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date: 29 July 2021

Abstract and Keywords

This essay covers historical issues related to the later monarchy in Israel, especially the reigns of Hezekiah, Manasseh, and Josiah. It is argued that Samaria was conquered only once during Hezekiah’s day by Sargon, who was leading the army under Shalmaneser, and later took full credit for the campaign. It is suggested that Hezekiah did not participate in the Ashdod revolt, and may not have been the ring-leader in the later revolt against Sennacherib. Regarding the Assyrian invasion of 701 bce, it is suggested that Sennacherib was not completely successful. Though Judah was devastated, the survival and quick recovery of Judah allowed Judahite perception of Hezekiah’s rebellion as successful. The possibility of Manasseh’s temporary deportation to Babylon is considered in the context of Ashurbanipal’s presence in Babylon putting down rebellion. The extent of Josiah’s religious reforms and possible territorial expansion in the wake of the collapse of the Assyrian Empire is considered.

Keywords: Hezekiah, Manasseh, Josiah, Shalmaneser, Sargon, Sennacherib, Ashurbanipal, Esarhaddon, Necho, Jerusalem

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