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date: 29 February 2020

(p. 924) (p. 925) Index

(p. 924) (p. 925) Index

Note: Tables, figures, and boxes are indicated by an italic t, f, and b following the page number. Notes are indicated by n following the page number.

A
Abdulin, E. 314, 317–318
Abeles, Harold 553
Abeles, H. F. 768–769, 776, 778–780, 782–783
Abel–Struth, Sigrid 234
Abrahams, F. 889
Abreu, Jose 541
Academia Nacional de Música 151
access to policymakers 77
accommodation 452
accompaniment, improvisation and 578, 579f, 592–593, 593f, 594f
accountability 18, 227–229, 747, see also specific country or region
accreditation and 748, 757–761, 759f, 760f
authentic assessment and 755
backward design and 754
cost–benefit analysis and 48
diagnostic assessment and 755
education reform and 4–5
formative assessment and 755–756
higher education and 702–703, 747–763
performance–based assessment and 756–757
philosophy of assessment and 37–40, 51nn3–5
policy and 67
private instruction and 784
psychometrics and 417–418
reflection and 755, 758
rubrics and 756–757
self–regulation and 41–43, 51n6
standards–based assessment and 665–666
state and local input and 751–753
teacher evaluation and 796–800
teacher training and 722
test development and 665–666
tests/testing and 12–17
accreditation 707
accountability and 748, 757–761, 759f, 760f
disposition and 872–873
in Europe 750
in Germany 750, 757
higher education and 702–703, 729, 748, 757–761, 759f, 760f
in Poland 751
state and local input 751–753
in UK 757
Accreditation Council (Germany) 750
achievement
higher education and 548–549
rubric descriptor of 646t
test development and 545–549
Achievement Tests in Music (Knuth) 546
Ackerman, B. 556
ACT 699
activism, policy and 79–82
Adams, P. 67–68
Adams, Paul 58–59
Adequate Yearly Progress 179, 184, 191
adjusted policy 178–179
administration of tests 579–580
Advanced Measures of Music Audiation (Gordon) 544
Advanced Placement 405, 549, 632, 701
advocacy groups 193–194, see also interest groups
advocated policy 178–179
Aesthetic Education Plan (Taiwan) 380
aesthetics, see creativity/aesthetics
(p. 926) affective domain 507–508, 507t
Africa 91–115, see also specific country or region
choreographic concepts in 98–99, 114
colonialism in 96, 103, 106–107, 110
composition in 99–100, 115n3
curriculum in 109–111
dance in 98, 100–105, 108–109, 115n2
drama in 91, 98–99, 101, 104, 108, 114, 115n2
ensemble framework and 97, 99, 105
global assessment and 102–105
globalism and 672
holistic assessment in 92, 105–106, 111, 115n2
improvisation in 99
instrumental music in 97–100, 105–106
interest groups in 101–102
internal variation and 97, 99
Learning Metrics Task Force and 665
literature in 105
morality lessons and 98, 100–101, 105, 107–108, 112, 115n1
mother musicianship and 97, 99–100, 102
musical arts from 671–690
music theory in 103, 105, 110–113
narrative style and 91, 95, 98–99, 104–105, 112–113, 115n1
parental input in 101, 104, 106
participation and 98–101, 106, 110
performance and 95, 99–102, 104, 106, 110–114, 115n2
policy in 102–105
process in 102–103, 112
public space in 97, 99, 107
religion in 91–94, 98, 102–104, 107, 114
repetition and 97, 111–112, 115n1
social systems within 91, 94, 97–98, 101–109, 111, 113, 115n1
technology in 105
Womanly Sage and 91–94, 114
Agawu, K. 98, 105
age
creativity/aesthetics and 614–620, 619t, 622nn9–11
test development and 540, 614–620, 619t, 622nn9–11
“Agenda for Music Teacher Evaluation” (Taebel) 809–810
Aguilar, Carla 14
Aguilar, C. E. 798
Aim for the Top University (Taiwan) 380
Ainscow, M. 61
Airini 770
Aksu, C. 277
Akuno, E. A. 675
Akuno, Emily 108–109
Albergo, C. 779
Albert, S. 711
Album for Children (Kabalevsky method) 313
Albuz, A. 277
Aleamoni, L. M. 779
Alexander I (Russia) 302
