Show Summary Details

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD HANDBOOKS ONLINE (www.oxfordhandbooks.com). © Oxford University Press, 2018. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Handbooks Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 15 August 2020

(p. 647) Index

(p. 647) Index

Page references for figures are indicated by f, for tables by t, and for boxes by b.

2D:4D ratio, 508
5HTT (serotonin), voter turnout, 293
5-HTTLPR, short allele, 560
A
academic achievement, female vs. male, 502–503
ACE model
decomposition, 310
definition, 308
educational and occupational outcomes, 306–307
multivariate, 316–318
regression to the mean, 320–321
status-related outcomes and genes, 310–313
adolescence and young adult, 311
conscientiousness and emotional stability, 306, 310–311
earnings, 311, 312t, 313f
education, 311, 312t, 313f, 319
family of origin, 312
income, 311, 312t, 313f
IQ, 306, 307, 310, 312t
occupational prestige, 311, 312t, 313f
personality traits, 310
verbal IQ, high school grades, and college, 317
adaptation
adaptive upgrading, 23
ancestral environment, 171–172
challenges, non-recurrent, 172
definitions, 14, 22–23
in evolutionary biology vs. sociology, 16–17, 22–23
mating and reproduction, 17
Panglossian adaptationism, 50
reproductive benefits, 486
in sociality, 14–16
Adaptation and Natural Selection (Williams), 444
adaptation executors, 521
adaptationists, evolutionary, 597–600
adaptationist theories, 596
adapted mind, 19, 21, 26
adaptive altruism, 549
adaptive predictive control (APC), 361–362
hypothesis, 366–369, 367t
addiction
epigenetics, 390–391
histone deacetylase, 391
adenylyl cyclase, 352–353, 352f
Adkins, Daniel E., 310–311, 315
Adkins-Regan, E., 351–353, 355–356, 358
adolescence-limited (AL) offenders, 268
adolescent
brain chemistry and function, 534–535
crime peak, 532–533
reward, sensitivity to, 533–534
risky behavior, 533
adolescent development, stress response psychobiology, 327–341
hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, 327, 329
peer networks and social buffering, 338
peer network stress, 333–337
bullying and victimization, 337
connections, patterning, 333
isolation, 336–337
rejection, 336
social ties, multiplexity, 333–334
status, 334–336
peer relationships
as social networks, 330–331
social stress and, 330
(p. 648) adolescent development, stress response psychobiology (cont.)
psychobiology, 329
social networks
analysis, 328–329, 331
cortisol and, 338–339, 340f
peer, 328
position, describing, 331–333 (see also social network analysis (SNA))
social relationships and stress, 327
stress response system, 327–328
adoption studies, 267
adrenal cortex, 358
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), 358
affect control theory, 206
affectual ties, extended family, 468
affinal kin, 456
Africa, habitat chance, 95–96
age, epigenetics and health, 391–392
age–crime curve, 532
mating effort and, 532–535
agency
cognitive by-product theory, 596
in stress, evolutionary sociology, 362–363
agent–environment relationship, 363
aggression
genetic and genomic basis, 266–278 (see also antisocial behavior, genetic and genomic basis)
definition, 266
genetics, 231–232
toward subordinate-group males, 570
aging, epigenetics, 391–392
agouti, 384
Alcock, J., 23–24, 519
alcohol use/dependence, genetics, 230–231
vs. social forces, 242
Alcorta, Candace, 597–598
Alexander, Richard, 74–75
Alford, John, 288
Allis, C. D., 381
allostasis model, 360–361
allostatic control, 367–368, 367t
α-amylase, face-to-face competition, 410, 412–413, 413f, 417–419, 418f
altruism, 425–428
adaptive, 549
Alexander on, 75
criminology, 524–525
empathy, 525
group selection, 83n3
kin, 454, 457
psychological, 524
reciprocal, 106, 524
toward kin, 547
amygdala, 123–126, 124f
sex differences, 167
stress response, 356–357, 357f
ancestry
environment, adaptations and happiness, 171–172
in ethnicity, 543
shared, Darwinism, 621
states, language trees, 628–629
androgens, 506–507. See also testosterone
anger, 527
anisogamy, 432
anterior cingulate gyrus, 359–360
anterior pituitary, 358
anti-misegenation laws, 574–575
antisocial behavior, criminal, 522
antisocial behavior, genetic and genomic basis, 266–278. See also specific types
definition, 266
differential susceptibility model, 276
environmental influences, 268–269
future research, 276–278
gene–environment interactions, 273–276
genes
C 1QTNF7, 273
DYRK1A, 273
genetic polymorphisms, 269–272
COMT, 270
dopaminergic, 270
MAOA, 270–271
serotonergic, 270
genome-wide association studies findings, 272–273
genotype-by-environment interactions, 224, 228, 235
heritability, 266–269
percent, 268, 269
life-course persistent vs. adolescence-limited offenders, 268
(p. 649)
phenotypic variance, 271
pleotropic effect, 271
polygenic effects, 271
polygenic risk index, 271–272
recent interest, 266
twin studies, 266–268
Anway, M. D., 490
apes. See great apes
monkey branching from, 120–121
Morotopithecus, 119–120, 122, 137n1
Proconsul, 119, 122, 137n1
Aranda Aborigines, 105
Aristotle, 75
Armstrong v. the United States, 578
Arnhart, Larry, 75–77, 83n4
arousers, novel, 147–148
cost–benefit problem, 155
serial, 155
Arthur, W. B., 634
artifacts, cultural
material culture, craft and design, 632–633
narrative, 633
Aspinwall, L. G., 241
asset reputation, 201
assortative mating
definition, 320, 482 (see also homogamy)
Galton on, 307
politics, 289–290
on traits, 320
astrocytes, 358
Atkinson, Q. D., 626, 627, 630, 631, 633
Atkisson, C. J., 631
Atran, Scott, 595
attachment
cooperative breeding family species, 454–455
rewards, 149
attachment interest (wiring)
cognitive piggybacking, 150
general, 149
religious, 149–150
attachment theory
classic, 600
attitudes, average sex differences, 499
Austrapithecus, 123, 137n3
autism susceptibility candidate 2 gene (AUTS2), 231
average sex differences in cognition and behavior (ASDCBs), 497–513
attitudes and preferences, 499
culture and, 501–503, 502f
drug consuming and illegal behavior, 498
emotions and perceptions, 499
evolutionary approach, 511
future research, 512–513
mental health, 499
over time and across cultures, 499–501
masculinity–femininity self-perceptions, 501
sex equality, 500
sex stereotypes, 500
personality and behavior, 498
social and play behavior, 498
societal and temporal variations, theories, 508–510
stratification and work, 498
theories, 503–508
evolutionary neuroandrogenic theory, 505–508, 511
evolutionary theory, 504–505, 512
social role theory, 503–504, 511, 512
universal, 497–499
Axial Age, 591–594
challenges, 601–602
dates, 591, 615n3
empire, 602
religions, 592t593t
religious shift, 590
axon, 355, 355f
axon hillock, 355, 355f
B
“badass” reputation, 527
Bailey, D., 484, 520
Baker, L. A., 184
Baker, W., 171
balance sheet of exchange, cheating and, 199t, 201
Bales, R., 409
Ball-Rokeach, S. J., 368
Banaji, M., 557, 561, 579
Barker, D. J., 488
(p. 650) Bateman, A. J., 479
Bateman’s principle, 479–480
Bates, Timothy C., 222–223, 314
Bauer, G., 483
Baum, D. A., 624
Bauman, Zygmunt, 144–146, 150, 153, 158
Bayesian methods, 625, 626
BDNF
depression, 386–388
mood disorders, 389–390
Beatty, J. H., 437–438
