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date: 31 October 2020

(p. 519) Index

(p. 519) Index

Page numbers followed by f and t indicate figures and tables, respectively. Numbers followed by n indicate notes.

Abbate, Carolyn, 174n36
Abbeville Press, 73
ABC Barn Dance, 251
Aboriginal music, 52n70, 496
Abrahams, Roger, 28n7
Absorption, 394n77
Academic Music Company, 126
Academy of Country Music (ACM), 108, 115n67
“Accidental Racist” (Paisley and LL Cool J), 459n31
Acculturation, 513n5
“Achy Breaky Heart” (Cyrus), 240, 442
AC (adult contemporary) music, 236, 240
Acoustic guitars, 187
Acuff, Roy, 416f, 465, 468, 470, 505
as “King of Country Music,” 294
performances, 231, 271–272, 503
recordings, 141, 205
“Stuck-up Blues,” 415
vocal style, 158
Acuff-Rose Publishing, 61, 211, 234, 294, 299
Adams, Richard W., 409nn5–6
Adler, Thomas, 25–26
Adorno, Theodor, 36, 284, 299
Adult contemporary (AC) music, 236, 240
Advertising, 236, 244, 339
Aeolian (Vocalion) Records, 123–124
Aerosmith, 460n35
Affrilachian poetry, 338
Afghanistan, 473
AFI Catalog of Feature Films, 264
African American contributions, 4, 18, 41, 307, 327, 333–334, 344–345, 347n14, 349n35, 501. See also Race and racism; Segregation; specific individuals by name
black banjo, 338
black country music, 338, 351n46, 353n59
black folk music, 331
black musical identity politics, 445
black string styles, 351n46
black vaudeville, 373n62
blues, 335, 348n29
cultural, 86, 89–90
disfranchisement, 463–464
early recordings, 207–209
exceptions, 337
gospel products, 400, 404
hillbilly music, 342
marginalization, 330–331
marginalization of, 340–341
mentors, 335–336, 349n31
minstrelsy, 336–337
musicians, 201n12
old-time, 120
peripheral influences, 334–337
prison narratives, 473–474
singing cowboy films, 270–271
African Banjo Echoes in Appalachia: A Study of Folk Traditions (Conway), 338
African music, 331
Afrikaans, 496, 503
Agnew, Spiro, 470–471
(p. 520) “Ain’t Goin’ Down (‘Til the Sun Comes Up)” (Brooks), 446
Airs and Melodies Peculiar to the Highlands of Scotland and the Isles, Communicated in an Original Pleasing and Familiar Style (Fraser), 126
Ai Se Eu Te Pago” (Teló), 509
Akeman, David “Stringbean,” 253
Akenson, James E., 351n48, 477n19
Akins, Thomas Rhett, Jr., 449
Akins, Thomas Rhett, Sr., 449
Alabama (band), 142
Alabama Sacred Harp Convention, 160
Alberta, Canada, 4, 95, 99–100, 102, 104–107, 109–110n2
“Alberta Says Hello” (Lund), 101
Albert C. Gannaway Productions, 274
Album oriented rock (AOR), 236
Alcoa Quartet, 402
Alcorn, Susan, 197–199, 204n57
Aldean, Jason, 243, 298, 388–389
Alden, Ray, 118, 130
Alexander, Charles McCallon, 396, 398, 402, 408n3, 409n11
Alexander’s Gospel Songs No. 2, 402
Alka Seltzer, 231, 364
Allen, Gary, 484
Allen, Gracie, 269
Allen, Roger, 241
Allen, Rosalie, 272
Allen Brothers, 162, 327, 345n1, 347n10
Allison, Joe, 63, 76n5, 234
Allman, Greg, 471
Allman Brothers, 368
Allyn and Bacon, 459n24
Almost Famous, 488
“Alô” (Chitãozinho and Xororó), 508
Alt-country, 219
Alternative Country, 88
Althusser, Louis, 340–341
Altman, Rick, 266–267, 280n9
Altman, Robert, 277, 470
Americana, 222, 237, 474
American Anthropological Association, 517n57
American Association of Museums, 79n26
American Cancer Society, 484
American Country Dance Association (ACDA), 448, 459n26
American country music, 499–505. See also Country music
American Federation of Musicians (AFM), 210–211, 358
American Film Institute (AFI), 264
American Folklife Center, 25
American Folklore Society, 359
American folklore studies, 136. See also Folklore studies
American Folk Song Festival, 135–136
American identity, 320
American Idol, 88, 242, 455
American Indians. See Native Americans
Americanism, 127
Americanization, 36
American Musicological Society (AMS), 352n58
The American National Song Book, 126
American Organist, 267–268
American Popular Music: From Minstrelsy to MP3 (Starr and Waterman), 6
American Quarterly, 10n32
American Recording Company, 270
American Roots Music (PBS), 349n33
“The Americans (A Canadian’s Opinion),” 468, 473
American Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers (ASCAP), 234
American South, 17–18, 33, 47n8. See also Southern thesis
Americanization of, 36
Deep South, 295
folk music of, 311
modernization of, 286–291
New South, 208, 295
Old South, 208
Southern Diaspora, 208
southern exceptionalism, 32, 39–40, 47n3
Southern Strategy (Republican Party), 295, 471
white South, 295
American styles, 181, 416–417
American thesis, 37, 498
“America’s music,” 215
Amplified guitar, 202n19
AM radio, 238–239. See also Radio
Anderson, Chris, 443
Anderson, John, 282n39, 407
Anderson, Lynn, 503
Anderson, Vernon, 133f
“And I Await the Resurrection of the Pedal Steel Guitar” (Alcorn), 204n57
Andrade, Oswald de, 508
Andrews, Julie, 252
Andrews Sisters, 61, 272
The Andy Griffith Show, 252–253, 256, 261n47, 321
Andy Nelson’s BBQ (Cockeysville, MD), 91
Anglo-American folk songs, 512
Anglo-American Folksong Scholarship Since 1898 (Wilgus), 22–23
“Angry man” music, 318
Animism, 406–407
Anonymous poetry, 15
Anthology of American Folk Music (Smith), 117, 120, 127, 349n33
Antifashion, 420
Antiwar songs, 468
Appalachia, 311, 331, 333, 347n14
black, 338
central, 99
southern, 16–17
Apple Music, 222
Appropriation, cultural, 365, 450
Apted, Michael, 371n35
Archambault, Tim, 346n4
Archive of American Folk Song, 332
Archive of Folk Culture, 25
Archives of Traditional Music (IU), 67
Arcus, Greil, 127
“Are You Washed in the Blood?” (Hoffmann), 401
Argentina, 500
“Arkansas Traveler,” 41, 254, 260n35, 266
Armed Forces Network, 498, 502
A&R (artist and repertory) men, 19–20
Arminius, Jacob, 397–399, 405
Armstrong, Edward G., 377–378
Armstrong, Louis, 269
Arnold, Eddy, 214, 255, 309, 362
Arnold, Lee, 239
Arthur, Charline, 379
Artifacts, 59
Artist and repertory (A&R) men, 19–20
Artists, 100. See also Musicians; Singers; Songwriters; individual artists
financial compensation, 292
financial success, 361
foreign-born, 504–506
Art world, 68
Arty Hill & The Long Gone Daddy, 91
ASCAP (American Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers), 234
Asch, Moses, 121
Asheville, North Carolina, 135–136
Ash Grove club, 252
Asia, 503. See also specific countries
Asian Americans, 328–329
Assembly music, 18
Asylum records, 486
Atkins, Chet, 213–215, 235, 347n9, 363, 503
Atkins, Rodney, 449
Atlanta, Georgia, 235, 291–295
Atlanta Journal, 230
Atwater-Kent radios, 59
Audiences, 307, 345n2, 479–480
consumer demographics, 285
film, 270
LGBT, 83n91, 86, 379
radio, 239–241
Aunt Susie Records, 505
