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date: 29 February 2020

(p. 717) Index

(p. 717) Index

Note: Page numbers followed by f and t indicate figures and tables, respectively.

A
AAALAC, guidelines for care and welfare of cephalopods in research, 18
Acanthocephala, 81
Acetylcholine (ACh)
biosynthesis of, 221f, 222
in Caenorhabditis elegans, 152, 159–160, 159f
in flatworms, 222–224, 223f
immunoreactivity, in detection of neurons, 258
and iridophore activity in cephalopods, 708, 711
as neurotransmitter, 290–291
vesicular transporter for. See Vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT)
Acetylcholine receptor(s), 292
in flatworms, 222, 223f
muscarinic, 222, 223f
nicotinic, 222
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE)
in flatworms, 222–224
inhibitors, 224
Achaete-Scute family (ASH), in neurogenesis, 73–75
Achatina spp., neuron size in, 253
Acheta (cricket), terminal ganglion, neuron/cell number in, 251t, 252
Acheta domestica (cricket), axon regeneration in, 578t
Acoela (acoels), 79
frontal organ (frontal glandular complex) of, 79–80, 86, 87f
neoblasts in, 80
neural architecture of, 78f, 79–80
neurogenesis in, 78f, 80
Acoelomorpha (acoelomorphs), 79
glia-like cells in, 257
nerve net in, 71
Acorn worms. See Priapulida (priapulids, acorn worms)
Acoustic communication, 8–9
Acron, 99
Acropora (coral)
genomics, and synaptic transmission, 126, 128t, 134f, 135, 136f
ionotropic glutamate receptors, 139
nervous system of, 126
6-4 photolyase and cryptochrome in, 602
transcriptome assembly, 144t, 145
Acropora millespora (coral), circadian rhythms in, 595
Action potential(s), 248
cnidocytes and, 207
generation in squid giant axon, 3–4
in hydromedusan swim system, 201, 202f
of scyphozoan neurons, 191
Acyrthosiphon (pea aphid), circadian oscillator design in, 602
Adenosine, in chemical signaling, 293–294
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
in chemical signaling, 293–294
vesicular transporters for. See Vesicular nucleotide transporters (VNUTs)
Adipokinetic hormone (AKH), 287, 289, 292
Aedes spp. (mosquito), feeding behavior, 9
Aequorea spp., myoid conduction in, 200–201, 202f
Aggregation, 685–691
behaviors associated with, 686
as dynamic behavioral transition, 691, 691f
genes that control, 686–688
internal and external regulation of, 686, 686f
neurotransmitters regulating, 688–691
pathway (linear) model for, 691, 691f
Aggression, 691–694
in Drosophila, sleep and, 14
as dynamic behavioral transition, 691, 691f
genes controlling, 691–693
in honeybees, genes associated with, conservation across invertebrate–vertebrate boundary, 5
internal and external regulation of, 686f
pathway (linear) model for, 691, 691f
regulation of
dopamine receptors and, 693–694
tachykinin and its receptor in, 694
Aglantha spp.
behavioral repertoire of, 203–204
conducting systems in, 203–204, 204f
escape swim, 202–203
giant neurons, 202
ion channels in, 206
myoid conduction in, 200
nerve rings of, 203–204, 204f
tactile combs of, 204
Aiptasia spp., behavioral activity of, 187
Alalcomenaeus spp., 39–41 41f, 43–44
neural ground patterns in, 42f
β-Alanine, in cnidarian neurotransmission, 206
Alignment, magnetic
in invertebrates, 374–375
in vertebrates, 375
Allatotrophins (AT), 290
Allostatin-A, 237
in Drosophila feeding control circuit, 11
Allostatins, 237
Alloteuthis spp., oocyte maturation in, 627
Allotriocarida, mushroom bodies of, 50f
Alpheoidea (pistol shrimps)
eusociality, 33
mushroom body characters in, 50, 52f
Ambulacraria, 90
apical organ in, 93, 93f
axonal growth in, 94
neural architecture of, 91–92
neural development in, 92–94, 93f
neural differentiation in, 94
Amidated peptides, precursor genes, in flatworms, 232t, 233t, 235t
Amine neurotransmitters, 292–293. See also Biogenic amines; specific amine
Amino acetonitrile derivatives (AADs), mechanism of action of, 220
Amino acid(s), as neurotransmitters, 290
Amino acid/auxin permease (AAAP) family of transporters, 133
Amino terminal peptide (Nt), in female gastropods, 634
Amphimedon spp.
circadian oscillator design in, 600f, 603
cryptochrome in, 602
genomics, and synaptic transmission, 128t, 131, 136, 136f, 142
transcriptome assembly, 144t, 145
(p. 718) Amphioxus
adult spinal cord, neuron/cell number in, 252t, 253
floor plate, glia, and supportive cells, 257
tubular nerve cord, 269
Amynthus hawayanus, locomotion in, 462
Anax junius (dragonfly), visual motion integration in descending pathways, 334, 335f
Ancistrocheirus lesueurii (squid), intersexuality (pseudohermaphroditism) in, 616
Ancylus flaviatilis
dorsal bodies (DB), 634
egg-laying behavior in, 635
Anemones. See Anthozoa
Annelida (annelids), 80, 127f, 128t. See also Platynereis spp.
axon size, 259
behavioral and neural plasticity in, 517–519
body plan, vertebrate body plan as inverted version of, 31
brain organization in, 35, 58, 83
central nervous system, neuron/cell number in, 252
ciliary gliding by, 451
crawling by, 451
by inch-worming, 451
peristaltic, 451
undulatory, 451
forebrain of, 83
habituation in, 517–519
hindbrain of, 83
hydraulic system of, 452
hydrostatic skeleton of, 452
larvae, neural architecture and development in, 86–88, 87f
locomotion in
biomechanics of, 452
control of, 451–470
kinematics of, 451–452
metachrony of, 451
rhythmicity of, 451
mesocerebrum of, 83
metacerebrum of, 83
midbrain of, 83
muscular hydrostat of, 452
mushroom body in, 83
nervous system of, 517
neural architecture of, 73, 82f, 83, 88
neural development in, 88–90, 89 [link] –90f
neurites in, 75
nonsegmented, 451
phylogeny of, 451
polychaete, brain of, 58
prostomium of, 83
segmented
ciliary gliding in, 451
crawling in, 451
locomotion in, 451
swimming in, 451
sensory organs of, 83
serotonergic neurons in, 86
stomatogastric nervous system in, 83
subepithelial nervous system in, 73, 83
swimming by, 451
synaptic ultrastructure in, 261
Anomura (anomurans), mushroom body characters in, 50, 52f
Anopheles gambiae (mosquito), circadian rhythms in, 595
Ant(s). See also specific ant
brain of, Darwin on, 694
cooperative behavior in, octopamine and, 693
ferum oxide particles in, 369
magnetic orientation/magnetoreception in, behavioral tests of, 377
magnetoreception in, 372t
navigation in, 12–13
Antennae, 37–38
arthropod, 98f, 99
biramous, 39
first, 38, 39, 56f
insect, odorant receptors in, 351
second, 37–38, 39
Antennal lobes, 46, 48, 49, 56f
Antennules, 32–33, 34f, 37, 55, 56f
paired, 39
pancrustacean, 37, 38f
single pairs of, 39
trilobite, 36
Anthelmintic drug(s), targets for, 219, 229, 236
Antheraea pernyi (moth), central (circadian) pacemaker in, 606
Anthopleura (sea anemone), vesicle-mediated neurotransmission in, 137
Anthopleura elegantissima (sea anemone), habituation in, 514–515
Anthozoa
apparent absence of gap junctions in, 205
behavioral activity of, 186–187
control of, 188
pacemakers and, 188
cnidocyte discharge, physiology of, 207
colonial, coordination in, 188–190, 189f
delayed initiation system (DIS), 188
ion channels in, 206
multiple conducting systems of, 187–188
nerve net of, 187
neural architecture of, 77, 188
neurobiology of, 186–190
neuromuscular facilitation, 188
neurotransmission in, 206–207
pacemakers, 188
Slow System 1 (SS1), 187–188
Slow System 2 (SS2), 187–188
APGWamide
in cephalopods, 625, 646
in gastropods, 630–633, 647, 648
in posterior olfactory lobule of octopus, 639
Apical organ
in ambulacrarian larvae, 93, 93f
of cnidaria, 77, 79, 86
of nemertean pilidium, 88
in polyclad larvae, 86, 87f
of trochophore larvae, 86, 87f
Apis mellifera (honeybee). See also Honeybees
brain of, neuron/cell number in, 251t, 252
classical conditioning in, 544t
activity-dependent modulation and, 549–550