Beaver, K. M., 267–268, 274, 529–530
Beck, Ulrich, 144
behavior. See specific types
average sex differences, 498
causation, ultimate and proximal, 23–25
evolution, criminology and, 519–521
traits, 22
behavioral ecology, 17
behavioral science, evolutionary, 423–447. See also evolutionary behavioral science
behavior genetics, three laws, 310
behaviorism, Watsonian, 43–44, 56nn7–9
Behrman, Jere R., 318
Bellah, Robert, 591
Belsky, J., 276
Bennett, Alison, 242
Bentham, Jeremy, 146
Bentz, C., 629
Berger, J., 409
Berger, P., 52
Bernard, Claude, 360
Bernard, T., 527–528
bet-hedging, 368
betweenness centrality, 333
biased grandparental investment, 466
biography, 20
Biological Principles (Woodger), 537
biological ties. See specific types
cultural group mixing, 485
biology
evolution and, as mutually integral, 55–56n1
post-genomic, 50
sociology and (see sociobiology; specific topics)
argument for, 643–646
unity of, 54–55, 57n17
biophobia, 21
bioprogrammers, great apes, lack of, 93, 95–96, 100–102, 104, 109, 114–115, 126, 130, 134–135
overcoming, 129
biosocial instrumentalism, 555
biosocial model, 409, 412–413, 413f
stress, 414
biosociobiology, history, 33–57
anti-evolutionary reaction, sociology, 42
anti-sociobiology and biophobia, 48–49
Boasian culturalism, 44–45, 56–57nn10–12
critique, informed and robust, 37, 56n4
vs. cultural determinism, 42, 56n6
Durkheim
Darwinism, 36
“social,” 45–46
Erasmus, 34
Gould and Lewontin, 50
intergroup differences, 40–41, 56n5
Lamarck and social evolutionism, 34–35
reconciliation, 49–55
within biology, 51–54, 57n16
sociobiology resistance, 50–51
within sociology, 50–51
“the Social,” impoverished view, 53
social Darwinism, 38
Spencer, Darwin, and evolutionary movement, 35–36
Spencer and eugenics, 38–39
standard social science model, 46
tabula rasa refutations, 47, 57nn13–14
Watsonian behaviorism, 43–44, 56nn7–9
Wilson’s Sociobiology, 48–49
biosociology, 453. See also sociobiology
Bittles, A. H., 67–68, 484
Björklund, Anders, 311
Black, M. L., 484
blank slate perspective, 295, 437, 504, 536
Blau, Peter M., 305–306
Blizinsky, K. D., 560
Blute, M., 634
Boardman, J. D., 484
Boasian culturalism, 44–45, 56–57nn10–12
Bonacich centrality, 333
Bouchard, Thomas, 267, 310
(p. 651) Bouckaert, R., 625, 626
Bourke, A. F. G., 429
Bowern, C., 630
Bowlby, John, 600–601
Boyd, R., 553–554
Boyer, Pascal, 113, 150, 595–596
brain
androgens on, 506
sex differences, 166–167
brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)
depression, 386–388
mood disorders, 386–388, 389–390
brain imaging, adolescents, 534–535
brain size, hominin evolution, 101
Branigan, Amelia R., 319
Brewer, M. B., 551
Brizentine, Louann, 165
broad-sense heritability, 224
Broca’s area (cap), 24, 97–98
Bromham, L., 631
Brown, T. R., 241
Brunner, H. G., 270
Buchanan, B., 632
Buchannan-Smith, H., 132
Buckholtz, J., 527
Buckley, C. D., 632–633
Buddhism, 591–594, 592t593t
Bulbulia, Joseph, 598
bullying, 337
Burke, P. J., 207
Burr, J. A., 184
Burrow, A. L., 174–175
Burt, Cyril, 321
Burt, R. S., 201
Butovskaya, M., 559
Buttery, P., 629
C
C 1QTNF7, conduct disorder and, 273
Cacioppo, J., 164
Cahalin, L. P., 184
Cahill, Larry, 167–168
Calude, A., 627, 628–629
Campbell, A., 530–531
Campbell, D. T., 546, 551, 560, 621, 622–623
candidate gene association studies, antisocial behavior, 269–271
capacity for culture, 16, 17
Carter, M. J., 207
Case, D., 555
Cashdan, E., 551
Caspi, A., 275
“casual” sex, great apes, 100
catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) polymorphisms, 270
catenin cadherin-associated protein, alpha 2 (CTNNA2) gene, 231
Cathcart, C., 626
causation, ultimate vs. proximate, 23–25, 28
Cavalli-Sforza, L. L., 544
CDH13 gene, 273
centrality
betweenness, 333
Bonacich, 333
closeness, 333
network, 332–333
cerebellum, predictive learning, 363–364
chance, Darwinism, 621
Chandler, Tertius, 604–606
Chang, W., 626
Charlesworth, B., 486
cheating (cheats), 198–204, 430
balance sheet of exchange, 199t, 201
cooperation and niches for, 526–527
definition, 526
detection mechanism, 19
emotions, 199–200, 199t
exchange reputation, 199t, 201–202
generalized exchange group, 199t, 201
identity concern, 199t, 203
loyalty, 199t, 200
ostracism as negative sanction, 199t, 202
others’ exchange behavior, 199t, 202
others’ worthiness, 199t, 203
short-term vs. long-term consequences, 198
social exchange heuristic, 199t, 202–203
social intelligence, 199t, 203–204
trust ability, 199t, 204
unfairness, sensitivity to, 199t, 200–201
Chiao, J. Y., 560
childhood maltreatment
on HPA axis, 385
on NR 3C1 gene, 380, 386, 387f, 395
suicide victims with, DNA methylation, 490
(p. 652) chimpanzees. See great apes
emotions, 127–128
fission-fusion social formation, 115, 117
gestural communication, inventing, 132
greeting gestures, 130
Cholesky factorization, 317
Christianity, 591–594, 592t593t
chromatin, 381
chromatin remodeling, 381
functional effects, 489
cingulate gyrus, stress hormones on, 359–360
circulation of elites, 321
city dwellers, happiness, 177–178
cladistic analysis, 89–90
great-ape societies, human nature and, 93–96, 115, 116
applications, 89–90
habitat change, Africa, 95–96
social structure, 93–95, 94t
regularity hypothesis, 94–95
relatedness hypothesis, 94
cladistics analysis, 624, 624t
Clark, G., 560
classic attachment theory, 600
closeness centrality, 333
cognition. See intelligence; specific topics
genetics, 233–234
cognitive by-product theory, 595–597
cognitive mapping, ape nature and last common ancestor, 102–103
Cohen, B., 409
Cohn, Norman, 603
Cole, S., 164, 369
Coleman, J. S., 211
Collard, M., 632
Collier, Paul, 561
Collins, R., 52, 105
commitment, cheating on, 199t, 200
common-disease, common-variant hypothesis, 224
communication, language and speech, 24. See also language
compensation hypothesis, 600
competition. See specific topics
face-to-face, physiology, 409–419 (see also face-to-face competition, physiology)
kin, 454
male, 462, 572, 581
Comte, August, 34
conditions of existence, 621
conduct disorder
C 1QTNF7, 273
genome-wide association studies, 272–273
serotonergic genes, 270
conflict
cooperative breeding family species, 454–455
parenting, stepfamilies and, 459–461
Confucianism, 591–594, 592t593t
Conley, D., 484
Connor, Walker, 543, 544
Conroy, Glenn C., 118, 119, 123
conscientiousness, 306, 310–311
conservation, principle of, 121
conservatism, Darwinian, 77
consilience, 439
constraints, 621
contemporary forms comparison approach, 622
contrast effects
Bauman’s model, 146–148
evolutionary origins and roles, 143–144
higher contrast, greater impact, 144, 147
imaginary, 149, 150, 153
lower contrast, lesser impact, 144
novelty, 147
renewable reward resource, 148
social structures, 144
control theories, 206–207
vs. evolutionary reasoning, identity concerns, 207–208
conversation, stress measurement, 414–418, 415f418f
Cooper, J., 518
cooperation. See specific topics
cheating and, niches for, 526–527
foraging, hunting, and gathering, 523
cooperative breeding family species, 453–457. See also family species, cooperative breeding
corpus callosum, sex differences, 166
correlated evolution, language, 630–631