Austin, Stephen, 135
Austin, Texas, 112n26, 217, 236–237, 469
Austin City Limits, 250
Austria, 501, 517n57
Authenticity, 14, 220–221, 286, 298, 310–315, 355–373, 417
blues, 349n34
folk, 300
hillbilly, 287–288
neo-traditionalist, 321
New Hollywood, 276
old-time, 177
purity by proxy, 308
southern rock, 349n34
working-class folk culture, 307–308
(p. 522) Authorship, 22
Automation, mechanical, 200n6
Automobiles, 289
Autry, Gene, 61, 211, 254
clothing style, 423–424, 424f
fan club, 483
performances, 231, 270–271, 312
as singing cowboy, 312, 417, 424f
singing style, 162
V-Discs, 210–211
Averill, Patrick, 9n7
Awkward, Michael, 353n65
“Aw Naw” (Young), 388
Axton, Hoyt, 275
Ayler, Albert, 198
Aylesworth, John, 252–254, 256
Babiuk, Andy, 203n38
Baby, the Rain Must Fall, 274
“Baby Got Back” (Six Mix-A-Lot), 389
Backstage passes, 488
“Back Street Affair” (Pierce), 375
Bacon, Peter, 174n44
Bacon-Smith, Camille, 482
Bad boys, 316
Baez, Joan, 296
Bailey, Beth, 365
Bailey, DeFord, 141, 231, 293, 327, 350n41
Baily, John, 179
Baker, Etta, 118
Baker, Sarah, 10n26, 52n70
Bakersfield, California, 112n26, 226n40, 236, 288
Bakersfield Sound, 75, 214, 288, 449
“The Ballad of Jed Clampett” (Flatt and Scruggs), 253
“The Ballad of the Green Berets” (Sadler), 468
Ballads, 332–334, 348n24, 405, 501
bush, 508
Child, 16
Columbia River, 466
English, 15–16
French, 501
German, 501
murder, 319
North America, 17
Scottish, 15–16, 500–501
Spanish, 501
traditional, 16
vulgar, 16, 18
Ballroom dance, 454–455
Baltzell, John, 42
The Bandits, 453
Band Perry, 88
Banjo, 18, 149, 209, 224n16, 333, 336, 496
black, 338, 351n45
Banjo on My Knee, 265
Banjo Romantika, 506
“Barbara Allen,” 500
The Barbara Mandrell Show, 249
Barcelata, Lorenzo, 271
Bare, Bobby, 503
Barker, Kenneth Brandon, 201n11
Barn dance(s), 129, 210, 281n29, 336–337, 440
Barn dance radio, 164, 230–233, 250, 287–288, 320, 350, 350n38, 358
on television, 251
WLS National Barn Dance, 20–21, 78n16, 133f, 143, 231–233, 501
Barnes, Ken, 239
Barney Google (DeBeck), 320
“Barney McCoy,” 124
Barry, Phillips, 19, 22
“Bartender Blues” (Jones), 162
Barthes, Roland, 146
Bartlett, Ray, 232
Bar X Ranch, 95
Basement Tapes (Dylan), 127
Basie, Count, 61
Batman and Rombin, 255
Battle Ground, Indiana, 136
“The Battle Hymn of the Republic” (Howe), 126, 405, 411n39
Baxter, J. R., Jr., 402
Bayard, Samuel P., 22–23, 135
Baylor University, 5
Bayou Dance Club (Pinellas Park, FL), 454–455
Bazooka, 254
BBC, 502
B-bender, 196
Bealle, John, 172n14
Bear Family Records, 5
Beatles, 162
(p. 523) Beauchamp, George D., 182, 183f, 202n18
“The Beautiful Land” (Wood-White), 409n5
Beck, Glenn, 242
Becker, Christine, 282n35
Becker, Howard, 68, 285
Beethoven, Ludwig van, 412n47
“Before He Cheats” (Underwood), 242
Behind Closed Doors (Rich), 217
“Behind Closed Doors” (Rich), 377
Beirly, A., 409n5
Beisswenger, Drew, 135
Belafonte, Harry, 61
The Believer, 484
Bellanta, Melissa, 10n26
Belle, Lulu, 78n16, 259n11
Belmont University, 495
Benjamin, Walter, 259n10, 299
Bennett, Andy, 284
Bennett, Tony, 211, 234
Benny, Jack, 269
Benny Goodman Orchestra, 270
Benson, Jno T., 409n5
Benton, Thomas Hart, 177
Benzecry, Claudio, 490
Berea College, 5
Berg, Dave, 449
Berkeley, California, 135–136
Berle, Milton, 250
Berliner Gram-o-phone Company, 510
Berman, Marshall, 300n3
Bernstein, Joel, 437n35
Berry, Chad, 48n16
Bertrand, Michael T., 213, 225n31, 307, 319, 336–337, 365
The Best Years of Our Lives, 273
“Betty Ann and Shirley Cole” (Weller), 375, 378
The Beverly Hillbillies, 252–253, 256, 260n26, 321
Bhabha, Homi, 341
Bidgood, Lee, 52n71, 506
“Big Big Love,” 380
Biggar, George C., 133f
Biglow and Main Company, 399, 401, 410n18
Big Maybelle, 368, 372n56
Bigotry, 339
Big & Rich with Cowboy Troy, 480
Bigsby, Paul, 189, 203n38
Bigsby guitars, 190–191
Bijker, Wiebe E., 200n7, 200n9
Bijsterveld, Karin, 152n10
Billboard, 65, 157, 205, 219, 221, 232, 238, 360, 375, 501
charts, 368–369, 371n39, 377, 449, 456, 467
“Label Chiefs See Country Growth on Upbeat,” 226n53
Bill Monroe and his Bluegrass Boys: An Illustrated Discography (Rosenberg), 69
Bill Monroe and the Bluegrass Boys, 344
Billy in the Lowgrounds, 279
“Biograph Girl,” 268
Biography of Gospel Song and Hymn Writers (Hall), 411n27
Biopics, 276
Birmingham School, 284–285
The Birthplace of Country Music Museum, 514n21
Bisbee, Jasper “Jep,” 42
Bishop, Paul, 161–162
Bits of Old Time Hits, 266
Bitter Tears (Cash), 236–237
Black, Clint, 480
Black banjo, 338
Black Banjo Gathering, 338
Black Banjo Songsters of North Carolina and Virginia (Smithsonian Folkways), 351n45
Blackboard (Bakersfield, CA), 449, 459n27
Black country music, 351n46, 353n59. See also African American contributions
Blackface, 349n35, 350n38, 375, 390n1, 501
Black folk music, 331
Blackfoot Confederacy, 115n59
Black gospel, 400
Black Music Research Journal, 338
Blackness, 392n42
Black Power movement, 330
Black Rodeo, 86
Blacks, Whites, and Blues (Russell), 327–328, 337–338, 345n3
Black Sabbath, 102
Black string styles, 351n46
Black traditions. See African American contributions
Black vaudeville, 373n62
Black Velvet, 384
(p. 524) Black–white relations, 328–329. See also Race and racism
Black women, 385–386, 390. See also Women’s contributions
Blending, 389
Bley, Paul, 198
Blim, Daniel, 120
Bliss, Philip Paul (P. P.), 399, 410n17
“Blood, Sweat and Water” (Lund), 103
“Blood Red and Goin’ Down” (Tucker), 384
Bloody Sunday, 296
Bloomington, Indiana, 135–136
Bloopers, 255
Blount, Roy, Jr., 72
“Blue” (Rimes), 241
Bluegrass, 91–92, 111n25, 293
classic, 137n9
contemporary, 149–150
early, 338
foreign-born artists, 504–505
gospel, 403
international, 495, 515n35
Japanese bands, 506
old-time, 117–120, 137n9
origins of, 117–118, 350n35, 353n67
recording practice, 149–150, 220
traditional, 137n9
vocal harmonies, 400
Bluegrass: A History (Rosenberg), 89
Bluegrass Film Festival, 279
Bluegrass resonator guitar, 180–181
Bluegrass scholarship, 24, 349n34
Bluegrass Unlimited, 117–118
“Bluegrass Week,” 279
Blueridge Cabiners, 506
Blueridge Mountain Boys, 506
Blues, 61, 120, 161, 327–328, 333–335, 348n24, 357
authenticity claims, 349n34
gospel, 404
Blues guitar technique, 348n29
“Blue Yodel #4,” 344
B-movies, 268, 270, 273, 282n39
Bob Pinson Collection, 70
Bob White Syncopating Band, 357
Bob Wills & His Texas Playboys, 88, 271, 440
“Steel Guitar Rag,” 186, 187f
Boehm, Lisa Krissoff, 139n34
Bogan, Lucille, 357
Boles, Joh B., 36
Bolick, Harry, 135
Bond, Johnny, 503
Boogie woogie, 335
Book awards, 352n58
Boone, Debby, 405
Boone, Pat, 405
Boots, 426
“Boot Scootin’ Boogie” (Brooks and Dunn), 443
