- The Oxford Handbooks in Criminology and Criminal Justice
- The Oxford Handbook of Environmental Criminology
- List of Contributors
- Environmental Criminology: Scope, History, and State of the Art
- Social Spatial Influences
- How Do We Get to Causal Clarity on Physical Environment-Crime Dynamics?
- The Individual Perspective
- Do We Really Need Collective Social Process to Understand Why Crime Occurs and Offenders Commit Crime?
- The Importance of High Offender Neighborhoods within Environmental Criminology
- Four Images of the Delinquency Area
- Evaluating Theories of Environmental Criminology: Strengths and Weaknesses
- Deciding on the “Appropriate” Unit of Analysis: Practical Considerations in Environmental Criminology
- GIS and Spatial Analysis
- The Role of Innovative Data Collection Methods in Advancing Criminological Understanding
- Advances in Visualization for Theory Testing in Environmental Criminology
- Victimization Surveys in Environmental Criminology
- Systematic Social Observation
- Computer Simulations: Agent-Focused Environmental Criminology
- Research on Neighborhoods in European Cities
- Testing Theories of Social Disorganization in Nigeria
- Gated Communities and Crime in the United States
- Egohoods: Capturing Change in Spatial Crime Patterns
- Signal Crimes, Social Reactions, and the Future of Environmental Criminology
- Built Environment, Land Use, and Crime
- Macro-Level Generators of Crime, Including Parks, Stadiums, and Transit Stations
- Does Crime Impact Real Estate Prices?: An Assessment of Accessibility and Location
- Street Networks and Crime
- Crime Concentrations at Places
- Studying Situational Effects of Setting Characteristics: Research Examples from the Study of Peers, Activities, and Neighborhoods
- Place Management
- Crime Concentrations: Hot Dots, Hotspots, and Hot Flushes
- Time and Opportunity
- Mobility and Location Choice of Offenders
- What Have We Learned from Environmental Criminology for the Prevention of Crime?
- Riots, Space, and Place
- Geoprofiling Terrorism
- Child Sexual Abuse and Opportunity
- Gangs and Space
- Organized Crime and Places
- Cybercrime and Place: Applying Environmental Criminology to Crimes in Cyberspace
- Maritime Piracy
Abstract and Keywords
This chapter reviews the more macrospatial tradition of community- or neighborhood-based theory and research, as this line of inquiry is a vital part of contemporary environmental criminology’s intellectual ancestry. The chapter is organized as follows. Section 2.2 discusses the relationship between neighborhood social disorganization and crime according to early Chicago school scholars. Section 2.3 highlights the role of neighborhood-based systemic control on community rates of crime, while Section 2.4 discusses the influence of community-based collective efficacy. Section 2.5 considers the influences of ecologically rooted cognitive landscapes, street culture, and legal cynicism. Finally, Section 2.6 discusses the various ways in which neighborhoods provide “crime opportunity contexts”—and it is in this section that the overlap and compatibility between community-focused criminology and contemporary environmental criminology is most explicit.
Pamela Wilcox is a Professor in the School of Criminal Justice and Fellow of the Graduate School at University of Cincinnati. Her research focuses on understanding the opportunity for crime and victimization in school and community contexts. She is past chair of the Crime, Law, and Deviance section of the American Sociological Association and former Executive Counselor for the American Society of Criminology.
Kristin Swartz is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Criminal Justice at the University of Louisville. Her research focuses on how offending and victimization is shaped by context, with a special focus on cultural effects in the contexts of schools, communities, and correctional institutions.
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