foraging gene, and behavior, 687
genomics, and synaptic transmission, 128t
magnetic alignment in, 374–375
magnetic orientation/magnetoreception in, 372t, 374
behavioral tests of, 377
molecular oscillator design in, 601f
odor discrimination, classical conditioning and, 542–543
serotonin receptors in, 228
transcriptome assembly, 144t
Aplacaphorans, 83
Aplysia (Aplysia californica, sea hare), 401, 402f
attractin, 642
axon regeneration in, 576, 578t
retrograde signaling in, 584
bag cells, and egg-laying behavior, 634, 636
buccal central pattern generator, inputs to, 409–410
buccal motor programs, induction of, 410–411, 411f
central nervous system of, 631f
cerebral buccal interneurons (CBIs), 409–410, 548
modulatory neuropeptides, 410
cerebral peptide 2 (CP–2), 410
classical and operant learning in, and plasticity in synaptic and membrane properties, 546–548, 547t
classical conditioning in, 544t
activity-dependent modulation and, 549
conditioned respondent behavior, neuronal plasticity and, 539–540
decision-making CPG neurons, and plasticity in classical and operant conditioning, 547t, 548
defensive-withdrawal reflex, 560 (p. 719)
classical conditioning of, 538–540
DSI homologs in, 446
esophageal nerve, 410
feeding behavior, 9, 402–403, 403f
afferent-induced hyperretraction, 406–407
appetitive phase, 402
consummatory phase, 402
egestive, 402–403, 403f, 410
ingestive, 402–403, 403f
neural control of, 401–421
operant and classical conditioning of, 398
plasticity in, classical and operant conditioning and, 547–548, 547t
radula movements in, 403–404, 403f
radula protraction and decision making, 406, 541–542
radula retraction and behavior-dependent phase switching, 406
research on, advances in (future directions for), 414
variability, 403, 414
feeding central pattern generation, 404, 404f
buccal motor neurons and, 404–405, 404f
plasticity in, 398
protraction-retraction circuitry, 405–407
and radula opening/closing, 407–408, 408t
feeding circuit activating peptide (FCAP), 410
feeding circuitry in, 404, 404f
extrinsic neuromodulation, 409
intrinsic neuromodulation, 409
negative biasing in, 411–412, 412f
positive biasing in, 412–413, 413f
repetition priming in, 410–411, 411f
and task switching, 407–408, 408t, 411–414
female reproductive behavior and its neuroendocrine control, 634–636
food-induced arousal, 408–409
food-seeking behavior, operant conditioning of, 540–542
genomics, and synaptic transmission, 124–125, 131, 132f, 136f, 142, 143
gill-withdrawal reflex (GWR). See also Aplysia (Aplysia californica), defensive-withdrawal reflex
habituation in, 523–524
sensitization of, 525
GnRH actions (physiologic effects) in, 624–625
habituation in, 523–524
presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms in, 523–524
identified motor neurons in, 405t
ionotropic glutamate receptors, 139–141, 140f
isolated nervous system, hyperretraction in motor programs induced in, 407
large abdominal ganglion, neuron/cell number in, 251t, 252
learning and memory in, 15, 293, 559
long-term synaptic depression, neuropeptide-related, 568
metacerebral cells (MCCs), 408–409
as model system, 401–402
myomodulin, 237
nervous system of, neuron size and number in, 559
neurobiology of, 615
neuron size in, 250, 559
neuropeptides in, 630
operant conditioning in
activity-dependent modulation and, 550–551
dopaminergic reinforcing pathway and, 541
as learning from operant emission and its associated outcome, 540–541
plasticity in decision-making network and, 541–542, 547t, 548
protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms (PKMs), 143
radula motor patterns, central pattern generator (CPG) for, 542
reflexes
habituation in, 523–524
Hebbian synaptic plasticity and, 540, 551
reproductive morphology of, 631f
respondent behavior in, plasticity of, 538–539
sensitization in, 525–527
gene expression and, 527
molecular mechanisms of, 527
short-term vs. long-term, 525–527
sensory-motor pathways, neuronal organization of, 539
sleep state in, 14
synaptic ultrastructure in, 261
tentacle-retraction reflex, habituation in, 523
transcriptome assembly, 143, 144t
Aplysia dactylomela, egg laying hormone in, 634
Aplysia depilans, feeding, 402
Aplysia fasciata, feeding, 402
Aplysia kurodai
cerebral CBM1 neurons, 409
feeding, 402
Aplysia oculifera, feeding, 402
Apoptosis
in Caenorhabditis elegans, 162
and Wallerian degeneration, differentiation of, 580–581
Arabidopsis thaliana, cryptochrome in, 602
Arachnida (arachnids), 32. See also Chelicerata (chelicerates)
arcuate body of, 55–56, 56f
cerebral organization in, 55
eyes of, evolution of, 55
mushroom body of, 47, 55–56
neural development of, 55, 56f
neural ground patterns, 41
segmental ganglia of, 42–43
visual system of, parallel chromatic and achromatic pathways in, 55–57, 56f
Aranaea
mushroom bodies in, 47
visual pathways in, 47
Arborization, of insect neurons, 106f, 107
Archaeognatha, 42, 46, 48
central body of, 44–45
olfactory receptor neurons of, 49
Archicerebrum, 58
Architeuthis dux (giant squid), 615
Arcuate body(ies), 44, 44f, 45
arachnid, 55–56, 56f
L-Aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (L-AADC), 228
Artemia salina, synaptic polyads, 263
Arthropoda (arthropods), 127f, 128t. See also Crustacea (crustaceans); Insecta (insects); Panarthropoda
appendages, 98f, 99
body structure of, 97
vertebrate body plan as inverted version of, 31
brain of, 58, 97, 98f
divergent evolution of, 31–70
earliest fossil, 36–41
evolutionary conservation of, 35
ground patterns of, 34–35
vertebrate brain and, correspondences of, 32
central nervous system, organization of, 97, 98f
central (circadian) pacemakers in, 604
chemoreceptors, 345
families of, 347
chemosensory transduction in, 345–365
advances in (future directions for), 359
speed of, 357–359
speed versus sensitivity in, 357–359
distance information extraction from visual motion, 319, 330–333, 332f
earliest, 35–36
early neurogenesis in, 103–105, 104f
elementary small target motion detector (ESTMD) neurons in, 328–330, 329f
epithelial sodium channels (ENaC), 347, 348f
fossil record of, 32
gustation, 345–346
behaviors mediated by, 346
(p. 720)
gustatory receptors, signal transduction, 350–351
habituation in, 519–523
homologous neuromeres of, 98f
ionotropic glutamate receptors, 347, 348f
ionotropic receptors (IRs), 345, 347, 348f, 354–357
land-dwelling, olfaction and taste in, 345–346
molecular oscillator design in, 601, 601f
motion vision in, 319–344
advances in (future directions for), 337–339
neural architecture of, 97, 98f, 519
neural development in, 88, 103–109
neurites in, 75
neuroanatomical characteristics of, 97
neuromuscular junctions, 265
neuron/cell number in, 251t, 252
neurons, immunocytochemical detection of, 258
neuropil of, 97, 98f
odorant-binding proteins (OBPs), 351
odor detection in, speed of, 357–359
olfaction, 345–346
behaviors mediated by, 346
olfactory receptor–dependent metabotropic pheromone transduction in, 354
optic lobes of, 320–321, 321f
pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs), 351
phylogeny of, 97
pyrokinin, 237
receptor guanylyl cyclases, 347, 348f
sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs), 352
small-field motion detection in, 322–324, 323f, 327–330, 329f, 337
small target motion detector (STMD) neurons in, 328–330, 329f
state-dependent visual processing, 336–337, 338f
subepithelial nervous system in, 73
synaptic ultrastructure in, 260
ventral nerve cord of, 97, 98f
visual motion, extraction of distance information from, 319, 330–333, 332f
visual systems in, 320–321, 321f
water-living, olfaction and taste in, 345–346
Arthurdendyus triangulatus, neuropeptide Fs (NPFs) in, 236
Articulata theory, 58
Artiopoda, 39
Ascaris spp.
