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date: 22 September 2019

(p. 707) Index

(p. 707) Index

Aardal, B., 564
Aarts, K., 564
Abascal, M., 175
Aberbach, Joel D., 126, 239
Abraham, M., 325
Abrajano, Marisa A., 243
Acculturation, 243, 484
Achbari, W., 187
Ackermann, K. K., 130, 131, 138n28, 569
AFDC (Aid to Families with Dependent Children), 398
Affordable Care Act of 2010, 589, 594
Africa. See also specific regions
democratization in, 335
economic inequality in, 8, 348
ethnic divisions within, 232, 341, 350
networks of trust in, 341
political trust in, 375–376, 376f, 572
radius of trust in, 342
African Americans
HIV/AIDS and, 451–452
most-people question as interpreted by, 245n8
police officers, relationship with, 645
political trust among, 237, 239–240, 242–244, 245n10
social trust among, 99, 235–236, 241–242
storytelling by, 241
Afrobarometer, 358, 361, 363, 367, 379n2
Agreeableness, 128, 131–133, 135, 138nn33–35, 138n37, 569
Ahlerup, Pelle, 539, 550–552
Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), 398
Akçomak, I. Semih, 538, 547
Aldrich, John H., 593
Alesina, A., 176, 182
Alford, John R., 136n5
Algan, Yann, 210, 413, 547, 549
Allen, N., 482
Allport, Gordon W., 128
Almond, G. A., 17, 38, 409–410
Alvarez, R. Michael, 243
American exceptionalism, 180, 219, 220
American National Election Studies (ANES)
corruption and trust effects in, 485
on foreign policy preferences, 591
most-people question in, 8, 22, 279
partisan data from, 582–583, 585, 586
personality and trust in, 133, 134t
trust-in-government questions on, 17, 132, 561
AmericasBarometer, 132
Amygdala, 124
Ananyev, Maxim, 394
Anderhub, V., 320, 321
Anderson, Christopher J., 389, 562, 602, 607
Andersson, M. A., 166n3
André, Stéfanie, 240
Anomie, 177–178
Ansolabehere, S., 601
Anterior cingulate cortex, 123, 124, 137n16
Apicella, Coren L., 121
Arginine vasopressin, 121–123
Armingeon, K., 609, 616
Arnold, C., 676
Arrow, Kenneth J., 269, 306
Asia Barometer, 676
Asian Americans, international trust by, 667
Assessment. See Measurement
Associative trust, 83–84
Assortative mating, 136n3
Authoritarian regimes
corruption in, 8, 487–492, 488f, 489–490
(p. 708) democratic transition from, 336, 339
immigrants from, 243
institutional power of, 341
levels of trust in, 4, 79, 337–338, 352n2
networks of trust in, 341
particularized trust in, 337
suppression of dissent in, 338, 340, 349
Autocracies, 37, 341
Avedeenko, A., 283
Axelrod, Robert, 256, 314
Axiological trust, 273n1
Bacharach, Michael, 272
Bădescu, G., 199n6
Baedeker, Karl, 535
Bagno, O., 215
Baier, Annette, 82, 262
Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J., 137
Bakke, K. M., 572
Baldassarri, D., 175
Banerjee, R., 285, 286
Banfield, E., 85
Barber, B., 96, 149
Bargaining strategies, 99, 104, 697, 701
Bargsted, M., 606
Barr, Abigail, 264
Barraza, Jorge, 137n11
Bartusch, D. J., 646
Bauer, Paul C., 9, 15, 130, 177, 279, 295, 569
Baumgartner, Thomas, 123, 137n16
Becker, Gary, 478, 486–487
Behavioral assimilation, 701
Behavioral game theory, 306, 311
Behavioral measurement of trust, 17–20, 284–286
Behavioral-relevance debate, 21, 25
Bekkers, R., 162, 165, 166n3
Beliefs in Government project, 560, 565
Bellemare, C., 282, 285, 286
Bellows, J., 572
Benedict, W. R., 645, 646
Benjamin, Daniel J., 121
Bentham, Jeremy, 76
Berg, J., 17, 18, 20, 164, 279, 280–281, 289, 390–391
Berggren, Niclas, 546
Bergh, A., 227n4
Berinsky, A. J., 193
Beugelsdijk, Sjoerd, 546, 553n5
Bias. See also Discrimination
common method, 453
competition, 691
of confounding variables, 194
in data samples, 19, 22, 101
ethnic, 65
ingroup, 98
leniency, 104
in motivated reasoning, 583, 584
nonresponse, 163
post-treatment, 195, 196
self-presentation, 19
Big Five personality traits, 10, 126–133, 137n22
Bilodeau, Antoine, 214, 236, 240, 243
Binary trust game, 20
Binning, K. R., 667
Biological basis of trust, 119–125. See also Genetic influences
brain activity and, 123–124
future research directions, 125, 135
hormonal influences, 121–124, 135, 137n15
involuntary physiological responses and, 124, 135
stability and, 5, 119–120, 135
Biomarkers, 462, 465
Birch, S., 482
Bisgaard, M., 191
Bjørnskov, Christian, 209, 390–391, 413, 481–483, 485, 535, 540, 541, 548–552
Black Lives Matter movement, 270
Blacks. See African Americans
Blais, André, 620
Blattman, C., 572
Blayac, T., 322
Blekesaune, A., 569
Bloemraad, I., 181
Bloom, Nicholas, 552, 553
Boehner, John, 593, 594
Bogart, L. M., 452
Bohnet, I., 321
Boix, Carles, 540–542, 551, 553
Bolton, G. E., 322, 323
Bonding associations, 153–155, 157, 163
Bonding social capital, 71n1, 264, 414
(p. 709) Bonding trust, 358, 361–364, 363t, 365t, 378
Booth, K., 691
Bottom-up approach to trust, 9, 38–39
Bouma, J., 283
Bounded rationality, 254, 258, 311, 323–324
Bourdieu, Pierre, 535
Bowling Alone (Putnam), 6
Bradford, Ben, 633
Brain studies, 123–124
Brandts, J., 320, 321, 325
Brehm, J., 161
Brewer, Marilynn B., 5, 98, 99, 104
Brewer, P. R., 658, 663, 667, 668, 671–673
Brexit referendum, 50, 680–681
Bribery, 341, 475, 477, 478, 480, 542
Bridging associations, 153–155, 157, 162, 163
Bridging social capital, 71n1, 159, 264, 414
Bridging trust, 358, 362–364, 363t, 365t, 378
Brooks, S. G., 691
Brown, B., 645, 646
Brown, M., 325
Brown, R. J., 99
Buchan, N. R., 152, 164
Bühlmann, M., 486
Burns, C., 19
Burt, R., 96, 102
Bush, Goerge W., 87, 582, 593
Buskens, Vincent, 18–19, 266, 281, 305, 317, 321, 323, 324–325
Cahuc, P., 210, 413, 547, 549
Camerer, C. F., 320, 321
Campaign finance, 89, 91. See also Elections
Campbell, Andrea Louise, 399
Campos-Matos, I., 466
Canache, Damarys, 10, 119
Canadian General Social Survey, 236, 245n4, 411, 414
Candidate-gene studies, 121, 122, 124, 135
Capital. See Social capital
