quarantines for 126, 135
as re-emerging disease 32
societal instability and 152
transmission of 21
Buffett, Warren 225, 274, 412
Bump, Jesse B. 329
bureaucratic culture theory 349–50
Busby, Josh 331
Buse, Kent 237, 302, 310
Bush, George W. 108, 270, 560
business-interest NGOs (BINGOs) 368, 377
business sector 387–403. See also public-private partnerships
collective action to regulate health-harming industries 390–93
contributions to public interest 393–98
defined 388–89
in global health governance 398–400
overview 387–88
role in global health politics 401–3
types of organizations in 388b
Butler, Judith 168
Buzan, Barry 145, 146, 149
C
Cabrera, Oscar 643
Callahan, Daniel 571
Calmette, Albert 585
Cameron, Edwin 559
cancer medications 618
Candau, Marcolino Gomes 25, 26, 589
capabilities approach 70, 145, 154
capacity-based authority 275
capitalism
alternatives to 447
cause-related marketing and 375
climate change and 229
critiques of 67, 87, 90–92
environmental degradation due to 222–23
exploitation under 24, 219
globalization and 38, 45, 49, 52
Great Transformation to 217, 219–20
late stage 390
neo-liberal 266, 271
philanthrocapitalism 94, 377, 416
population growth and 27, 28
power differentials in 65
private interest groups and 368
regulatory 642
Capitalocene 222
Caribbean Community (CARICOM) xiii, 634
Carnegie, Andrew 410
Cash, Richard 136
Casswell, Sally 391
Castells, Manuel 379
cause-related marketing 375
CCT (conditional cash transfer) programs 285, 315
(p. 703) CEA (cost-effectiveness analysis) 115, 451
celebrity diplomacy 414
censorship 185, 192
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
bioterror preparedness by 130
disease eradication efforts 594, 596
on Ebola outbreak 265, 352
on HIV/AIDS emergence 553
influenza sample testing by 538
tobacco control efforts 631, 674
CEPI (Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations) 539
Chagas, Luiz Carlos 306
Chan, Jennifer 272
Chan, Margaret
on access to medications 605
on alcohol industry 392
avian influenza outbreak response by 535
on BRICS countries 301
critique of globalization by 48
cross-border outbreaks under 519
Ebola outbreak response by 190, 273
on global health actors 270
on outbreak reporting 522, 523
on universal health coverage 315
Chan, Priscilla 413
Chandhoke, Neera 372
Chang, Ha-Joon 220
Chan Zuckerberg Initiative 413
Chapman, Audrey R. 502
Chapman, Simon 669, 672
Chen, Ingfei 412
Chernomas, Robert 64–65
CHGA (Commission on HIV/AIDS and Governance in Africa) 560
chikungunya 166
children and adolescents. See also United Nations Children’s Fund
in conflict areas 153, 157
Convention on the Rights of the Child 494, 644
GOBI interventions for 30–31, 49
marketing of food and beverages to 115, 633
mortality rates for 59, 109, 152, 221, 227
in poverty 153
Task Force for Child Survival 592, 595
Children’s Vaccine Initiative (CVI) 593–94
China. See also BRICS countries
Belt and Road initiative in 305
development assistance from 108, 308–11, 313, 319n1
economic and political rise of 10, 227, 434–35
on FCTC 669
influenza pandemics in 533, 534
life expectancy in 316
military assistance from 204
pharmaceutical sector in 312
population control in 28
primary healthcare in 30, 44, 316, 449
R&D investment by 621
SARS outbreak in 128, 136, 307, 351, 516, 518
state-centric approach in 314–15
Chisholm, Brock 24
cholera
failure to detect outbreaks 517
International Health Regulations on 25
quarantines for 20, 21, 126
as re-emerging disease 32, 88
societal instability and 151–52
spread by UN peacekeepers 356, 357
transmission of 20, 21
Chorev, Nitsan 51, 350
Chowdhury, A. 284
cigarettes. See tobacco use
CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences) 688–89
Cipla 613–14
civil liberties 134–35, 138, 146, 163, 167, 379
civil-military cooperation 199–201, 205–8
civil rights 494–95, 497–501
civil society organizations (CSOs) 367–80
on access to medications 333, 616
as actors in global health politics 4, 6, 427
in agenda setting 328, 332
categorization of 372–73, 377
change efforts of 356
conceptualization of 367–69
corporate capture of 375–76
(p. 704) digital technology and 379
diversity of 368, 372, 377
exclusion of participation by 315
in global health governance 373–74, 378
HIV/AIDS activism by 565
human rights as leverage for 508
mobilization against trade agreements 436, 439, 441
overview 367
political nature of 368–69, 637
primary healthcare promotion by 371–72
as tobacco control advocates 670
transnational 290, 356, 372
climate change
capitalism and 229
in emerging and re-emerging diseases 33
global health impacts of 223
globalization and 6, 222–23
Intergovernmental Panel on 223
mitigation strategies 379
NCD-informed policies and 645
organizational change in response to 354
skepticism regarding 97
Sustainable Development Goals on 228
Clinton, Bill 47, 557
Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI) 539
Coburn, David 65
Coca-Cola Company 397, 402
Cold War 24–25, 87, 106, 497, 554, 588
collective violence 151
Collins, Pamela Y. 70
Collishaw, Neil 664
colonialism
economic development and 220
Enlightenment and 86–87
health policies during 20, 43, 49
tropical medicine and 20, 44, 125–26, 171, 199
Commission on HIV/AIDS and Governance in Africa (CHGA) 560
Commission on Human Security 147, 149–56, 158n1
Commission on the Status of Women (CSW) 238, 247
common security. See human security
communicable diseases
agenda setting for 331
early detection and surveillance 4, 513
globalization and 268, 270
in refugee camps 151
regulations to prevent spread of 267
soft power tools for control of 114
communism 25, 28, 91
Communist Manifesto (Marx) 229
companies, defined 388b
Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA) 107, 399, 435, 439, 440
compulsory licensing 504, 559, 613–15, 617
compulsory power 74
conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs 285, 315
confidentiality 32, 357, 514, 523
conflictual power 72
Connell, Raewyn 251, 252
consent, informed 198
constructivism 113, 349, 493–94, 500
consumer-driven philanthropy 413–14
contraception 27–28, 397–98
Convention on the Rights of the Child 494, 644