brain of, 248
neural architecture of, 98f
neuron number versus neuron types in, 254
Ascarosides, in Caenorhabditis elegans, 688
Ascidians (sea squirts), 90–91
adult, neuron/cell number in, 252t, 253
larva
neuron/cell number in, 252t, 253
neuron numbers versus neuron types, 254
neural architecture of, 91f
neural development in, 94–95, 96f
sensory neuron formation in, 95–97
Aspartate
as neurotransmitter, 290
Asplanchna spp.
axons, 259
brain of, neuron/cell number in, 251t, 252
neural architecture of, 248
neurites, 259
neuronal asymmetry in, 271
neuron numbers versus neuron types, 254
Associative learning, 513, 537–557. See also Operant conditioning; Pavlovian conditioning
in Caenorhabditis elegans, 158–159
cAMP pathway in, 172
coincidence detection and memory in, activity-dependent modulation and, 549–551
Hebbian synaptic plasticity and, 540, 551
neuronal organization and, 542–546, 552
NMDA receptors and, 551
in Octopus, 561
operant self and, 664
and plasticity in synaptic and membrane properties, 546–548, 547t
Astacidae, hemiellipsoid bodies in, 51, 52f
Astacus spp., hemiellipsoid bodies in, 52f
Asteroids (starfish). See Starfish
Atonal family (ATO), in neurogenesis, 73–75
Atta colombica, magnetoreception in, 370, 372t, 374
Attractin, 642
Auditory system(s), 303–317
of Drosophila, 303–317
Aurelia (moon jelly)
cnidocyte complex of, 208f
cutting experiments on, 186, 186f, 190
exumbrellar nerve nets, 199
medusae, swim musculature of, 195
neurogenesis in, 77, 78f
polyp, 195
Aurelia aurita (jellyfish), habituation in, 515
Autapses, 268, 271
Autonomic nervous system, 72
Axon(s), 75, 248
acute injury, 576f
distal stump and, 576f, [link] [link] –579t, 580
mechanisms of, 576, 576f
proximal stump and, 576f, [link] [link] –579t, 580
response to, 576, 576f
adaptation to chronic stress, 583
bifid, 248
chronic injury, 576f, 583
mechanisms of, 576f, 580
damage
acute and chronic models of, 576–580, 576f
neuronal response to, 575
degeneration, 576f
after acute injury, 576f, 580–581
after chronic injury, 576f, 580
chronic stressors and, 576f, 583
mechanisms of, 575–592
in neuropathy, 583
Sarm- and Nmnat-independent pathway for, 583
Wallerian, 580–583
development of, vs. axonal regeneration, 585–586
growth cone of, 76, 576f, 584
injury, lag phase after, 580
injury response, mechanisms of, 575–592
lengths of, 575
loss of, 580–581
morphology of, 259
myelinated, in invertebrates, 249–250
neurons without, 248
regeneration
in acute injury, 576, 576f
and axonal development, comparison of, 585–586
definition of, 576
DLK/Wallenda and, 583, 584–585
failure of, 576–580, 576f
mechanisms of, 575–592
retrograde signaling in, 584
repair of, 576f, 584
size of, 259
Axonal pathfinding, 74f, 75–76
attractants and, 74f, 76
vs. axonal regeneration, 585–586
in Drosophila melanogaster, 106 [link] –107f, 107–108
in leech embryo, 88–90, 89f
in nematodes, 101f, 102–103
repellants and, 74f, 76
Axonal target selection, 74f, 76–77, 575
in Drosophila melanogaster, 106 [link] –107f, 108–109
in leech embryo, 88–90, 89f
(p. 721) Axonemes, 260
Azimuth, in magnetic compass sense, 374
B
Bag cell peptides, in female gastropods, 634
Basal ganglia, vertebrate, homology to arthropod central complex, 5
Basic Helix-Loop-Helix (bHLH) transcription factors, in neurogenesis, 73–75, 77
Basiepithelial (basiepidermal) nervous system, 72–73, 72f
distribution in invertebrates, 73
neurogenesis in, 75
Basommatophora
central nervous system of, 631f
egg laying by, 635
reproductive morphology of, 631f
tentacles, eye spots on, 644
Bdelloura candida
nervous system of, 72f
YIRFanide in, 230
Bees. See also Apis mellifera (honeybee); Bumblebee(s)
ferum oxide particles in, 369
magnetoreception in, 369–370, 372t
in unnatural field, 382
Behavior. See also specific behavior; specific organism
context dependence of, 664–665, 666f
in vivo recording during, 6–7
quantitative and computational analysis of, 6
rule learning and, 667
Behavioral states, Caenorhabditis elegans, 163–165
Bilateria (bilaterians), 79
basiepithelial nervous system in, 73
brain of, 71
ground pattern organization in, 59
nerve net in, 71
neurogenesis in, 73–75
phylogeny of, 80
sensory organs in, 71
serotonergic neurons in, 86
subepithelial nervous system in, 73
Biochemical networks, 4
Biogenic amines. See also specific amine
and aggregation by locusts, 689
and Caenorhabditis elegans pharyngeal pumping, 163
in cnidarians, 206
and Drosophila feeding behavior, 179
and Drosophila phototactic behavior, 174–175
as neurotransmitters, 292–293
vesicular transporters for. See Vesicular monoamine transporters (VMAT)
Biompholaria glabrata (snail)
caudo-dorsal cell cluster (CDC) in, 634
chemosenses of, 643–644
dorsal bodies (DB), 634
male reproductive behavior and its neuroendocrine control, 630, 632–633
mating history and mate choice in, 640
neuropeptides in, 634
osphradium of, 643–644
sexual isolation, and motivation to mate, 640
temptin, 642
trail following by, 642
Biophysical networks, 4
Bipartite expression systems
Drosophila, 174
method for, 174
Birgus latro (coconut crab), 48
Bivalves, 615. See also specific bivalve
neural architecture in, 83
Blabarus discoidalis (cockroach)
central complex
and movement control, 12
and navigation, 12
head direction cell-like activity in, 12
Blatella germanica, magnetic orientation/magnetoreception in, 372t
behavioral tests of, 377
Blattodea, central (circadian) pacemakers in, 605–606
Blowfly. See also Phormia regina (black blowfly)
neurons, morphology and identification of, 255
BMP signaling, in neurogenesis, 73, 74f, 93, 93f, 94, 95, 96 [link] –97f
Bombyx mori (silkworm)
gene editing in, 6
sex phermone detection in, 357
Botryllus schlosseri, brain of, 91f
Brachiopoda (lamp shells), 80
body structure of, 81
larvae, neural development in, 88
neural architecture of, 81
serotonergic neurons in, 86
Brachiostoma spp.