corticosteroids, 353
(p. 653) cortisol
bet-hedging, 368–369
face-to-face competition, 210, 412–413, 413f, 417–419
friends, 339
social networks, 338–339, 340f
stress response, 329
adolescence, 330
Cosmides, L., 19, 114, 123, 200–201, 517–518, 555–556
Costa, P., Jr., 502, 502f, [link]
costly signal, 597
costly signaling theory, 597
counterintuitive beliefs, 595
cousins, marriage between, 484–485
Craig, I., 519–520
“crime gene.” See MAOA
criminal involvement, 266
criminology, 517–537
age–crime curve, 532
mating effort, 532–535
altruism, 524–525
behavior, evolution and, 519–521
biology knowledge, lack of, 518
cooperation, niches for cheats, 526–527
crime rate, male vs. female, 507–508, 527–528
criminal traits
evolution, 521–523
hunter-gathers, 522–523
fear and empathy, 530–532
mating effort and age–crime curve, 532–535
organizing principle, need for, 517–519
selfishness, 525
sex ratio, parenting vs. mating effort, 527–530
sexual behavior, criminal behavior and, 529–530
Crippen, T., 423, 424, 433, 434, 435, 436, 439, 446, 549
critical race theory, 556
cross-species analysis, human nature and, 89–109. See also great ape societies, human nature and
crowding in effect, 464
crowding out effect, 464
cultural artifacts, phylogenetic approaches, 632–633
material culture, craft and design, 632–633
narrative artifacts and folk tales, 633
cultural group selection theory, 554–555
cultural inheritance, 622–623
culturalism, Boasian, 44–45, 56–57nn10–12
cultural neuroscience, 560
cultural niches, reproductive barriers, 484
cultural scripts, 505
cultural transmission, 27, 622–623
culture
biological evolution, 520
dominance, 571
evoked vs. transmitted, 27
natural selection, 520
social behavior, 25–27
sociobiology and Wilson on, 25–26
standard social science model on, 26
Cupp, A. S., 490
Currie, T., 629, 630, 631
Cusmano, D., 168
cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), 352f, 353
D
Daly, M., 521, 533
Damasio, A., 125, 163
Daniels, M., 310
Daoism, 591–594, 592t593t
Daphna, Joel, 167
d’Aquili, Eugene, 598–599
Darwin, Charles, 23, 35, 38–39, 56n3, 423–426, 431–432, 519, 536, 545–546
Darwinian conservatism, 77
Darwinian evolution
evidence, 622–623
forms, 621
Darwinian evolutionism, social sciences
chance (drift), 621
constraints, 621
selection, 621
shared ancestry, 621
Darwinian fitness, 16, 425–427
Darwinian natural right, 75–78
Darwinian theory, 424–426
altruism, 425–428
(p. 654) Darwinism
Arhart on, 77–78
Durkheim’s, 36
social, 38
universal, 56n7
Das Capital (Marx), 36
Da Silva, S. G., 633
DAT 1 polymorphism, 529–530
Dawes, C. T., 288, 293
Dawkins, R., 426, 443–444, 445, 546, 547–548, 551
DeFries, J., 519–520
Degler, C., 56n2
Degler, C. N., 435
degree, social network analysis, 332
delinquent involvement, 266
Demir, M., 181
dendrites, 355, 355f
depression, sex differences, 167, 168
Descent of Man (Darwin), 519
descent with modification, 634
determinism, erroneous claims, 436–437
developmentalism, 622
Devlin, B., 310
de Waal, F., 105, 525
Dick, D. M., 272–273
diencephalon, 124f, 125
Diener, E., 181
differential susceptibility model, 276
discordance hypothesis, 438
discrimination, racial, 569–581. See also racial discrimination
discrimination, toward subordinate-group males, 570
distance, 624, 624t
Division, 45–46
Division of Labor in Society, The (Durkheim), 36, 46
dizygotic (DZ) twins., 267, 287
DNA, behavior and, 241–260
average effects, 242
vs. choice, 242, 243
discussion, 257–260
genotypes and predispositions, 242
individual-level assessments vs. population-level studies, 242–243
interview study, 245–248, 247b
interview summary, 248–257
high MAO and high-aggression occupation, 255–256
high MAO and low-aggression occupation, 256–257
low MAO and aggressive occupation, 248–252
low MAO and low-aggression occupation, 252–255
legal decisions (neurolaw), 241–242
MAOA, violent behavior and, 242, 243, 244–245
misunderstanding of, 241–242
for prevention programs, 243
translation problem, 243
DNA hydroxymethylation, 381–382
DNA methylation, 380–384, 383f
addiction, 391
age and health, 391–392
definition, 380, 489
functional effects, 489
functions, 380
gene silencing, 381, 382
genome-wide patterns, changing, 381
mood disorders, 390
physical environment on, 384–385
sex and gender, 392–393
sex differentiation, 392–393
from stressors, transfer, 559
DNA methyltransferase (DNMT), 382
addiction, 391
DNA microarrays, 226
Dobzhansky, Theodosius, 55–56n1, 424, 536
Dollard, John, 574
dominance
authority, culture and institutions, 571
coalitional, 571
mating opportunities, 570
sociosexual, 571
dominance contests, 412
Domingue, B. W., 484
D’Onofrio, B. M., 314, 488
dopamine
adaptive predictive control, 368
(p. 655)
adolescents, 534
bet-hedging, 368
craving, 530
sexual pleasure, 530
dopaminergic genes
antisocial behaviors, 270
religion, 599
dopamine transporter gene (DAT 1) polymorphism, 529–530
double jeopardy, subordinate women, 570–571
Douglas, Mary, 46
DRD [link] , 270
religion, 599
drift, Darwinism, 621
drugs. See War on Drugs
use, average sex differences, 498
War on Drugs, mass incarceration, 576–578
Drummond, A. J., 625–626
dual hormone hypothesis, 418–419
dual-inheritance model of evolution, 554
Duda, P., 629, 630
Dunbar, Robin, 102, 451–452
Duncan, Otis Dudley, 305–306, 307
Dunn, M., 630–631
Durham, William, 69
Durkheim, Emile, 13, 36, 45–46, 57n11, 78–80, 105, 135, 144, 438, 598
Westermarck and, 78–80
Dutch famine (1944), epigenetics, 384–385, 394
dyadic kin ties, cooperative breeding family species, 454
DYRK1A, 273
E
Eagly, A., 165, 503–504
early life programming, 488
reproduction, 488–491
earnings. See income
Eaves, L. J., 288
Eckhardt, William, 602–603
ecological–evolutionary theory, 23
Edelman, Gerald, 163
Eden, J., 168
educational attainment
father’s, genes and, 305–306, 306f
genes and, 306–307
genetics, 232–233
status indicator, 481
status-related outcomes and genes, 311, 312t, 313f, 319
educational homogamy, 483, 485
Edwards, Anthony, 548
Ehrlich, P. R., 632
Eibl-Eibesfeldt, I., 545–546
Eisenstadt, S. N., 591
Elementary Forms (Durkheim), 36
Eliot, Lisa, 167
elites, circulation of, 321
Ellis, B., 533
Ellis, L., 498
embodied capital, 481
embodied capital theory, 482
emergence, 46
eminence. See status
genes and, 307
shared and nonshared influences, 268–269
Emlen, Steven, 453–454, 457, 459–460
emotional attachment, 454–455
to territory, 550
emotional kin, 456
emotional tags, memory, 134
emotions. See specific emotions
average sex differences in cognition and behavior, 499
bird intelligence, 125
brain evolution in, 131–132
on cheating, 199–200, 199t
female attunement, 165
guilt, 107–108, 132
intelligence and prior enhancement, 126
language of, 99, 102, 129, 132, 133
interpersonal behavior, 129–133
shame, 107–108, 132
spoken language, 133
stability, status-related outcomes and genes, 306, 310–311
subcortical brain changes, 117t, 123–126, 124f
emotions, great apes and last common ancestor, 98–99
chimpanzees, 127–128
effervescence, 105–106
facial gesture imitation, 104
justice and fairness calculations, 106
reading face and eyes, 104
(p. 656) emotions, great apes and last common ancestor (cont.)