Capra, C. M., 285
Card, D., 464
Cárdenas, J. C., 283, 285
Carnevale, P. J., 103, 107–109
Carpenter, J., 283, 285
Case, Anne, 594
Cassar, A., 324, 572
Castillo, J. C., 607
Cattell, Raymond B., 126
Catterberg, G., 343
Caudate nucleus, 123–124
Causal inference, 192–194, 198, 461–465
Cawvey, Matthew, 10, 119
CCES (Cooperative Congressional Election Study), 580
CDD (community-driven development) programs, 283
Ceka, B., 676
Central and Eastern Europe
communism in, 39, 41, 336
democratization in, 335, 336, 338, 339
economic inequality in, 347
lifebuoy effect in, 610
networks of trust in, 340
political trust in, 343, 344f, 345, 367, 368f, 602
social trust in, 343, 344, 344f, 351, 358, 359f
Stalinist period in, 341
subjective evaluation of economic performance in, 603
welfare supports in, 348
Chan, Ho Fai, 497
Chang, E. C. C., 607, 611n3
Charron, N., 486
Chavez, Hugo, 361
Chávez, Maria L., 236
Cheshire, Coye, 266
Child-parent correlation in trust, 218–219, 236–237
Christakis, N. A., 449
Citizenship tests, 57
Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission (2010), 91
Citrin, J., 560–561, 617
Civic conception of national identity, 60–61, 66–70, 72n8
The Civic Culture (Almond & Verba), 38
Claibourn, M. P., 161
Clark, Mary A., 339
Clarke, Harold D., 393
Classical realism, 691
Classical trust game, 17, 18, 20, 31n15
Clientelism
in direct protective trust, 83
(p. 710) in elections, 491
freedom from relationships involving, 7, 85
logic of, 366
mediated, 87, 90
Climate change, 563
Cline, Brandon N., 540, 553n3
Clinton, Hillary, 657
Clinton, Joshua D., 24
Closed trust networks, 267, 269, 270
CNN, 669, 670
Cochard, F., 322
Coercive bargaining strategies, 99, 104, 697, 701
Coffé, H., 162
Cohesion. See Social cohesion
Cole, Richard L., 239
Coleman, James S., 155, 254–255, 261, 263–264, 306–308, 310, 312, 312f, 320, 535, 551
Collective action. See also Cooperation
corruption as problem of, 479, 491
distrust as hindrance to, 78
health promotion and, 450–451
political trust and, 270
public goods and, 257
social capital and, 83
trust and, 256, 269, 450–451
by voluntary associations, 43
Colonialism, 364
Common method bias, 453
Communist countries
levels of trust in, 4, 39, 41, 64, 213, 222
networks of trust in, 340
political rights and civil liberties in, 336
Community-driven development (CDD) programs, 283
Comparative Study of Electoral Systems (CSES), 564, 607, 611n3
Compensation strategies, 105
Competition bias, 691
Comte, Auguste, 37
Conciliatory bargaining strategies, 99, 104
Conflict, political trust and, 571–572
Conflict resolution, 90, 103–105, 108, 110, 694, 695
Conflict theory, 177
Confounding variables, 178–179, 192, 194, 195
Confucius, 37
Congress, U.S., 3–4, 242, 579, 592–594
Connected associations, 153, 155–157, 156f, 163, 166n4
Conscientiousness, 128–133, 138nn29–30
Constant, Benjamin, 76
Constantelos, J., 675
Constrict theory, 177–178, 264
Constructivism, 692, 693
Consummatory motives, 263
Contact theory, 153, 154, 179
Contending negotiation, 696–697
Contextual diversity, 184–186, 189, 190–191
Contractual safeguards, 260, 267–270
Control of Corruption indicator, 480, 487–488, 488f, 491
Cook, Karen S., 10, 255, 257, 260, 266
Cook-Medley Hostility Scale, 447
Cooperation. See also Collective action
anticipation of, 96, 107
in democracies, 338
incentives for, 257–258, 260, 267, 688
in intergroup relations, 106, 107, 109
multilateral, 687–688, 693–696, 699
with police, 633, 638
political trust and, 270
in Prisoner’s Dilemma, 110, 122, 699
social orientation and, 698, 699
social trust and, 49, 58, 75, 205
in voluntary associations, 150, 154
Cooperative Congressional Election Study (CCES), 580
Cooperative internationalism, 671–672
Cooperative negotiation, 697
Cordero, G., 608
Corruption, 473496
as agency problem, 478–479
as collective action problem, 479, 491
conceptualizations of, 475, 477–478
in democracies vs. authoritarian regimes, 8, 487–492, 488f, 489–490
economic inequality and, 491
in elections, 620
grey economy and, 346–347
immigrant trust influenced by, 212
institutionalized, 89, 269
(p. 711) macro-level consequences of, 48, 49
measurement of, 479–480
multiple equilbria for trust and, 486–487
overview, 473
particularized trust and, 476, 482
political trust and, 81–82, 84, 482, 484–487, 489–491, 605
social trust and, 83, 476, 479, 481–487, 489–492
tax morale and, 499
Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI), 473, 480, 482, 483
Corten, R., 324–325
Cortisol, 122, 124
Cosmopolitan trust, 48, 642
Costa, D. L., 176, 184
Couch, Laurie L., 138n27, 138n36
Coughlin, Ned, 87
Court systems
regulatory power of, 48, 637
stereotypical views regarding, 635
trust in, 12, 368
in value-bearing narratives, 642
Cox, Michaelene, 619
Crepaz, Markus M. L., 391
Criado, H., 485–486
Criminal justice system, 633653. See also Court systems; Police officers
complexity-reducing mechanisms in, 636, 640–641
corruption in, 477, 487
fairness perceptions in, 476
knowledge-based, relational trust in, 636, 637–638
legitimacy and trust in, 638, 642, 647–649
nature and sources of trust in, 642–647
overview, 11–12, 633–634
subject-object-relationship triad in, 634–635
value-based notions of trust in, 636, 638–640
in value-bearing narratives, 636, 641–643, 647
vulnerability to, 635–636
Critical Citizens (Norris), 560
Croson, R. T. A., 152, 164
Cross-sectional designs, 189, 194–196
Cross-situational trust, 25, 29
Crowding out effect, 388, 390
Cruz, Ted, 657
CSES (Comparative Study of Electoral Systems), 564, 607, 611n3
Cuban Missile Crisis, 105
Cultural considerations. See Diversity-trust studies
Cultural persistence of trust, 206, 210–220, 223, 226
Cvetkovich, G., 641–642
Cybersecurity, 272
Cynicism. See also Distrust