Cooper, Andrew F. 414
copyrights 353
Cornwall, Andrea 250
corporate social responsibility (CSR) 395–98
corporations, defined 388b. See also transnational corporations
corruption 9–10
Cortell, Andrew P. 351
cosmopolitanism 113–14
Costa e Silva, Vera Luiza da 669, 673
Costa-Font, Joan 402
cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) 115, 451
Costello, Andrew 223
Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) 688–89
Courtenay, Will H. 242, 244
Coutinho, Alex 553–54
Cox, Robert 8, 302
Crenshaw, Kimberlé 68, 240–41
critical race theory (CRT) 67–68, 90
(p. 705) critical security studies (CSS) 161–73
defined 163
emergence of 161, 162
global health politics and 170–73
on health security 164–70, 173
overview 161–62
politics of security and 162–64
on risk-based mentality 165–66
“security as emancipation” approach in 164, 168, 173
theoretical approaches to 163
vulnerability in 168–70, 173
critical theory
critical race theory 67–68, 90
criticisms of 96–97
defined 91
of economics 90
Frankfurt School on 91, 97, 162
intersectionality in 68–70, 73
on neo-liberal globalization 92
on philanthropic giving 94
securitization theory 94–95, 134, 163–65
critical thinking 85–98
as academic activity 96–97
on biopower 95–96
in Enlightenment 86–87, 89, 90
epidemiological events and 89
in epistemic communities 89–90
on neo-liberalism 92
overview 85
on political economy 91–93
on (RED) project 93–94
on representation 94–95, 165
social movements and 90, 97
stakes of 98
varieties of 90–91
Critique of Pure Reason (Kant) 86
cross-retaliation principle 455
CRT (critical race theory) 67–68, 90
CSR (corporate social responsibility) 395–98
CSW (Commission on the Status of Women) 238, 247
Cuba
HIV/AIDS quarantines in 135
independence from Spain 21
medical assistance programs 87, 108
primary healthcare in 44
Cueto, Marcos 19
cultural diversity, UDBHR on 690–94
cultural relativism 687, 692, 696
culture for health 552
Cunningim, Merrimon 417
CVI (Children’s Vaccine Initiative) 593–94
D
Dahl, Robert A. 61
Danzon, Patricia M. 415
Davies, Sally C. 131, 552
Davies, Sara E. 513
DDD (digital disease detection) 514, 517, 524
DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) 26, 350, 361n2, 419
Deaton, Angus 552
de Beauvoir, Simone 237
De Bengy Puyvallé, Antoine 374
debt crises 38, 45–46, 88, 288, 471
DeLaet, Debra 187
delegated authority 275
dengue fever 32, 155, 166
de Quadros, Ciro 595
Desai, Sapna 64
descriptive approach to human rights 494, 495, 503–7
determinants of health
commercial 677
globalization effects on 6, 40
political 62
upstream 111
development assistance
access to medications and 607
altruistic motivations for 287
from BRICS countries 303, 308–13, 318
from developing countries 225
exertion of power through 74
in foreign policy 109
for HIV/AIDS 286–87
impact on health expenditures 226, 283
(p. 706) for NCDs 287, 627
NGO-isation 372
official 92, 224, 288
philanthropic 411–13
South-South partnerships 111, 313
state-centric approach to 314–15
strategic use of 107–8
Devlin, Stephen 400
dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) 26, 350, 361n2, 419
digital disease detection (DDD) 514, 517, 524
diphtheria 32, 584–85
disability adjusted life years (DALYs) 50–51, 309, 454, 629, 630
discrimination. See also stigma
gender 70
intersectionality and 69
racism 63, 67
in trade barriers 430, 431
diseases
communicable. See communicable diseases
epidemics. See epidemics
globalization and 125, 128, 171, 268, 270, 592–96
infectious. See infectious diseases
insecurity and 125–27
lifestyle 154, 156, 664
poverty and 154
reporting. See outbreak reporting
social and economic impact of 125, 128, 132
vulnerability to 33, 39, 126, 128, 173
zoonotic 127, 532, 551, 554, 572
dispositional power 72
dispute settlement mechanisms 399, 429–37, 440, 455, 477
DNDI (Drugs for Neglected Diseases Initiative) 572
Doctors without Borders. See Médecins sans Frontières
Dodds, Susan 169, 170
Doha Declaration (2001) 333, 360, 475, 614–15
Doll, Richard 661
Dollar, David 221
domestic resource mobilization (DRM) 507
Doughnut Economics (Raworth) 223
Dow Chemical 400
Drèze, Jean 282
drugs. See medications
Drugs for Neglected Diseases Initiative (DNDI) 572
Dry, Sarah 269
Duncan, Thomas Eric 123, 124, 137
dysentery 198
E
EBM (evidence-based medicine) 245, 329, 541–43, 545
Ebola virus disease (EVD)
agenda setting for 331, 334
border-based biosecurity response to 190–92
containment strategies 135, 155
economic impact of 155
medical personnel assistance with 108, 190
military assistance with 201, 204–6
mortality rates 204
outbreak reporting 514, 515, 517, 520
PHEIC declaration for 166, 190
public fears regarding 123–24
as security threat 103, 124, 128, 165
societal instability from 152, 154, 157
structural adjustment programs and 472–73
travel and trade restrictions for 136–37, 190–91, 331
treatments for 312, 313
WHO response to outbreak 9, 265, 275, 359
e-cigarettes 394–95, 642
economic globalization
consolidation of ownership in 388
disease eradication and 592–96
material breakdown of markets in 48
neo-liberal ideology and 65
organizational change in response to 354
tobacco industry and 663
trickle down effect of 221
economic growth and development
in colonial era 220
core values of 450
(p. 707) gender inequality and 152
global health and 3, 50, 218
in Great Transformation 217, 219–20
improvement projects for 87–88
international health and 19, 26, 34
lifestyle diseases and 156
market civilization model of 271
neo-liberal views of 46–47
population control in 27
state capacity and 147, 148
trade liberalization for 446
economic inequality 284, 370, 390, 478
ECOSOC (United Nations Economic and Social Council) 238, 247, 639
Eide, Asbjorn 500
Eisenberg, Pablo 417
Elbe, Stefan 126, 131–33, 165
elderly populations 153–54, 157, 329
electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) 394–95, 642
Emanuel, Ezekiel J. 562, 563
emerging infectious diseases (EIDs)
characteristics of 32–33
global surveillance of 91, 133
lack of response to 88
threats posed by 127–28, 133, 535, 543
zoonotic 127
Enemark, Christian 179
Engels, Friedrich 219