genomics, and synaptic transmission, 129t, 131
transcriptome assembly, 144t, 145
Brachycera spp., visual system of, 321, 321f
Brachyura, hemiellipsoid bodies in, 52f
Brain(s), 71–72, 72f. See also specific organism
arthropod. See Arthropoda (arthropods), brain of
circumpharyngeal (circumesophageal), 58, 59, 60f
cognitive function of, model for, 671–673, 671f
complex, evolution of, 256
complexity, range of, in invertebrates, 248
insect, elementary cognitive functions in, model for, 671, 671f
invertebrate, Darwin on, 694
magnetic information processing in, 381
miniaturization, 250
neuron/cell number, in invertebrates, 250, 251 [link] –252t
regions, nomenclature for, 268
that encircles gut, 58
"tripartite," 59, 60f
vertebrate
and arthropod, correspondences of, 32
vs. invertebrate, 249
Brain states, corresponding to emotions, 5
Branchial ganglion, in molluscs, 82f, 83
Branchiopoda
brain of, 50f
central body of, 45f
Branchiostoma spp., circadian oscillator design in, 602
Branchiostoma floridae
brain of, 91f
neural development in, 94
Branchiostoma lanceolatum, central (circadian) pacemakers in, 604
Brugia spp., lin-42, 602
Bryozoa (bryozoans, moss animals)
body structure of, 81
larvae, neural architecture and development in, 86–88, 87f
nerve net in, 71
neural architecture of, 71, 81, 82f
serotonergic neurons in, 86
Buccal ganglia, of molluscs, 83
Buccalin, 237, 648
Bulinus globosus, copulation behavior in, 641
Bulinus octoploides, egg-laying behavior in, 635
Bulinus truncatus (snail)
APGWamide in, 630
caudo-dorsal cell cluster (CDC) in, 634
dorsal bodies (DB), 634
Bumblebee(s)
cognitive flexibility in, 18
observational learning in, 18
Bursting neuron(s), dynamic models of, 15
Butterflies. See also specific butterfly
central (circadian) pacemakers in, 604, 605–606
circadian oscillator design in, 602
Byasa alcinous (Chinese windmill), learning in, 13
C
(p. 722) Cabbage white (Pieris rapae), learning in, 13
Caenorhabditis elegans
aggregation by, 685–686, 686f
ascarosides and, 688
daf-7 and, 688
GABA receptor (exp-1) gene and, 687–688
genes controlling, 686–688
npr-1 gene and, 686–687
quantitative trait loci for, 687–688
arousal, 164–165
ascarosides in, 688
axonal pathfinding in, 101f, 102–103
axon regeneration in, 576, 578t, 580, 584
DLK/Wallenda and, 584–585
axon size, 259
behavior
computational analysis of, 6
multicellular signaling in, 460
neurogenetics of, 151–170
behavioral states, 163–165
NPR-1 and, 164–165
body wall muscle, 159, 159f
brain of, neuron/cell number in, 251t, 252
cell death genes, 162
central nervous system, 101f, 102
chemosensation, 157–158
neurons and circuits for, 157–158
chemosensory molecules, 158
circadian oscillator design in, 602
command circuit for locomotion, 160–161, 160f
command interneurons, 160, 160f
connectivity in, 101f, 102–103
maps of, 152
connectome of, 152–153, 153f, 269
research, advances in (future directions for), 165
connectomics in, 7, 8
daf-22 gene, 688
dauer, 153
daf-7 pathway and GABA in, 688
dauer pheromone
ascarosides in, 688
gene regulation of, 688
defecation, 153, 153f, 163
defecation motor program (DMP), 163
egg laying, 153, 153f, 161–162
escape response, 154–155
foraging/feeding, 9, 153, 164
in solitary vs. social strains, 686–687
forward/backward locomotion, 153, 153f
gap junctions in, 267
genes, conservation in mammals, 165
as genetic model system, 6, 151, 165
genetics of, 4
gentle touch, 154
mechanotransducers for, 156–157, 156t
receptor neurons, 154, 154f
response to, 154–155
GnRH-AKH in, 624–625
habituation in, 516–517
molecular mechanisms of, 516–517
harsh touch, 154
mechanotransducers for, 156–157, 156t
receptor neurons, 154, 154f
response to, 154–155
hermaphrodites, reproduction, 161
learning, memory, and decision making, neurons and circuits for, 158–159
learning-induced taste preferences in, 15
lethargus, 164
lin-42, 602
locomotion circuit of, 159–161, 159f
locomotion molecules, 161
locomotor activity, arousal vs. quiescence and, 164–165
magnetic orientation/magnetoreception in, 369, 372t
behavioral tests of, 378
electrophysiology and neuroanatomy of, 380–381
magnetite in, 369
mating, 153
mechanosensation, neurons and circuits for, 154–157
mechanotransducers in, 155–157, 156t
motor neurons, 159–161, 159f
motor outputs, 153, 153f, 154–155, 159–163
neural architecture of, 152–153, 153f
neural development in, 100–103, 101f
neurites, 259
neuronal asymmetry in, 271
neurons
immunocytochemical detection of, 258
number of, 97
numbers versus types, 254
nose touch
mechanotransducers for, 156, 156t
neurons and circuit of, 154–155, 155f
ocr-2 gene, and solitary vs. social strains, 687
odor receptors, response thresholds, 357
optogenetic approaches in, 151–152
osm-9 gene, and solitary vs. social strains, 687
oxygen responses in, 164–165
pharyngeal nervous system, 162–163
pharyngeal pumping, 153f, 162–163
proprioception, mechanotransducers for, 156–157, 156t
quiescence behavior, 164
RMG circuit, 165
roaming/dwelling by, 164
RPM-1, and response to axonal damage, 583
sensory inputs, 153–159, 153f, 176
sensory inputs in, 153–159, 153f
serotonin receptors in, 228
sex-specific neurons in, 151
sleep-like behavior, 14, 163, 164, 670
synapses, numbers of, 264
synaptic organization, 267
synaptic polyads, 262
synaptic vesicles, fixation methods, 263
TGF-β signaling in, 688
thermosensation, neurons and circuits for, 158
touch receptor neurons, 154–157, 154f, 156t
unc genes, 161
ventral nerve cord, 159
Wallerian degeneration in, Sarm- and Nmnat-independent pathway for, 583
Cajal's law of dynamic polarization, 249, 259
Calcium, and habituation in leeches, 519
Calfluxin, in female gastropods, 634
Calliactis spp.
ion channels in, 206
neurotransmission in, 207
vesicle-mediated neurotransmission in, 137
Calliactis parasitica
conducting systems of, 187–188
delayed initiation system (DIS), 188
symbiotic relationship with hermit crab, 187
Callinectes sapidus (blue crab)
chelipeds, 472–473, 472f
leg organization, 471–473, 472f
neuron number versus neuron types in, 255
sideways walking by, 474
swimming legs, 472f, 473
walking legs, 471–473, 472f
Calliphora spp., feature detection (FD) cells, 328, 329f
CALP (C-terminally located anterior lobe peptide), of gastropods, 630
Calyx, of insect mushroom body, 46, 48, 51
Cambarus (crayfish), central (circadian) pacemakers in, 605
Cambrian explosion, 39
Cameleon, 152
Cancer borealis (shore crab)
neuron number versus neuron types in, 255
stomatogastric ganglion neuronal topology in, 12
synapatic vesicles, 263
(p. 723) Capitella spp.
circadian oscillator design in, 602
genomics, and synaptic transmission, 128t
neural development in, 88
transcriptome assembly, 144t, 145
Capsaspora spp.
genomics, and synaptic transmission, 127, 128t, 129, 130f, 131, 142
transcriptome assembly, 144t, 145
Carausius spp., second abdominal ganglion, neuron/cell number in, 251t, 252
Carboxyl terminal peptide (CTP), in female gastropods, 634
Carcinus (crab), central (circadian) pacemakers in, 605
Carcinus maenas (European green crab)
sideways walking by, 474
thorax-coxa muscle receptor organ P fiber, 478
Carybdea spp., 202f
rhopalial pacemaker interactions in, 194–195
swim system of, 196f
Cataglyphis (desert ant), navigation in, 12–13
Catastrophic metamorphosis, in larval nervous system, 88
Catecholamines, 290–291. See also specific catecholamine
in flatworms, 224–225
immunoreactivity, in detection of neurons, 258–259
Cation channel, excitatory GABA-gated, 163
CDCH peptides, in female gastropods, 634–635
CDCP (peptides), in female gastropods, 634–635
Cellular communication
neuronal, 125–126
nonneuronal, 126
Centipedes, 97. See also Myriapoda
mushroom bodies in, 47
visual system of, 33
Central body(ies), 41–42, 59
development of, 58
evolution of, 43–46, 44f, 45f, 51
homology, 51
Central complex, 42, 54f, 59, 60f
and appendicular control, 46
arthropod, homology to vertebrate basal ganglia, 5, 43
cockroach, head direction cell-like activity in, 12
Drosophila, 35
evolution of, 43–46, 44f, 45f
insect
conservation across species, 12
and sensorimotor processing, 12
in insect path integration and navigation, 46
Central nervous system (CNS), 71–72, 72f. See also specific organism
cell number in, 75
in deuterostomes, 91f, 92
nerve tracts/fascicles in, 74f, 75