cultural influences on, 373
international trust and, 681
as personality trait, 447, 448
political, 81, 358, 370, 378, 561
Dabros, Matthew, 626
Dahl, R. A., 566
Dahlberg, M., 193
Dalton, Russel J., 396, 563, 618, 620
Daniele, Gianmarco, 391
DAS (Detroit Area Study), 235, 239
Dasgupta, N., 478
Dassonneville, R., 569, 624
Davies, J. C., 570
Dawes, R. M., 152, 164, 280
DDB Needham Lifestyle Survey, 161
Dearmon, Jacob, 550
Deaton, Angus, 594
DeConinck, J. B., 476
De Juan, A., 571–572
Dekker, P., 601
Delgado, Mauricio R., 123–124
Delhey, J., 677, 678
De Luca, G., 572
Demand for democracy index, 378, 379n7
Democracies, 7594, 335356
bureaucratic mechanisms of, 48
citizen trust decisions in, 79–81
corruption in, 8, 487–492, 488f, 489–490
defined, 75, 77
distrust in, 76, 338–339
divisions of political labor within, 79–81
emergence of, 76
(p. 712) ethnic conflict and, 349–350, 352
grey economy and corruption in transition to, 346–347
inequality and, 347–349
institutionalization of distrust in, 78, 79
international trust of, 665–666
leapfrog democracy, 592
nation-building programs in, 57
particularized trust in, 46, 82, 84–85, 337
political trust in, 87–91, 336, 338–339, 343–345, 351, 564–565
predemocratic legacies of trust, 8, 340–342
protection of rights in, 77
publicity and empowered monitoring in, 78–79
satisfaction in, 389, 611n3, 627–628
separation of public and political institutions in, 77–78, 89
social trust in, 77, 83–87, 336, 338, 342–345, 351
structure of trust and distrust in, 76–79
in third-wave of democratization, 335–336, 348, 350–351
trajectory of trust in, 342–345, 344f
voluntary associations in, 42–43, 149
warrant and publicity for trust relationships in, 81–88, 92
Democracy in America (Tocqueville), 83
Democratic Deficit (Norris), 560
Democratic Party (U.S.)
African Americans in, 245n10
dislike of opposition, 583
economic performance perceptions, 584, 585–586, 585f, 588
foreign policy assessments, 584–585, 585f, 586, 588
international relation policies of, 699–700
international trust by, 668–669
majority/minority behavior by, 592–594
partisan weighting of performance evaluations, 586–589
political trust among, 122, 579–582, 581f, 595
Denters, B., 566
Deprovincialization, 154
Detroit Area Study (DAS), 235, 239
Deutsch, Morton, 17, 110, 261
De Vroome, Thomas, 243
Dickhaut, J., 164
Dictator game, 62–63, 65, 72n11, 121, 294–296, 311
Dimensions debate, 21–22
Dimock, M. A., 668
Dimoka, Angelika, 123
Dincer, Oguzhan, 546–547, 549
Dinesen, Peter Thisted, 9–10, 42, 129–131, 175, 178, 183–185, 187, 190–191, 205, 211–213, 218, 221, 223, 237, 400, 412, 484–485
Direct social trust, 83
Discontinuity effect, 98–99
Discrimination. See also Bias
cultural persistence and, 220
of immigrants, 69
institutional, 242
intergroup contact in reduction of, 109
measurement of, 19
national identity and, 57, 65
in political system, 243
racism and, 85, 241, 242
segregation, 6, 9–10, 176, 178–179, 182, 183
social trust and, 9, 241–242, 244
well-being and, 423, 424, 424f
Distributive negotiation, 696–697
Distrust. See also Cynicism
in democracies, 76, 338–339
engaged, 80, 90, 92
health consequences of, 447–449, 461
in hourglass societies, 450
institutionalized, 78, 79
of international actors, 661–663, 662t
international organizations resulting from, 693–694
invalidation through experience, 101
in politicians, 498
in poor populations, 48, 51
in Prisoner’s Dilemma, 272, 339
in protest groups, 43
in rational choice theory, 272, 273
schema-based, 99
theoretical approaches to, 38
Diven, P. J., 675
(p. 713) Diversity-trust studies, 175204. See also Immigrants; specific racial and ethnic groups
causal inference in, 192–194, 198
on contact with diverse groups, 166n2, 182–183, 189
contextual diversity measures in, 184–186, 189, 190–191
cross-sectional designs for, 189, 194–196
on cultural vs. institutional origins of trust, 241–244
education in, 186–187, 242
on erosion of trust in strangers, 177–179
experimental designs for, 192–193
extraresidential, 186–187, 191
future research directions, 187–198, 244
individual-level panel designs for, 187, 189, 193–194, 199n6
labels and categorizations within, 232
measurement considerations in, 186, 198n3
meta-analyses of, 179–180, 196–197
moderators in, 183–184, 188–190, 198
national variations in, 180–182, 198
overview, 175–176
police officers in, 645–646
on political trust, 237–240, 242–243
residential, 176–186, 190–191
segregation in, 9–10, 176, 178–179, 182, 183
on social trust, 232–237, 241–242
theoretical mechanisms in, 176–179, 187–188
on voluntary associations, 151, 153–155, 162, 187
in welfare states, 391–392
Divorce, 39, 52n1
Dixit, Avinsh K., 539
Dizygotic twins, 38, 120
Dohmen, Thomas, 130
Dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene, 121
Drezner, D. W., 679
Dubois, D., 322
Dunn, K., 569
Durkheim, Émile, 37, 42, 453
Dutch disease, 570
Dutt, Nitish, 393
Dyadic embeddedness, 313–317, 320–322
Dyadic principal-agent theory, 260
Earle, T. C., 641–642
Easterly, William, 364–365
Eastern Europe. See Central and Eastern Europe
Easton, David, 17, 378, 386–387, 599
eBay, 123, 318
ECB (European Central Bank), 676, 694
Eckel, C. C., 281, 282, 296
Ecological fallacy, 453
Ecological studies, 452–453
Economic development, 535555, 599615
associational activity and, 544, 553n5
causality of trust-growth association, 210, 548–550, 552
conditional effects of trust on, 550–551
corruption as hindrance to, 347, 478
cross-national analysis of, 605–606
in democracies, 343
direct mechanisms of, 537–539, 553
in diversity-trust studies, 181, 184
education and, 537, 540, 544
establishment of trust-growth association, 544–548
evaluation of, 600–604
indirect mechanisms of, 539–542