Enlightenment 86–87, 89–91, 95, 97
EPI (Expanded Programme on Immunisation) 590–92, 597, 599
epidemics. See also pandemics
blame of foreigners for 20
chronic 155, 156
as drivers of innovation 89
industrial 390–91, 477, 632
politics of response 91
societal instability during 151–52
sudden-onset 155–56
epistemic power 72
Essential Medicines List 608–10, 615
ethical relativism 687
ethnography 63–64, 70, 73, 353
Europe and European Union
beef import dispute 434
Better Regulation initiative in 400
Enlightenment in 86–87
Great Divergence with settler colonies 217, 219–20
Great Transformation in 217, 219–20
health inequality in 59
human development indicators for 230
influenza pandemics in 532, 534
Marshall Plan for 224
on medication pricing 620
social movements in 368
tobacco markets in 663
tobacco use patterns in 241
trade agreement ratification in 440
vaccination campaigns in 586–87, 598
evidence-based medicine (EBM) 245, 329, 541–43, 545
Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI) 590–92, 597, 599
expert authority 275
Exxon Mobil Malaria Initiative 395
F
Falk, Richard 570
family-planning programs 27–29, 356
Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act of 2009 429–30, 432
Fanon, Frantz 87
Farley, John 410
Farmer, Paul 47, 88, 480
Faude, Benjamin 359–60
FDA (Food and Drug Administration) 27, 415, 429–32
Feachem, Richard 470
Feigl, Andrea B. 647
Felski, Rita 96–97
females. See gender; women
Fenner, Frank 594
FENSA (Framework for Engagement with Non-State Actors) 375
Fidler, David 7, 90–91, 106, 112, 133–34, 269, 287, 516, 521–22
(p. 708) Figuié, Muriel 114
Finlay, Carlos 21
Finnemore, Martha 275, 349–50
firms, defined 388b
Fleming, Alexander 552
flu. See influenza
focusing events 113
Foege, William 592, 595
Food and Drug Administration (FDA) 27, 415, 429–32
food industry 392–95, 476–77, 629–30, 637, 644
foreign military assistance (FMA) 201, 204–6
foreign policy. See also international relations
of donor nations 26
health in relation to 105–14
hierarchy of functions of 106, 106f
on population control 28
soft power in 111
for-profit organizations. See business sector
Forsythe, David P. 499
Foucault, Michel 95–96
Fouchier, Ron 184–85, 520
Foundation for a Smoke-free World 642, 676
Fowler, Norman 555
Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC)
alliance-building in support of 668–71
evidence base for 667–68
in global health diplomacy 672
in human rights framework 643–44
on illicit tobacco trade 675–76
implementation of 673–74, 677
as international agreement 103, 112b
leveraging of interests in 332
mobilizing political support for 665–67
negotiations on 111, 306, 328, 332
nonbinding nature of 633
opposition to 307, 376, 668–74
on protection of public health 391, 631
on tobacco industry interference in health policy 394
Framework for Engagement with Non-State Actors (FENSA) 375
Frankfurt School 91, 97, 162
Freire, Paulo 552, 565n2
French Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (1789) 495
Frerichs, Ralph R. 357
Frerks, Georg 199
Freud, Sigmund 96
Friedman, Milton 220, 221, 230
Frist, Bill 130
Fuchs, Doris 411
Fukuda, Keiji 522
Fukuda-Parr, Sakiko 147
Fund for Research in Neglected Tropical Diseases (FRiND) 573
Furst, Thomas 571
G
Gafton, Joseph 367
Gagnon, Michelle L. 112
Gallagher, Allen 676
Galtung, Johan 268, 480
Garrett, Laurie 6, 88
Gates, Bill and Melinda 4, 49–50, 225, 273, 412, 597. See also Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation
GATS (General Agreement on Trade in Services) 428, 434, 452
GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade) 428–29, 433, 474, 610
gay populations. See homosexuality
GBH (greedy bastards hypothesis) 67
GCM/NCD (Global Coordinating Mechanism for Noncommunicable Diseases) 639, 640
gender 237–54. See also gender inequality
conceptual framework for health and 240–46, 240f
defined 238
as determinant of health 240–41, 250–53
discrimination based on 70
global burden of disease and 239, 253
in global health agenda 249–51, 253–54
health behaviors and 241–44
HIV/AIDS and 562
in international development 250
life expectancy and 237–39, 250, 251, 253
as social construct 237, 238, 253
transgender populations 66, 240, 252
utilization of health services by 243–45
gender blindness 246, 252–54
gender inequality
absence of effective response to 251–52
economic development and 152
health effects of 238, 239, 243–46
in health workforce 246
organizational responses to 247–49
poverty and 152
structural vulnerability and 63
gender mainstreaming 248, 250
gender roles modernization hypothesis 242
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) 428–29, 433, 474, 610
General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) 428, 434, 452
General Assembly. See United Nations General Assembly
generalism, defined 687
generic medications
active pharmaceutical ingredients for 312
compulsory licensing for 504, 559, 613–15, 617
Doha Declaration on 614–15
expenditures on 607
production centers for 311
Revised Drug Strategy on 610
TRIPS on 48, 271, 333, 353, 360, 475, 559
Geneva Declaration (1948) 688
genocide 153, 499
German, Danielle 66
GHSI (Global Health Security Initiative) 134, 517
Gill, Bates 113
Gill, Stephen 268, 271, 400, 445
Gilmore, Anna 676
Gilson, Lucy 90, 112
GISN (Global Influenza Surveillance Network) 188, 533, 534, 536
GISRS (Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System) 536–37, 539
GlaxoSmithKline 395
Gleneagles Declaration (2005) 5
Global Action Plan for Influenza Vaccines 537
Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of Non-communicable Diseases 393, 635
Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunizations (GAVI)
as actor in global health politics 4, 271
in agenda setting 331
establishment of 50, 594, 607
funding for 274, 291, 401
governance structure 358
on results-based financing 51
strategies utilized by 597, 599
global apartheid metaphor 570
global burden of disease (GBD)
BRICS countries and 309
corporate influences on 375
gender and 239, 253
measurement of 50, 454
NCDs in 108
Global Coordinating Mechanism for Noncommunicable Diseases (GCM/NCD) 639, 640
Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM)
as actor in global health politics 218, 270
in agenda setting 331
corruption in fund disbursement 9–10
country coordinating mechanism of 314–15
establishment of 50, 93, 110, 116n2, 134, 286, 503
evaluation of 114
expenditures of 607
funding for 274, 291, 333, 401, 560, 563
generic medication purchases by 615, 616
governance structure 358
negotiation of health issues by 105
(RED) project contributions to 93–94, 413–17
on results-based financing 51
(p. 710) global health
agenda setting for. See agenda setting
biosecurity as risk to 183, 185–86, 191–92
climate change impact on 223
conditionalities of 46
critical thinking in. See critical thinking
definitions of 3, 38, 41
diplomacy and. See global health diplomacy
in economic growth 3, 19, 26, 50
Enlightenment influences on 86, 87
governance of. See global health governance
human security and 143–44, 149–57
infectious diseases and 155–56
international development effects on 218, 221–23, 229
international health compared to 104
military and. See military assistance
origins of 38, 125, 170, 189
philanthropy and. See philanthropy
politics of. See global health politics
poverty and 51, 154–55
selectivity in 38, 39, 49–51
violence and 150–54
global health diplomacy (GHD) 103–16
by BRICS countries 303, 306, 318
defined 104–5
drivers of 112–14
evaluation of 114–15
FCTC in 672
future outlook for 115–16
health and foreign policy link in 105–14
instruments of 111–12, 112b
nonstate actors in 113
origins of 105
overview 103–4
as soft power tool 110–11, 306
global health governance (GHG) 265–76
architecture of 270–72
authority types in 275
BRICS countries’ engagement with 302–7, 311, 317–19
business sector in 398–400
civil society organizations in 373–74, 378
corporate influence in 375
criticisms of 9–10, 265–66
history of cooperation on 19–21
investment-oriented approach to 49–51
philanthropy in 410, 416, 421–22
politics of 172, 272–76
power distribution in 10, 273–74
rational actor model of 65
reform of structures for 643
risk-based mentality to 165–66
sector-specific 273–74
vulnerability of norms of 53
global health politics
as academic discipline 1–2, 4, 551
of access to medications 605–6, 612–22
actors involved in 4, 33, 270–71
agenda setting in. See agenda setting
business sector in. See business sector
civil society and. See civil society organizations
critical security studies and 170–73
defined 3–4
development of 4–7
of epidemic response 91
future outlook for 9–11
gender in. See gender
of globalization. See globalization
of healthcare reform. See healthcare reform
of inequality. See health inequality
interdisciplinary nature of 7–8, 10–11
power in. See power
representation in 94–95, 165
states and. See states
Global Health Security Initiative (GHSI) 134, 517
Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System (GISRS) 536–37, 539
Global Influenza Surveillance Network (GISN) 188, 533, 534, 536
globalization
antiglobalism 39, 53, 379
climate change and 6, 222–23
criticisms of 10, 48, 221, 267
definitions of 37, 39–40, 217, 220, 291
determinants of health and 40, 47, 65
disease and 125, 128, 171, 268, 270, 592–96
food industry and 392–93, 395, 476–77
(p. 711) health policy agenda and 103
inequality and 220–22
integrative and ideational aspects of 37–42
neo-liberal. See neo-liberal globalization
of pharmaceutical sector 5, 622
primary healthcare and 41
privileged position of business in 289
societal effects of 3
trade liberalization and 6, 470
transformationalist approach to 40
waves of 220
global North
debt crises triggered by 88
development discourse used by 217
economic shifts in 478
Great Transformation and 219
knowledge production in 89–90
politics of epidemic response in 91
Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network (GOARN) 266, 270, 275, 307
Global Polio Eradication Programme (GPEI) 596
global political economy of health (GPEH) 470, 479–80
Global Programme on AIDS (GPA) 352, 358–59, 556
Global Public Health Information Network (GPHIN) 517–19
global South
development assistance for 107
economic shifts in 478
Great Transformation and 219
health security in 42
health surveillance in 42
incentives for investment in 415
international development and 217, 218, 224, 225
postcolonial politics of 41
poverty reduction strategies in 48
South-South partnerships 111, 313
Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS) 631, 674
global warming. See climate change
GOARN (Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network) 266, 270, 275, 307
GOBI interventions 30–31, 49, 450
Goehler, Gerhard 72
Goldade, Kathryn 63
good governance 145, 147, 313, 455, 460
Goodin, Robert E. 170
Gore, Al 557
Gostin, Lawrence O. 133, 643
government-organized NGOs (GONGOs) 368
GPA (Global Programme on AIDS) 352, 358–59, 556
GPEH (global political economy of health) 470, 479–80
GPEI (Global Polio Eradication Programme) 596
GPHIN (Global Public Health Information Network) 517–19
Graham, E. R. 352
Gramsci, Antonio 72, 92, 229
Grant, James 31, 49, 326, 506, 595
Graunt, John 237
Great Depression 447
Great Divergence 217, 219–20
Great Transformation 217, 219–20
greedy bastards hypothesis (GBH) 67
Greener, Robert 155
Greer Murphy, Amy 66
Griffin, Jeffrey A. 143
Group of Seven/Eight (G7/G8)
Gleneagles Declaration 5
Global Health Security Initiative from 517
health agenda of 105, 134, 272, 286
membership in 116n1, 303–4, 525n2
Muskoka Initiative on Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 108
in transnational state 290
Group of Twenty (G20) 105, 134, 272, 303, 306
GTSS (Global Tobacco Surveillance System) 631, 674
Guérin, Camille 585
H
Habermas, Jürgen 162
HAI (Health Action International) 356, 608–9
Haiti earthquake (2010) 152, 517
Halperin, Sandra 291
Hammonds, Rachel 493
Hankivsky, Olena 241
(p. 712) Hanlon, Gerard 398
Hanrieder, Tine 347, 352, 355
hantavirus 155
hard power 72, 104, 110
Harman, Sophie 271, 421
Harmer, Andrew 217, 302, 304, 310
Hart, Tom 284
Hartzell, Caroline A. 472
Haugaard, Mark 72
Hawkes, Sarah 237
Hawkins, Benjamin 427, 437
Health Action International (HAI) 356, 608–9
health and healthcare