Borchetta, Scott, 243, 393n70
Bossius, Thomas, 517n57
Boston (band), 450
Boston, Massachusetts, 135–136, 235
Botkin, B. A., 66
Bottleneck or slide guitar style, 201n12
Bourdieu, Pierre, 285, 291, 298, 309
Bourgeois domesticity, 310
Bourke-White, Margaret, 465
Bowen, Jimmy, 239–240
Bowery Boys, 274
Boy bands, 480
Boycotts, 101, 221, 242, 285, 473
Boyd, Jean A., 34, 98, 202n20, 348n29
“A Boy Named Sue” (Silverstein), 318
A Boy Named Sue: Gender and Country Music (Pecknold and McCusker, eds.), 307, 365, 379
“Boys ‘Round Here” (Shelton), 389–390
BR5-49, 321, 434
Brackett, David, 160–161, 276
Bradbury, William B., 399, 409n13, 410n18
Bradbury Company, 410n18
Bradley, Harold, 294
Bradley, Owen, 164, 167, 169, 292, 363
Bradley Studios, 294, 299
Brady, Erika, 50n32, 89, 128, 336
Bramlett, Bonnie, 149, 154n46
Branding, 205, 244
Brandt, Pamela, 380
Branson, Missouri, 505
Brasfield, Rod, 233, 265
Brazil, 4, 43, 52n71, 496, 508–509, 511, 517n57
Bredesen, Phil, 74
Brennan, Walter, 265
Brenner, Becky, 243
Brewer, Roy, 346n4
(p. 525) Brewer’s Collection of Old Familiar Songs, 126
Brice, Lee, 449
Bridges, James, 442
Bridges, Jeff, 279
“Brighten the Corner Where You Are,” 411n26
Brinkley, John, 465
Brislin, Kate, 118, 136
Bristol sessions, 124, 143–146, 209, 287–288, 291, 311, 313, 339, 395–399, 402, 408n1
British Columbia, 105
British folk culture, 329
Britt, Elton, 165
Broadcast Act (Canada), 510, 516n53
Broadcast Music, Incorporated (BMI), 60, 211, 234
Brock, William, 471
Brockman, Polk, 139n40, 208, 292
Bro-country music, 221–222, 230, 243, 367, 449–450
cultural practice, 87–88, 298, 375–376, 387–390, 419
definition of, 459n28
origins, 456, 459n28
Broken Spoke (Austin, TX), 449
Bronner, Simon J., 25, 36–38, 41, 44–45, 49n29, 51n66, 68, 89–91, 139n34
Brooks, Garth, 3, 86, 207, 218–220, 230, 240–241, 298, 480
“Ain’t Goin’ Down (‘Til the Sun Comes Up),” 446
The Believer, 484
fan interactions, 490
“Friends in Low Places,” 219
musical roots, 450
Ropin’ The Wind, 219
visual style, 433
“We Shall Be Free,” 375
Brooks, Joe, 405
Brooks & Dunn, 344, 443
Brost, Molly, 276
“Brother Brigham, Brother Young” (Lund), 113n45
Brother duets, 162
Brown, J. Carter, 72
Brown, Jayna, 386, 394n77
Brown, Jim Ed, 349n33, 503
Brown, Milton, 98, 465
Browning, Chuck, 242
Brozman, Bob, 202n17
Brumley, Albert E., 402–403
Bryan, Luke, 222, 229, 243, 298, 367, 375, 388–389, 450
Bryan, William Jennings, 464
Buckaroo tradition, 105, 114n58
“Buckin’ Horse Rider” (Lund), 101
Buckley, John, 377
“Buck Owens Ranch Show,” 259n15
Buckwild, 321
Buddy songs, 372n48
Budweiser, 487
Buffalo Gun, 274
Bufwack, Mary, 3, 163–164, 277, 319, 363–364, 392n43
Bullock, Sandra, 447
Bumgarner, Samantha, 123, 362
Burgess, Ernest W., 300n3
Burlesque, 314, 322
Burnett, Carol, 250
Burnett, T-Bone, 299
“Burnin’ Love” (Presley), 384
Burns, Bob, 254
Burns, George, 269
Burns, Lori, 4
Burson, Harry, 390n
“Bury Me Beneath the Willows,” 232–233
“Bury Me Under the Weeping Willow Tree” (Carter Family), 161, 408n1
Bush, George W., 221, 242, 472–474
Bush, Jim, 133f
Bush, Kristian, 108
Bush ballads, 508
Business Week, 213–214
Busking, 369
Bussard, Joe, 93n11
Butler, Judith, 369n1
Butler, Mike, 478n33
Buttram, Pat, 254
Byrd, Jerry, 185, 202n23
Byrd, Tracy, 443
Byrds, 162, 196, 469
Cabin Fever (Lund), 103
Cable TV, 278
Cadillac Ranch (Fayetteville, NC), 439, 448
Caipira tradition, 508
Cajun music, 120, 341, 446, 501
(p. 526) Caldwell, Erskine, 465
Calgary, Alberta (Canada), 111n20
Calgary Stampede, 114n46
California, 440
California mix, 454–456
Callahan Brothers, 141, 271
Calvin, John, 398
Camp, 380
Campbell, Alan, 92
Campbell, Archie, 253–255
Campbell, Glen, 74, 217, 249, 279, 384
Campbell, John, 500–501
Campbell, Olive Dame, 9n7, 16, 333, 500–501
Camwax, 361
Canada
Broadcast Act, 510, 516n53
Country Music Hall of Fame, 511
Eastern, 17
radio stations, 511, 516n53
Cannibalist Manifesto (Andrade), 508
Canova, Zeke, 272
“Can the Circle Be Unbroken?,” 289
“Can the Circle Be Unbroken (Bye and Bye)” (Carter), 402
Cantrill, James, 96
Cantwell, David, 225n23, 477n23
Capitalism, 320
Capitol Nashville, 242, 486
Capitol Records, 74, 211, 214–215, 219, 404
Hymns (Ford), 404, 411n33
Spirituals (Ford), 404, 411n34
Capp, Al, 320–321
Caramanica, Jon, 6
Cardwell, Nancy, 108
“Caribbean” (Torok), 501
Caricatures, 320
Carney, George O., 48nn19–20, 112n28
Carolina Chocolate Drops, 137, 338
Carolina Danceland (Lexington, NC), 453–454
Carol’s Western Wear, 85–86, 90, 92
Carpenter, Karen, 148–149, 154n46
Carson, Fiddlin’ John, 19, 72, 98, 123, 129, 133f, 139n40, 287–288, 300, 359
early recordings, 145–146, 208, 230–231, 266, 291, 356–357
Fiddlin’ Georgia Crazy: Fiddlin’ John Carson, His Real World, and the World of His Songs (Wiggins), 134
“Old Hen Cackled and the Rooster’s Gonna Crow,” 208
political performances, 463–465, 474–475
“There’s a Hard Time A- Comin’,” 145
vocals, 208–209
Carson, Johnny, 259n16
Carson, Rosa Lee, 145
Carter, A. P., 161, 289, 335, 402–403
Carter, Clarence, 443
Carter, Jimmy, 471–472
Carter, June, 265, 276, 279, 385–386
Carter, “Mother” Maybelle, 161, 209, 279, 289, 357, 402
Carter, Sara, 161, 209, 279, 289
Carter, Walter, 202n30, 203n36
Carter, Wilf, 102, 510, 516n51
Carter Family, 20, 24, 73, 118, 141, 221, 224n22, 359
Bristol sessions, 209, 311, 313, 402, 408n1
“Bury Me Under the Weeping Willow Tree,” 161, 408n1
discovery of, 287–289
as “First Family,” 318
“My Clinch Mountain Home,” 100
recordings, 205, 207
screen performances, 279
singing style, 160
songs, 463
Cash, J. W., 329
Cash, Johnny, 5, 10n30, 83n91, 100, 102, 213, 249–250, 268, 279, 289, 296
biopics, 276
Bitter Tears, 236–237
case study, 316–319, 322
“Come and Ride This Train,” 317
hard-core country music, 365
“Hey, Porter,” 317
as icon, 220–221, 379
“I Walk the Line,” 318–319
Johnny Cash: The Man, His World, His Music, 279
The Johnny Cash Show, 80n45, 249, 258n2
Johnny Cash Sings the Ballads of the True West, 312
(p. 527)
“Locomotive Man,” 317
“The Man in Black,” 434
“man in black” image, 297, 433–434, 468
non-English recordings, 503
“One Piece at a Time,” 344–345
“Oney,” 317
prison songs, 318, 473
“Reflections,” 312–313, 324n31
Ride This Train, 258n3
“Ridin’ on the Cotton Belt,” 317
screen performances, 235, 258n2, 274–275, 279, 503
signature songs, 318–319
as songwriter, 317
themes, 309, 316–317
White House performances, 296–297, 470
Cash, June Carter, 265, 276, 279, 385–386
Cash, W. J., 316
Cashbox, 205
Castle Studios, 294
Cas Walker Farm and Home Hour, 237
Catalog sales, 239
Cattelino, Jessica R., 412n50
“Cattle Call,” 214
Cattle calls, 501
