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date: 27 May 2019

Abstract and Keywords

This article explores vocal trends associated with hip hop artists of the millennial generation. New vocal techniques such as the use of stylized Auto-Tune, a widening of pitch range, and increased use of paralinguistic utterances associated with emotional distress have permeated the soundscape of hip hop in the twenty-first century. These techniques starkly contrast with the vocal styles associated with Generation X rappers in the 1980s and 1990s, affectively embedding vulnerability into the voices of underground and mainstream hip hop. This chapter approaches the shift in the soundscape of hip hop vocality as a point of embarkation in exploring evolving musical representations of Black masculinity by rappers of the millennial generation.

Keywords: hip hop, masculinity, millennial, voice, hypermasculinity, cool pose

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