reciprocity, 106
rhythmic synchronization, mimicry, and ritual, 105, 135
role-taking and empathy, 105
self as object, seeing, 107–108, 135–136
empathy, 525
cheating and, 527
crime commission vs., 532
great apes and last common ancestor, 105
endogamy
culturally transmitted strategies on, 554
normative, mathematical model, 552
on parental kinship, 552
environment
agent–environment relationship, 363
ancestral, adaptations and happiness, 171–172
antisocial behavior, 268–269
gene–environment interactions, 273–276
genetic and genomic basis, 268–269
epigenetics, 384–385
modifications, transmission, 490
evolutionary, 195–196
genotype-by-environment interactions
antisocial behavior, 224, 228, 235, 273–276
political traits, 294
status achievement, 313–315
political traits, 296
shared, family resemblance, 319
shared vs. unshared, 308, 309
stress, 349
environment–hormone interactions, 350
unshared, 308, 309
environment of evolutionary adaptedness (EEA), 438
epigenetic clock, 392
epigenetic inheritance, transgenerational, 381, 393–394
epigenetics, 20
bidirectional, 396
definition, 379
environmental modifications, transmission, 490
importance, 379
markings, 489
molecular biology, 380–385
chromatin remodeling, 381
DNA methylation, 380–384, 383f
gene expression, 380
histone modification, 380, 381, 382–384, 383f
physical environment, 384–385
regulatory methods, 381–384, 383f
reproduction, 489–490
social, 385–400 (see also social epigenetics)
for social sciences, 379–380
epistasis, 224
equal environments assumption (EEA), 267
Eramus, 34
Ernst, M., 533
essentialism, 553–554
erroneous claims, 436–437
ethnic behavior
adaptations, distinct, 553
essentialism, 553–554
genetic evolution and, 554
innate mental competencies on, 553
language vs. economic function stereotyping, 553–554
ethnicity
ancestry in, 543
biology and, 544
biosocial study, 543–561
ethology, 545–546
evolutionary psychology, 551–558
national character and state, 559–560
sociobiology, 547–550
tests and heuristics, diversity, 558–559
on charitable giving and welfare, 558
definition, 543
diversity, novelty, 174
ethnic solidarity, 558
genetic correlates, 556
Hamilton’s theory, 551–552
happiness, 174–177, 176f, 177f
homogeneity, 175
implicit association test, 557
implicit vs. explicit, 557
inclusive fitness, 547–548
language and, 544
marginality, genetic and phylogenetic, 556
mating, endogamous, 552
(p. 657)
minority, living as, 175
population composition
intelligence, 176, 177f
life satisfaction, 175–176, 176f
primordialism, 544
socially defined kinship, 544
ethnic nepotism theory, 548–550, 559
ethnic solidarity, 551
ethnocentrism, 545, 550, 556
in men, oxytocin on, 551
ethnosymbolism, 552
ethny, 543
ethology
definition, 545
ethnicity and, 545–546
eugenics, 38–39
eusociality, 428–429
evoked culture, 27
evolution
biology, society, and, 3 (see also specific topics)
biology and, as mutually integral, 55–56n1
dual-inheritance model, 554
Evolution and Human Kinship (Hughes), 455
evolutionarily familiar problems, 172
evolutionarily novel problems, 172
evolutionary adaptationists, 597–600
evolutionary behavioral science, 423–447
contributions, central, 469
core principles, 424–434
Darwin, social behavior, and altruism, 424–428
group selection, recent controversy, 428–429
reciprocity, 429–431
sexual selection and parental investment, 431–433
summation, brief, 433–434
evolutionary perspective, benefits, 446–447
future research, 470
kin selection, Hamilton’s theory, 426–429
maximization principle, 427, 429
misconceptions, 434–439
determinism and essentialism, 436–437
maximization principle, 437–438
reductionism as theoretical strategy, 438–439
social Darwinism resurgence, 434–436
multilevel selection theory, 428–429, 549
science, history of, 446
social scientists, bioilliteracy, 423–424
sociological theorizing, 446
troubling tendency, 439–445
evolutionary theorizing, misconceptions, 440–441
group selection, worrisome brand, 442–444
reification tendency, 441–442
evolutionary biology
adaptation, 22–23
social behavior for, 14–15
society and ( see sociobiology)
sociology consilience with, 21
theoretical tool kit, 423
evolutionary environment, 195–196
evolutionary family sociology, 451–470
cooperative breeding familial species, 453–457
attachment and conflict, 454–455
dyadic kin ties, 454
families, between sex and power, 453
families, evolutionary definition, 453–454
genetic relatedness, human family, 455–457, 456t
rarity, 454
cross-disciplinary family studies, recent advances, 451–452
evolutionary approach, spread, 453
grandparenting, 463–468
emotional closeness, extended family, 468
generational transfers, 463–465
grandparental investment, variation, 466–467
offspring proximity, 465
parental investment, rejecting?, 467
history, 451–453
vs. mainstream family sociology, 451
parenting, 457–463
conflict and stepfamilies, 459–461
monogamy and paternal care, 457–459
sex ratios, parents and children, 461–463
scope, 451
evolutionary legacy hypothesis, 172
(p. 658) evolutionary methods, 624, 624t
evolutionary neuroandrogenic theory (ENT), 505–508, 511
evolutionary psychology, 114
biosocial instrumentalism, 555
cultural group selection theory, 554–555
genetic similarity theory, 552–553
genetic theory of tribal solidarity, 554
group process research, 195–214 (see also group process research, evolutionary psychology)
exchange processes, 196–205
Hamilton’s theory, 551–552
implicit association test, 557
race bias in children, explicit verbalized, 557–558
racial outgroups, implicit responses, brain imaging, 557
self pragmatism, 555–556
on standard social science model, 114
evolutionary reasoning, 195
identity concerns, 206
vs. control theories, 207–208
evolutionary sociologist, 49
evolutionary sociology, 453
development, prospects, 27–29
emergence, 21
literature, growing, 28
evolutionary theorizing, misconceptions, 440–441
evolutionary theory, average sex differences, 504–505, 512
evolutionism, 622
exaptations, 50, 121
exchange behavior, others’, 199t, 202
exchange processes, 196–205
cheating, 198–204, 199t (see also cheating)
exchange reputation, attending to, 199t, 201–202
exogamy. See incest avoidance
Westermarck on, 65–66
Durkheim’s critique of, 79
extended family, 457
emotional closeness, 468
eyes, reading, great apes and last common ancestor, 104
Eyre-Walker, A., 486
Eysenck, H. J., 288
F
face reading, great apes and last common ancestor, 104
face-to-face competition, physiology, 409–419
biosocial model, 409, 412–413, 413f
cortisol, 210, 412–413, 413f, 417–419
discussion, 418–419
primate pattern, 410–412
status hierarchy, 409
stress, 413–414
stress during conversation, measuring, 414–418, 415f418f
testosterone, 210, 412–413, 413f, 417–419
α-amylase, 410, 412–413, 413f, 417–419, 418f
facial gesture imitation, great apes and last common ancestor, 104
fairness calculations, great apes and last common ancestor, 106
familial species, rarity of, 454
familiarity, 155
evolutionarily familiar problems, 172
family
definition, Emlen’s, 457
extended, 457
humanity as, regarding, 546
as kin group, 453–454
nuclear, 469
offspring, dependent, 454
of origin, status-related outcomes and genes, 312
origins, Westermarck on, 65
property conservation, hypothesis of, 69
resemblance, shared environment, 319
systems, on pair bonds, 458
family sociology, evolutionary, 451–470. See also evolutionary family sociology
family species, cooperative breeding, 453–457
attachment and conflict, 454–455
dyadic kin ties, 454
families
evolutionary definition, 453–454
between sex and power, 453
(p. 659)
genetic relatedness, human family, 455–457, 456t
rarity, 454
father
age, mutation and, 485–488
education, genes and, 305–306, 306f
obesity transmission, via sperm, 559
occupation, genes and, 305–306, 306f
offspring care, monogamy and, 457–459
Faust, K., 332–333
Fazekas, Z., 290, 296
fear
criminology and, 530–532
faces, responses to
race distinction, 556
shocks on, 556–557
staying alive/low-fear hypothesis, 530–531
feedback learning, 363
Feingold, A., 498
Feldman, M. W., &, 632
Fellner, J., 577
Felsenstein, J., 625
Female Brain, The (Brizentine), 165
female choice, 432
females
happiness, declining, 186–188
sexuality, control, 458