institutional quality and, 540, 542
longitudinal analysis of, 606, 610
macroeconomic, 396–397, 599–606, 610
in multilevel government, 609–610
natural resources and, 570
neoliberal reforms and, 348
objective outcomes of, 604–606
overview, 535–536
partisan views of, 584, 585–586, 585f, 588
patterns of, 543–544, 543f
political trust and, 8, 394, 396–397, 569–570, 599–606, 608–610
resource distribution and, 11, 538, 542
social trust and, 536, 547, 551
theoretical options for, 536–537, 536f
Economic inequality
associational membership and, 163
corruption and, 491
democratization and, 347–349
negative impact on trust, 8, 39, 350
political trust and, 371–372, 372f, 602, 606–607
(p. 714) social cohesion and, 348
social trust and, 366f, 367, 413, 481
trust gap due to, 51, 389
in welfare states, 385, 390
well-being and, 413
Economic voting, 396, 573
Edelman Trust Barometer, 51
Edmark, K., 193
Education
for citizenship, 57
diversity and, 186–187, 242
economic growth and, 537, 540, 544
international trust and, 667, 668
investment in, 539
political trust and, 52n7, 373, 569
social trust and, 9, 48, 363–364
tax morale and, 65, 503
EEG (electroencephalogram), 123
Eek, D., 485
Eger, Maureen A., 392
Elections, 617631. See also American National Election Studies; Politics
accountability factors in, 387, 396, 541, 569
clientelism in, 491
Comparative Study of Electoral Systems, 564, 607, 611n3
corruption in, 620
democratic, 78–79
economic voting in, 396, 573
fairness in, 568–569, 620, 625
financing of, 89, 91
future research directions, 627–629
overview, 617–618
populism in, 87, 623–624, 628, 629
turnout in, 11, 618–621
vote-choice process in, 621–624
winner-loser effects in, 562, 607, 624–627
Electroencephalogram (EEG), 123
Ellinas, A. A., 569–570
Ellis, I. O., 564
Elster, Jon, 259
Embedded trust, 263, 271, 272–273
Emig, Arthur G., 239–240
Emotional stability, 128, 131–133, 135
Employment. See Unemployment
Empowered monitoring, 78–79
Encapsulated interest, 231, 255, 257, 638, 689–690, 693–695
Endogeneity
in contextual studies, 393
in corruption studies, 482, 483
cross-sectional designs and, 161
in diversity-trust studies, 189, 190
in economic growth-trust association, 548, 550
in health studies, 462–463
instrumental variables approach to, 483
in voluntary association studies, 162
Endogenous embeddedness, 318–320, 324–325
Engaged distrust, 80, 90, 92
Engelmann, D., 320, 321
Engle-Warnick, J., 321
Enos, R. D., 192, 193
Ensminger, Jean, 260, 261, 264
Entrapment, 695, 699, 700
Envelope drop experiment, 18, 31n10
Environmental issues, 563
EQI (European Quality of Government Index), 478
Equality, Security and Community Survey (ESCS), 236
Equivalence debate, 22, 25
Erikson, Erik, 474
Ermisch, J., 20, 25
Ervasti, Heikki, 392
Esaiasson, P., 187, 562
Estrogens, 122, 123
Ethnic bias, 65
Ethnic conception of national identity, 60–61, 66–70, 72n8
Ethnic conflict, 6, 349, 352
Ethnic considerations. See Diversity-trust studies
Etzioni, A., 106
Eurobarometer, 393, 564, 606, 611n3, 676, 677–678
Europe. See also specific regions
associational membership in, 151
correlation between political and social trust in, 44
economic inequality in, 607
(p. 715) Great Recession in, 394, 608, 609
immigrants in, 9, 211–214, 484
lifebuoy effect in, 609–610
political trust in, 12, 563, 566
voter turnout in, 619, 621
welfare programs in, 391, 397–398
European Central Bank (ECB), 676, 694
European Election Study, 677, 678
European Quality of Government Index (EQI), 478
European Social Survey (ESS)
assessment intervals, 419
on democratic satisfaction, 627
health data from, 466
immigrant data from, 211–213
income data from, 417
inequality data from, 607
life evaluation questions on, 409, 415, 423
most-people question on, 8, 410
on political trust, 10, 421–422, 421f, 563, 569, 606
on social trust, 10, 415–417, 421–423, 421f, 424, 485
on welfare programs, 397
European Values Survey (EVS), 464, 499, 530
Euroscepticism, 398, 565
Evans, Geoffrey, 343
Exceptionalism, American, 180, 219, 220
Experiential adaptation of trust, 206, 210–216, 218–220, 223–224, 226
Extraversion, 125, 128, 130, 131–133, 135
Eysenck, Hans J., 125
Facial trustworthiness, 20, 124
Fairness
in elections, 568–569, 620, 625
perceptions of, 476–477, 483–484, 487, 490
of police officers, 647–648
procedural, 625, 640, 646
Faith-in-People Scale, 17, 18
Familiarity-breeds-trust argument, 177, 178
Fatke, M., 569
Fehr, E., 19, 20, 25
Feldman, J. L., 208–209
Females. See Gender differences
Fennema, Meindert, 240
Fiduciary trust, 273n1, 690
Figueras, N., 320, 321
Financial crisis. See Great Recession
Fine, G. A., 165
Finseraas, H., 192
First-order institutional trust, 89–90
Fischer, D. H., 412
Fisher, J., 21, 676
Fisher, R. J., 108
Fisher, Samuel H., 239–240
Fitzgerald, J., 566
Fixed effects modeling, 162, 163, 166n3, 463
fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging), 123
Folk realism, 679
Folk theorem for repeated games, 327n5
Foreign policy. See International relations
Forms debate, 21–22, 25
Forte, Anabel, 547
Fowler, J. H., 449
Fox News Channel, 669–670
Fractionation strategy, 110
Framingham Heart Study, 449
Free riding
in business relations, 38
collective action as assurance against, 257, 450
embedded trust and, 273
in international relations, 695, 700
in trust games, 280, 690
vaccinations and, 257, 451
in welfare states, 388, 391
Freitag, Markus, 9, 15, 130, 131, 138n28, 177, 279, 295, 486, 569
Frey, Vincenz, 281, 305, 324–325
Frey, William J., 138n35
Fuchs, D., 559
Fukuyama, Frances, 262, 264, 413, 536–538, 639
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), 123
Gächter, S., 21, 285
Gallup World Poll (GWP)
assessment intervals, 419
immigrant data from, 215
income data from, 417