Central pattern generators (CPGs), 503, 505, 508
circuits
components, 391, 392f
as multilevel systems, 391, 392f
for crawling
in earthworm, 462
in leeches, 457f, 458–459
for dorsal-ventral (DV) flexion swimming
homologous neurons in, 446
multifunctionality of, in Nudibranchs, 444
in Pleurobranchaea, 442f, 443–444, 446
in Tritonia, 441–443, 442f, 444, 446
invertebrate
computational modeling and, 392–393
contribution to understanding of other circuits, 397–398
diversity of, 396
generalizable insights from, 397–398
and plasticity, 398
research on, value of, 392–393, 396–398
translational/clinical significance of, 397–398
for left-right (LR) flexion swimming
in Dendronotus iris, 445–446, 445f
homologous neurons in, 446
in Melibe leonina, 444, 445f, 446
for motor patterns in Aplysia, 542
and plasticity in classical and operant conditioning, 548
for radula motor patterns in Aplysia, 542
respiratory, of Lymnaea, 546, 547t
for swimming, in leeches, 454–456, 454f
for swimming, in Nudipleura
cerebral neuron 2 (C2) and, 441–443, 442f, 444, 446
dorsal swin interneurons (DSIs) and, 441–443, 442f, 444, 446
homologous neurons in, with different functions in species with different behaviors, 446
timing circuits, 391, 392f
cell-intrinsic oscillations, 393, 394f
cellular and synaptic properties in, 395–396
endogenous bursting and, 393
endogenous oscillators and, 393
escape and release mechanisms in, 394–395, 395f
half-center oscillator (HCO), 394
mutual inhibition in, 393–394
operation, principles of, 393–396
postinhibitor rebound (PIR) mechanism and, 394–395, 395f
rhythm generation, mechnisms for, 394–395, 395f
for walking, in crustacea, 474–476, 475f
Centruroides sculpturatus (scorpion), neural ground patterns in, 42f
Cepaea (snail), magnetoreception, in unnatural field, 382
Cephalocarida, 45f, 46
brain of, 50f
mushroom bodies in, 50f
Cephalochordata (cephalochordates, lancelets), 90–91, 91f
brain of, 91f
neuron/cell number in, 252t, 253
central (circadian) pacemakers in, 604
ciliated sensory neurons in, 95, 96f
invaginated nervous system in, 73
larvae, neural tube of, 92
neural architecture of, 73, 91f
neural development in, 94–97, 96f
neural differentiation in, 95
nonciliated sensory neurons in, 95, 96f
Cephalon, trilobite, 35–36
Cephalopods, 83, 615. See also specific cephalopod
body patterns of, 702, 702f
behavioral functions of, 702–703, 710
brain hierarchy and, 706, 707f, 709, 710–711
for camouflage, 702, 702f, 704–705
central control of, 707f, 709–710, 710–711
chromatic components of, 702, 710
for communication, 702, 702f, 703f, 705–706
control units, mosaic arrangement of, 707f, 709
for courtship, 702, 702f, 705–706
in male agonistic contests, 702, 702f, 704f, 705–706
neural control of, 706–710, 707f, 710
opsins in, 710
pallial nerve and stellate ganglion in, 707f, 708
peripheral control of, 707f, 708, 710, 711
reflectins in, 710, 711
visual processing and, 703–706, 711–712
brain and cognitive complexity in, 18, 248
brain of, 83
and body pattern control, 706, 707f
(p. 724)
hierarchical arrangement in, 706, 707f, 709, 710–711
neuron/cell number in, 250, 251t, 252
camouflage in, 702, 702f
and color resemblance to background, 704–705
as primary defense, 712
visual perception of background and, 704–705, 711–712
chemosenses in, 638–639
chromatophore end organs of, 706, 707f, 710
chromatophore lobes of, 706, 707f, 710
chromatophore motor units in, 702, 706, 707f
chromatophores, 702, 706–708, 710, 711
color blindness in, and color vision, 704–705
deimatic behavior of, 704f, 712
dermal opsins in, 704, 710, 712
egg deposition, 628–629
egg laying-like peptide (ELH) in, 620–621
egg production by, 617–618
eggs of, 616–617
female, reproductive maturity of, 617–618
fertilization in, 628–629
GnRH dodecapeptide (cephGnRH), and optic gland activity, 624–625
habituation in, 523
hectocotylus of, 626, 645–646
iridophores of, 707f, 708, 710, 711
lateral basal lobes of, 706, 707f, 710
leucophores of, 707f, 708
male, reproductive maturity of, 618, 620–621
mate choice, 637–638
mating history, 638
nervous system of
neuron size and number in, 559
organization of, 499, 499f, 561
neural architecture of, 523
neurosecretory system of vena cava (NSV) in, 623–624
octopressin in, 624
olfactory lobe of, 638–639
olfactory organ of, 638–639
oocyte maturation in, 627–628
oogenesis in, 627
optic gland
activity, control of, 624–625
anatomy of, 621
function of, 621–623
and gametogenesis, 622–623
and gonad development, 622–623
light/dark cycle (photoperiod) and, 621–622
and reproduction, 618–620
optic gland hormone, 621–623
functions of, 620
optic lobes of, 706, 707f
and body patterning, 709
papillae, 702, 702f, 703f, 704f, 710, 711
neural control of, 708, 711
parental care by, 629
postcopulatory (neuro)physiological processes in, 645–646
protean behavior of, 702, 703f, 712
rapid neural polyphenism in, 701–715
for camouflage, 702, 702f
for communication, 702, 702f
for courtship, 702, 702f, 705–706
in male agonistic contests, 702, 702f, 704f, 705–706
neural control of, 706–710, 707f
speed of change in, 702, 704f, 712
visual processing and, 710
reproduction
female processes, 627–629
GnRH and, 624–625
male processes, 626–627
reproductive behavior and its neuroendocrine control, 616–621
reproductive maturity, neuroendocrine control of, 624–625
reproductive strategies, 637–638
research on, guidelines and regulations for, 18
satiety hormone in, 620
secondary defenses of, 702–703, 703f, 704f, 712
semelparity in, 618
sexual dimorphism in, 616
spermatophore transfer in, 626
spermatophoric reaction in, 626–627
sperm competition in, 645–646
sperm maturation in, 626
steroids in, 620, 625–626
synaptic ultrastructure in, 261
vertical lobe of, 559–573. See also Octopus (Octopus vulgaris)
visual perception, and body patterning, 703–706
visual system of, 83
vitellogenesis in, 617–618, 627
and energy balance, 618–620
optic gland hormone and, 618
Cephalothorax, of chelicerates, 99–100
Cephalotocin, 620, 624
Cerebral ganglia, of trochophore larvae, 86, 87f
Cerebro-buccal ring, 83
Cestoda (cestodes). See also Platyhelminths (flatworms)
acetylcholine in, 222
dopamine in, 224
GABA in, 225
glutamatergic signaling in, 226
histamine and, 227
neural architecture of, 219–220
neuropeptide Fs (NPFs) in, 236
nitric oxide synthase in, 227
norepinephrine in, 224
tyramine in, 227
Chaetognatha (chaetognaths, arrow worms)
basiepithelial nervous system in, 73
nerve net in, 71
neural architecture of, 71, 73, 82f, 83
Channel proteins. See Connexins; Innexins; Pannexins
Channelrhodopsins, 152
Chasmagnathus granulatus (crab), habituation in, 520
Chelicerae, 33, 55
brain of, 42
Chelicerata (chelicerates), 97
body structure of, 32
brain of, 98f
central body of, 44, 44f
central complex of, 45
early neurogenesis in, 104f, 105
ground patterns of, 35
migration by, 33
mushroom bodies in, 47, 47f, 50f
neural development of, 55, 56f
neural ground patterns in, 42f
neuropil arrangements in, 42, 43f
origins of, 43–44
segmental organization of, 99–100
visual system of, 33, 56f
Cheliceres, 98f, 100
Chelidonura sandrana (sea slug), mating history and mate choice in, 640
Chelyosoma spp., deganglionated, survival without CNS regeneration, 271
Chemical stimuli, 346–347
Chemoreception
arthropod, 345
vertebrate, 345
Chemoreceptors
arthropod, 345
families of, 347
in blowfly feeding behavior, 9
tip recording method for, 9–10
vertebrate, 345
Chemosensory transduction
in arthropods, 345–365
advances in (future directions for), 359
speed of, 357–359
speed versus sensitivity in, 357–359
evolution of, 346–347
Chengjiangocaris kunmingensis, ventral nervous system of, 42f
CHH superfamily, 287–288
Chinese windmill (Byasa alcinous), learning in, 13
Chloride channels, glutamate-gated, 162–163
Chlorophanus spp. (p. 725)
motion perception in, 175, 322, 323f
optomotor behavior of, 322
Choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), 222
Chordata (chordates), 90, 129t
neural architecture of, 91–92
neural development in, 94–97, 96f
neuronal cilia in, 260
peripheral nervous system in, 95, 96f
sensory nervous system in, 95–97, 96f
visual system of, 57
Chrimson photoprotein, 4
Chrysaora spp., vesicle-mediated neurotransmission in, 137
Cilia, of neurons, 259–260
Ciona spp.