in colonial era 20, 43, 49
culture for 552
definitions of 149–50
determinants of. See determinants of health
economics of 564
foreign policy in relation to 105–14
global. See global health
as human right. See human rights
in ideologies of development 87–88
inequality in. See health inequality
in neo-liberalism 33, 37, 41, 43, 88
primary. See primary healthcare
privatization of 46, 47, 222, 243, 451, 452
reform. See healthcare reform
security and. See health security
healthcare reform 445–61
context for contemporary debates on 446–49
neo-liberalism and 450–55, 461
overview 445–46
post-global financial crisis 456–61
primary healthcare in 449–53
socialism and 448–49
universal health coverage in 316
Washington Consensus and 454, 456
Health for All (HFA) movement 445, 449, 591, 608–9
health inequality 59–76
analytical frameworks for 74–75
capabilities approach to 70
cosmopolitanism on 113–14
critical race theory on 67–68
defined 60
determinants of 59, 61
intersectionality and 68–70, 73
literature review 60–61, 70–73
measurement of 60
in mortality rates 59
NCDs and 630–31
political science of 285
power in relation to 62–67, 70–73, 469
in trade agreements 110
health personnel, guidelines for international recruitment of 112b
health policy triangle 90, 112
health security 123–38
allocation of resources to 133–34
antimicrobial resistance and 130–32, 134
benefits of securitizing health 132–34
biosecurity practices as 186–89
bioterrorism and 103, 129–30, 132
collaboration with public health actors for 133
construction of threats to 127–32
critical security studies on 164–70, 173
defined 186
disease and insecurity 125–27
Ebola virus and 103, 123–24
emerging infectious diseases and 127–28, 133, 543
global health diplomacy and 113
in global South 42
high politics of 41
HIV/AIDS and 94, 103, 106, 128–29, 133–34, 148–49
human rights and civil liberties issues in 135
human security in relation to 150, 543
in medicalization of security 126, 131–33
opportunity costs of 137–38
political attention on 133–34, 166–67
prioritizing risks and responses for 186–89
responses generated by threats to 132
sacrifices for 134–38
travel and trade restrictions for 136–37, 165, 189–91, 207
vulnerabilities in 167–70
Hearn, Jeff 203
hegemonic power 72
(p. 713) Hein, Wolfgang 616
Helsinki Declaration (1964) 688
Henderson, Donald 29, 594, 595
hepatitis B 206, 598, 599
hepatitis C 616, 618, 619
Heymann, David 6–7, 188
HFA (Health for All) movement 445, 449, 591, 608–9
H5N1 (avian influenza) 128, 184–85, 188, 535–37
Hickel, Jason 230
high-income countries (HICs)
development assistance from 108, 109
healthcare financing in 283
influenza research in 185, 532, 534, 535
intersectionality in 69
military assistance from 200
NCDs in 630
TRIPS rules and 72
vertical campaigns and 26
Hill, Bradford 661
Hindmarsh, Richard 419
historical materialism 66–67
HIV/AIDS 551–65. See also Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria
advocacy for 268, 272, 565
agenda setting for 329–31, 333, 334
developmental assistance for 286–87
emergence of 32, 88, 551–54, 612–13
epidemiological scenarios for 556–57
funding for 560, 561f, 563–64
gendered nature of 562
global response to xiii–xiv, 5, 32, 93, 129
governance of 271, 273, 276
human rights and 135, 331, 503–4, 508
innovation resulting from 89
intersectionality and 69, 70
Jaipur paradigm on 558–59
mortality rates 114
politicization of 554, 556, 557, 564–65
poverty and 155, 552, 559
pre-exposure prophylaxis for 562
prevention strategies 555–56, 561–62
public health approach to 552, 554–55
quarantines for 135
Resolution 1308 on xiii, 110, 271, 557–58
risk mentality towards 165
as security threat 94, 103, 106, 128–29, 133–34, 148–49
stigma associated with 32, 66, 94, 167, 556
treatment for. See antiretroviral therapies
Ho, Vivian 416
Hoddie, Matthew 472
Holbrooke, Richard 129
Holden, Chris 427, 437
Holm, Johannes 585
Holmes, Seth M. 63
Holt, Timothy H. 507
homosexuality 32, 503, 553, 555–56, 559, 565
H1N1 (swine flu)
emergence of 537–38
as impetus for addressing global health issues 103
monopolization of vaccines for 91, 188
PHEIC declaration for 357
response to 269, 538, 541–42
as security threat 128
travel restrictions for 136, 331
Horkheimer, Max 91, 162
Horton, Richard 39, 41–42, 376
Hoy, Chris 285
H7N9 (avian influenza) 155
Huang, Yanzhong 301, 302
Hudson, Ian 65
humanitarianism
budget allocation for 41–42
colonialism justified by 20
development aid as 4
health policy as 103, 106, 579
as improvement project 87
military assistance with 197, 199–201
new humanitarianism 5
human rights 493–508
in agenda setting 329, 330, 333–35
citizens’ rights vs. 495–500, 507–8
claimability condition for 496–98
descriptive approach to 494, 495, 503–7
freedoms vs. entitlements 497, 500–501, 508
gender equality 238
health security and 134–35
HIV/AIDS and 135, 331, 503–4, 508
(p. 714) international norms for 494
as leverage for NGOs 501–2, 508
medication access and 4, 42, 544
NCDs and 643
normative approach to 494–502
PAHO on 23
political 494–95, 497–501
in postcolonial society 43–44
WHO on 24, 44
Human Rights in International Relations (Forsythe) 499
human security 143–57
components of 144, 145
global health and 143–44, 149–57
health security in relation to 150, 543
infectious diseases and 155–56
national security in relation to 145–46, 157
overview 143–44
poverty and 152, 154–55
state capacity and 147–49, 148f, 155–57
UN Commission on 147, 149–56, 158n1
UNDP framework for 144–46
violence and 150–54
I
ICAP (International Center for Alcohol Policies) 391–92
ICCPR (International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights) 494–95, 497–501
ICPD (International Conference on Population and Development) 31, 248, 333, 356
ICRC (International Committee of the Red Cross and Red Crescent) 199
ideational power 4
IFPMA (International Federation of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Associations) 594, 609–10, 616
Illich, Ivan 552, 565n2
immanent (unintentional) development 217, 218–23, 229
immigrant populations
fear-mongering rhetoric targeting 53
framing as health risks 171
multilevel governance for 274