Algina, J. 445
Aliferis, J. 546
Aliferis, James 548
Aliferis Music Achievement TestCollege Entrance Level 548
AliferisStecklein Music Achievement TestCollege Midpoint Level 548–549
Alignment Loop 524–528, 525f, 528f
alignment of curriculum, see curriculum
Allsup, R. 799
Alpagut, U. 282, 292
Alpha Army Test 5
alpha–if–deleted statistics 448, 448f
Alta Formazione Artistica e Musicale (Italy) 257, 268
alternate forms reliability 466
Alverno College 874
Amabile, T. 613
Amabile, Teresa 559
Amchin, R. 619t
American Alliance for Theatre and Education 660
American Association for Colleges for Teacher Education 189
American Association for Higher Education 700
American Educational Research Association 778, 902
American Federation of Teachers 408
American Institute of Ethnomusicology and Folklore (Venezuela) 162, 164
(p. 927) American Music Therapy Association 753–754, 762
American Psychological Association 902
American Recovery and Reinvestment Act 729, 832, 852
American School Board Journal 8
Americans for the Arts 193, 660
American String Teachers Association 193, 409
America’s Schools Act of 1994 9
Amrein–Beardsley, A. 733
AMUSE (Appraisal in Music and Emotion) (Uppsala University) 555
analysis of data, test development and 586–600, 591f, 592f, 593f, 594f, 595f, 597f, 599f
analysis of variance 448, 454
analytic rubrics 430–431, 634–635, 636t
Anderson, L. W. 521
Andrade, M. A. B. S. 333
Andrich, D. 492
Angelo, T. 713
Ankara Anatolian High School of Fine Arts 279
Ankara State Conservatory 280, 285
Anna Ioannovna (Russian Empress) 302
Anna Magdalena Notebook, The (Bach) 313
annual measurable objectives 399
anxiety
international perspectives on 97, 282–283, 292, 363–364, 392
measuring progress and 429
policy and 49–50
test development and 556
Anxiety and Depression detector 556
Anyahuru, I. 107
Applied Faculty Student Evaluation Scale 780
applied studio, see private instruction
Appraisal in Music and Emotion (Uppsala University) 555
appreciation, see creativity/aesthetics
aptitude/talent 6
creativity/aesthetics and 613
test development and 539–545, 609
Arapgirlioğlu, H. 289
Area Documents 331, 331t
Aretz, Isabel 164
argument–based approach to validity 424–425
Aristotle 697, 872
Arizona State University 34
Arnstine 872
Aronica, L. 10
arrangement, see also composition; creativity/aesthetics
in Asia 124
in South America 163
teacher evaluation and 725–726
test development and 539, 555
Art Education: The Development of Public Policy (Dorn) 4
artistic ideals, see creativity/aesthetics
Artistic Talent Music Program Joint Admission System (Taiwan) 383–385, 386f
Artist–in–Education program 178
artistry of teaching, teacher evaluation and 736–742, 739t, 740t
Arts and Humanities Act 176
ArtScan 401
Arts Education Act (Taiwan) 382, 389
Arts Education Partnership 193, 401, 421
Arts Education Policy Working Group 193
Arts PROPEL (Taiwan) 392
Arusha Declaration (Tanzania) 109
ASCD 24
Asia, see also specific country
arrangement in 124
composition in 120, 123–126, 128, 134–136, 139
curriculum in 119–140
dance in 120
ensemble in 121, 124
improvisation in 124, 128
instrumental music in 120–121, 124–128, 133–137, 139
Learning Metrics Task Force 665
learning objectives in 123, 127–128, 132, 135
music theory in 125
process in 121–140
reflection in 128
testing in 13
(p. 928) Aşkın Kumova, P. 289
Asmolov, A. 314
Asmus, E. P. 443, 916
Asmus, Jr., E. 550
Asociación Suzuki 152
assessment, see evaluation; measuring progress; tests/testing; specific program, e.g. National Assessment of Educational Progress; specific type of assessment, e.g. holistic assessment
philosophy of (see philosophy of assessment)
policy and (see policy/policymakers)
Assessment in Music project 705
assessment–led curriculum 224
Associated Board of Royal Schools of Music
