Abstract and Keywords
The importance of spatial-temporal dimension(s) within environmental criminology has made the use and applications of geographic information systems (GIS) and spatial analysis rather widespread. This chapter covers some of the principles and advancements in the use of crime mapping and spatial analysis to study the spatial distribution of crime, primarily through the lens of environmental criminology. Crime mapping is defined as the spatial representation of crime (in the context of criminal events) on a map. Consequently, in order to do so, one must have geographic coordinates for each criminal event to place it on a map. There are three primary ways in which spatially referenced data can be presented: points, lines, and areas. Most often, criminal event data are represented as points (dot maps) or areas (census tracts or neighborhoods, for example), but maps considering lines (street segments) are becoming more commonplace.
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