axons, 259
brain of, 269
coronet cells, 248
glia-like cells in, 257
neuronal asymmetry in, 271
neurons, soma of, 259
numbers of synapses, 264
symmetric neuronal partners in, 266
synaptic locations, 265
synaptic organization, 267
synaptic polyads, 262
Ciona intestinalis
axon size, 259
brain of, neuron/cell number in, 252t, 253
connectome, 270
gap junctions in, 267
neural development in, 94–95, 96f
neurites, 259
neuronal cilia, 260
neuron number versus neuron types in, 254
Circadian clock(s), 595–614. See also Pacemaker(s)
core oscillator proteins and, 599–603
design of, 597–603
and DNA replication, 596
and eukaryote evolution, 596–597
evolution of, 596–597
fitness advantage of, 595
genes, in metazoan lineages, 599, 600f
redox cycles and, 596
research, advances in (future directions for), 607
Circadian clock neuronal network (CCNN)
in Drosophila, 604, 606–607
entrainment, 599
organization of, 603–607
rhythmic output, control of, 603–607
Circadian timing system
design of, 597–603
input, 597, 599
oscillator, 597–599, 598f
output, 597, 599
Cirripeda, 45f
brain of, 50f
Citalopram, mechanism of action of, 229
Cladobranchia, phylogeny of, 440, 440f
CLARITY, 7
Classical conditioning, 551–552. See also Pavlovian conditioning
coincidence detection in, activity-dependent modulation and, 549–550
in invertebrates, summary of, 544t
and plasticity in interneuronal pathways for motor output, 545–546
and sensory processing, 542–545
Cleaner shrimps, memory in, 53
Clione spp., feeding, 402
Clitellates, 83
CLK-CYC (Clock-Cycle), and molecular clockwork, 597–598, 598f, 600f, 601–602, 601f
Clock (CLK), and molecular clockwork, 597–598, 598f, 600f, 601–602, 601f, 603
Clock neurons
in Drosophila, 14, 606
in Lepidoptera, 606
Clockwork orange (CWO), and molecular clockwork, 600f, 603
Clonorchis sinensis, neuropeptide precursor genes in, 232 [link] –235t
Cnidaria (cnidarians), 127f, 128t. See also Anthozoa; Cubozoa; Hydrozoa; Scyphozoa
apical organ of, 77, 79, 86
body structure of, 186, 514
cnidocyte discharge, physiology of, 207–208
epidermis of, 72f
and evolution of nervous systems, 208–209
free-swimming, 186
gastrodermis of, 72f
genomics, and synaptic transmission, 124, 126
giant neurons in, 209–210, 210f
habituation in, 514–515
ion channels in, 206
larva of, 77, 78f
medusa stage, 77, 79
medusoid, 186
swim pacemakers of, 190
nerve net in, 71, 72f, 185, 209, 514
conduction system compression in, 209
conduction velocity changes, with repetitive activity in individual conducting systems, 190
diffuse nature of, 185, 209
interneural facilitation in, 190
and neuromuscular efficiency, 209
as nonpolarized, 186, 209
properties of, 185–186
as through-conducting, 186, 189–190
nervous system cells, 72f
nervous system of, 126
neural architecture of, 72f, 77, 210, 248
neurotransmission in, 206–207
phylogeny of, 77, 127, 127f
planula of, 77–79, 78f
polypoid, 186, 514
polyp stage, 77, 78f, 79
sensory structures of, 210
sessile, 186
synaptic organization (networks), 268
synaptic sites in, 210, 210f
synaptic transmission in, 264
vesicle-mediated neurotransmission in, 137
Cnidocytes
discharge, physiology of, 207–208
properties of, 207
Cockroach(es). See also specific cockroach
adult neurogenesis in, 13
axon regeneration in, 576
central complex, in motor control, 431–435, 433f, 434f
central (circadian) pacemakers in, 604, 605–606
habituation in, 522
leg coordination, neural and mechanical properties and, 429
leg movements, 424–426
leg segments, 424, 426f
locomotion in
light sensitivity of, 430
for negotiating obstacles, 430, 431f
magnetic alignment in, 375
magnetic orientation/magnetoreception in, behavioral tests of, 377
magnetoreception in, 372t, 373
motor control, brain circuits in, 430–435
operant conditioning in, 546, 547t
rearing and climbing movements, 430, 431f
reflex reversal in, 432–435
sensitization in, 528
sleep in, 670
synaptic ultrastructure in, 260
tripod gait in, 424, 425f
Coelenterates
symmetric neuronal partners in, 266
synaptic ultrastructure in, 260
Coenobita clypeatus (hermit crab), 48. See also Hermit crabs (land)
mushroom body characters in, 52f
Cognition
comparative, 15
complex processes of, gene diversity and, 142–143
evolutionary ecology of, 15
invertebrate, 15–18
studies of, questions motivating, 15, 16 [link] –18t
Cognitive ethology, 15
(p. 726) Cognitive map(s), 672
in honeybees, 668
Cognitive neuroscience, 681
Coleoptera, mushroom bodies in, 51
Collembola, 41
brain organization in, 35
Color
background, and cephalopod camouflage, 704–705
discrimination in honeybees, peak shift and, 665–666
and magnetoreception, 371–373, 372t
visual processing of, 55–57, 56f
Commissures, 98f, 99, 107
Comparative cognition, 15
Compass(es)
celestial, 374
magnetic, in invertebrates, 374
orientation, geomagnetic field and, 368, 368f
polarity versus inclination, 369–370, 370f, 372t, 376–377
Computational neuroscience, 4, 5–6
Computational phylogenetics, 125
Connectives, 83–84, 86, 88, 89f, 99, 107–108
Connectivity
in insects, 108–109
in nematodes, 101f, 102–103
Connectome, 269
Connectomics, 7–8, 269–270
Connexins, 266–267
Conopressin, 630–633, 647
Consciousness, in invertebrates, 15, 18
Context dependence, of behavior, 664–665, 666f
Control theory, and flight of fruit fly, 5
Convergent evolution, 32
of mushroom bodies, 51–55
of parallel visual pathways, 55–57, 56f
Convoluta pulchra, frontal organ (frontal glandular complex) of, 87f
Coolidge effect, in gastropods, 640
Cooption, 126
Copepoda
brain of, 50f, 54f
central body of, 45f
Copiphora gorgonensis (katydid)
acoustic vesicle, 305–306
auditory system of, 305–306
Corals. See also Anthozoa
colonial nervous system of, 188–190, 189f
polyp (zooid) retraction, neurobiology of, 189–190, 189f
Corazonin (CRZ), 289
Corella spp., deganglionated, survival without CNS regeneration, 271
Cornu aspersum. See Helix aspersa
Cortex, in subepithelial nervous system, 72f, 73
Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), in cephalopods, 625
Crab(s). See also Crustacea (crustaceans); Decapoda (decapods); specific crab
central (circadian) pacemakers in, 604
leg insertion, 472f, 473–474
legs, funnel canal organs, 479
sideways walking in, 473–474
state-dependent visual processing, 336
synaptic organization (networks), 268
Crassostrea spp.
genomics, and synaptic transmission, 128t, 136f, 143
ionotropic glutamate receptors, 139, 141
transcriptome assembly, 144t, 145
Crassostrea gigas (oyster)
egg laying hormone in, 634
postcopulatory (neuro)physiological processes in, 648
Crayfish. See also Decapoda (decapods); Procambarus (crayfish)
adult neurogenesis in, 13
axon regeneration in, 576, 580
central (circadian) pacemakers in, 604–605
coxo-basipodite chordotonal organ (CBCO), 477f, 478
leg
force receptors in, 479, 480f
proprioceptors in, 478, 479f
stress receptors in, 479, 480f
locomotion in, neural networks controlling, 474–476, 475f
merus-carpus chordotonal organ, 478, 479f
sleep state in, 14
stretch receptor organ, vesicles, 262
synaptic organization (networks), 268
tail flip habituation in, 519–520
thorax-coxa chordotonal organ (TCCO), 477f, 478
visual system of, 53
walking by
central pattern generator for, 474–476, 475f
interleg central coordination in, 475f, 476
Creolimax spp.