welfare reforms impacting 66
immunizations. See vaccinations
Imperial Tobacco 663
income inequality 47, 229, 456
India. See also BRICS countries
access to healthcare in 460
agenda setting in 335
bubonic plague in 32, 152
in colonial era 220
development assistance from 303, 308–11, 313
gender inequality in 70, 239, 243
health promotion activities in 66
hysterectomy in 64
implementation of WHO recommendations in 115
influenza pandemics in 533
pharmaceutical sector in 311–12, 597, 613–14
population control in 28, 356
social indicators in 282
state-centric approach in 314
tobacco use patterns in 241
vaccination campaigns in 587–88, 590, 598
Indonesia
cigarette flavouring dispute with US 429–33
decentralization in 283
demands for access to vaccines 42, 188, 536, 544
on FCTC 673
tsunami in (2004) 200
industrial epidemics 390–91, 477, 632
inequality
economic 284, 370, 390, 478
gender. See gender inequality
globalization and 220–22
income 47, 229, 456
infectious diseases
development assistance for 108
global health and 155–56
global surveillance of 91, 133, 187–88
human security and 155–56
poverty and 154
re-emerging 32–33, 88, 535, 543
reporting. See outbreak reporting
as security threat 127–28, 179, 543
social and economic impact of 132
social-distancing measures for 132, 135, 190, 542
transboundary risks from 6, 128
travel restrictions in response to 136–37, 189–91
influenza. See also influenza pandemics
dispersal of research on 185–86, 532
global surveillance of 187–88, 533, 534, 536, 545
seasonal 532, 534, 540, 541
vaccination for 186, 188–89, 531–41, 544–45
influenza pandemics 531–45
Asian (1957) 533, 541
debates on response mechanisms 89
economic consequences of 542
fears regarding 6, 187, 531, 535–36
governance arrangements for 531, 535, 544, 545
history of 532–34
norms and ideas shaping policy on 539–44
preparedness for 132, 185, 188–89, 306, 535–44
securitization of 543
Spanish (1918) 532, 534, 539–40, 543
swine flu. See H1N1
informed consent 198
Ingram, Alan 8, 85, 286
Institute of Medicine (IoM) 127, 267–68, 535
institutional capacity of states 147, 149
institutional power 72, 74, 355
Intellectual Property Committee (IPC) 396
intellectual property protection. See also Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights; patent protections
copyright and 353
harmonization of 475
medication access and 47–48, 287–88, 396
as policy tool 617
public goods vs. 573
regulatory conflict over 359–60
transnational network influence on 290
intentional (planned) development 217–18, 224–29
intergovernmental organizations (IGOs) 347–61. See also public-private partnerships
on access to medications 617
as actors in global health politics 4, 249
autonomy of 349–52
competition among 358
dynamics of change in 354–60
Ebola outbreak response by 155
global health diplomacy by 105
influence on member states 353–54
interconnectedness of 360, 361
NGOs compared to 347
overview 347–48
power of 348–54
roles and responsibilities of 348–49
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 223
International AIDS Society 4, 270
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development 224
International Center for Alcohol Policies (ICAP) 391–92
International Committee of the Red Cross and Red Crescent (ICRC) 199
International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) 31, 248, 333, 356
International Conference on Primary Health Care 30
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) 494–95, 497–501
(p. 716) International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) 106, 144, 494, 497–502, 637
international development 217–30
assistance for. See development assistance
conceptualizations of 217
contemporary goals of 226–29, 226t, 228t
future outlook for 229–30
gender policies in 250
immanent (unintentional) 217, 218–23, 229
implications for global health 218, 221–23, 229
planned (intentional) 217–18, 224–29
International Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research Involving Human Subjects 688
International Federation of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Associations (IFPMA) 594, 609–10, 616
International Federation of Red Cross Societies 22
international health
as academic discipline 25
economic growth and 19, 26, 34
global health compared to 104
goals for 29, 45, 224
origins and evolution of 19, 267
vertical approaches to 44, 49
International Health Regulations (IHRs)
compliance with 307
health security and 126, 136, 187
on interference with international traffic and trade 190
legacy of 34
on outbreak reporting 136, 513–16, 522–24
on PHEICs 166, 187
revisions to 103, 113, 134, 306, 348
state-centric approaches to 314
WHO mandate in 25, 351
International Monetary Fund (IMF)
bureaucratization and 350
development agenda 225
establishment of 224
good governance lexicon in 455
on influenza pandemic preparedness 535, 538–39
policymaking influences 92
response to debt crises 38, 45–46, 88, 471
structural adjustment programs 38, 46, 221, 353, 371, 471–73
in transnational state 290
International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 398–99
International Organization of Consumer Unions (IOCU) 609
international relations (IR). See also foreign policy
critical thinking in 89
in global health politics 7–8
on health security 164–65
high/low politics in 5, 106
human rights in 499
philanthropy and 410
post-positivism in 162
realist theory of 91, 112–13, 493
securitization theory in 94–95, 134
security dilemmas in 181, 183
states as political units of 40
violence as conceptualized in 150
International Sanitary Conferences 20–21, 126, 170, 172, 266, 348, 389
Internet surveillance response programs (ISRPs) 514–19, 521, 523
interpersonal violence 151, 152, 157
intersectionality 68–70, 73, 240–41
investor-state dispute settlement (ISDS) 399, 436–37, 440, 477
IOCU (International Organization of Consumer Unions) 609
IoM (Institute of Medicine) 127, 267–68, 535
IPC (Intellectual Property Committee) 396
IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) 223
Iqbal, Zaryab 151
Iraq, tailgate medicine in 208–10
Irwin, Rachel 114, 115