international impact of 203, 212n1, 230, 363, 376t
policy and 13, 20, 50
test development and 558, 577
Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development 24
Association for the Assessment of Learning in Higher Education 714
Association of American Colleges and Universities 701, 712
Association of Educational Service Agencies 402
Astin, A. 698
Astin, Alexander 34–35
Atak Yayla, A. 289
Atatürk, Mustafa Kemal 273–275, 280, 285
attenuation, reliability and 467
audition tests 3–4, 239
in Turkey 285–291, 287f, 288f, 289f, 290t
Auh, M. 613
Australia
composition in 198
curriculum in 203
higher education in 197–212, 704–706
instrumental music in 198, 202, 207–208
learning objectives in 200, 204
music theory in 206
nonperformance courses in 206
participatory assessment in 208–209
peer assessment in 206–210
performance in 197–212
policy in 198–200
primary and secondary education in 203, 212n1
private instruction in 197, 771, 777–778, 783–785
process in 197–211
recital performance in 206–207
reflection in 207
rubrics in 200
self–assessment in 207–209
standards–based assessment in 705
state and local input in 203, 705
testing in 13
Australia and New Zealand Cultural Arts Limited 366–367
Australian Assessment in Music 202
Australian Conservatorium 200
Australian Higher Education Standards Framework 198
Australian Higher Education Standards Panel 704
Australian Learning and Teaching Council 199
Australian Music Examination Board 20, 203, 205, 212n1, 585–586
Australian Qualifications Framework 198–200, 207
Australian Test for Advanced Music Studies 549
Australian Universities Quality Agency 198
Australia Qualification Framework 705
authentic assessment/authenticity
accountability and 755
in Australia 203
higher education 755
philosophy of assessment and 46–47
recontextualized 672, 674–675, 690n6
awareness, policy and 78–79
Ayala, C. 630–631
B
“Baba Yaga” 313
Babbitt, Milton 616
Bach, Johann Sebastian 19, 148, 313, 389
Bachelor of Popular Music Assessment Tool (Australia) 209–210
(p. 929) backward assessment 200, 202
backward design 517, 518f, 754
Baek, J. 619t
Bagamoyo College of Arts 109
Baker, E. L. 180
Balakirev, Mily Alexeyevich 302
Balbachevsky, E. 330
Ball, S. 227
Ball, S. J. 361
Ball, Stephen 63, 81
Baltzer, S. 615, 619t
Bamberger, Jeanne 553
Bandura, A. 68, 72
Barbot, B. 610, 620
Barresi, A. 178–180
Barrett, M. 613
Bartell, T. 732
Bartók, Béla 285, 616
Başgöz, İlhan 274
Basic Education Curriculum Guide (Hong Kong) 122
Basic Music Studies (Venezuela) 154
Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction (Tyler) 509–510
Bastiaens, T. 46
Batchelor, D. 767
Bauer, W. 709
Baxter–Magolda, M. 698
Beach, F. A. 545
Beach Music Test 545–546
Beck, J. S. 876
Beethoven, Ludwig van 389
Beghetto, R. 609, 611
behaviors/behavioral assessment 45, 67, 163, 259–260, 276
curriculum and 522
disposition and 875–876
private instruction and 770–771, 779, 780–781
Beheshti, S. 774, 782
Behne, K. 551
Beijing Central Conservatory of Music 367
Belarus 305, 312, see also Russia/USSR
Bell, C. 911
Bell, C. A. 907–908
Bell, Terrence 6–7
Benchmark Minimum Academic Standards for Undergraduate Programs in Nigerian Universities 110
benchmarks, teacher training and 724–727, 725t
Benjamin, W. J. 888
Bennett, R. 66
Bennett, S. 613
Benson, C. 772
Bentley, A. 543
Benyon, C. 175
Bergee, M. J. 756, 773, 775
Bergen Communiqué 750
Berger, J. 551
Berger, R. 521
Berki, T. 284
Berlin Communiqué 750
Berliner, D. 7–8, 38
Berlyne, E. D. 552
Bernhard, A. 747
Besançon, M. 610, 620
bias 451–452, 472
Biegholt, G. 237
Biesta, G. 328
Big–C/Little–C 611–612, 621
big data, policy and 58
Biggs, J. B. 204, 652
Big Thought 79
Bildung (formation) 12, 233, 237–240, see also creativity/aesthetics
Bilgin, A. S. 283
Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation 16–17, 538, 560
Binet, Alfred 461
Binet–Simon scale 539
Biondo Music Aptitude Test 542
bivariate correlations 466
Black, P. 663, 755
Blair, Tony 221
Blom, D. 208, 711
Bloom, Benjamin 507
Bloom, B. S. 874
Bloom’s Taxonomy (Bloom) 507, 512, 521, 680
Bloxham, S. 201
Bobbitt, F. 506, 511, 523
Bochkarev, L. 551
Boehm, P. 619t
(p. 930) Bolivia 147, 168n1, see also South America
Bologna Declaration/Process 306, 309, 703, 706–707, 749–750
Bolu Music Teacher Training School (Turkey) 287–288
Booth, T. 61
Bordin, A. 43
Borst, J. 756
Borstel, J. 205
Boston public schools 173–174
Boud, D. 368
Boud, David 197, 204–205, 208, 212
Bowman, W. 563
Boyle, J. D. 403, 771–772, 805–806, 809
Brand, Manny 769
Brandes, J. 888
Brando, F. R. 333
Brass Performance Rating Scale 773
Braun, H. 795
Brazil, see also South America
accountability in 749
composition in 328
culture in 327–328, 331f, 332
curriculum in 326, 328
drama in 329
evaluation in 330–331, 331t
higher education in 323–335, 704
history of colonialism in 145–146
improvisation in 328
music theory in 328
primary and secondary education in 323
private instruction in 330
reflection in 326
research in 333–334
teacher training in 329–334
testing in 325–329, 335
Brazilian National System of Postgraduate Studies 329–330
Breese, L. 878
Bremen, University of 243
Brennan, R. L. 444, 449
Bresler, L. 104
Bresler, Liora 564
Bridges, D. 549
British Associated Schools of Music Examinations, Australia and 13
Brito, M. R. F. 325
Brittin, R. 555
Broadfoot, P. 51
brokering of assessment information 60
Brookhart, S. 631
Brookhart, S. M. 449
Brookings Institution 664
Brophy, T. 68, 550, 816, 840, 914, 920
Brophy, Timothy 103
Brophy, T. S. 68, 181, 418, 653, 914
Brown, D. 770
Bruffee, K. 698
Bruner, Jerome 513
budget concerns 40, 74
Buehl, M. M. 876
Bundra, J. 551
Burnard, P. 370, 613, 703
Burrack, F. 726
Burton, David 538
Burwell, K. 768, 770, 777–778, 784
Bush, George H. W. 398
Bush, George W. 184, 537
Buss, D. M. 872, 875
C
Cain, M. 200, 704
Çakar, D. 273
Caldeira, A. M. A. 333
California 188, 192–193
teacher certification in 730
teacher evaluation in 913
test development and 561
California Basic Education Skills Test 188
California State Normal School 398
Cambridge General Certificate of Education Ordinary Level Music Examination 13, 362, 375
Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate 362
Cameron, David 221
Cameron, J. 555
Campbell, D. 228
Campbell, D. T. 584–585
Campbell, P. S. 802
“Campbell’s law” 228, 231
(p. 931) Canada, see also North America
policy in 174–178, 183, 186–187
testing in 12
Cantamessa, M. 43
capacity building 80
Capperell–Sheldon, D. 555
Carey, G. 205, 704, 770, 784
Carillo, C. 724
Carrick Institute for Learning and Teaching in Higher Education 199
Carter, James Earl 398
Case Western Reserve University 617
Castells, M. 371
Catherine the Great 302
Cattell, James 461
Cecconi–Roberts, L. 775
Center for Evaluating the Quality of Education (Russia) 316
center–periphery curriculum 342
Central Conservatory of Music (China) 341
Central Education Midwest Research Laboratory 24
Centre for Indigenous Instrumental Music and Dance Practices of Africa 105, 108, 111, 114, 115n3
Certificate Advancement Program (American String Teachers Association) 409
certification, see teacher certification
Certified Music Institutes (Italy) 257
Cesur, D. 279
CGCS (Council of the Great City Schools) 63
Champion, H. 780
Chapman, C. 80
Chapman, J. 208
character education 7
Charalambous, C. Y. 910
Charles Rieley Armington Research Program on Values in Children 617
Che, J. 60
checklists 471
Chen, C.–P. 391
Chen–Edmund, J. 725t, 732
Chile, Universidad de 151, 162
Chilean Bach Society 148
China 339–356, see also Asia; Taiwan
composition in 345t, 346t, 347, 348t, 349t, 351t, 356