Ferguson-Smith, A. C., 394
Ferriere, F., 429
fertility
homogamy
educational, 483, 485
religious, 483
inbreeding vs. outbreeding, 485
kinship marriage, 484–485
nutrition, maternal, 489
religiosity, 599
wealth, 481–482
Fessler, Daniel, 67
fetal programming, 369
fictive kin ties, 455
fight-or-flight response, 413
Fine, Cordelia, 166
Finkelstein, Israel, 603–604
Fisher, R. A., 70–71, 122, 131, 308, 547
fission-fusion social formation, 115, 117
fitness, 14. See also specific types
agent maximization of, 362–363
Darwinian, 16, 425–427
definition, 23
inclusive, 427, 454, 485, 547–548
increase, 350
Mills and Beatty on, 437–438
negative frequency-dependent selection, 522
sociality, 14–17
fitness maximizers, 521
Fitzpatrick, T. G., 631
5HTT, voter turnout, 293
5-HTTLPR, short allele, 560
Flaherty, Charles, 143–144
Fletcher, J., 484
Fletcher, Ronald, 81
fluidity, contemporary, 144–145
fluid world, inequality in, 157–159
Flynt, Larry, 576
folk tales, 633
Fortunato, L., 628
Foucault, Michel, 145
Fowler, J. H., 288, 293
Fox, Robin, 552
fractional anisotropy, adolescents, 534–535
Franklin, Joseph Paul, 575, 576
free-rider
definition, 598
ethnic nepotism theory, 550
logic, 211
Freese, Jeremy, 245
Freud, Sigmund, 524
friends
cortisol, 339
happiness, 181–184, 183f
protective effects, 338
Frost, P., 560
fundamental attribution error, 203
fundamental causes theory, 395
fusiform facial area, 357
G
Gage, Phineas, 165
Galton, Francis, 38, 307–309, 320. See also ACE model
Galton’s Problem, 628
Garrett, A., 626
(p. 660) Gautney, J. R., 178
Geary, D., 520
Geertz, Clifford, 544
Gehlen, A, 554
gender
brain differences, 164–165
definition, 164
differences, 41
epigenetics, 392–393
personality traits, in Western industrial vs. non-Western developing societies, 512
status implications, 210
generalized, 196, 197–198
generalized exchange, 196, 197–198
generalized exchange group, 197
identifying, 199t, 201
generational ties, 463
generational transfers, 463–465
genes
as chemical archive, 522
cultural neuroscience, 560
expression, 380
human–primate shared, 89
Genes, Mind and Culture: The Coevolutionary Process (Lumsden and Wilson), 26
gene silencing, 381, 382. See also DNA methylation
Genetical Theory of Natural Selection, The (Fisher), 122
genetic capitalism, 560
genetic relatedness, human family, 455–457, 456t, 465
genetics, of human behavior, 221–236
challenges, 234–235
common-disease, common-variant hypothesis, 224
genome-wide association studies, 225–230
genotype-by-environment interactions, 224, 228, 235
genotype-by-genotype interactions, 224, 228, 235
health behaviors, 230–232
alcohol use/dependence, 230–231
risk-taking/impulsivity/aggression, 231–232
smoking, 230
heritability and genetics, 222–225
methods and data, limitations, 227–230
missing heritability problem, 224
misunderstanding of, 241–242
narrow- vs. broad-sense heritability, 224
polygenic score, 229
polymorphisms, antisocial behavior and, 269–272
single nucleotide polymorphisms, 225–226, 228, 384
social, economic, and political behaviors
cognition/intelligence, 233–234
educational attainment, 232–233
politics and preferences, 234
sociosexual dominance theory, human, 580
twin models, 222–223
genetic similarity theory, 552–553
genetic theory of tribal solidarity, 554
gene x socioeconomic status interaction, 313–314
genome-wide association studies (GWAS), 225–227, 228–230
on antisocial behavior, 272–273
conduct disorder, 272–273
genotype-by-environment (GxE) interactions
antisocial behavior, 224, 228, 235, 273–276
political traits, 294
status achievement, 313–315
genotype-by-genotype (GxG) interactions, 224, 228, 235
Gerould, A., 527–528
Gerst, K., 184
Giddens, Anthony, 600–601, 603, 606
Gigantopithecus, 118
Gillespie, N. A., 292–293
Ginsberg, Morris, 80–81
giving strategies, Alexander’s, 74–75
glucocorticoid receptors (GRs), 353, 359
cingulate cortex, 360
medial extended amygdala, 359
orbitofrontal cortex, 360
prefrontal cortex, 360
glucocorticoids (GCs), 353–354, 358
adaptive predictive control, 368
“God gene,” 113
Goetze, David, 549
Goffman, E., 409
Goodall, A., 117
Goodall, Jane, 92, 117, 130, 132
(p. 661) good-of-the-species assumptions, 546
Gordijn, E. H., 202
gorillas. See great apes
big band community, 117
Goring, Charles, 532
Gorrman, Erving, 105
Gottesman, Irving I., 314
Gottfredson, M., 521, 528, 532
Gould, S. J., 50
grandparental investment, 466
grandparenting, 463–468
emotional closeness, extended family, 468
generational transfers, 463–465
grandparental investment, variation, 466–467
offspring proximity, 465
parental investment, rejecting?, 467
grand reduction, 439
gratification, 521
Gray, R. D., 625–626, 628, 629–630
gray matter, sex differences, 166–167
great ape societies, human nature and, 89–109
ape nature and last common ancestor, 96–108 (see also under last common ancestor (LCA), ape nature and)
behavioral propensities, 103–108
preadaptations, 97–103, 127–129, 128t
bioprogrammers, lack, 93, 95–96, 100–102, 104, 109, 114–115, 126, 130, 134–135
cladistic analysis, 93–96
applications, 89–90
habit change, Africa, 95–96
social structure, last common ancestor, 93–95, 94t
genes, human–primate shared, 89
gestural–haptic “speaking,” 132–133
social structure, 90–93
great ape societies, 90–93
hierarchy and dominance, resource compression on, 92
kin selection and kinship, 91–92
monkey societies, 93
mother–young offspring ties, 90–91, 116
research on, lack of, 92
great substitution, second exodus and, 154–157
greedy reductionism, 439, 441
Greenhill, S. J., 625–626, 628, 629, 631, 633
Greenwald, A., 561, 579
greeting gestures, 130
Greg, B., 552
Grigorenko, E., 168
Grollemund, R., 626
grooming
ape nature and last common ancestor, 102
verbal, language as, 102
Grosby, Steven, 544
gross national happiness (GNH), 171
Grossniklaus, U., 394
group identity, 550
group orientation, 196, 197
group-oriented behaviors, selection for, 126–129, 128t
group process research
evolutionary environment, 195–196
evolutionary psychology, 195–214 (see also specific processes)
exchange processes, 196–205
evolutionary reasoning, 195
identity processes, 206–209
status processes, 209–213
group selection. See ethnicity
culture-led, 554
ethnic solidarity, 546
multilevel selection theory, 428–429, 549
recent controversy, 428–429
Turner and Maryanski’s, 442–444
Wynne-Edwards’ theory, 426
group selectionism, 546
Groves, C., 117
grudgers, 526–527
Guðbjartsson, D. F., 484
guilt, 107–108, 132, 527
Guo, Guang, 310–311, 314, 315, 484
Gur, Ruben, 166
H
H 3K27me2, mood disorders, 390
habitat change
Africa, on great-ape societies, 95–96
consequences, 118–121
monkey over ape selection, 118–119
surviving ape lineages and foraging areas, 119–120
unripe fruit hypothesis, 119
(p. 662) habitat preference, happiness and, 180–181
Haley, Andreana, 314
Hall, D., 626
Hamer, D. H., 295
Hamilton, W. D., 14, 18, 48, 426–429, 444, 457, 547–548, 551–552, 554
Hamilton’s rule, 547
Hammer, Dean, 113
Hammond, M. F., 143
Hanson, C., 40
happiness
definition, 173
gross national, 171
happiness, savannah theory, 171–189
ancestral environment adaptations, 171–172
definition, 172
ethnic differences, 174–177, 176f, 177f
evolutionarily novel problem, 172
female happiness, declining, 186–188
friendships, 181–184, 183f
habitat preference, 180–181
intelligence, 172–173
non-recurrent adaptive challenges, 172
population density, 177–180, 180f
Savanna Principle, 172–173
sunshine hours and seasonal affective disorder, 184–186, 185f
Hardin, M., 533
Harlow, Harry, 15
Harpending, H., 551–553, 555, 560
Harris, Erica, 599
Harris, J., 521–522
Hasegawa, T., 629
Hatemi, P. K., 288–290, 292–293
Haynie, H. J., 630
Heath, A. C., 315
Heckathorn, D. D., 202
Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedric, 72
height, status implications, 210
Helgason, A., 484
Hennig, W., 624
heritability, 222. See also genetics, of human behavior
adoption studies, 267
definition, 309
dizygotic twins, 267, 287
estimates, 266, 288
missing heritability problem, 224
monozygotic twins, 267, 287
narrow- vs. broad-sense, 224
twin-based methodology, 266–267
twins separated-at-birth studies, 267
Herre, E. A., 429
Herrmann, E., 128
Herrnstein, Richard J., 318, 319, 321