“Cause for Celebration” program (CMA), 487
Cauthen, Joyce, 134
CBS, 232, 244, 250, 256
Cedarwood Publishing, 61
Celebrity, 297–298, 300, 365
Celtic music, 331
Center for Popular Music, 5, 25, 73, 77n5, 360, 370n18
“Cha-Cha Slide” (DJ Casper), 451
Chanan, MIchael, 154n33
Chaplin, Charlie, 268
Chapman, John Wilbur, 408n3
Chappell, Louis, 127–128
Charles, Ray, 74–75, 214, 337, 350n40, 400
The Charleston, 440
Charlotte, North Carolina, 295
Chatham County Line, 149–150
Chatmon, Bo, 351n46
“Chattahoochee” (Jackson), 219
Cher, 250
Cherry, Hugh, 259n13
Chesney, Kenny, 280, 431
Chevrolet, 487
“Cheyenne,” 267
Chicago, Illinois, 135–136, 234–235, 237, 240, 288
Chicano Movement, 472
Chickasaw County, Mississippi, 368
Child, Francis James, 15
Child ballads, 16
Children’s Songs, 126
“Chill Factor” (Whittaker), 443
“Chillin’ It” (Swindell), 388
Chimes (technique), 181
Ching, Barbara, 3, 112n26, 217, 276, 308, 314–315, 325n33, 340
Wrong’s What I do Best: Hard Country Music and Contemporary Culture, 365, 391n10, 477n20
“Chinook Wind” (Lund), 103, 107
Chitãozinho and Xororó, 508
Choates, Harry, 501
CHR (contemporary hit radio), 236
Christgau, Georgia, 421–422
Christian Fundamentalism, 395, 405, 408
Christianity
Protestant, 395, 407–408
Reformed, 398
songs of sacred expression, 404–405
“Christmastime in Washington” (Earle), 474
Chromatic tuning
E9th, 194, 194t, 195–196, 196t
Lydian Chromatic Concept (Russell), 197
The Chuck Wagon Gang, 403
Church, Eric, 243–244, 450
Church, John, 399, 401
Church suppers, 457n2
Ciesla, Kurt, 102, 104
Cincinnati, Ohio, 212, 343
Cinema. See Film
Cinemascope, 278
Cities, 48n19
Citybilly music, 98, 128, 225n23
Civil Rights Movement, 295, 319, 330
Civil Wars, 298
Clapton, Eric, 258n2
Clark, Anthony, 447
Clark, Brandy, 463
Clark, Roy, 252, 254–255, 259nn16–17
Clark, Terri, 504
Clark Willson, 126
Classical guitar, 201n12
Class relations, 83n91, 220, 291, 307–326, 346n9, 497
Class values, 314
“Cleanse Me,” 233
Clear Channel, 241–242
Cleveland, Thomas F., 172n12
Clifftop, West Virginia, 136
Clinch Mountain Boys, 506
Cline, Patsy, 59, 74, 110n14, 157, 164, 174n33, 309, 363, 386, 467
biopics, 276, 363
commercial success, 365
as crossover icon, 241, 431–432
as high-profile artist, 480
personal style, 430–432
as queer icon, 379–380, 382–383
self-definition, 214, 363, 431
Sweet Dreams: The World of Patsy Cline (Hofstra, ed.), 477n20
“Walkin’ After Midnight,” 379, 430
“Why Can’t He Be You,” 379
Clinton, Bill, 241, 474
Clogging, 458n5
Clothing. See also Fashion
embellishments, 430–431, 435
hat acts, 433
housewife image, 421–422
performance wear, 428
three-way wardrobe, 428–430, 429f
tie-ins, 435, 436n10
Club Dance at the White Horse Café, 442, 444, 446–447
Club Rodeo (Oklahoma City, OK), 453
Coal extraction, 107
Coal Miner’s Daughter (film), 171, 238, 297, 363, 371n35
Coal Miner’s Daughter (Lynn), 363
Coal Miner’s Daughter: A Tribute to Loretta Lynn, 163
“Coal Miner’s Daughter” (Lynn), 100, 108, 169
Coal mining, 99–100
“Coat of Many Colors” (Parton), 237
Cobb, B. E., 172n15
Cockerham, Fred, 136
Cockeysville, Maryland, 91
Cockrell, Dale, 25
Coe, David Allan, 381–382, 412n47, 472
Coen, Joel, 349n33
Coen Brothers, 278, 466
Coffey, John, 133f
Coffey, Kevin, 202n20
Cogswell, Robert, 9n7
Cohen, Anne, 18, 21–22
Cohen, John, 117, 121–123, 136, 137n9, 139n28, 279
Cohen, Ronald D. (Ron), 26, 50n32, 83n94, 128, 225n23, 498
Cohn, Nudie, 419, 422, 425, 432, 436n9, 501
“Cold, Cold Heart” (Williams), 160, 211–212
“The Cold Hard Facts of Life” (Wagoner), 315
Cold War, 467, 503
Coleman, “Cowboy Troy,” 350n40
Collaborations, 459n31, 480. See also specific collaborations
remixes, 219, 243, 298, 389, 443, 456, 459n31
“College country” (sertaneja universitária), 509
Colley, John Scott, 258n2, 259n11
Colorado Sunset, 270
Colter, Jessi, 147–148
Coltman, Bob, 53n73
Columbia Records, 123, 126, 138n23, 207, 211–212, 234, 240, 345n1, 351n48, 403
Familiar Tunes on Fiddle, Guitar, Banjo, Harmonica and Accordion, 123
first country act, 230–231
Home (Dixie Chicks), 220–221
Old Familiar Tunes, 123
Columbia River ballads, 466
Comber, Chris, 133f
Combs, Josiah H., 13, 22
Come and Get It, 277
“Come and Ride This Train” (Cash), 317
Comentale, Edward P., 154n32, 289–291
Come on Over (Twain), 241
Comic songs, 378
Comic strips, 320
Commercial country music, 45–46, 97, 223n6, 311–312, 324n28, 362, 436n18, 466
birthplace of, 291–294
early, 120–121
folk antecedents, 9n7
origins of, 33, 36–37, 97–98, 311, 436n18
Commercials, 244
Commercial sales, 219, 237–241. See also Earnings
Commercial success, 360–361, 365
Communism, 355–356, 466
Como, Perry, 252
Computerized editing, 256
Concert films, 279–280
The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Music, 40
Confederate Railroad, 388–389
Confederate States of America, 47n8
Confederate Veterans’ Reunions, 463
Conflict theory, 285
Congregational singing, 18
Conlee, John, 453
Connell, R. W., 325n44
Connick, Harry, Jr., 451
Connors, Stompin’ Tom, 510–511
Conservatism, 215, 295–297, 376–377
Consumer demographics, 285
Consumerism, 308
Contemporary hit radio (CHR), 236
“Convoy” (McCall), 472
Conway, Cecilia, 224n16, 338
Cooking with Country Music Stars, 72–73
Cooley, Spade, 328–329, 467
“Cool Whip,” 443
Coon Creek Girls, 232, 279, 362
Coon songs, 349n35
Cooper, Daniel, 75
Cooper, Peter, 6
Copas, Cowboy, 59, 501
“Copperhead Road” (Earle), 142
El Corazón (Earle), 474
The Corb Lund Band, 104
Cornfest, 114n57
Cornfield, Dan, 299
Cosmic American music, 469
“Cosmic Cowboy” (Murphy), 469
Cosmopolitanism, 388–389. See also Countrypolitan Sound
Cotton, Carolina, 270
“Cotton Eyed Joe” (Rednex), 504
Countercultural movement, 226n49, 404–405
Counterculture expression, 420, 433–435
Country: A Regional Exploration (Tribe), 333–334
Country: The Music and the Musicians: Pickers, Slickers, Cheatin’ Hearts & Superstars, 73
“Country. Admit it. You Love it” slogan (CMA), 219–220
Country Aircheck, 367
Country and Western Jamboree, 170
Country and western music, 38, 124, 205, 514n21
“Country Boy,” 233
Country Boys and Redneck Women: New Essays in Gender and Country Music (Pecknold and McCusker, eds.), 307, 366–367, 372n49
“A Country Boy Will Survive” (Williams), 471
Country cuties, 430–433
Country dance, 439–460, 460n33
Country dance clubs, 452
Country discos, 442
Country gospel, 86
Country hip hop, 345
Country & Irish music, 496
Country music
alt-country, 219
American, 416–417, 499–504
“America’s music,” 215
“angry man,” 318
audiences, 307, 345n2, 479–480
Australian, 506–508
birthplace of, 514n21
(p. 530) Country music (Contd.)
