- The Oxford Handbook of Evolution, Biology, and Society
- About the Editor
- About the Contributors
- Introduction: Evolution, Biology, and Society
- Divergence and Possible Consilience Between Evolutionary Biology and Sociology
- Sociology’s Contentious Courtship with Biology: A Ballad
- Edward Westermarck: The First Sociobiologist
- Discovering Human Nature Through Cross-Species Analysis
- The Neurology of Religion: An Explanation from Evolutionary Sociology
- Reward Allowances and Contrast Effects in Social Evolution: A Challenge to Zygmunt Bauman’s Liquid Modernity
- Sex Differences in the Human Brain
- The Savanna Theory of Happiness
- How Evolutionary Psychology Can Contribute to Group Process Research
- The Genetics of Human Behavior: A Hopeless Opus?
- DNA Is Not Destiny
- On the Genetic and Genomic Basis of Aggression, Violence, and Antisocial Behavior
- Genetics and Politics: A Review for the Social Scientist
- Genes and Status Achievement
- Peer Networks, Psychobiology of Stress Response, and Adolescent Development
- Stress and Stress Hormones
- Social Epigenetics of Human Behavior
- Physiology of Face-to-Face Competition
- Evolutionary Behavioral Science: Core Principles, Common Misconceptions, and a Troubling Tendency
- Evolutionary Family Sociology
- Evolution and Human Reproduction
- Evolution, Societal Sexism, and Universal Average Sex Differences in Cognition and Behavior
- Evolutionary Theory and Criminology
- The Biosocial Study of Ethnicity
- Human Sociosexual Dominance Theory
- From Paganism to World Transcendence: Religious Attachment Theory and the Evolution of the World Religions
- The Evolutionary Approach to History: Sociocultural Phylogenetics
- Why Sociology Should Incorporate Biology
Abstract and Keywords
The first sociobiologist was not Edward O. Wilson but, rather, the Finnish sociologist Edward Westermarck. Far ahead of his time, at the turn of the 20th century, Westermarck presented Darwinian natural selectionist theories of numerous social phenomena, especially marriage and family practices across a wide range of societies and the evolution of moral emotions. Westermarck was revered in his time, and yet despite his brilliance and extraordinary erudition, by the 1930s he was almost completely forgotten outside of Finnish sociology due to the rising tide of social environmentalism and determinism that was inhospitable to biological explanations of human behavior. However, with the revival of Darwinian thinking in the social sciences in the past four decades, Westermarck deserves to be rehabilitated. In sociology, he needs to be considered one of the great founding fathers of that discipline even by those who may not be receptive to Darwinism.
Stephen K. Sanderson taught for 31 years at Indiana University of Pennsylvania and for 8 years was Visiting Professor at the University of California, Riverside. He specializes in comparative–historical sociology, sociological and anthropological theory, and evolution and human behavior. He is the author or editor of 14 books in 21 editions, and he has published several dozen articles in professional journals, edited collections, and handbooks. His most recent books are Rethinking Sociological Theory: Introducing and ↵Explaining a Scientific Theoretical Sociology (Paradigm, 2012) and Human Nature and the Evolution of Society (Westview, 2014).
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