creativity/aesthetics in 343–344, 344t, 347, 351t
culture in 343, 347
curriculum in 120–122, 135–136, 340, 342–350, 344t, 346t, 348t, 349t, 351t
dance/choreography in 343, 350, 351t
drama in 343, 350, 351t
ensemble in 346t
Han dynasty 3
history of music education in 339
holistic assessment in 121
improvisation in 343, 347, 348t, 350, 356
instrumental music in 340–342, 347, 356
music theory in 352–353, 356
performance in 340, 342–343, 345, 346t, 347, 350, 351t, 355–356
portfolio assessment in 352–354, 356
primary and secondary education in 339–341, 343–350, 344t, 346t, 348t, 349t, 351t
private instruction in 772
self–assessment in 352–353, 356
sight–reading in 340, 342, 345, 347, 347t, 355
state and local input in 342
statistics on 340–341
Sui dynasty 3
teacher evaluation in 735
teacher training in 340
testing in 13
vocal training/chorus in 340–343, 345, 346t, 347, 350, 351t, 352–353, 355–356
Chinese Instrumental Examination 367
Chinese Language Education Export Plan (Taiwan) 380
Chipman, Jeff 864
choreography, see dance/choreography
Christensen, R. 737
Christopherson, C. 769–770
Chung, Jin Wong 553
(p. 932) Ciorba, C. R. 772–773
citizenship 7
African social systems and 91, 94, 97–98, 101–109, 111, 113, 115n1
colonialism and 146
civil rights 7
Clapham, M. 611
Clarinet Performance Rating Scale 773
Clark, K. B. 872, 873
Clarke, E. F. 613
classical test theory 461–475, see also error
defined 461–464
development of 457
difficulty index and 473–474
fairness and 451–452, 473
generalizability and 475
item analysis and 473–474
item discrimination index and 474
item response theory and 464, 475
limitations of 474–475
measuring progress and 470–471
origins of 461–462
primary and secondary education and 469–474
reliability and 444–446, 444f, 445f, 448, 464–467, 471–473
standard error of measurement and 463–464, 475
validity and 464–465, 467–469, 471–473
classification accuracy, psychometrics and 432
classroom assessments, in Russia 316–318
Classroom Assessment Scoring System 17, 560
Classroom–Based Performance Assessments 421
classroom–level measurement 470–471
class size, in Asia 136
clearly defined objectives 45–46
Cleveland, J. M. 453
Cliburn, Harvey Levan “Van” 4
Clinton, William Jefferson 398
Çoban, S. 281
Cobb, R. W. 75
Cocco, B. 18
Cochran–Smith, M. 653
cocurricular activities 363–364
cognition/cognitivist approach 507–508, 507t
creativity/aesthetics and 613–614, 622n7
to curriculum 522
disposition and 875–876
performance–based assessment and 633
test development and 633
Cohen, Veronica 551
Coleman Report, Equity for Diverse Populations 6, 60
Coles, M. 680
collaborative learning, culture and 672, 690n7
College Board 404–405, 549, 632, 660
College Entrance Examination Center (Taiwan) 386
College Music Program Joint Admissions System (Taiwan) 387
College Music Society 879
College of Teachers (Canada) 178
College Outcomes Measures Project 699
college–ready musicianship 4
Collins, I. 725, 727, 730
Cologne, University of 243
Colombia 150–155, 157–158, 166, 168n1, see also South America
Colombia Creativa 151–152
Colombian Conservatorio Nacional 151
colonialism
in Africa 96, 103, 106–107, 110
Portugal and 145–146
religion and 145–147
in Singapore 359, 362, 366
in South America 145–147, 163
Spain and 145–148, 163
Colorado 192
performance assessment in 422
policy in 14
Colorado Content Collaboratives 916
Columbia, accountability in 749
Colwell, R. 22
higher education and 701, 729, 734
philosophy of assessment and 34–35, 40, 43, 46–47, 51n1
teacher evaluation and 806–808, 816, 818, 914, 916
test development and 546, 548, 654
Colwell, Richard 469
(p. 933) Comissão Nacional de Avaliação da Educação Superior (Brazil) 326
commercial testing, see also specific company, e.g. Pearson Education
conflicts of interest and 66–67