Hibbing, John, 288
hierarchical reductionism, 439
hierarchy
formation process, small groups, 211–212
small groups, 210–212
high allowance, 143
Hill, F., 629
Hill, K. R., 484
Hill, P. L., 174–175
Hinduism, 591–594, 592t593t
hippocampus, 124f, 125
sex differences, 167
Hirschfeld, L. A., 553, 556, 557
Hirschi, T., 521, 528, 532
histone deacetylase, addiction, 391
histone modification, 380, 381, 382–384, 383f
history, evolutionary approach, 621–635
contemporary forms comparison, 622
cultural artifacts, phylogenetic, 632–633
material culture, craft and design, 632–633
narrative artifacts and folk tales, 633
cultural transmission, 622–623
Darwinian evolution
evidence, 622–623
forms, 621
language trees, as population histories, 627–631
ancestral states, 628–629
change, patterns and processes, 631
correlated evolution, 630–631
track history, 629
transformation models, 629–630
methods, contemporary, 623–625
cladistics vs. evolutionary vs. phenetic, 624, 624t
four major classes, 624–625
phylogenetic inference, 625
relics approach, 622
(p. 663) History of Human Marriage, The, 64–72, 83n1
on family origins, 65
on incest avoidance and exogamy, 65–66 (see also incest avoidance)
on monogamy, 68–69
on polyandry, 69
on primitive promiscuity and sexual jealousy, 64–65
on sexual vs. natural selection, 69–71
van den Berghe’s critique, 71–72
History of Human Marriage, The (Westermark), 64–72, 83n1
Hobhouse, L. T., 80
Holden, C. J., 630
Holliday, T. W., 178
Homans, G. C., 199, 211, 409, 442
homeostasis model, 360–361
homininzation trend, 123
Austrapithecus, 123
homogamy
definition, 482
educational, 483, 485
genes, 484
religious, 482–483, 485
reproduction and, 482–485
homogeneity, ethnic, 175
homophily. See assortative mating
Honest signal, 597
Hopcroft, R., 21, 210, 452, 462, 482, 530
hormones. See specific hormones; specific types
definition, 351, 506
stress ( see stress hormones)
Horowitz, M., 40
Horvath, S., 392
Hrdy, Sarah, 452
Hruschka, D. J., 182
Hu, N., 295
Hu, S., 295
Hua, X., 631
Hughes, A. L., 455–457, 465
Hull, D. L., 624
human capital theory, 482
Human Family Systems: An Evolutionary View (van den Berghe), 71, 451
Human Genome Project, 223
human nature. See nature, human
human sociosexual dominance, 572–573
Hutterites, 597
hypersocial cooperators, 52
hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis
bullying and victimization, 337
childhood maltreatment, 385
dominance contests, 412
glucocorticoids, in utero, 353
loneliness, 337
social buffering, 338
social status, 334
stress response, 327, 329, 357–358, 357f, 385–386
hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, stress response, 357–358, 357f
hypothalamus
sex differences, 168
stress response, 356–357, 357f
I
identity
group, 550
our own and others’, cheating and concern with, 199t, 203
small-group, traditional societies, 546
identity processes, 206–209
identity predictions, 209b
identity theory and affect control theory, 206
others’ identities, 208–209
research suggestions, 209b
self-perception, 206–207
control theories vs. evolutionary reasoning, 207–208
identity theory, 206
Ihanus, Juhani, 72, 82
illegal behavior, average sex differences, 498
imaginary contrasts, 149, 150, 153
immigration policies, 561
implicit association test, 557, 579
impulsivity, genetics, 231–232
inbreeding, 484
incest avoidance, 65–72, 451, 484
animals, 65–66
family species, 454–455
Karo Batak of Indonesia vs., 67
Lebanese marriage practices vs., 67
Taiwanese marriage practices vs., 66–67
van den Berghe on, 71–72
Westermarck on, 65–66
(p. 664) inclusive fitness, 427, 547–548
definition, 454
reproduction, 485
income
male mating opportunities, 570
status-related outcomes and genes, 311, 312t, 313f
as universal status indicator, 480–481
indegree, 332
individualism, great apes and last common ancestor, 103–104
individuals, socialization of, 18–21
individual selection, 16
indoctrinability, 546
ineffectual state, 367t, 368–369
inequality
elevation of, 150–154
in fluid world, 157–159
inflated, 151–153, 159
status differentiation, 151
infant care, nuclear family, 101
inflated ascription, 153, 157, 158, 159
inflated inequality, 151–153, 159
influences, 63–64
information, synchronizing and integration, 350–351
in-group, 201
inheritance
cultural, 622–623
mitochondrial DNA, 580
transgenerational epigenetic, 381, 393–394
injustice, sensitivity to, cheating and, 199t, 200–201
innate categorization, descent groups, 553
insensitivity, decline into, 80–82
insomnia, sex differences, 168
instinct theory, 47, 57n13
institutions, dominance, 571
instrumentalism, 544
biosocial, 555
radical, 556
intelligence
emotions and
birds, 125
prior enhancement, 126
ethnicity and population composition, 176, 177f
genetics, social, economic, and political behaviors, 233–234
happiness, savannah theory, 172–173
Machiavellian, 526
social, cheating, 199t, 203–204
intergenerational stakes hypothesis, 463
intergenerational transfer, 463–465
intergroup differences, 40–41, 56n5
interneuron signaling, 354–356, 355f, 356f
interpersonal behaviors. See specific types
greeting gestures, 130
language of emotions, 129–133
religion, 134–136
interracial marriage, laws forbidding, 574–575
intersexual selection, 432
intrasexual selection, 432
IQ
status-related outcomes and genes, 306, 307, 310, 312t
verbal, high school grades, and college plans, genes, 317
Iron, William, 597
isolation, social, 336–337
J
Jacklin, C. N., 498
Jacob, M., 483
Jacobsen, Kristen C., 314
Jaeger, G., 627
Jäntii, Markus, 311
Jaspers, Karl, 591
Jensen, Arthur R., 320
Jones, Doug, 549
Jordan, F. M., 625, 628, 629–630, 631, 632
Josephs, R., 410
Judaism, 591–594, 592t593t
judgments, moral, Westermarck on, 73–74
justice calculations, great apes and last common ancestor, 106
K
Kahneman, D., 200
Kanazawa, S., 171, 172, 173, 175–177, 179, 180f, 183–184, 188
Kant, Immanuel, 72
Kaplan, H., 482
Karo Batak (Indonesia), 67
(p. 665) Kaufmann, E. P., 558
Kaufmann, Yehezkel, 590, 594
Keightley, P. D., 486
Keith, A., 545
Kelly, W. G., 394
Kenrick, D., 519
keystone species, 633
Kickham, K., 40
Kiela, D., 629
killing, in intertribal conflict, cost of, 551
kin (kinship)
affinal, 456
altruism, 454, 457
competition, 454
emotional, 456
ethnicity, 552
great apes, 91–92
group, family as, 453–454
harmonious ties, 459
marriage
along cultural trait, 483–484
pro-fertile effect, 484–485
premium, 468
recognition, 456
selection, 16, 547
great-ape societies, 91–92
Hamilton’s theory, 426–429
socially defined, 544
King, G., 282–283, 296
kin selection theory, 454
Hughes’ extension, 456–457
Kirkpatrick, Lee, 600–601, 603, 606
Kiyonari, T., 202
Kohler, Hans-Peter, 318
Kolk, M., 463, 465
Kong, A., 486
Kornienko, O., 339
Koudenburg, N., 202
Kummer, Hans, 116
Kuo, Z. Y., 47
Kurzban, R., 555–556
Kushnick, G., 629–630
L
labile perturbations, 350
Lamarck, Jean-Baptiste, 34–36, 38, 39
Lamey, P., 625
Landa, J., 558
language, 24
ape nature and last common ancestor, 97–98
Broca’s area (cap), 24, 97–98
ethnicity and, 544
great apes, gestural–haptic “speaking,” 132–133
instinct, 20
linguistic and genetic phylogeny, 544
networks, 625–627
as verbal grooming, 102
Wernicke’s area, 24, 97–98, 124f
language of emotions, 99, 102, 129, 132, 133
interpersonal behavior and, 129–133
language trees, 625–631
critiques, 627
as population histories, 627–631
ancestral states, 628–629
change, patterns and processes, 631
correlated evolution, 630–631
track history, 629
transformation models, 629–630
superfamily, 627
last common ancestor (LCA), 89, 114
cladistic analysis, social structure, 93–95, 94t, 115, 116
living, orangutans as, 95
last common ancestor (LCA), ape nature and, 96–108
behavioral propensities, 103–108, 128–129, 128t
emotional effervescence, 105–106
imitation of facial gestures, emotions, 104
individualism and mobility, 103–104
justice and fairness calculations, 106
reading face and eyes, 104
reciprocity, 106
rhythmic synchronization, mimicry, and ritual, 105, 135
role-taking and empathy, 105
self as object, seeing, 107–108, 135–136
social relations, 130
behavior capacities, 97
preadaptations, 97–103, 127–129, 128t
definition, 96–97
emotionality, 98–99
(p. 666) last common ancestor (LCA) (cont.)