changing face of, 297–300
characteristics of, 340, 342
citybilly, 98, 128, 225n23
commercialization of ( see commercial country music)
cultural practice, 85–93
definition of, 83n94, 229, 312, 344, 497–499
familiar, 126
fan culture of, 480–482, 484–490
fashion in, 415–438
fiddling, 209
gender performance in, 365–366
as genre, 206–207
global, 43, 52n71, 496
hard, 163, 313–314
history of, 55–83, 229
hometown, 91–92
hot, 3
international, 495–518
labels, 205–206
live, 85
as “low Other,” 309
lyrical conventions, 288
mainstream, 450, 454, 456–457, 474
microphone, 144–151
modern, 432–433
nasal voices, 173n21
neo-traditional, 239–240
new country, 218–220, 240
New Hollywood era, 275–278
‘old-time,’ 117–140
outside the US, 500, 505–511
partner dance music, 449
politics of, 296–297, 461–478
popular, 87–88
postwar, 51n65
progressive, 217, 236–237
radio programming, 20, 230
recording, 41, 141–155, 205
regional, 89–91
remixes, 219, 243, 298, 389, 456, 459n31
revues, 269–270
sacred expression in, 395–413
scenes, 111n20, 112n26
sexuality in, 375–394
sociology of, 283–306
soft-shell, 100, 152n17, 158, 206–207, 218, 298, 313, 325n33, 362
songs that define, 223n4
Southern identity of, 2–3, 31–53
stylistic development of, 419
subgenres, 86, 106, 210, 434
themes of, 310, 315, 378
traditional forms, 220
trucker, 106
values, 310, 376–378
visual style in, 415–438
white core narrative of, 331–334
world, 496
Country Music: A Cultural and Stylistic History (Neal), 333, 337, 458n15
Country Music, U.S.A. (Malone), 5, 33, 35, 39, 41, 72, 89, 97, 157, 260n27, 260n35, 263, 327–334, 347n12, 353–354nn67–68, 359, 361–362, 462, 468, 497–498
“Country music” (term), 514n21
“Country Music” (Neal), 333
“Country Music (That’s My Thing)” (McClinton), 223n4
“Country Music and American Values” (Buckley), 377
Country Music Association (CMA), 55–83, 78n12, 215, 230, 234, 296, 479, 484–485
Artist Relations Committee, 487
“Cause for Celebration” program, 487
(p. 531)
“Country. Admit it. You Love it” slogan, 219–220
distributing companies, 502
Fan Fair, 486–487
International Country Music Day, 495
“Keep the Music Playing” program, 487
website, 496
Country Music Association (CMA) Awards, 6, 244, 327, 377, 385, 473–474, 490
Entertainer of the Year, 217, 243, 504
Country Music Association (CMA) Fest, 481, 489–490
Country Music Disc Jockey Association, 234, 485–486
Country Music Foundation (CMF), 25, 55–83, 77n6, 78n12, 80n51, 312
The Encyclopedia of Country Music, 3
Frist Library and Archive, 56
Journal of Country Music (JCM), 2–3, 9n7, 9n11, 34–35, 62–63, 67–69, 72
Library and Media Center, 5, 56, 60, 62–64, 66–67, 70–71, 74
Oral History Collection, 4
The Sources of Country Music (Benton), 177
Country Music Foundation Press (CMF Press), 62–63, 69–70, 72–73
Country Music Foundation Records, 62–63, 70
Country Music Goes to War (Wolfe and Akenson, eds.), 477n19
Country Music Hall of Fame and Museum, 26, 45–46, 56–64, 70–76, 78n12, 264, 312, 370n23, 425–426, 486
accreditation, 79n26
Artists’ Gallery, 59, 78n16
building, 73–75, 80n41
Encyclopedia of Country Music, 516–517n56
“Nashville Salutes Texas!: Country from the Lone Star State” exhibit, 75
“Nashville Skyline: Rocking Back to the Country” exhibit, 75
“Night Train to Nashville” exhibit, 75
rules for election to, 79n27
“Sing Me Back Home” exhibit, 74–75
“Treasures Untold: Unique Collections from Devoted Fans” exhibit, 75
Country Music Holiday, 274
Country Music Jubilee, 251
Country Music on Broadway, 274
Country Music Records: A Discography, 1921–1942 (Russell), 134–135, 143
Country Music Sources: A Biblio-Discography of Commercially Recorded Traditional Music (Meade), 135
The Country Music Story (Shelton), 65
Country Music Television (CMT), 219, 261n55, 487, 489
Country Music USA (Hoyer), 236
Country Music Who’s Who, 510
Country nightclubs, 443, 457–458n2
honky tonks, 440–441, 449, 457–458n2
line-dancing clubs, 219
Countrypolitan Sound, 217–218, 363
Country radio, 20, 229–247. See also Radio
Country Radio Seminar, 238, 486
Country rock, 196
Country Song Roundup, 360, 370n16
Country Strong, 88, 279
County Records, 120
Cousineau, John B., 202n30
Covach, John, 442
Covington, James W., 412n50
Cowboy Copas, 59, 501
Cowboys, 114n58, 422–426
diesel, 106
singing, 210, 312–313, 417
Singing Cowboys and Musical Mountaineers (Malone), 264
urban, 206, 218
Cowboy songs, 333
Cowboy Songs and Other Frontier Ballads (Lomax), 9n7, 267
Cowboy swing, 445
Cowboy Troy, 345, 480
“Cow Cow Boogie,” 272
Cowell, Henry, 199
Cowgirls, singing, 270–271, 417, 426–432
Cowley, John Houlston, 133f
Cowpunk, 380
Cox, 242
Cox, Bill, 465
Cracker Barrel, 489
Cramer, Floyd, 503
Cramer, Ted, 236
(p. 532) Crawford, Richard, 124
Crawford, Ruth. See Seeger, Ruth Crawford
Crazy Heart, 279
Crazy Water Crystals, 231
Creating Country Music: Fabricating Authenticity (Peterson), 89, 98, 173n21, 173n31, 203n46, 225n24, 232, 264, 325n33, 339, 351n47, 362, 422–423
Creed, Kyle, 136
Creighton, Helen, 17
Crespino, Joseph, 32
Cressy, Paul, 285
Crickets, 102
Crisco, 487
Croce, Jim, 236
Cromwell, John, 265
Crooms, Michael “Mr. Collipark,” 457n1
Crooning vocal style, 210–211, 225n24
Crosby, Bing, 61, 143, 154n33, 225n23, 254
Crosby, Fanny J., 400–401
Crossover figures, 207, 220, 236, 241, 297–298, 431–432. See also individual musicians
Crossover music, 236, 240, 242
countrypolitan, 217–218, 363
pop music hits, 211–213, 215
Crouch, Ian, 387–388, 390n3
Crow, Sheryl, 163
Crowe, Cameron, 488
Crowell, Rodney, 279–280
“Cruise” (Kelley, Hubbard, Moi, Rice, and Rice), 243, 298, 375, 389, 390n3, 456, 459n31, 460n36
Crumb, George, 199
Cruz, Ted, 461, 473, 476
“Cry, Cry Darling” (Wells), 167
Cuban music, 501
Cultural absorption, 394n77
Cultural appropriation, 365, 450
Cultural blending, 513n5
Cultural capital, 314
Cultural differences, 504–505
Cultural dislocation, 310
Cultural exchange values, 309
Cultural geography, 90–91
Cultural grey out, 506
Cultural imperialism, 43, 499
Cultural production, 285
Cultural values, 311
Culture
African American, 86
counterculture, 420, 433–435
country music as cultural practice, 85–93
deterritorialized, 38
fashion, 415–438
geo-cultural identity construction, 95–115
mass, 285, 311, 315
popular, 286
postmodern, 298
rationalized industry, 299
redneck, 419, 434–435
Cumulus Media, 242
Cup game, 459n25
“Cupid Shuffle,” 453
Curb records, 486
Curless, Dick, 91
Cusic, Don, 208, 219, 410n20, 411n35
Cusick, Suzanne, 158
Cyrus, Billy Ray, 240, 442, 480
Czech immigrants, 447
Czech-language tunes, 501
Czechoslovakia, 501
Czech Republic, 43, 52n71, 506, 511, 517n57
Da Capo Press, 410n18
Da Costa Wolz’s Southern Broadcasters, 120
Daily Worker, 466
Dalhart, Vernon, 22, 41, 146, 208–209, 267, 461, 463, 502
Dallas, 238
Dallas Bull (Tampa, FL), 451–452
Dance, 210, 439–460
ballroom, 454–455
California mix, 454–456
the Charleston, 440
country, 439–460, 460n33
cowboy swing, 445
instinctive, 453
learning how to dance, 444–447
local, 451–454
(p. 533)
past traditions, 440–444
