- The Oxford Handbook of Social and Political Trust
- About the Editor
- The Study of Trust
- Measuring Trust
- Social and Political Trust
- Trust and National Identity
- Trust and Democracy
- Ingroup-Outgroup Trust: Barriers, Benefits, and Bridges
- Biological and Psychological Influences on Interpersonal and Political Trust
- Trust and Participation in Associations
- Ethnic Diversity and Social Trust: A Critical Review of the Literature and Suggestions for a Research Agenda
- Cultural Persistence or Experiential Adaptation?: A Review of Studies Using Immigrants to Examine the Roots of Trust
- Trust and Minority Groups
- Trust and Rational Choice
- Trust Experiments, Trust Games, and Surveys
- Trust Games: Game-Theoretic Approaches to Embedded Trust
- Trust in Newly Democratic Regimes
- Social and Political Trust in Developing Countries: Sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America
- Trust and the Welfare State
- New Evidence on Trust and Well-Being
- Trust and Population Health
- Trust and Corruption
- Trust and Tax Morale
- Social Trust and Economic Growth
- Foundations of Political Trust
- Political Trust and Polarization
- Economic Performance and Political Trust
- Trust and Elections
- Trust in Justice
- Trust in International Actors
- Trust in International Relations
Abstract and Keywords
This article focuses on the measurement of trust. First, we start with a brief conceptualization of trust, contrasting it with the concept of generalized trust. Second, we survey developments in trust measurement since the 1960s. Third, we summarize and try to systematize a number of measurement debates that have taken place. Fourth, we outline how trust measurement may develop in the future, discuss how differently formulated survey questions may abate some of the debates within the field, and present empirical data that follow some of these directions. Essentially we argue that trust—as opposed to generalized trust—should be measured through reliance on a set of more specific questions that measure expectations across a series of different situations.
Paul C. Bauer is a Research Fellow at the Mannheim Centre for European Social Research at the University of Mannheim.
Markus Freitag is Chair of Political Sociology at the University of Bern.
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