grooming and cognitive mapping, 102–103
language, 97–98
life history characteristics, 101
mating, non-harem, 100
mother–infant bonding, 99–100
play, 102
social structure, 93–95, 94t
Lawler, E. J., 197, 198, 207
laws of nature, 532
leadership behavior, 211
learning bias, 26–27
Lebanese marriage practices, 67
Lee, Ronald, 465
Lenski, Gerhard, 23
Lévi-Strauss, Claude, 71, 211
Lewontin, R., 50, 548, 555, 556
Li, N. P., 171, 175–177, 176f, 177f, 179, 180f, 183–184, 183f, 188
Lieberman, M., 52, 164, 169, 390
Lieberman, P., 132
life course, 350
life-course persistent offenders, 268
life history characteristics, 350
ape nature and last common ancestor, 101
limbic system, stress response, 356–357, 357f
Lindquist, S, 394
linguistic phylogeny, genetic phylogeny and, 544
Link, B. G., 390
Lipo, C. P., 632
Lipp, O. V., 557
liquid modernity, 144–146
Littvay, L., 290
Liu, H., 484
loneliness, 336–337
Lopreato, J., 423, 424, 433, 434, 435, 436, 439, 446, 549
loss aversion, 200–201
Loving v. Virginia, 574, 575
lower allowance, 143
loyalty, cheating on, 199t, 200
Luckmann, T., 52
Lummaa, Virpi, 451–452
Lumsden, C. J., 26, 554
Lycett, S. J., 632
lynching, U.S., 573–574
M
Maccoby, E. E., 498
Macdonald, A., 575
MacDonald, K. B., 553, 554, 557–558
Mace, R., 451–452, 480, 628, 629, 630, 631
Machalek, R., 49
Machiavellian intelligence, 526
Magnuson, V. L., 295
Mailund, T., 631
male
age, on mutations, 486–487
competition, 462, 572, 581
crime rate, 507–508, 527–528
possessiveness, 22
sex hormones, 506
sex ratio effects, 462
sexual jealousy, 22
Mallan, K. M., 557
Malthus, T. R., 35
mammalian social behavior network, 359
MAOA, 270
antisocial behavior, 270–271
childhood maltreatment, 275
“super” low-activity, 2-repeat allele, 270–271
voter turnout, 293
MAOA, violent behavior, 242, 243, 244–245
brain imaging, 244–245
interview study, 245–248, 247b
interview summaries, 248–257
high MAO and high-aggression occupation, 255–256
high MAO and low-aggression occupation, 256–257
low MAO and aggressive occupation, 248–252
low MAO and low-aggression occupation, 252–255
mechanisms, 244
prevalence, 244
trigger actions, 245
Marks, Gary N., 321
Marlowe, F. W., 458, 629, 630
Marois, R., 527
marriage (p. 667)
along cultural trait, 483–484
between cousins, 484–485
kinship, pro-fertile effect, 484–485
Westermarck’s comparative history of, 64–72
Marshall, J. A. R., 429
Martin, F. H., 557
Martin, M., 49
Martin, N., 288
Marx, Karl, 17, 35, 144
Maryanski, A., 71, 81–82, 89, 90, 93, 94t, 115, 116, 440–443
Mascie-Taylor, C. G., 483
masculinity–femininity self-perceptions, U. S., 501
mass consumption culture, 158
mass incarceration, war on drugs and, 576–578
mass production, 157, 158
mate guarding, 22
maternal care, on offspring stress, 489–490
maternal effects, 351
on glucocorticoids, embryo, 353
mating. See reproduction
access to mates, 570 (see also sociosexual dominance theory, human)
adaptations for, 17
endogamous, ethnic and racial, 552
non-harem, ape nature and last common ancestor, 100
parenting and, trade-off, 458–459
sex ratios on, 461–462
mating effort, 528
male vs. female, 528–529
parenting vs., sex ratio, 527–530
matrilineal advantage, 466
matrilocal households, 457–458
Matthews, L. J., 632
maximization principle, 427, 429
erroneous grasp, 437–438
Turner and Maryanski on, 441
maximum likelihood, 624
Mazur, A., 409–412, 414–417
McCabe, Justine, 67
McCarthy, M. M., 168
McDonald, M. M., 571, 572
McDougall, W., 57n13
McGowan, P. O., 489–490
McGue, Matt, 310
McGuffin, P., 519–520
McNamara, Patrick, 599
McNeill, William H., 603, 606–607
Mead, George Herbert, 43–44, 102, 105, 107
Mead, Margaret, 47, 52
Meade, A., 627, 631
mean diffusivity (MD), adolescents, 534–535
Meaney, Michael, 386
medial extended amygdala, stress hormones on, 359
Mehta, P., 410
Meloni, M., 33
memory, emotional tags, 134
Menaghan, E. G., 390
Mendel, Gregor, 307–308
mental health, average sex differences, 499
merit, 306
status achievement, 306, 306f
Mesoudi, A., 632
methylation quantitative trait loci (meQTLs), 384
methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2)
addiction, 391
repressive effects, 382–384, 388
Michod, R. E., 429
midparent, 320
Mills, C. Wright, 20, 81
Mills, S. K., 437–438
mimicry, great apes and last common ancestor, 105, 135
mirror neurons, 354
great apes, 105
mismatch hypothesis, 172
missing heritability problem, 224
mitochondrial DNA, 580
mobility
individualism, great apes and last common ancestor, 103–104
social, genes and, 318–321
Modelski, George, 605
modernism, 544
modernity
liquid, 144–146
second, 144
modern synthesis, 21, 426
(p. 668) Modern Synthesis From the Standpoint of a Social Behaviorist (Mead), 43
Molm, L., 198
Mong, J., 168
monkeys
branching from apes, 120–121
social structure, 93
female-bonded societies, 120, 127
monoamine oxidase A (MAOA). See MAOA
monogamy
paternal care and, 457–459
serial, 460
Westermarck on, 68–69
monogenic effect, 271
monozygotic (MZ) twins, 267, 287
separated at birth, studies, 267
mood disorders. See specific types
epigenetics, 389–390
moral emotions (morality)
Alexander on, systems of, 74–75
justice and fairness calculations, great apes, 106
Westermarck on, 64, 72–78, 83n2 (see also Origin and Development of Moral Ideas The (Westermarck))
disapproval, 74
disinteredness, 73
judgments, 73–74
moral enlightenment, 74
Morgan, L. H., 622
Morotopithecus, 119–120, 122, 137n1
morphological traits, 22
mother
effects, 351
on glucocorticoids, embryo, 353
maternal care, on offspring stress, 489–490
nutrition, on fertility, 489
mother–infant bonding, ape nature and last common ancestor, 99–100
Mother Nature (Hrdy), 452
Mothers and Others (Hrdy), 452
mother–young offspring ties, great apes, 90–91, 116
motor neurons, 354
Moya, C., 553–554
Mullan, J. T., 390
multilevel selection theory, 428–429, 549
multiple sclerosis, sex differences, 168
Murdock, G. P., 630
Murray, Charles, 319
musilanguage, 105
mutations. See specific types
as engines of evolution, 487
fathers’ age and, 485–488
rate, 486
mutation-selection balance theory, 487
myelin, 355, 355f
N
narrative artifacts, 633
narrow-sense heritability, 224
parent–offspring resemblance, 322n1
nationalism, 544
National Transfer Accounts, 465
naturalistic fallacy, 436
natural right, Darwinian, 75–78
natural selection, 38, 64, 621
culture, 520
individual phenotypic traits, 426
repetitive actions, 146
vs. sexual selection, Westermarck on, 69–71
nature, human
cross-species analysis, 89–109
definition, 89
great ape societies and, 89–109 (see also great ape societies, human nature and)
Navarrete, C. D., 571, 572
negative frequency-dependent selection, 522
neocortex
hominin, sudden size increase, 133–134
human vs. ape, 122
neo-Darwinism, 13, 23, 27, 444
altruism, 426
definition, 13
on Eibl-Eibesfeldt, 546
evolution, 445
reciprocity, 430
sexual selection, 430
vs. social Darwinism, 435–436
sociobiology theories, 547
Turner and Maryanski on, 441
neolocal households, 457–458
nepotism (p. 669)
ethnic nepotism theory, 548–550, 559
as learned, 556
Nettle, Daniel, 459
network centrality, 332–333
network density, 332
network prestige, 333
neuroanatomy, comparative, 121–126, 124f
Austrapithecus, 123, 137n3
hominid brain expansion, 117t, 121–122
key brain areas, 123–125, 124f
subcortical brain changes, 117t, 123–126, 124f
trait distributions, 122–123
vocal–auditory systems, cortical control, 131
neurocomputational programs, 21, 26–27
neurolaw, 241–242
neurons, 354–355, 355f
neuroscience, cultural, 560
neurosociology, 163
Newberg, Andrew, 598–599
Newmann, Tim, 164
next-generation sequencing, 388
Nielsen, François, 311–313, 312t, 313f, 317, 485
norms of reaction, 19–20, 28
novelty
contrast effects, 147
evolutionarily novel problems, 172
problems, evolutionarily, 172
in religion, 150
serial, 144
in fluid world, 158
of liquid world, 146
long-term, high-contrast, 147–148
novel arousers, 155
Nowak, M. A., 54, 428
NR 3C1, 380
childhood maltreatment on, 380, 386, 387f, 395
mood disorders, 389
stress–depression link, 385–386
nuclear family, 469
humans vs. great apes, 101
nucleus accumbens, adolescent males, crime and, 534
Nunn, C. L., 624, 632
nutrition, maternal, on fertility, 489
O
obesity, sperm transmission to offspring, 559
O’Brien, M. J., 632
occupation, status achievement and genes, 306–307
father’s, 305–306, 306f
prestige, 311, 312t, 313f
offspring
dependent, 454
number
social status, 480
wealth, 480, 560
proximity, on grandparenting, 465
stress, maternal care on, 489–490
OGOD (one good, one disorder) effect, 271