ISDS (investor-state dispute settlement) 399, 436–37, 440, 477
(p. 717) ISO (International Organization for Standardization) 398–99
isolationist policies 22, 136
ISRPs (Internet surveillance response programs) 514–19, 521, 523
Ivins, Bruce 130
Iyer, Aditi 69, 70
J
Jaggar, Alison M. 247
Jaipur paradigm 558–59
Japan Tobacco International (JTI) 395, 663, 669
Jenkins-Smith, Hank C. 338
Jenner, Edward 583, 584
Johnson, Anne M. 329
Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS)
on access to HIV/AIDS treatment xiii, 333
epidemiological scenarios developed by 556–57
establishment of 32, 273, 358–59, 557
expert authority of 275
harassment and bullying within 10
as meta-organization 361n1
political accountability mechanisms and 637
Jones, Bryan D. 338
Joseph, Jonathan 268–69
JTI (Japan Tobacco International) 395, 663, 669
K
Kaddar, Miloud 600
Kaldor, Mary 368, 379
Kamradt-Scott, Adam 197, 329, 531
Kanavos, Panos 402
Kant, Immanuel 86, 95, 97
Kaposi’s sarcoma 32, 553
Kapstein, Ethan B. 331
Kelsall, Tim 284
Kennedy, Jonathan 217
Kenny, Katherine E. 51
Kerrigan, Deanna 66
Keshavjee, Salman 222
Kevany, Sebastian 114
Keynes, John Maynard and Keynesian economics 230, 447, 448, 456
Khazatzadeh-Mahani, Akram 103
Khrushchev, Nikita 25
Kickbusch, Ilona 7, 106–7, 269, 271
Kim, Jim Young 47
Kingdon, John W. 112, 113, 335, 337
Kirton, John 305
Koblentz, Gregory 180
Koch, Robert 583, 585
Kochi, Arata 418
Koplan, Jeffrey P. 42
KraftHeinz 395
Krause, Keith 162
Krieger, Nancy 469
Kulik, Julia 305
L
Labontè, Ronald 93, 103, 112, 397
Lake, David 471
Lakoff, Andrew 42–43
Lancet Commission 10, 50
Latin America
in colonial era 220
conditional cash transfer programs in 285
epidemics in 20–21, 32
pharmaceutical sector in 312
public health services in 88
social movements in 368
tobacco markets in 663
vaccination campaigns in 587
Latour, Bruno 97–98
Lauridsen, Ernst 609
Laws, Edward 295
Leach, Melissa 269
League of Nations Health Organization (LNHO) 22, 23, 34, 348, 586
Lederberg, Joshua 127, 128, 580
Lee, Kelley 1, 106, 109, 114, 164, 306, 387, 661
Lee Jong-wook 518–19
legitimacy, of bioethical frameworks 687–90, 694
Lencucha, Raphael 332
Li, Tanya Murray 87
Liang, Brian A. 643
(p. 718) life expectancy. See also mortality rates
cosmopolitanism on differences in 113
gains in 458, 627, 628
gender differences in 237–39, 250, 251, 253
globalization and 221
in Great Transformation 220
neo-liberal policies and 222, 454
socio-economic status and 59, 152
lifestyle diseases 154, 156, 664
Liu, Joanne 273
Lopez, Ana Mendez 629
Lorber, Judith 238
Lorillard 431
low- and middle-income countries (LMICs)
collapse of public health infrastructure in 33
debt crises in 288, 471
development assistance for 109, 619
dispute settlement mechanisms for 433
fiscal burden of foreign debt in 225, 288, 448
food industry in 476
green revolution in 23
healthcare financing in 283
HIV/AIDS funding in 563
influenza research as benefit for 185
intersectionality in 69
military assistance in 200, 208
NCDs in 59, 108, 630
population control in 27–29
primary healthcare in 449, 450, 456
R&D activities in 621
rural hygiene in 22
Sustainable Development Goals for 228
tobacco use in 390–91
TRIPS rules and 72
vaccinations in 536, 537, 598–99
WHO regional offices in 24
Lu, Chunling 283
Lush, Louisiana 327, 331–32
M
MacFarlane, S. Neil 146
Mackenzie, Catriona 169, 170
Mackey, Tim K. 643
Magnusson, Roger 627
Maher, Anthony 633, 634
Mahler, Halfdan
medicine policy conference organized by 609
on primary healthcare 30, 31, 44, 49, 608
on vaccination programs 592, 594
on women’s health needs 247–48
malaria. See also Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria
agenda setting for 328
Alexander the Great and 198
drug-resistant 611
economic benefits of reducing 53
eradication campaigns 26–27, 31, 350, 589, 596
Exxon Mobil Malaria Initiative 395
as re-emerging disease 88
Roll Back Malaria initiative 51
males. See gender
Malthus, Thomas 219, 230
Mann, Jonathan 32
Marburg virus 155
maritime sanitation rules 19, 20
Marshall Plan 224
Martin, Emily 171
Marx, Karl and Marxism
on capitalism 219
Communist Manifesto 229
critique of political economy in 92
historical materialism in 66–67
on metabolic rift 222
neo-Marxism 65–67
on power relations 65–67
on revolutionary movements 95
Ricoeur on 96
on universal human emancipation 96
material power 4, 62, 73, 355, 402
Matthews, Kirstin R. W. 416
Mbeki, Thabo 558
McCollum, Rosalind 69–70
McCoy, David 367, 420–21
McDonald, Matt 164
McGrady, Benn 439
McInnes, Colin 1, 109, 164, 165, 265, 329
McKee, Martin 186
McMichael, Tony 223
Mead, Walter Russell 478–79
measles 594, 596, 598
(p. 719) MEDCAPs (Medical Civic Action Programmes) 200, 208–10
Médecins sans Frontières (MSF)
as actor in global health politics 4, 33
disease surveillance networks of 517
Drugs for Neglected Diseases Initiative from 572
Ebola outbreak assistance from 204, 205, 265
establishment of 33
opposition to military-humanitarianism 199
principled authority of 275
medical anthropology 62, 63, 73, 353
Medical Civic Action Programmes (MEDCAPs) 200, 208–10
medical/industrial complex 453
medicalization of security 126, 131–33
medications. See also pharmaceutical sector
access to. See access to medications
antivirals. See antiviral medications
Essential Medicines List 608–10, 615
expenditures on 606, 607, 619
generic. See generic medications
innovation in 610–12
for neglected tropical diseases 572
patents for. See patent protections
penicillin 198, 552
pricing of 47–48, 290, 434
resistance to. See antimicrobial resistance
Revised Drug Strategy 609, 610
standardization of 22
stockpiling of 130, 137, 536, 539
vaccines. See vaccinations
Medicines Patent Pool (MPP) 616
Mejia, Raul 673
Memish, Zaid 522
men. See gender
menstrual hygiene management 331, 332
Merck 578
Messineo, Carol 147
metabolic rift 222
microbicides 562, 565n5
Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) 128, 518, 520–24, 525nn5–6
middle-income countries. See low- and middle-income countries
militant anthropology 480
military assistance 197–211
civil-military cooperation 199–201, 205–8
disease prevention efforts 198