genomics, and synaptic transmission, 127, 128t, 129, 130f, 134f, 135, 142
transcriptome assembly, 144t, 145
Cricket(s). See also Acheta domestica (cricket)
acoustically triggered avoidance circuits in, 8
acoustic behavior of, 8–9
acoustic communication in, 8
adult neurogenesis in, 13
antipredator behavior in, 9
axon regeneration in, 576
central (circadian) pacemakers in, 604, 605–606
directional hearing in, 309–312, 311f
fighting in, and adult neurogenesis, 13
gene editing in, 6
habituation in, 522
Crinoids (sea lilies), 90
Crop pests, gene editing in, 6
Crowdsourced image annotation, 7
Crustacea (crustaceans), 41, 97. See also Arthropoda (arthropods)
adult neurogenesis in, 13
assistance reflex, 482–483
definition of, 482
at TC and CB joints, 482–483, 483f
axon size, 259
behavioral repertoires of, 33
body structure of, 99
brain of, 35, 98f, 99
neuron/cell number in, 251t, 252
central (circadian) pacemakers in, 604–605
chemosensory appendages, 98f, 99
chemosensory neurons, response thresholds, 357
chordotonal organs, 476–478, 480
coding, 476–478, 477f
structure of, 476
coordination
force receptors in, 483–484, 484f
sensory control of, 483–484
coxa-basis (CB) joint, 473
assistance reflex and, 482–483, 483f
resistance reflex and, 480–481, 481f
coxo-basipodite chordotonal organ (CBCO), 477f, 478
afferents, in interjoint circuits, 483
sensory-motor circuits, 480–482
cuticular stress detectors, 476, 479, 480f
dactyl sensory afferents, leg coordination by, 483–484, 484f
decapod. See also Decapoda (decapods); specific crustacean
adult neurogenesis in, 13
locomotion in, 471–493
early neurogenesis in, 105
eusocial, 33
force receptors, 479, 480f
ground patterns of, 35
habituation in, 519–520
hemiellipsoid bodies in, 48
ionotropic glutamate receptors in, 345
ionotropic receptor signal transduction in, G protein–coupled receptors and, 356–357
leg joints, 472f, 473
legs
exteroreceptors, 476
funnel canal organs, 479
proprioceptors, 476, 477f
locomotion in
neural networks controlling, 474–476
sensory-motor circuits involved in, 480–486
(p. 727)
marine, magnetic orientation/magnetoreception in, behavioral tests of, 377–378
merus-carpus (MC) joint, 473
reflexes and, 482
muscle receptor organs, 476, 477f, 478, 480
mushroom bodies in, 47f, 49, 50f
myo-chordotonal organ (MCO), 478, 479f
neuromuscular junctions, 265
number of species of, 32
olfactory receptor neurons of, 49
olfactory system in, 48–49
proprioceptive feedback in control of static posture and walking, 486–490
hybrid system experiments, 486–487, 486f, 488f
locomotor network function in, simulation of, 487–490, 489f
resistance reflex
definition of, 480
disynaptic pathways, 482
monosynaptic connections and, 480–482, 481f
segmental organization of, 98f, 99
sensitization in, 528
sensory-motor circuits
antidromic discharges, primary afferent depolarizations and, 485
automatic gain control, 485–486
modulation of, 485–486
presynaptic inhibition of primary afferents, 485
primary afferent depolarizations, 485
sensory organs of, 476–479
static posture, control of, proprioceptive feedback in, 486–490
stomatogastric ganglion
neuron number versus neuron types in, 255
pyloric pattern-generating circuit, cellular and synaptic properties, 396
synaptic locations, 265–266
stomatopod, learning in, 33
synaptic polyads, 263
synaptic ultrastructure in, 260
thorax-coxa (TC) joint, 473
assistance reflex and, 482, 483f
resistance reflex and, 481, 481f
thorax-coxa muscle receptor organ (TCMRO), 476, 478
visual system of, 53, 55, 57
development of, 105
walking by, 471
control of, proprioceptive feedback in, 486–490
interleg central coordination in, 475f, 476
Crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH), 293
superfamily. See CHH superfamily
Cryptochrome (Cry), 371–373, 372t, 376, 378, 381–382
evolution of, 596, 602
photoreceptor type (CRY(P)), 596, 601f, 602–603
and molecular clockwork, 599, 600f
transcriptional repressor-type (CRY(R)), 596, 601–602, 601f, 602–603
and molecular clockwork, 600f, 601
Ctenophora (ctenophores, comb jellies), 127f, 128t
nerve net in, 71, 79
nervous system of, 126
neural architecture of, 248
neurogenesis in, 79
neurotransmission in, 291
phylogeny of, 79, 126–127, 127f
vesicle-mediated neurotransmission in, 137
Cubozoa
apparent absence of gap junctions in, 205
medusae
body structure of, 196
compressed networks of subumbrella, 198–199
crumpling, 198, 199
exumbrellar nerve nets, 199
feeding behavior, 199
motor nerve network (MNN), 196, 196f, 198f, 199
nerve tracts, 198, 198f
neural architecture of, 196–199, 197f, 198f
neurobiology of, 195–199
neurotransmission in, 207f
radial nerves, 199
rhopalia, 196–198, 197f, 198f
rhopalial pacemaker interactions in, 194, 194f
sensory structures of, 196–198, 197f
subumbrella of, 196
subumbrellar nerve ring, 198, 198f
swim pacemakers, 198
swim system of, 196, 196f, 199
tentacle conduction systems, 199
velarium of, 196
visual system of, 196–198, 197f
neural architecture of, 77
neuromuscular organization of, 190, 195–199
phylogeny of, 195–196
Cuttlefish. See also specific cuttlefish
brain and cognitive complexity in, 18
egg deposition by, 628–629
female, reproductive maturity of, 617–618
fertilization in, 629
large neurons (LN) of, electrophysiological properties of, 562–563, 562f
mating behaviors, 637–638
vertical lobe (VL) of
activity-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP) in, 564–565, 565f
basic circuitry of, 564
computational capacity of, 566–567
input/output relationships in, 564–567
synaptic plasticity in, 565–566
Cyanea spp.
ion channels in, 206
medusae, swim musculature of, 195
motor nerve net (MNN), synaptic contact in, 192, 192f
neurotransmission in, 206–207
Cycle (CYC, CYC/BMAL1), and molecular clockwork, 600f, 603
Cycloneuralia
basiepithelial nervous system in, 73
body structure of, 97
brain of, 58, 59, 60f
neural development in, 100–103, 101f
phylogeny of, 97
Cytoskeleton, DLK/Wallenda and, 585
D
Dactylopusia tisboides, central nervous system, tracts, 269
Dale's principle, 285
D5amide, precursor genes, in flatworms, 233t
Danaus plexippus (Monarch butterfly)
aggregation by, 685
central (circadian) pacemaker in, 606
gene editing in, 6
learning in, 13
magnetic orientation/magnetoreception in, 370, 372t, 373
behavioral tests of, 376–377
migration, orientation mechanisms in, 376–377
molecular oscillator design in, 601f
orientation mechanisms in, 374, 376–377
sun-compass navigation in, 12
Danio spp.
genomics, and synaptic transmission, 129t, 136f
transcriptome assembly, 144t
Daphnia spp.