institutionalization of policy norms and 65
international impact of 177, 203, 404–406, 409
policy and 38–39, 65–67
test development and 538
Commission on Accreditation (NASM) 753
commodification of testing 58
Common Arts Assessment 421
communalism, standards–based assessment and 678, 685–687, 691n13
communicating directions, for performance–based assessment 634
Communist Party 303–305
comparability, psychometrics and 417, 427–432
Comparative Date Guide 406
Compendium of Music Education (Abel–Struth) 234
Compensatory Education, see Elementary and Secondary Education Act
competency 4–5, 10
Competency–Based Teacher Education 807
competition
of agendas 58
in education reform 7
tests and 3–4
composition, see also arrangement; creativity/aesthetics
in Africa 99–100, 115n3
in Australia 198
in Brazil 328
in China 345t, 346t, 347, 348t, 349t, 351t, 356
creativity/aesthetics and 612–613
curriculum and 20
in England 222–223
in Germany 236, 240, 241f
in Italy 256–257, 257t, 263, 267
in North America 180, 189
in Russia 313, 318
in South America 146–147, 150–151
teacher–centered 607–608
in Turkey 278, 285
compound multinomial model, psychometrics and 432
Comprehensive Musicianship 6
Compulsory Curriculum Pilot Program (China) 120
Compulsory Universal Primary Education (Nigeria) 110
conceptualization, policy and 70–71
conceptual measurement 481
conceptual musical understanding 672, 690n8
Concerto for Violin and Orchestra (Kabalevsky) 313
concurrent validity 439
conflicts of interest, commercial testing and 66–67, 752
Conlon, F. 706
Connecticut
Common Arts Assessment project in 42–43
performance assessment in 421–422
test development in 549
Conn Music Aptitude Test 542
Conrad Instrument Talent Test 542
consensus moderation 201–203
consequential validity 441
philosophy of assessment and 48, 50
reliability and 472
unintended consequences and 441–442
conservatories 4, 147–148, 197, 257, 264, 284–285, 310f, 767, see also higher education; private instruction; specific conservatory
Conservatorio de Música y Declamación 151
Conservatorio Municipal de Música Manuel de Falla (Argentina) 150
Conservatorio Nacional de Música (Argentina) 150–151
Conservatorio Nacional de Música (Columbia) 151
consistency 432, 443–444
construct–based model of validity 440–441, 468
construct–irrelevant variance 425, 431, 442–443, 450
(p. 934) constructivism 17, 279–280, 293, 522
construct underrepresentation 442
Contenidos Básicos Comunes para la Educación General Básica (Argentina) 155
content 450, 652–653
content–based model of validity 439–441, 468, 472–473
context
recontextualized authenticity and 672, 674–675, 690n6
standards–based assessment and 678
teacher evaluation and 797–800
Context, Input, Process, Product Model 818
continuous assessment 110
continuous response digital interface 551–552, 555
Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage (UNESCO) 109
convergent testing 614, 622n7
convergent validity 439, 468
Cook, May Lou 607
Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Ensino Superior (Brazil) 329–331, 331t, 335
Copeland, R. E. 757–758
Copland, R. 702
Core Arts Music Standards 661
core subjects, see also Common Core; National Core Arts Standards
music as 183–186
philosophy of assessment and 39
policy and 19–20, 174, 177, 191–193, 607
in Russia 307–308
Cork, C. A. 587
Corrigan, S. 563
Costa, A. 874
Costa Rica 164, see also South America
cost–benefit analysis 48
Council for Higher Education Accreditation 752
Council for the Accreditation of Educator Preparation 872–873, 878, 887
Council of Chief State School Officers
measuring progress and 421
policy and 401, 403–404
test development and 659
Council of Europe 663
Council of the Great City Schools 63
course assessment, in Russia 318
course assignment, higher education and 711–712
