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date: 26 June 2022

Abstract and Keywords

We show that the cephalopod vertical lobe (VL) is a promising system for assessing the function and organization of the neuronal circuitry mediating complex learning and memory behavior. Studies in octopus and cuttlefish VL networks suggest an independent evolutionary convergence into a matrix organization of a divergence-convergence (“fan-out fan-in”) network with activity-dependent long-term plasticity mechanisms. These studies also show, however, that the properties of the neurons, neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, and mechanisms of induction and maintenance of long-term potentiation are different from those evolved in vertebrates and other invertebrates, and even highly variable among these two cephalopod species. This suggests that complex networks may have evolved independently multiple times and that, even though memory and learning networks share similar organization and cellular processes, there are many molecular ways of constructing them.

Keywords: cephalopod, vertical lobe, long-term potentiation, neurotransmitters, divergence-convergence, learning behavior, memory behavior

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