life evaluation questions on, 409, 415
on social trust, 416
(p. 716) Gambetta, Diego, 101, 272
Game theory, 255, 306, 311. See also specific types of games
Gamson, William A., 17, 369
Gautschi, T., 321
GBS (Global Barometers Survey), 358, 362, 367–368
GCB (Global Corruption Barometer), 478, 480
Gender differences
in genetic influences, 120–121, 125
in hormonal influences, 123
in personality traits, 126
in tax morale, 503
Generalized trust. See Social trust
General Social Survey (GSS)
correlation with trust games, 284–286, 294, 296
criticisms of, 284
on ethnoracial differences, 236
most-people question on, 8, 22, 279
predictive power of, 21
trust variables in, 18, 99, 220, 448, 453, 563
on voluntary associations, 161
Genetic influences
candidate-gene studies on, 121, 122, 124, 135
environmental interactions and, 121, 136n5
genome-wide studies on, 121–122, 124, 135
stability of, 10
twin studies on, 38, 120, 124, 135, 136n1, 136n3
Genna, G. M., 678
Genocide, 349, 352, 452
Genome-wide studies, 121–122, 124, 135
Gerritsen, D., 677
Gerxhäni, K., 325, 498
Gesthuizen, M., 184
Geys, Benny, 162, 391
Gibbons, Robert, 263
Giddens, Anthony, 636, 640
Gidron, N., 216
Gilbert, L., 151
Gilens, Martin, 391
Gilligan, M. J., 283
Gilljam, M., 187
Gilovich, T., 101–102
Girl Scout troops, 159
Gitelman, Z., 214
Glaeser, E. L., 18, 19, 21, 284, 448
Glanville, J. L., 38, 154, 157, 161, 162, 164, 166n3, 474
Glaser, C. L., 691
Global Barometers Survey (GBS), 358, 362, 367–368
Global Competitiveness Report (World Economic Forum), 485–486
Global Corruption Barometer (GCB), 478, 480
Global warming, 563
Globetti, Suzanne, 242
Goff, L., 413
Goffman, E., 100
Goldsmith, B. E., 678
Goodsell, Charles T., 399
Gordon, P., 486
Grabb, Edward, 240
Graduated reciprocation in tension reduction (GRIT), 106
Graeff, P., 482, 483
Granger causality test, 482, 483
Granovetter, Mark, 262–263, 265, 269
Grant, P. R., 108
Great Recession
fiscal stimulus in response to, 593
macroeconomic performance prior to, 600
policy changes resulting from, 401
political trust following, 41, 50, 393–394, 569–570, 608, 609
well-being outcomes following, 415
Grey economy, 346–347
Grier, Robin, 550
Grimm, V., 325
GRIT (graduated reciprocation in tension reduction), 106
Grönlund, Kimmo, 619
Grønning, L. M., 569
Grosjean, P., 572
Guiso, L., 209, 553n3, 678
Guriev, Sergei M., 394
Gustafsson, K., 569
Güth, W., 320, 321
(p. 717) Hahn, V., 676
Hakhverdian, A., 602, 607
Hallmark, W., 99, 104
Hammar, H., 498, 499
Handbook of Rational Choice Social Research (Wittek et al.), 256
Hardin, Garrett, 257
Hardin, Russell, 6, 101, 231, 255–257, 260–262, 264, 272, 601, 635–638, 648, 689–691
Hard news sources, 670
Harell, A., 187
Harmgart, H., 321
Harteveld, E., 609, 610
Haugsgjerd, Atle, 385
Hayes, Matthew, 10, 119
Health care system
reforms in, 124, 582, 589–591, 590f, 594
trust in, 640–641
in welfare states, 572
Health studies, 447470. See also Well-being
causal inference in, 461–465
on collective action, 450–451
ecological, 452–453
future research directions, 465–467
on general vs. domain-specific trust, 451–452
multilevel, 453–461
self-reported vs. objective measures in, 462
social cohesion in, 448, 449, 457
on social norm reinforcement, 451
on social support exchanges, 449–450
theoretical mechanisms for, 449–452
traditional methodology for, 447–449
well-being and, 423, 424f, 425
Heimer, Carol, 261
Helbling, M., 181
Helliwell, John F., 214, 215, 409, 413
Herd immunity, 450, 451
Herfindahl-Hirschman Fractionalization Index, 186
Heritability of trust, 120
Herreros, F., 485–486
Hessami, Z., 676
Hesse, Michael B., 239–240
Hetherington, Marc J., 12, 24, 242, 579, 604, 622–623, 628
Hibbing, J. R., 154–155
Hierarchy of trust, 4546t, 45–47
Hipp, J. R., 161
Hiraishi, Kai, 125, 130, 131
Hispanics. See Latinos/Latinas
HIV/AIDS, 375, 451–452
Hjerm, Mikael, 392
Hobbes, Thomas, 37, 258
Hobolt, Sara B., 398
Hoffman, A. M., 687, 690
Hoffman, Philip T., 264
Holyfield, L., 165
Hommerich, C., 414
Homophily, 178, 262, 337, 348
Hooghe, Mark, 21, 161–162, 211–212, 279, 484, 565, 569, 617, 624, 626
Hopkins, D. J., 189
Horiuchi, Y., 678
Horizontal trust. See Social trust
Hormonal influences on trust, 121–124, 135, 137n15
Horváth, Roman, 546, 548, 551
Hosking, Geoffrey, 358
Hough, Mike, 633
Hourglass societies, 450
Howard, M. M., 151
Huang, Haifang, 409
Huck, S., 321, 323
Huseby, Beate M., 397, 562, 563
Husser, J. A., 24
Hutchison, M. L., 572
Hyphenated trust, 269
IAT (implicit-association test), 19
Identity and trust, 6, 57–58, 62–70, 702. See also National identity
Ignatieff, Michael, 60, 71n3
IMF (International Monetary Fund), 352, 674–676
Immigrants, 205229. See also Diversity-trust studies
citizenship tests for, 57
in civic vs. ethnic conception of national identity, 60, 66–70
(p. 718) cultural persistence of trust in, 206, 210–220, 223, 226
decomposition of sources of trust in, 216–217
in Europe, 9, 211–214, 484
experiential adaptation of trust in, 206, 210–216, 218–220, 223–224, 226
future research directions, 216–221, 226–227
institutional quality as factor for, 223–224, 224f, 227n4
parent-child correlation in trust among, 218–219, 236–237
political trust and, 6, 215–216, 243
research limitations regarding, 216–221
self-selection of, 220–221, 224
social trust and, 9, 206–215, 242
Swedish, 221–226, 225f, 227n4, 227n7
in United States, 208–211, 214, 219, 226, 484, 549
in welfare states, 391, 392
well-being of, 412–413
xenophobia and, 66, 680
Immunizations, 257, 450–451
Implicit-association test (IAT), 19
Income inequality. See Economic inequality
Individualism, methodological, 255, 258–259, 262
Individual-level panel designs, 187, 189, 193–194, 199n6
Inequality. See Economic inequality
Inequality trap, 390, 481, 487, 607