circadian oscillator design in, 602
genomics, and synaptic transmission, 128t, 131
ionotropic glutamate receptors, 139, 140f, 141
numbers of synapses, 265
transcriptome assembly, 144t, 145
(p. 728) Daphnia magna, synaptic organization, 263
Daphnia pulex, circadian clock in, 595
Darwin, Charles, 5, 14, 18
Decapoda (decapods)
brain of, 50f
central body of, 45f
central (circadian) pacemakers in, 604–605
chelipeds, 472–473, 472f
chromatic displays of, 637
egg deposition by, 628
leg innervation, 473
leg joints, 472f, 473
central pattern generators for, 474–476, 475f
leg organization, 471–473, 472f
leg segments, 472–473, 472f
locomotion in
control of, 471–493
joint involvement in, 473
mechanics of, 471–474
neural networks controlling, 474–476
sensory-motor circuits involved in, 480–486
mating behaviors, 637
neuromuscular junctions, 265
neuronal asymmetry in, 271
neuron number versus neuron types in, 255
olfactory organ in, 638
postcopulatory (neuro)physiological processes in, 645–646
swimming legs, 471–473, 472f
walking by, 471
central pattern generator for, 474–476, 475f
interleg central coordination in, 475f, 476
leg movements in, 471
walking legs, 471–473, 472f
Decision making, 15. See also Intentionality
in Caenorhabditis elegans, 159
DEG/ENaC family, as Caenorhabditis elegans mechanotransducers, 156, 156t
Delayed matching to sample (DMTS) task, for rule learning, 667
Delayed nonmatching to sample (DNMTS) task, for rule learning, 667
Dendrites, 75
Dendronotus iris, left-right (LR) flexion swimming by, 439, 440, 440f, 445–446, 445f
behavior for, 445
central pattern generator circuit in, 445–446, 445f
half-center oscillator in, 445
Dero digitata, swimming by, 462–463, 462f
Dethier, Vincent, 5
Deuterocerebrum, 98f, 99, 100
Deuterostomia (deuterostomes), 80
basiepithelial nervous system in, 73, 92
brain region homologous to vertebrate midbrain-hindbrain boundary, 91f, 92
brains of, neuron/cell number in, 251t, 252–253
invaginated nervous system in, 73, 92
larvae
anterior sensory vesicle of, 91f, 92
visceral ganglion of, 91f, 92
nerve net in, 71, 92
neural architecture and development in, 71, 73, 90–97, 91f
neuron number versus neuron types in, 254
phylogeny of, 90
serotonergic neurons in, 86
Deutocerebrum, 55, 56f, 58
organization, in Eumalacostraca and Hexapoda, 54f
pancrustacean, 37, 38f, 41
Dichlorvos, mechanism of action of, 220
Diclidophora merlangi
dopaminergic transmission in, 224
NPF-like peptides in, 236
Dinopidae, eyes of, 55
Dipleurulae, neural development in, 92–94, 93f
Diplura, 41
central body of, 46
mushroom bodies of, 48
Diptera
central (circadian) pacemakers in, 605–606
neuronal plasticity in, 271
3DISCO, 8
Dishabituation, 514, 525
habituation of, 514
and sensitization, differentiation of, 525, 526
distal-less gene, 39
Diuretic hormone 44, in Drosophila feeding regulation, 11
Divergent evolution, of arthropod brains, 31–70
DLK/Wallenda
and axonal regeneration, 583, 584–585
and cytoskeletal organization, 585
Dopamine, 290–291
actions (physiologic effects), 292–293
and aggregation by locusts, 689
biosynthesis of, 221f, 224, 292
in Caenorhabditis elegans, 152
in Drosophila, 224
and feeding control circuit, 11
and phototactic behavior, 174–175
and leech locomotion, 459
as neurotransmitter, 292–293
and operant conditioning in Aplysia, 541
in reward circuits, conservation across invertebrate–vertebrate boundary, 5
synthesis of, in locusts, gene regulation of, 690
Dopamine beta-hydroxylase, in flatworms, 224
Dopamine receptor(s), 224–225, 292
and regulation of aggression in Drosophila, 694
Dopamine transporter (DAT), in flatworms, 225
Doridacea, phylogeny of, 440f
Doryteuthis (squid), mating behaviors, 637–638
Doryteuthis plei (squid), rapid neural polyphenism, speed of change in, 704f
Dragonfly
small target motion detector (STMD) neurons in, 328–330, 329f
synaptic polyads, 263
visual motion integration in descending pathways, 334, 335f
Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly)
adaptive behavioral choice, 178, 179
adult, behavior, computational analysis of, 6
adult neurogenesis in, 13
aggression in, 686f
dopamine receptors and, 694
genes controlling, 691–693
methyl-CpG-binding domain (MBD) proteins and, 691–692
neuromodulators and, 693
neuronal circuitry for, 694
octopamine signaling and, 692, 693
odorant receptor 65a and, 693
odorant receptor 67d and, 692–693
sleep and, 14
tachykinin and its receptor in, 694
tailless and, 692
TfAP-2 and, 692
transcription factors and, 692
amnesiac gene, habituation studies of, 522
antennal ear of, 306, 307f
antennal mechanosensory and motor center (AMMC), 306
anterior paired lateral neuron (APL), 678
appendicular development, 59
auditory receptor neurons, frequency preferences of, 308
auditory system of, 303–317
mechano-electrical transduction (MET) channel, 307–308
TRP ion channels (TRPV and TRPN), 306–308, 307f
auditory transduction and amplification in, 306–308
(p. 729)
axonal adaptation to chronic stress, 583
axonal pathfinding in, 106 [link] –107f, 107–108
axonal target recognition in, 106 [link] –107f, 108–109
axon regeneration in, 576, 577t, 580, 584
DLK/Wallenda and, 584–585
axons, 259
axon size, 259
basic leg movements, reflexes and central pattern generators in, 428–429
behavior, neurogenetics of, 171–183
behavioral flxibility, 178, 179
behavioral response to humidity, neural regulation of, 11
bipartite expression systems, 174
brain activity, imaging of, 7
brain of, 72f, 268
connectomic analysis, 269–270
embryogenesis, 59
neuron/cell number in, 251t, 252
nutrient sensor in, 11
processing of aversive versus appetitive tastes, segregation of, 348–349
sexual dimorphism, 173–174
CaMKII, habituation studies of, 522
cell types in, libraries of, 253, 256
central nervous system
fasciculations and pathways in, 268–269
ganglionic organization of, 72f
central (circadian) pacemakers in, 605–606
circadian clock neuronal network in, 604, 606–607
circadian oscillator in, 597–599, 598f, 602
entrainment of, 599
circadian rhythms in, 595
forward genetics, 172
magnetic field and, 381
classical conditioning in, 544t
activity-dependent modulation and, 549–550
NMDA receptors and, 551
"clock" mutants, 597
connectomics in, 8
course control
forward genetics, 172–173
reverse genetics, 175–176
courtship
forward genetics, 173–174, 178
reverse genetics, 178–179
tachykinin and its receptor in, 694
courtship conditioning, 178
cryptochrome-dependent phenotypes, 381–382
CT1 cells, 254
cVA (cis-vaccenyl acetate) in
as aggregation pheromone, 692
and aggression, 692–693
dopamine in, 224
Dscam isoforms, 74f, 77
Dsk in, octopamine signaling and, 692
dunce mutant, 172, 178
classical conditioning in, 550
habituation studies of, 521
early neurogenesis in, 104f
ether-a-go-go gene, habituation studies of, 522
extraction of distance information from visual motion, 330–333, 332f
eye, 321f
neuron/cell number in, 252
eye development, 59
feeding behavior, 179
neural control system for, 9–11
sleep and, 14
female, postmating behavior, 178–179
fickle gene, habituation studies of, 522
flying ability, and photopreference, 174–175
FOMA-1 neurons, 333
foraging gene
and cGMP signaling, 687
habituation studies of, 522
fruitless mutant, 173–174
gap junctions in, 266–267
genes, in habituation, 521–522
genetic markers, 253, 255
as genetic model system, 4, 6
genomics, and synaptic transmission, 124, 128t, 135, 136f
geotaxis in, cryptochrome and, 381–382
glia, 257–258
development of, 107
glutamate receptors in, 226
gustatory receptors, 349, 350–351
habituation in, 520–522
cAMP signaling in, 521
local interneurons in, 521
metabolism in, 521
potassium channels and, 521–522
Highwire (Hiw), and response to axonal damage, 583
ionotropic glutamate receptors, 139–141
ionotropic receptors (IRs), 354–355
Johnston's organ and JO neurons, 306–308, 307f
Cry gene expression, and magnetoreception, 378
jump response, habituation of, 521
landing response, habituation of, 520–521
larvae
behavior, computational analysis of, 6
foraging behavior of, 35
nervous system of, 35
learning and memory in
forward genetics, 171–172
mushroom body neurons and, 172, 177, 543
proteins essential for, mushroom body and, 46, 47f, 50, 54f
reverse genetics, 176–178
leg coordination in walking, 424, 425f
lobula plate, motion-sensitive neurons, 172, 175–176
locomotion, plasticity in, classical and operant conditioning and, 547, 547t
magnetic alignment in, 375
magnetic orientation/magnetoreception in, 372t, 373
behavioral tests of, 376
in unnatural fields, 381
magnetochronobiology in, 381
mechanosensory stimuli, habituation to, 521
metabolic homeostasis, genes involved in, 9
methyl-CpG-binding domain (MBD) proteins, and aggression, 691–692
molecular oscillator design in, 601f
motion detection circuits, 175–176
motion vision in, 172–173, 175
motor learning, PKC-based plasticity and, 176–177
mushroom body
calyx, synaptic organization of, 261–262
neuron/cell number in, 252
nervous system of, 35
neural activity, in vivo recording of, 7
neuromuscular junctions, 265
neuronal asymmetry in, 271
neuronal plasticity in, 271
neurons
accuracy and asymmetry,