regional differentiation of, 451–454
sixteen-step, 453
social, 454–455, 460n34
urban, 394n77
West Coast Swing, 460n34
Western swing, 440–441
Dance a While: Handbook for Folk, Square, Contra, and Social Dance (Pearson), 447
Dance clubs, 219, 442, 452–453
Dance competitions, 458n5
Dance halls, 169, 440–441, 457–458n2
Dance-pop, 453–454
Dandridge, Dorothy, 272
D’Angelo, Beverly, 363
Daniel, Linda Jean, 52n70, 517n57
Daniel, Pete, 475
Daniel, Wayne W., 34, 72, 130, 134, 230, 396
Daniell, George, 230–231
Daniels, Charlie, 345, 471, 474
Danny Paisley and the Southern Grass, 91–92
Darrow, Clarence, 464
Darter, D. P., 403
David Peterson & 1946, 150
“David’s Lamentation,” 160
Davidson, Cathy N., 323n5
Davidson County, North Carolina, 453
Davion, Gabriel, 201n14
Davis, Blair, 282n39
Davis, Eva, 123, 362
Davis, Fred, 433
Davis, Jimmie, 425, 466, 470–471
Davis, Miles, 173n22, 199
Davis, Russell, Jr., 34–36, 99
Davis, Skeeter, 235, 503
Davis, Stephen, 130
Dawidoff, Nicholas, 3, 48n16, 98–99
Dawson, Smoky, 507
Day, J. W., 21
Day, Jimmy, 192
Day, Timothy, 153n24
Dazz Band, 443
Deadheads, 481
The Deadly Nightshade, 380
Dean, Jimmy, 255
“A Dear John Letter” (Shepard and Husky), 147
“The Death of Floyd Collins,” 463
DeBeck, Billy, 320
Decca Records, 60, 76n5, 80n54, 167, 169, 205, 211
Dee jay formats, 358
Deep listening, 198
“Delia’s Gone,” 319
Delmore, Alton, 69
Delmore Brothers, 162
The Delmores, 231
“Delta Dawn,” 385
Demagoguery, 465–466, 470
“The Democratic Donkey’s in His Stall Again” (Cox), 465
Democratic Party, 464, 468–469, 471
Demographics, 285
Denim and Diamonds, 446–447, 453
Denisoff, R. Serge, 2–3
Denny, Bill, 61–62
Denny, Jim, 61
Dent, Alexander Sebastian (Alex), 4, 52n71, 372n49, 508–509, 517n57
Denver, John, 217–218
Depression, 34, 162, 210, 465
Derek and the Dominos, 258n2
Der Freischütz, 412n44
Derrick, Cowboy Jack, 375
Desegregation, 319
Design for a Hawaiian Guitar (US Patent Des. 110, 178) (Fuller), 183f, 184f
Deterritorialized culture, 38
Detroit, Michigan, 288, 299
Detterline, J. B., Jr., 412n47
The Devil’s Box, 129–130, 131f, 134
Devolutionary theory, 68–69
DeZurik Sisters, 143
Dickens, Hazel, 118, 134
Dickens, Little Jimmy, 233, 404, 425, 503
Dickinson, Chris, 77n6, 83n91, 380–381
Diesel cowboys, 106
“Different Drums” (Reeves), 143–144
Digital Audio Workstations (DAWs), 144
Dillard, Doug, 252–253
Dillards, 252–253
(p. 534) Dilworth, Billy, 235
DiMaggio, Paul, 9n13, 285
Dinner Bell R.F.D. (Radio Farmers Democracy), 231
Dior, Christian, 431
Dire Straits, 197
“Dirt Road Anthem” (Aldean), 299, 389
Dirty Harry, 472
Dirty lyrics, 375
Disc Jockey Festival, 234
Disc jockeys (DJs), 233–237
Country Music Disc Jockey Association convention, 485
dee jay formats, 358
Disco, 239, 348n28
Disco halls, 442
Discrimination, 339, 342–343. See also Race and racism; Segregation
Disney, 77n6
Ditson, Oliver, 401
Diversity, 215–216, 270–271, 332, 338
The Division of Labor in Society (Durkheim), 288–289
Dixie. See American South
Dixie Chicks, 88, 220, 473
boycott of, 101, 221, 242, 285, 473–474
Home, 220–221
Shut Up and Sing, 276
A Dixie Mother, 267
Dixon, Howard, 39
Dixon, Paul, 259n13
Dixon Brothers, 98
DJ Biggs, 451
DJ Casper, 451
DJ Groovie Boy, 232
DJ Robbie, 443
DJs. See Disc jockeys
Doane, William Howard, 401
Dobro, 180–182
Dockwray, Ruth, 145
Documentaries, 278–280, 282n48
Doe, Jane, 463
Doerr, Clyde C., 202n30
Os Dois Filhos de Francisco, 508
Dolan, Emily, 179
Dolly Parton and Gender Performance in Country Music (Edward), 366
Dollywood Foundation Newsletter, 483–484
Domesticity, 308, 310
Domestic violence, 319
“Don’t Be Cruel,” 213
“Don’t Breathe” (Paisley), 454
“Don’t Come Home A’ Drinkin’ (With Lovin’ On Your Mind)” (Lynn), 169–171
“Don’t Fence Me In” (Porter and Fletcher), 210, 224–225n23
Don’t Get Above Your Raisin’ (Malone), 330
“Don’t get above your raisin’ ” point of view, 330, 415
Don’t Rock the Jukebox (Jackson), 406
Dopyera, John, 182, 202n18
Dorsey, Thomas A., 404
Dorson, Richard, 1, 25, 66–67
Double standards, 364
Douglas, Susan J., 281n29
Douglass, Charley, 256
Down on Phoney Farm, 267
Drag performances, 382–383
Drake, Guy, 297, 470
Drifting Cowboys, 157, 290
Driftwood, Jimmy, 279
Dualisms, 310
Dubbing, 270
DuBois, Thomas A., 354n68
DuBois, W. E. B., 284, 300n3
Dudley, Dave, 106
Dueck, Byron, 4, 52n70
Duff, Arlie, 466
The Duhks, 137
The Dukes of Hazzard, 253
Duke University Press, 517n57
Dumont network, 259n11
Dunford, Uncle Eck, 124
Dungan, Mike, 242, 244
Dunham, Alanson “Mellie,” 42
Dunn, Bob, 182
Dunn, Ronnie, 344
Dunn, William, 471
Durkheim, Emile, 284–285, 288–289, 300n3, 487
Dustbowl migrations, 288
Dust-to-Digital, 5
Dusty, Slim, 507–508
Dutch immigrants, 501
(p. 535) Dutch-language recordings, 503
Dylan, Bob, 75, 279, 296, 468
Basement Tapes, 127
Nashville Skyline, 469
E. A. K. Hackett, 126
Eagles, 88, 238
Earle, Gene, 23–24
Earle, Steve, 142, 279–280, 473–474
Earl Fuller’s Original New York Jazz Orchestra, 230
“Earl’s Breakdown” (Scruggs), 203n40
Earl Scruggs: The Bluegrass Legend: Family & Friends, 279
Earnings, 235, 292, 361. See also Sales
East Tennessee State University, 5
Ebsen, Buddy, 265
Echo, 154n41
Eddy Arnold Time, 260–261n40
Edison, Thomas Alva, 18–19
Edison Male Quartet, 41
Edison Records, 41, 72
Editing, computerized, 256
Education, popular, 70–76
Edwards, John, 23–24
Edwards, Leigh H., 10n30, 258n2, 323n5, 324n30, 366, 434
Edwards, Penny, 270
Edwards, Stoney, 327
EECO (Electronic Engineering Company of California) editing, 256
Egerton, John, 49n27
1980s, 376–378, 480
Eisenhower jackets, 426
El Corazón (Earle), 474
Electraharp (Gibson), 188, 203n36
Electrical recordings, 146, 154n34. See also Recording(s)
Electrical Stringed Musical Instrument (United States Patent 2,089, 171) (Beauchamp), 182, 183f
Electric bass, tic-tac, 177
“Electric Boogie” (Griffith), 443, 453
Electric guitar, 177, 202n19
tunings, 185–186, 186t
“Electric Slide” line dance, 443
Electronic Engineering Company of California (EECO) editing, 256
Elektra Records, 252
“E” lever, 195, 195f
Eliott, Charlotte, 260n32
Elitism, 365, 370n22
Elliott, Charlotte, 409n13
Ellison, Curtis W., 3, 412n46
“El Paso,” 452
Elviry, 271
The Emerging Republican Majority (Phillips), 471
Emery, Ralph, 235–236, 239
Eminem, 243
Emmons, Buddy, 191–192, 194–195, 203nn43–45
E9th tuning, 194, 194t
Guitar Tone Changing Device (US Patent 3, 447, 413) (Lashley and Emmons), 192, 193f
“Half a Mind” (Tubb) pedal steel intro, 191–192, 192f
“The Healing Hands of Time” (Price) pedal steel intro, 195, 195f
“Sweet Dreams” (Young) pedal steel intro, 191, 191f
“You Took Her Off My Hands” (Price) pedal steel solo, 192, 194f
Emmons pedal steel (the “push-pull”), 194–195
Emmy, 256
Empire, 258
The Encyclopedia of Country Music: The Ultimate Guide to the Music, 3, 35, 278–279, 516–517n56
Encyclopedia of Southern Culture, 47n13
English Folk Songs from the Southern Appalachians (Campbell and Sharp), 9n7
E9th pedal steel guitar, 189–197
“chromatic” tuning, 194, 194t, 195–196, 196t