with Ebola virus 201, 204–6
foreign 201, 204–6
in humanitarianism 197, 199–201
long-term vs. short-term gains 207, 209, 211
in natural vs. complex emergencies 200–201, 210
opportunity costs of 200, 208
opposition to 199–200
overview 197–98
with poliovirus 206–8
in research and development 198–99
for tailgate medicine 208–10
with Zika virus 201–3
military capacity of states 149
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)
acceleration of progress on 326–27
access to medications and 607
agenda setting for 6, 329, 330, 333
funding for 106, 560
gender components of 248
on human right to health 494
omission of NTDs in 571
as planned development strategy 218
power in establishment and institutionalization of 74–75
targets of 226–27, 226t
Mintrom, Michael 248
Money, John 237–38
Montgomery, Hugh 223
Moody, Michael P. 409
Moon, Suerie 605, 616
moral relativism 687
Morse, Stephen 127, 128
mortality rates. See also life expectancy
alcohol use and 242
for children 59, 109, 152, 221, 227
of Ebola outbreak 204
for HIV/AIDS 114
for industrial proletariat 219
for NCDs 59, 627, 628t, 632
in refugee camps 151
from tobacco use 242, 661
(p. 720) most-favoured nation principle 429
MPP (Medicines Patent Pool) 616
Mukherjee, Suroopa 169
multiple-streams model 112, 335, 337–38
Murphy, Tim 124
Mykhalovskiy, Eric 166
N
Nakajima, Hiroshi 31, 32, 672
Narasimhan, Vasant 136
National Health Service (NHS) 447–48, 586
National Institutes of Health (NIH) 184, 594, 611
nationalism 10, 39, 369, 379, 441
National Philanthropic Trust 373–74
national treatment principle 429
Naylor, Thomas 471
NCD Alliance 376, 633, 646
neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) 569–80
ascendance on global health agenda 334
defined 569
Global Plan to Combat NTDs 571–72
global politics of 570, 579, 580
investments in 573, 578
omission in MDGs 571
poverty and 569, 571, 580
prevalence of 569, 579
public-private partnerships for 578, 580
summary of 573, 574–77t
in Sustainable Development Goals 579
10/90 divide in health-related R&D and 569, 571
neo-liberal globalization
backlash against 441
criticisms of 48–49, 52, 91–92
evolution of 53
global health politics and 369–70
health investments and 50–51
international development and 220–21
merger of global health regimes and 39–43
social determinants of health and 65
Washington Consensus and 38–39, 45–47, 220, 225
neo-liberalism. See also neo-liberal globalization
civil society organizations in relation to 372, 377
critique of 92, 221–22
economic policies in 37, 41, 45, 220
erosion of professionalism in 457
framing of public health challenges in 632
healthcare reform and 450–55, 461
market policies in 37, 41, 427
policy convergence under 291
shock therapies in 221, 225, 472
socialism vs. 445, 448
structural adjustment programs and 38, 46–47, 371, 471–73
of Washington Consensus 38–39, 45–47, 220, 225
neo-Marxism 65–67
neorealist theory 330
Nestlé 392, 395
New Development Bank 304
new international economic order (NIEO) 44, 46, 456, 505–6, 591
New Washington Consensus 49–52
Ng, Nora Y. 301
NHS (National Health Service) 447–48, 586
nicotine. See tobacco use
Nie Jing-Bao 696
Nietzsche, Friedrich 96
NIH (National Institutes of Health) 184, 594, 611
Nipah virus 518
Nishtar, Sania 643
non-aligned movement 87, 449, 456
non-communicable diseases (NCDs) 627–48
access to medications for 646
agenda setting for 328, 632
in BRICS countries 309
burden of 108, 629, 630, 648
development assistance for 287, 627
economic and material support for policy implementation 640–41
(p. 721) emergence as global health challenge 628–31
framework for analysis of global action on 635, 636t
global movement for action on 631–34, 645–47
governance structures for 643–44
health inequality and 630–31
in human rights framework 636–37, 643
industry-led resistance to policies on 641–42
mortality rates for 59, 627, 628t, 632
normative instruments and policy guidance for 393, 635–37
political accountability mechanisms and 637–39, 638t
public-private partnerships and 644–45
risk factors for 154, 628–31
societal changes resulting from 390
terminology issues 647
non-decision-making power 72
non-governmental organizations (NGOs)
as actors in global health politics 33
in agenda setting 325, 332
business-interest 368, 377
civil-military cooperation by 199, 206
competition among 52
exercise of power by 63
on gender mainstreaming 248
government-organized 368
HIV/AIDS activism by 565
human rights as leverage for 501–2, 508
in human security 147
IGOs compared to 347
international development efforts of 217, 222
negotiation of health issues by 105
normative approach to human rights 494–502
North, Douglass C. 282, 284
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) 107, 440, 441, 474–75, 477
Novartis 573, 618, 670
Novotny, Thomas E. 306, 669
Nunes, João 161
Nuremberg Code 688
Nye, Joseph S., Jr. 72, 110
O
Obama, Barack
on antimicrobial resistance 131
on Ebola outbreak 123–24, 286
promotion of global health issues by 272
Obot, Isidore S. 242
Office International d’Hygiène Publique (OIHP) 21, 22, 348
official development assistance (ODA) 92, 224, 288
Ogata, Sadako 149–50, 154, 155, 158n1
Ogden, Jessica 327
Oil for Doctors Program 108
older adults. See elderly populations
O’Manique, Colleen 93, 187
O’Neill, Jim 131
“One World One Health” paradigm 10, 114
Ooms, Gorik 107, 493
opportunity costs
debt crises and 288
of emergency measures in financial crisis 458
of health security 137–38
of military assistance 200, 208
of NCDs 631
of prioritizing partnerships over regulation 644
oral rehydration therapies (ORT) 30, 31, 49, 450
Orbinski, James 570–72
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)
competition from China 308
development assistance from 224, 226–27, 310, 312, 318
primary healthcare in 448
promotion of economic growth by 453
R&D investment by member countries 621
Organisation of African Unity xiii
orphan diseases. See neglected tropical diseases
(p. 722) Oslo Declaration (2007) 109
Ostergard, Robert L., Jr. 143
Osterholm, Michael 185
Ostrander, Susan 418
Ottersen, Ole Petter 478
outbreak reporting 513–24
IHRs on 136, 513–16,