Inglehart, Ronald, 364, 677
Ingroup bias, 98
Ingroup-outgroup trust, 95115. See also Voluntary associations
alternatives to, 109–110
barriers to, 97–103
benefits of, 103–105
conceptualizing, 96–97
creating and sustaining, 105–110
erosion of, 177–178
future research directions, 110–111
literature review, 95
oxytocin administration and, 137n13
radius of trust for, 342, 414
structural approaches to, 108–109
third-party interventions and, 102, 108
unilateral behavioral initiatives for facilitation of, 105–108
voluntary associations and, 151–153
Insko, C. A., 98–99, 102
Institutional discrimination, 242
Institutional individualism, 258–259
Institutionalized corruption, 89, 269
Institutionalized distrust, 78, 79
Institutional trust. See Political trust
Instrumental trust, 273n1
Instrumental variables (IV) approach, 193, 390, 463–465, 483, 548–549
Integrative negotiation, 697
Intergroup Conflict Simulation, 108
Intergroup contact theory, 153, 154
International Country Risk Guide (ICRG), 480, 519, 525t, 526, 527t, 528, 529t
International governmental organizations, 672–676
Internationalism, 667, 668, 671–673
International Monetary Fund (IMF), 352, 674–676
International relations, 687705
diplomacy in, 678–679, 688, 696–698, 700–701
future research directions, 702
historical understandings of, 657
internationalist vs. isolationist policies, 667, 668, 671–672, 681
moralistic trust in, 688, 690–693
multilateral cooperation in, 687–688, 693–696, 699
negotiation strategies in, 688, 696–698, 700–701
partisan assessments of foreign policy, 584–585, 585f, 586, 588
rationalist theories of, 687–690, 692–694
security dilemmas and, 571, 691
social psychology theory of, 699–701
social trust in, 667–668, 695–696
strategic trust in, 687–690
International Social Survey Program (ISSP), 68–69
International trust, 657685
(p. 719) of citizens vs. leaders, 663
consequences for public opinion, 670–674
defined, 658
of democracies, 665
demographic influences on, 665–667
explanations for, 661–663, 662t
foundations of, 665–670, 666t
future research needs, 680–681
implications for international relations, 678–679
in international governmental organizations, 672–676
measurement of, 659–661, 659–660, 663–665
media use and, 669–670, 677
in nations and nationalities, 676–678
overview, 657–658
party identification and political ideology in, 668–669
political trust and, 668
social trust and, 667–668
Internet-based communities. See Online communities
Interpersonal incomparability, 22
Interpersonal trust. See Social trust
Interpersonal Trust Scale, 18, 260
Investment games (IGs)
development of, 18, 281
dyadic embeddedness in, 322
endogenous embeddedness in, 325
as measure of behavioral trust, 19
network embeddedness in, 324
social identity factors in, 164
structure of, 310
Involuntary physiological responses, 124, 135
Isajiw, Wsevolod W., 231–232
Islam and Muslims
political trust among, 240, 243
social trust among, 237, 364
survey categorizations of, 232
Isolated associations, 153, 155–157, 156f, 163, 166n4
Isolationism, 667, 668, 671, 681
ISSP (International Social Survey Program), 68–69
Item-number debate, 21, 22, 25
Jackson, Jonathan, 633, 645
Jagers, S. C., 498
Jakobsen, Tor Georg, 559, 569
Janmaat, J. G., 199n6
Jensen, Carsten, 391
Jewish immigrants, trust among, 215, 245n7
Johansson-Stenman, O., 285
Johnson, Jeffrey C., 264, 575
Johnson, N. D., 281–282, 289, 299
Johnson, T., 676
Johnston, R., 214
Justice system. See Criminal justice system
Kahn, M. E., 176, 184
Kaiser Health Tracking Poll, 589
Kaltenthaler, K., 667
Karlan, D., 282–283, 285
Karpowitz, C. F., 193
Katok, E., 322, 323
Kawachi, Ichiro, 412, 447, 466
Keashly, L., 108
Keefer, Philip, 19, 283, 538–540, 542, 544–546, 550, 553
Keele, L., 604
Kelman, H. C., 107
Kennedy, John F., 105, 106
Kenworthy, L., 608
Keohane, Robert, 687, 689, 691
Kertzer, J. D., 679
Kesler, C., 181
Kessler Psychological Distress scale (K-6), 453, 457
Khagram, S., 491
Khrushchev, Nikita, 105, 106
Kim, D., 464, 466
Kimbrough, C. D., 634–636, 648–649
Kimmel, M., 103
Klingemann, H. D., 559, 564
Knack, Stephen, 19, 283, 410, 538–540, 542, 544–546, 548, 550, 553, 553n3, 676
Knafo, A., 121
Knez, M., 96, 102
Knowledge-based trust, 261, 637–638
Kobayashi, T., 461
(p. 720) Kokkonen, A., 187
Kollock, Peter, 266, 321, 325
Koopmans, R., 188, 192
Kornberg, Allan, 393
Kosfeld, Michael, 137n11
Kramer, Roderick M., 62, 95, 261
Kramer, Rodney, 5
Kreps, D. M., 313–314
Kressel, K., 103
Kroeger, Frens, 271
Kröger, S., 282, 285, 286
Kroknes, V. F., 569, 606
Krosgaard, M. A., 476
Kuhlman, D. M., 699
Ku Klux Klan, 158
Kumlin, Staffan, 385, 389, 397, 398–399, 487, 572–573
Kydd, A. H., 688
Laczko, L., 485
La Ferrara, E., 176, 182
Lambsdorff, Johann, 480, 482
Lamprianou, I., 569–570
Lane, Robert E., 126
La Porta, Rafael, 481, 548
Larizza, M., 572
Larsen, Christian Albrekt, 389
Lasswell, Harold, 591
Last Week Tonight with John Oliver (television program), 670
The Late Show with Stephen Colbert (television program), 670
Latin America, 357381
autocracies in, 341
bridging vs. bonding trust in, 361–364, 363t, 365t, 378
clientelism in, 366
comparative studies on social and political trust, 358, 359f, 367, 368f
consequences of political trust in, 377t, 378
democratization in, 335, 339
economic inequality in, 8, 348, 366f, 367, 371–372, 372f, 607
future research directions, 379
modernization theory in, 357–358
networks of trust in, 340–341
political trust in, 343–345, 344f, 367–373, 368f, 375f, 378
radius of social and political trust, 361–363, 362f
religion in, 364
social trust in, 344, 344f, 358–367
sources of social and political trust, 363–364, 365t, 366–367, 371–373, 374t
subjective evaluation of economic performance in, 603