Buddy Emmons’s tuning and setup, 194t
Nashville tuning, 192, 194t
Enterprising Women (Bacon-Smith), 482
Entertainer of the Year Award (CMA), 217
Épinette des Vosges, 201n14
Epiphone, 187–188, 191, 202n30
Escapism, 317, 322
Escott, Colin, 282n38
(p. 536) Estes, Sleepy John, 368
Estonia, 500
Ethnic absolutism, 347n10, 351n46
Ethnic identity, 329–330
Europe, 503, 509, 516n53, 517n57
European immigrants, 43
Evangelical Protestants, 399, 407–408
Evangelical singers, 396, 398
Evangel of Song: A Collection of New and Familiar Gospel Songs (Hall-Mack), 126
Evans, Dale, 417
Evans, David, 201n12
Everly, Ike, 353n66
Everly Brothers, 162
Every Which Way But Loose, 277
Exceptionalism, southern, 32, 39–40, 47n3
Exhibitionism, 384
Exoticization, 349n33
Extended mixes, 219
Extramarital sex, 377–378
Facebook, 244, 446–447
A Face in the Crowd, 265, 274
Factionalism, 61
Fakelore, 1, 66
Falzarano, Gino, 432–433
Familiar music, 126–127
Familiar Songs of the Gospel: Songs That We Know and Love to Sing (E. A. K. Hackett), 126
Familiar Tunes on Fiddle, Guitar, Banjo, Harmonica and Accordion (Columbia Records), 123
“Family Reunion” (Lund), 113n45
Family values, 308–309, 375, 377–378
“Famous in a Small Town,” 299
Fan Club Convention, 485–486
Fan clubs, 482–485, 488
Fan Fair, 481, 486–490
Fan mail, 357
Fan publications, 357
Fan studies, 480–481
Far East Network, 498
Farmelo, Allen, 353n67
Farmer, Brett, 379–380, 382, 386
Farmer Alfalfa Sees New York, 267
Farm Security Administration (FSA), 357–358
Farquharson, Charlie, 254
Fashion, 415–438
counterculture, 420, 433–435
country cuties, 430–433
definition of, 420
designers or tailors, 419, 422, 425, 432, 501
embellishments, 430–431, 435
for female performers, 417, 430–431
hat acts, 433
hillbilly style, 415–416, 416f, 417
Hollywood western style, 423–427, 427f, 430–431
icons, 426–432, 435
male dress styles, 420, 424–426
mountaineer style, 415–416, 416f
tie-ins, 435, 436n10
Western classic style, 424–425, 425f
Western wear, 417, 419, 422, 432, 436n10, 496
Fashion industry, 422–423
“Fashions on Parade” (Rustic Rhythm), 428–430
Fasola folk, 17–18
Fasola hymnody, 17
Faulkner, Roy, 465
Faulkner, William, 368
Favoritism, 61
Feathering, 173n26
Feder, J. Lester, 339, 347n11
Feiler, Bruce, 240–241, 294, 459n29
Feller, Bruce, 226n56
Female artists. See Women
Femininity, 166, 313–314, 363, 431
stereotypes, 320–321, 325n44
Feminism, 174n33, 378–383
Fender, Freddy, 473, 501
Fender, Leo, 191
Fender Telecaster, 177, 191
Ferber, Edna, 277
Ferguson, Jane M., 52n71, 509
Ferguson, Robert H., 43
Ferris, William, 201n12
“The Fertile Crescent of Country Music” (Peterson and Davis), 34–35
Festivals. See Music festivals
(p. 537) Festival style, 136
The Feud and the Turkey, 266
Fiddle and string bands, 44–45
Fiddle music and contests, 91–92, 135–136, 139n49, 209, 333, 463
“Fiddling” (Columbia), 123
Fiddlin’ Georgia Crazy: Fiddlin’ John Carson, His Real World, and the World of His Songs (Wiggins), 134
Field recordings, 117–118
Fields, W. C., 269
Fife, Alta, 17
Fife, Austin E., 17
“Fightin’ Side of Me” (Haggard), 215, 296, 469
Filene, Benjamin, 311
“Filipino Baby” (Cowboy Copas), 501
Fillmore, J. H., 401
Film, 263–282
documentaries, 278–280, 282n48
Hollywood films, 312
New Hollywood era, 275–278
promotional films, 219
silent, 266–268, 280n10
Film studies, 263
Financial compensation, 235, 292
Financial success, 361
Finding Her Voice (Bufwack and Oermann), 363–364
Finland, 15, 511, 517n57
Finney, Charles Grandison, 398
Fischer, Claude, 299
Fischer, Lucy, 281n16
Fisher, Daniel, 10n26, 52n70
Fisher, Freddie, 272–273
“Fisher’s Hornpipe,” 266
“Fist City” (Lynn), 169, 171, 175n54
Flanders, Helen Hartness, 17, 19
Flatt, Lester, 149
Flatt and Scruggs, 149, 155n52, 253
Fleck, Béla, 279
Fleetwood, Nicole, 385–386, 388
Fleischhauer, Carl, 111n25
Fletcher, Robert, 224n23
“F” lever, 195, 195f
“Flint Hill Special” (Scruggs), 203n40
Flippo, Chet, 72, 384
Florida, 464
Florida Georgia Line, 222, 243, 298, 375, 388, 390n3, 394n77, 456, 459n31, 460n36, 480
“Fly Around My Pretty Little Pink,” 88
Flying Burrito Brothers, 196
FM radio, 236, 239–240. See also Radio
Fogelberg, Dan, 450
Foggy Mountain Boys, 149
Foghorn Stringband, 137
“Folk” (term), 514n21
Folk ballads, 333. See also Ballads
Folk culture, 307–308, 311–315, 329
Folklore, 13–29, 287
fakelore, 1, 66
poplore, 80n49
Folklore and Folk Music Archivist, 67
Folklore and Mythology Group (UCLA), 23
Folklore studies, 2, 21–22, 25–27, 136, 329
Folklorists, 21–22, 56, 207, 287
Folk music, 21–22, 41, 86–87, 120–121, 128, 311, 348n27, 466, 512
American, 16
American South, 311
Anglo-American folksongs, 22–23, 512
Appalachian, 311
black, 331
commercial relations, 324n28
fasola folk, 17–18
folksong collections, 9n7, 19–20
left-wing associations, 296
nineteenth-century, 14–17
revival of, 122, 296–297
tunes for moving pictures, 267
white core narrative of, 331–334
Folk music festivals, 135–136
Folk music studies, 25
Folk poetry, 310
Folk Songs of Another America (Leary), 89
Folkways Records, 120–121
“Follow Your Arrow” (Musgrave), 381, 392n31
Footloose, 451
Ford, Bill, 238–239
(p. 538) Ford, Tennessee Ernie, 273, 355–356, 404
Hymns, 404, 411n33
Spirituals, 404, 411n34
Foreign adaptations, 503–506
Foreign-born artists, 504–505
Foreign-language rerecordings, 503, 515n26
Forman, Murray, 101, 115n60
Format radio, 141–142, 230
Fornatale, Peter, 259n9
40 Acre Feud, 274
Fossil fuel energy industry, 99–100, 103
Foster, Pamela E., 351n46
Foster, Stephen, 124, 182, 265
Fowler, Wally, 233
FOX, 257, 261n54
Fox, Aaron A., 4, 11n35, 111n16, 144, 223n3, 346n4, 349n33, 352nn50–51, 517n57
Real Country: Music and Language in Working-Class Culture, 90, 339, 352n53, 365–366, 391n10, 499
Fox, Pamela, 175n48, 220, 223nn1–2, 320, 365, 390n1, 421–422
Natural Acts: Gender, Race, and Rusticity in Country Music, 100, 337, 350n38, 352n50, 477n20
France, 501–503
Francis, Connie, 515n26
Frank, Leo, 230, 464
Frankfurt School, 36, 284–285, 299
Frankiel, Sandra S., 410n20
Frankiel, Tamar, 410n20
Franklin, Aretha, 400
Franklin, Paul, 197–198, 198f
“Franklin D. Roosevelt’s Back Again” (Cox), 465
“Franklin” pedal, 198
Fraser, Captain S., 126
“Fraulein” (Helms), 501
“Freakin’ It” (Smith), 115n60
Freddie Fisher & His Schnickelfritz Band, 272–273
Fredriksson, Kristine, 260n29
Freeman, Antony P., 188
Freeman, Dave, 133f
The Freight Hoppers, 118, 136
French ballads, 501
French-language recordings, 503
French-language tunes, 501
“Friends in Low Places” (Brooks), 219
Friskics-Warren, Bill, 225n23
Frist Library and Archive, 56
Frith, Simon, 153n24
Frizzell, Lefty, 274
From Here to Eternity, 273
From Where I Stand: The Black Experience in Country Music (Warner/Reprise), 76, 351n45
Frosh, Stephen, 109
Fruit Jar Drinkers, 20
Fryer, Paul, 48n19
F-style mandolin, 177
“Fuck Aneta Briant” (Coe), 381–382
“Fuck This Town” (Fulks), 88
Fulcher, Charles, 357
Fulks, Robbie, 88
Fuller, Delores, 384
Fuller, Earl, 230
Fuller, Walter L., 183f, 184f
