- The Oxford Handbooks in Criminology and Criminal Justice
- The Oxford Handbook of Environmental Criminology
- List of Contributors
- Environmental Criminology: Scope, History, and State of the Art
- Social Spatial Influences
- How Do We Get to Causal Clarity on Physical Environment-Crime Dynamics?
- The Individual Perspective
- Do We Really Need Collective Social Process to Understand Why Crime Occurs and Offenders Commit Crime?
- The Importance of High Offender Neighborhoods within Environmental Criminology
- Four Images of the Delinquency Area
- Evaluating Theories of Environmental Criminology: Strengths and Weaknesses
- Deciding on the “Appropriate” Unit of Analysis: Practical Considerations in Environmental Criminology
- GIS and Spatial Analysis
- The Role of Innovative Data Collection Methods in Advancing Criminological Understanding
- Advances in Visualization for Theory Testing in Environmental Criminology
- Victimization Surveys in Environmental Criminology
- Systematic Social Observation
- Computer Simulations: Agent-Focused Environmental Criminology
- Research on Neighborhoods in European Cities
- Testing Theories of Social Disorganization in Nigeria
- Gated Communities and Crime in the United States
- Egohoods: Capturing Change in Spatial Crime Patterns
- Signal Crimes, Social Reactions, and the Future of Environmental Criminology
- Built Environment, Land Use, and Crime
- Macro-Level Generators of Crime, Including Parks, Stadiums, and Transit Stations
- Does Crime Impact Real Estate Prices?: An Assessment of Accessibility and Location
- Street Networks and Crime
- Crime Concentrations at Places
- Studying Situational Effects of Setting Characteristics: Research Examples from the Study of Peers, Activities, and Neighborhoods
- Place Management
- Crime Concentrations: Hot Dots, Hotspots, and Hot Flushes
- Time and Opportunity
- Mobility and Location Choice of Offenders
- What Have We Learned from Environmental Criminology for the Prevention of Crime?
- Riots, Space, and Place
- Geoprofiling Terrorism
- Child Sexual Abuse and Opportunity
- Gangs and Space
- Organized Crime and Places
- Cybercrime and Place: Applying Environmental Criminology to Crimes in Cyberspace
- Maritime Piracy
Abstract and Keywords
This chapter examines the strengths and weaknesses of environmental criminology. Environmental criminology’s strengths include the shift in the focus from criminals to conventional people, thus enriching understanding of crime events and their prevention; challenging the view that some sort of “evil” condition generated the evil of crime; rejecting the root causes approach to crime, instead showing the benefits of a situational perspective; and rejecting the “nothing works” professional ideology of criminology in favor of practical solutions to reducing crime. The weaknesses of environmental criminology include neglecting the study of “motivated offenders,” treating them as a given in the crime event; reliance on the concept of “informal social control,” which is often ill-defined and its components left unspecified; and neglecting the role of inequality in the broader social environment.
Francis T. Cullen is Distinguished Research Professor Emeritus and a Senior Research Associate in the School of Criminal Justice at the University of Cincinnati. He is author of Environmental Corrections. His current research focuses on the organization of criminological knowledge and on rehabilitation as a correctional policy. He is a past ↵president of both the American Society of Criminology and the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences.
Teresa C. Kulig is a doctoral student in the School of Criminal Justice at the University of Cincinnati. Her recent writings have appeared in Justice Quarterly, the Journal of Criminal Justice Education, and Victims and Offenders. Her research interests include testing theories of victimization, human trafficking and child exploitation, correctional treatment, and the organization of criminological knowledge through meta-analysis.
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