survey data on social and political trust, 358–361, 367–371
trust games in, 283
Latinobarometer, 358, 363, 367, 373, 379n6, 606
Latino National Political Survey (LNPS), 240
Latinos/Latinas
political trust among, 240, 243
social trust among, 99, 236
League of Nations, 695–696
Leapfrog democracy, 592
Learning effects, 315, 316, 318, 321, 322, 324
Lee, Cheol-Sung, 388
Lee, Frances, 592
Left-wing populism, 624
Legitimacy
of authoritarian regimes, 37, 79
of criminal justice system, 638, 642, 647–649
of democracies, 336, 338–339, 343, 348
of political system, 628, 629
of welfare states, 572
Lenard, Patti Tamara, 9, 57
Leniency bias, 104
Letki, Natalia, 8, 335, 343
Levi, Margaret, 255, 260, 284
Levine, Ross, 364–365
Lewis, A., 498
Lewis, J. D., 97
Liebrand, W. B., 699
Lifebuoy effect, 609–610
Lind, E. A., 476
Lindskold, S., 106
Listhaug, Ola, 397, 559, 564, 565, 571
Liu, C., 41
Ljunge, M., 212
LNPS (Latino National Political Survey), 240
(p. 721) Loader, I., 642
Locke, John, 37, 42
Lubbers, M., 677
Lubell, M., 498
Lühiste, Kadri, 137n20, 397
Lula da Silva, Luiz Inácio, 361
Lundgren, Henriette, 138n30
Lundqvist, H., 193
Lünser, G. K., 323
Mackie, D. M., 98
Macroeconomic performance, 396–397, 599–606, 610
Macy, M. W., 164, 165
Madison, James, 369
Mafia, 270, 273
Mansbridge, Jane, 5
Manski, C. F., 24
MAOA (monoamine oxidase A) gene, 121
Marien, S., 563, 569
Marks, G., 565
Marquart-Pyatt, S., 161
Marschall, Melissa J., 176, 182, 235, 242
Marshello, A. F., 699
Martin, P. S., 161
Martini, S., 611n3
Mass media, scaling of social trust by, 85–87
Mattes, Robert, 8, 357
Maxwell, Rahsaan, 215–216, 243
Mayhew, David, 593
Mayraz, G., 413
Mbeki, Thabo, 375
McAllister, Ian, 396
McCabe, D., 164
McClintock, C. G., 699
McConnell, Mitch, 593, 594
McGraw, K. M., 679
McLaren, L., 67, 391–392
Measurement. See also Measurement of trust
of corruption, 479–480
of discrimination, 19
of diversity, 186, 198n3
of health, 462
of national identity, 61
of personality traits, 126, 447
of social support, 424
of trustworthiness, 279, 281, 284–286, 291–294, 296
Measurement inequivalence, 22
Measurement of trust, 1536
behavioral measurements, 17–20, 284–286
debates and questions regarding, 6, 15, 21–23
definitions of trust for, 15–16
developments and innovations in, 16–20, 51
future of, 23–27
international, 659–661, 659–660, 663–665
overview, 15
policy implications and, 30
political, 17–18, 20, 21, 44, 63, 563
self-report measurements, 8–9, 17–20, 30n1
survey data, 25–27, 27t, 2829f
well-being and, 409–410, 415–420, 418t, 420t
Media influences, 85–87, 669–670, 677
Mediated clientelism, 87, 90
Mediation hypothesis, 125
Méon, Pierre-Guillaume, 549
Mercer, J., 690, 702
Merolla, Jennifer L., 122, 137n14
Mertins, Vanessa, 121
Messick, David M., 62, 98, 261
Methodological individualism, 255, 258–259, 262
Mettler, Suzanne, 399
Michelson, Melissa R., 240, 243
Michigan Socialization Study, 161
Miguel, E., 572
Militant internationalism, 671–673
Mill, John Stuart, 42, 535
Millennials, 563
Miller, A. S., 279
Miller, Arthur H., 239, 397, 560–561
Miller, David, 9, 57
Miller, Gary J., 259
Miller, W., 667
Milosevic, Slobodan, 349
Min Han, S., 607, 611n3
(p. 722) Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, 447
Minnesota Mycological Society, 165
Minorities. See Diversity-trust studies
Mishler, William, 127, 339, 343, 369
Mislin, A. A., 281–282, 289, 299
Mistrust. See Distrust
Mitamura, T., 279
Mixed-motives games, 106, 701
Modernity and Self-Identity (Giddens), 640
Modernization theory, 357–358
Mogensen, K., 678–679
Möllering, Guido, 261, 636
Molm, Linda D., 265
Mondak, Jeffery J., 10, 119, 125, 131, 138n35
Monitoring functions in democracies, 78–79, 88
Monitoring the Future (MtF) survey, 563
Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene, 121
Monozygotic twins, 38, 120
Montoro, Alejandra, 138n27
Mood theory, 670
Mooradian, Todd, 138n34
Moore, R. T., 191
The Moral Basis of a Backward Society (Banfield), 85
The Moral Foundations of Trust (Uslaner), 473
Moral hazards, 260, 478, 539, 695
Moralistic trust, 502, 530, 639, 688, 690–693, 702
Moreno, Alejandro, 8, 343, 357
Moshcion, J., 210, 214–215
Most-people question
critiques of, 279
development of, 17
dichotomous vs. scale versions of, 22, 410
in public goods game, 21
respondent interpretations of, 22–23, 23f, 28, 40, 245n8
self-report responses to, 19, 20, 358
Motivated reasoning, 582, 583–584, 586, 595
Motive-based trust, 646
Moving to Opportunity Demonstration Program, 465, 467n1
MSNBC, 669, 670
MtF (Monitoring the Future) survey, 563
Mulcahy, A., 642
Multiculturalism. See Diversity-trust studies
Multilateral cooperation, 687–688, 693–696, 699
Multilevel studies, 453–461
Mungiu-Pippidi, Alina, 478
Mura hachibu phenomenon, 467
Murayama, H., 461
Muslims. See Islam and Muslims
Mussolini, Benito, 87
Mutual responsiveness, 107, 108
Naef, M., 20, 285, 286, 295
Nannestad, Peter, 213, 484
National identity, 5774
civic vs. ethnic conception of, 60–61, 66–70, 72n8
cultural markers of, 70–71
defined, 58–61
discrimination and, 57, 65
measurement of, 61
requirements for existence of, 59
tolerance to newcomers and, 67–69
trust-related effects of, 6, 57–58, 63–70
Nationalism, 59, 60, 64, 67, 70
National Politics and Socialization Survey (NPSS), 236
Nation-building programs, 57
Nativism, 85, 391, 680, 681
Natural disasters, 414–415, 423
Natural experiments, 193, 221, 465
Natural resources, 570–571
Nee, Victor, 258
Negotiation strategies, 688, 696–698, 700–701
Neoclassical economics, 253, 258
Neoliberal institutionalism, 689, 692
Neoliberal reforms, 341, 343, 348
Neorealism, 691
Neral, J., 320, 321
Ness, C., 325
Network embeddedness, 316–318, 322–325
Networks of trust, 263, 265–271, 273, 340–341
Neuroimaging studies, 123, 124, 135