Functionalism, 285
Fundamentalism, Christian, 395, 405, 408
Future directions, 42–45
Fuzzy Mountain String Band, 136
Gabbard, Krin, 349n32
Gable, Dorothy, 59
Gabler, Neal, 77n6
Gabor, Zsa Zsa, 274
Gabriel, Charles H., 402–403, 411n26
Galante, Joe, 239, 242
Galax, Virginia, 136
Gannaway, Albert C., 274
Gans, Herbert, 285
Garcia, Jerry, 196
Garland, Judy, 61
The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music, 412n51
Garner, John Nance, 465
Garrett, Charles Hiroshi, 39
Gastonia strike, 466–467
“Gathering Flowers for the Master’s Bouquet,” 170
Gatlin, Larry, 356, 453
Gaunt, Kyra, 445, 459n25
(p. 539) Gay country music, 379
Gayle, Crystal, 158, 220, 385–386
The Gay Ranchero, 271
“Geisha Girl” (Locklin), 501
“Gender: A Useful Category of Analysis” (Scott), 364
Gender norms, 169, 307, 313–314, 323n5, 325n33, 357, 359, 361–362, 364, 366. See also Women’s contributions
“A Boy Named Sue” (Silverstein), 318
A Boy Named Sue: Gender and Country Music (Pecknold and McCusker, eds.), 379
parody of, 322
questioning, 317
stereotypes, 320–321
Gender performance, 355–373
Gender signs, 380
General Foods, 232
Generation X, 244
Gennett Records, 120
Gentry, Bobbie, 368
Gentry, Gary, 412n47
Geo-cultural identity, 95–115
Geography, 50n39, 90–91, 97–101
George Daniell’s Hill Billies, 230–231
George-Warren, Holly, 224n23, 280n6, 419, 423–424
German ballads, 501
German immigrants, 440, 447, 501
German-language recordings, 503, 515n26
Germany, 15, 502, 511
Gerould, G. H. (Gordon Hall), 16
Gerrard, Alice, 134
“Get On Board, Little Children,” 411n34
“Get Your Shrine On” (Florida Georgia Line), 394n77
Giant, 277
Gibson, Nathan D. (Nate), 52n71, 111n20
Gibson, Nathan W., 93n11
Gibson Electraharp, 188
Gibson instruments
catalogues, 69
guitars, 191, 203n36
Giddens, Anthony, 300n2
Gid Tanner & the Skillet Lickers, 24, 208
Gifford, Paul, 52n66
Gilley’s (Pasadena, TX), 442, 449
Gilliland, Henry, 19, 41
Gilroy, Paul, 284, 341, 347n10, 352n57
Ginell, Cary, 202n20
Ginger Group, 349n33
Ginnell, Cary, 98
Giordano, Ralph, 445, 453
“Girl Crush” (Little Big Town), 244, 381, 392n31
Girl groups, 166. See also Women’s contributions
“Girl in a Country Song” (Maddie & Tae), 243, 367, 388, 393n70
Girl singers. See Women’s contributions
“Girls’ Night Out: Superstar Women of Country” (ACM), 108, 115n67
Girls of the Golden West, 360–361
Glaser, Tompall, 216–217
Glazer, Tom, 265
Glenbow Museum (Calgary, Canada), 103
Glen Burnie, Maryland, 85
Glen Campbell Goodtime Hour, 249
“Glendale Train” (New Riders of the Purple Sage), 453
Global country music, 43, 52n71, 496
Globalization, 498–499
Global Village Living-Learning Center (IU), 513
“Gloom, Despair, and Agony,” 254
Glotfelty, Cheryll, 96
Glover, Henry, 343
“God Bless the USA” (Greenwood), 405, 412n40
Goebel, “Lonesome” George, 273–274
Goertzen, Chris, 139n49
Goff, James R., Jr., 410n20
“Going Back To Texas” (Morton), 507
Goldblum, Jeff, 470
Golden, Billy, 41
Golden Years, 502–503
Goldsmith, Thomas, 111n25
Gomer Pyle, 252
“Gone Country” (Jackson), 219
“Good Hearted Woman,” 86
Goodman, Benny, 270
A Good Natured Riot: The Birth of the Grand Ole Opry (Wolfe), 89
“Goodnight Irene,” 296
(p. 540) “The Good Old Time Waltzes (Numbers 1– 5), ” 124
Goodwyn, Lawrence, 463
Goo-Goo Cluster, 293
Goosby, Fannie, 357
Gorcey, Leo, 274
Gordon, Alex, 424
Gordon, Bonnie, 174n36
Gordon, Robert Winslow, 22
Gore, Albert, Sr., 471
Gospel blues, 404
Gospel hymns, 333. See also Hymns
Gospel Hymns (Biglow and Main), 399, 410n18
Gospel Hymns Nos. 1 to 6 Complete (Biglow and Main), 410n18
Gospel music, 86, 120, 126, 333, 401–403
Gospel singers, 399
Gospel song, 395, 397–403
Gospel Songs (Bliss), 399
“Gossip Girls,” 254
Gottuvadayam, 201n14
Gould, Jack, 260n26
Gowan, Marcus, 67–68
Graham, Alison, 280n3
Graham, Billy, 408, 409n12
Gramsci, Antonio, 284, 309
“Granada,” 271
The Grand Ole Opry, 13, 449, 466, 483, 486
birthday celebration, 485
comedy elements, 350n38
expectations for female country music performers, 426, 428–430
film version, 271–272
instructions to musicians, 27
Poe Sisters at, 415, 417, 418f, 421
Tabuchi at, 505
television show, 251, 259n14
theatrical screenings, 280
Grand Ole Opry House, 294, 297, 407
Grange-style church suppers, 457n2
Grant MacEwan Community College, 110n4
Grapes of Wrath (Steinbeck), 465
The Grascals, 504
Grateful Dead, 481
Gray, Judith A., 413n51
Gray, Michael, 75, 77n6
Gray, Otto, 269
Grazian, David, 285
Great Britain, 16, 502, 516n53
“Great man” theory, 142–143, 151n8
Great Migration, 288
Great Society, 472
The Great Train Robbery, 266
Green, Al, 400
Green, Archie, 2, 23–24, 44, 53n76, 59, 65, 71, 77n6, 80n49, 128–129, 139n40, 280n7, 357, 370n19, 498
“Hillbilly Music: Source and Symbol,” 129, 359
Only A Miner, 89
Green, Ben, 213
Green, Douglas B., 67–68, 203n38, 270, 280n6
Green, Lloyd, 195
Green, Pat, 457n2
Green, Richard, 419
Green Acres, 252
Greene, David, 446–447
Greene, Doyle, 260n38
Greenville, Alabama, 290
Greenway, John, 24, 128
Greenwich Village, 296–297
Greenwood, Lee, 405
Greenwood, Melanie, 442
Greenwood, Mississippi, 368
Gregory, James N., 34, 48n16, 208
Griffith, Andy, 252–253, 265
Griffith, Marcia, 443
Gronow, Pekka, 507
The Grove Dictionary of American Music, 6
Grub Street, 16
Gruene Hall (New Braunfels, TX), 457n2
Gruhn, George, 202n30
Grundy, Pamela, 231
The Guardian, 473
Guitar
acoustic, 187
amplified, 202n19
blues, 348n29
bottleneck or slide, 201n12
classical, 201n12
electric, 177, 202n19
Hawaiian, 43
(p. 541)
pedal steel, 177–204
resonator, 180–182, 202n17
slide, 201n12
Spanish, 182
steel-string, 201n12
“Guitar Rag” (Weaver), 202n25
Guitar Tone Changing Device (US Patent 3, 447, 413) (Lashley and Emmons), 192, 193f
Guizar, Tito, 271
Gully Jumpers, 20
Gumprecht, Blake, 99
Gunfighter Ballads and Trail Songs (Robbins), 114n50
Gunning, Tom, 269
Guns ’N Roses, 219
Gussow, Adam, 271, 350n40
Guthrie, Woody, 5, 170, 279, 332, 466–467
Habershon, Ada R., 402–403, 411n26
Hagan, J. M., 409n5
Haggard, Merle, 90, 96, 199, 236, 288, 314, 365, 449, 453
Fan Fair performances, 486–487
“Fightin’ Side of Me,” 215, 296, 469
“Okie from Muskogee,” 215, 236, 296, 468–470
performances, 235, 254–255, 274, 470, 486–487
prison narrative, 473
recordings, 207, 214–215, 220–221
themes, 103, 316–317
Vietnam Era anthems, 468–470, 477n23
White House performances, 470
Haggerty, Patrick, 380
Hair in My Eyes like a Highland Steer (Lund), 95, 104
“Half a Mind” (Tubb), 191–192
Hall, David, 257
Hall, Huntz, 274
Hall, J. H., 411n27
Hall, Patty, 24
Hall, Stuart, 284, 310
Hall, Tom T., 468
Hall-Mack, 126
Hall of Fame and Museum. See Country Music Hall of Fame and Museum
Halpert, Herbert, 127–128
Hamilton, George IV, 274–275, 503
The Hamilton, 155n51
“Hamilton Live: Chatham County Line,” 155n51
Hamm, Charles, 173n26
Hammond, Angela Denise, 339, 351n48
Hancock, Butch, 99, 103
Hand, Wayland D., 23, 128
Hanover, Virginia, 139n49
Hanson, Brad, 26
Hard-core country music, 100, 152n17, 158, 161, 206–207, 218, 298, 313, 325n33, 362