Onishchenko, N., 388
ontological security, 600–601, 603
Opie, C., 630
orbitofrontal cortex, 360
Orians, G., 180–181
Origin and Development of Moral Ideas, The (Westermarck), 64, 72–78, 83n2
Alexander vs., 74–75
Arnhart vs., 75–78, 83n4
Darwinian natural selection in, 72
on good, virtue, and merit, 72–73
on moral disapproval, 74
on moral emotions, 72
disinteredness, 73
on moral enlightenment, 74
on moral judgments, 73–74
on retributive emotions, 72
on right, 73
on will vs. willer, sin vs. sinner, 74
ostracism, 208
as negative sanction for cheating, 199t, 202
other
exchange behavior, 199t, 202
identities, cheating and, 208–209
indoctrinability, 546
worthiness, cheating on, 199t, 203
outdegree, 332
out-group, 201, 548
oxytocin, on ethnocentrism in men, 551
P
paganism, 589, 590–591, 615n2
Pagel, M., 627, 628, 630, 631
(p. 670) Paine, R. T., 633
paleo-construction, 21
Pálsson, S., 484
Pama-Nyungan languages, 630
Panglossian adaptationism, 50
pantoptican metaphor of control, 146
parental investment
grandparenting, 467
high-status, in sons vs. daughters, 462
male vs. female, 529
relative, 432–433
parenting, 457–463
conflict and stepfamilies, 459–461
effort, 528
male vs. female, 529
mating and, trade-off, 458–459
monogamy and paternal care, 457–459
sex ratios, parents and children, 461–463
parent–offspring conflict theory, 467
parent–offspring resemblance, 322n1
Pareto, Vilfredo, 321, 545
parsimony methods, 624
language trees and networks, 625–626
Parsons, Talcott, 23
paternal care, monogamy and, 457–459
paternity
certainty, on behavior, 466–467
uncertainty, 22
Patrick, W., 164
patrilocal households, 457–458
patrilocal polygyny, 458
Pattatucci, A. M., 295
Pearlin, L. I., 390
Pearlin’s stress process, 390
Pearson, K., 482
peer networks, social, 328
peer network stress, 333–337
bullying and victimization, 337
isolation, 336–337
multiplexity of social ties, 333–334
patterning of connections, 333
rejection, 336
status, 334–336
peer relationships
adolescent, social stress, 330
as social networks, 330–331
Pembrey, M., 394
Penman, J., 560
Peoples, H. C., 629, 630
peptide hormones, 351
peptides, 351
perceptions, average sex differences, 499
performance expectations, 211–212
performance obligations, 211, 212
personality, average sex differences, 498
Peterson, G., 198
Phelan, J., 390
phenetic methods, 624, 624t
phenotypic variance, 271
phylogenetic comparative methods (PCMs), 627–631
ancestral states, 628–629
change, patterns and processes, 631
correlated evolution, 630–631
track history, 629
transformation models, 629–630
phylogenetics
history, 20
inference, 625
language trees and networks, 626
phylogeny, 21
genetic, 544
linguistic, 544
phylolinguistics, 625–631. See also language trees
physical environment, epigenetics and, 384–385
physiological traits, 22
piggybacking, cognitive, 150
Pine, D., 533
Pinker, Steven, 20, 42, 437, 439, 504, 552
Pipping, Knut, 82
pituicytes, 358
pituitary gland, 358
Plato, 524
play
ape nature and last common ancestor, 102
average sex differences, 498
pleotropic effect, 271
PLINK, 226
Plomin, R., 519–520
Plotkin, H., 56n2
Polderman, Tinca J. C., 311
(p. 671) political behavior, Eibl on, 545–546
politics, genetics and, 234, 281–297
assortative mating, 289–290
deductive reasoning and evolutionary theory, 284, 285–287
genetic influences, research, 287–292, 289f
immigration, 286
knowledge gaps, social and natural sciences, 294
natural sciences on, 282–283
nature, nurture, and politics, 281–284
neurological and neurochemical pathways, 285, 292–294
out-groups and foreigners vs. in-group, 286
political traits
environment, importance, 296
evolution, reason for, 294
gene x environment influences, 294
human universals and individual differences, 295
nature and manifestation, 295
within vs. between society differences, 295
rationale and evolutionary theory, 284, 285–287
resurgent interest, 282
twin studies, 287
polyandry, Westermarck on, 69
polygenic effects, 271
polygenic risk index, 271–272
polygenic score (PGS), 229
polygyny, patrilocal, 458
Pontzer, Herman, 118, 119, 123
population admixture, 227
population density
ancient cities, 605–606, 609t
650 BCE to 100 CE, Chandler’s and Modelski’s totals, 615t
700 BCE to 100 CE, 1000+, 614t
largest world cities, 100 BCE, 613t614t
largest world cities, 200 BCE, 611t612t
largest world cities, 430 BCE, 610t611t
happiness and, 177–180, 180f
population-level studies, vs. individual actions, 242–243
population stratification adjustments, 226
Posner, Richard A., 68–69
possessiveness, males, 22
possibilism, 596
posterior pituitary, 358
post-genomic biology, 50
Postmes, T., 202
post-traumatic stress disorder, thalamus size, 357
predictive information, 350
predictive learning, 363–364, 364f
preferences. See specific types
average sex differences in cognition and behavior, 499
genetics, 234
prefrontal cortex
predictive learning, 364
stress hormones on, 360
prefrontal cortex, adolescent males, crime and, 534–535
prestige, 211–212
occupational, 311, 312t, 313f
social network, 333
Price equation, 429
primate pattern, face-to-face competition, 410–412
primate society, social structure. See great ape societies, human nature and; last common ancestor (LCA)
great apes, 90–93
monkeys, 93
primordialism, 544
Proconsul, 119, 122, 137n1
promiscuity, primitive, Westermarck on, 64–65
property rights, Arnhart on, 77–78
proximate causation, 23–25, 28
psychology, evolutionary, 114
ethnicity, 551–558
ethnic solidarity, 551
human universals, 551
origins, 551
on standard social science model, 114
puberty, 533. See also adolescent
punishment, defectors, 527
Putnam, R. D., 559
R
(p. 672) racial discrimination
beliefs
criminality, 578–579
drug use, 576–578
rapists, 579
erasing, 556
evolutionary theory, 569–581 (see also sociosexual dominance theory, human)
gender asymmetries, 572
implicit association test, 579
outgroups, implicit responses, brain imaging, 557
racial scripts, 578
radical instrumentalism, 556
radical social construction theory, 555
Randall, T., 484
rank, social, 570–571
ranking systems
evolutionary, 146
small groups, 210–212
rape, lynching for, 573
rationality, emotional tags, 125
Rattner, A., 532
reaction, norms, 19–20, 28
reading face and eyes, great apes and last common ancestor, 104
reciprocal, 196, 197–198
reciprocal altruism, 106, 524
reciprocal exchange, 196, 197–198
reciprocity, 429–431
cheating and, 430 (see also cheating)
great apes and last common ancestor, 106
tit-for-tat, 524
reductionism
greedy, 439, 441
hierarchical, 439
as theoretical strategy, naive claims, 438–439
reflexes, 18
regression to the mean, 320
status achievement and ACE model, 320–321
regularity hypothesis, 94–95
reification tendency, 441–442
rejection, social, 336
relatedness hypothesis, 94
relationships, social. See specific types
sex differences, 165
stress and, 327
relics approach, 622
religion, 589–608. See also specific topics
Axial Age, 590, 591–594, 592t593t, 615n3
challenges, 601–602
cognitive and evolutionary psychology theories, 594–600
cognitive by-product theory, 595–597
evolutionary adaptationists, 597–600
counterintuitive beliefs, 595
evolution, long-term, 589
fertility and practice of, 599
hunter–gatherer bands, 589
natural theism, young children, 598
paganism, 589, 590–591, 615n2
reward rules and emergence of, 148–150
soul, 594
transcendent, 591–594
world salvation, 594
religion, neurology of, 113–137
brain evolution
natural selection, 113–114
subcortical and neocortical divisions, 113–114
cognitive modules, 113
evolution, subcortical enhancements, 114, 117t
“God gene” (VMAT 2), 113
language emergence, 114
marginal habitat, consequences, 118–121
religious behaviors, neurological basis, 121–136 (see also religious behaviors, neurological basis)
religion module, 599–600
religious attachment theory, 589, 600–608
applications, 602–608
urbanization, 604–608, 609t615t (see also urbanization)
warfare, 602–604
compensation hypothesis, 600
ontological security, 600–601, 603
substitute attachment figures, 600
religious behaviors, neurological basis, 121–136
comparative neuroanatomy, 121–126 (p. 673)
Austrapithecus, 123, 137n3
hominid brain expansion, 117t, 121–122
key brain areas, 123–125, 124f
subcortical brain changes, 117t, 123–126, 124f
trait distributions, 122–123
vocal–auditory systems, cortical control, 131
hominin neocortex size, 133–134
interpersonal behaviors
language of emotions, 129–133
religion, 134–136
sociality and group-oriented behaviors, selection for, 126–129, 128t
religious homogamy,