Neuroticism, 138n36
(p. 723) Nevitte, Neil, 240, 243
New Immigrant Survey (NIS), 236
Newton, Kenneth, 7–10, 37, 72n12, 127, 137n20, 394
Nguyen-Van, P., 322
Nie, N. H., 38
9/11 terrorist attacks (2001), 582, 584–585
Nonresponse bias, 163
Nordblom, K., 498
Norms
as constraints on individual behavior, 540
cultural, 68, 71
health-related behaviors, 451
institutional, 88–90
of reciprocity, 538
reinforcement of, 451
shared, 84, 357, 537
in social capital creation, 264
in voluntary associations, 7, 150, 151
voter turnout and, 620
in working relationships, 107–108
Norris, Pippa, 127, 387, 560, 561, 564
North Africa, political and social trust in, 359f, 363, 367, 368f
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), 672–675, 695–696, 700
Northern Europe
diversity-trust studies in, 186–187
immigrants from, 208
levels of trust in, 39, 484
NPSS (National Politics and Socialization Survey), 236
Nunn, Nathan, 365–366
Nunnally, Shayla. C., 236
Obama, Barack, 243, 582, 583, 593, 594
Obamacare, 589, 594
Occupy movement, 270
Ochs, J., 320, 321
Ockenfels, A., 322, 323
Odbert, Henry S., 128
Offe, Claus, 88
Öhrvall, R., 227n4
Olekalns, M., 697, 698
Olson, Mancur, 257
Online communities
eBay, 123, 318
rational choice theory on, 257, 267, 268, 272
reputation in, 267, 268, 316, 319, 323
Openness to experience, 128–129, 131–133, 138nn27–28, 190
Opportunistic behavior, 259–260, 273, 308, 479, 538, 691, 695–696
Orbitofrontal cortex, 123, 124
Osgood, Charles, 106
Oskanen, T., 463
Oskarsson, S., 41, 125, 130
Ostrom, Elinor, 257
Outgroup schema, 99
Outgroup trust. See Ingroup-outgroup trust
Oversocialized view of trust, 265
Owens, L. A., 608
Oxytocin, 121, 122, 124, 135, 137nn11–14, 465
Papandopolus, Y., 565
Parent-child correlation in trust, 218–219, 236–237
Park, C., 153, 163, 165, 603
Parker, Suzanne, 626
Particularized trust
corruption and, 476
defined, 4, 40, 58, 337, 639, 692
in democracies, 46, 82, 84–85, 337
in grey economy, 346–347
national identity and, 68, 70
predemocratic legacies of, 340–341
voluntary associations and, 7, 43–44
Partisanship, in polarization of political trust, 580–589, 581f, 585f, 587–588
Patterson, O., 48
Paxton, Pamela, 7, 38, 149, 156, 161, 163, 164, 166nn3–4, 474, 676
Pearl Harbor attack (1941), 100
Pegnetter, R., 108
Personality traits, 125–134
Big Five, 10, 126–133, 137n22
cynicism as, 447, 448
in diversity-trust studies, 189–190
future research directions, 135
gender differences in, 126
genetic influences on, 125, 135
measurement of, 126, 447
political trust and, 127, 129–135, 134t, 569
in psychological propensity model, 38
(p. 724) social trust and, 125, 126–135, 134t
stability of, 125, 126, 135
Personalized trust, 40
Petersen, Mark, 626
Pettersen, P. A., 566
Pettigrew, T., 109
Pew Research Center, 563, 659, 677
Pierskalla, J. H., 571–572
Pluralistic trust, 642
Polanyi, Karl, 644
Polarization of political trust, 579597
consequences of, 579–580, 589–591, 590f, 594–595
contributing factors in growth of, 563, 582–589
emergence of, 12, 580–582, 581f
in government performance evaluations, 584–586, 585f
micro-level and macro-level findings on, 591–594
motivated reasoning in, 582, 583–584, 586, 595
partisanship in, 580–589, 581f, 585f, 587–588
Police and People in London (Smith & Gray), 633
Police officers
body cameras for, 270
cooperation with, 633, 638
in democracies vs. authoritarian regimes, 488
in diversity-trust studies, 645–646
fairness of, 647–648
order-maintenance style of, 646–647
regulatory powers of, 48, 637
social and cultural meaning attributed to, 634
stereotypical views of, 635
trust of, 12, 421–422, 421f, 633, 635, 645–649
in value-bearing narratives, 642, 647
Political cynicism, 81, 358, 370, 378, 561
Political distance, 560–562
Political Risk Service Group, 480
Political trust
biological basis of, 120–122, 124–125
conflict and, 571–572
correlation with social trust, 39–40, 44–45, 126–127, 137n20
corruption and, 81–82, 84, 482, 484–487, 489–491, 605
defined, 4, 337, 357
economic inequality and, 371–372, 372f, 602, 606–607
economic performance and, 8, 394, 396–397, 569–570, 599–606, 608–610
education and, 52n7, 373, 569
elections and. See Elections
ethnoracial factors, 237–240, 242–243. See also Diversity-trust studies
in evaluative approach, 600–603
first-order, 89–90
foundations of, 10–12, 231, 262, 559–562
governance quality and, 519, 526, 527–528
immigrants and, 6, 215–216, 243
importance of, 6, 11, 37–38
institutional effects of, 564–570, 573
international. See International trust
measurement of, 17–18, 20, 21, 44, 63, 563
national identity and, 63–64, 66–67
natural resources and, 570–571
performance indicators related to, 562
persistence and adaptation in, 215–216
personality and, 127, 129–135, 134t, 569
polarization of. See Polarization of political trust
predemocratic legacies of, 341–342
rational choice theory on, 269–271
research on. See Trust research
second-order, 90–91
tax morale and. See Tax morale
theoretical approaches to, 38–40, 386–387
types of, 40–41
in welfare states. See Welfare states
well-being and, 421–422, 421f
Politics. See also Democratic Party; Elections; International relations; Political trust; Republican Party
behavioral approach to, 37–38
defined, 76
discrimination in, 243
(p. 725) division of labor within, 79–81
ethnification of, 349
Pooled cross-sectional data, 189, 194
Popkin, S. L., 668
Populism, 51, 87, 90, 623–624, 628, 629
Positional commitments, 697, 700
Posner, Daniel N., 540–542, 551, 553
Possibilistic logic, 691
Post-honeymoon effect, 343, 351
Post-treatment bias, 195, 196
Powell, G. B., 565
Power, Timothy J., 339
Prejudice. See Bias; Discrimination
Principal-agent relationships, 260, 271, 478, 539, 540
Prisoner’s Dilemma