court musicians 3–4
court system, policy by 13
Cowson, M. 888
Cox, J. 707
Craik, K. H. 872, 875
Crawford, L. 619t
Creative and Performing Arts Threshold Learning Outcomes 705
creativity/aesthetics, see also Bildung; composition; improvisation
age and 614–620, 619t, 622nn9–11
aptitude/talent and 613
artistic literacy and 519, 519f
in Asia 137
in China 343–344, 344t, 347, 351t
cognition and 613–614, 622n7
curriculum and 513–515, 514f
defining 608–610, 622n5
divergent thinking and 613–614, 622n7
in England 222
environment and 613
in Hong Kong 124
in Japan 125–127
measuring progress and 613–614, 622n7
process and 612–613
in South America 151, 158–159
teacher training and 611–612
test development and 549–556, 559, 607–622
values and 617
Cremin, Lawrence 7
criteria for assessments
improvisation and 582–584, 582f, 584f
private instruction and 781
teacher evaluation and 816–818
test development and 582–584, 582f, 584f
validity and 441
(p. 935) criterion–based model of validity 439, 468
critical listening, policy as 69–70
critical response process 209
Crocker, L. 445
Cronbach, L. J. 440, 448
Cronbach’s alpha coefficient 446–448, 448f, 465–467, 773
Csikszentmihalyi, I. 555
Csikszentmihalyi, M. 555, 610
Cubberly, Elwood 5
Cultural Policy of Ghana 111
Cultural Revolution (USSR) 305
culture 91–114, see also specific country or region
collaborative learning and 672, 690n7
contextualized authenticity and 672, 690n6
diversity and 672, 690n7
emotional stimulation and 554–555
evaluation and 327, 673
generalizability and 672–678, 690n4, 691nn10–12
holistic approach/assessment and 672, 683–684, 690n5
reflection and 682f, 683f, 685f, 687f, 689f
standards–based assessment and 663–664, 671–690, 690n1
test development and 539
transformative learning and 672, 690n7
Cunha, F. 72
Cunningham, G. 455t
Cureton, E. E. 439
curriculum 4, 14, see also specific country or region; specific method, e.g. Kodály method and
Alignment Loop and 524–528, 525f, 528f
alignment of 505–532
assessment–led 224
backward design of 517, 518f
behavioral approach to 522
brokering of assessment information and 60
center–periphery 342
cognitivist approach to 522
composition and 20
constructivism and 522
creativity/aesthetics and 513–515, 514f
embedded assessments and 15
in Europe 706
examination–based 371
holistic approach to 512
instructional design of 510–521, 520t, 522f
international standards and 529–531, 529t
learner–centered design of 510–511, 511f
learning theory and 522–523
performance–standard orientation of 135
philosophical frameworks of 506–507, 513–515, 514f, 515f
policy and 372–374
praxial approaches to 514–515, 515f
programs as separate from 20
reflection and 511, 511f, 525f, 526, 528
school–based 342
sequential curriculum alignment 505–532
space race and 6, 729
standards–based assessment and 565–657
state and local input and 654
student–centered design of 510–511, 511f
subject/skill–centered design of 509–510, 510f
syllabus review and 45
teacher training and 722
test development and 545–546
two–dimensional design of 511–512, 513f
understanding by design and 517–521, 518f, 519f, 520t, 522f
Curriculum, The (Bobbitt) 506
Curriculum Development: Theory and Practice (Taba) 512
curriculum mapping 710–711, 758–761, 759f, 760f
Curriculum Studies Reader, 4th edition, 18
Curtis Institute of Music 4
Custodero, L. A. 555
Custom and Cherishing 24
D
Dalkıran, E. 282, 283t
dal Pino, C. 153
(p. 936) Daly, A. J. 60
dance/choreography
in Asia 120
in China 343, 350, 351t
in Italy 256–257, 264, 267–268
Kabalevsky method and 312–313
in South America 146–147, 153
in Turkey 275
Daniel, R. 208, 775–777
Danielson, C. 728, 814, 833–835, 838–839, 913
Danielson, Charlotte 16, 527–528, 528t, 560, 917–918
Danielson Framework for Teaching 16–17, 560–561, 731–732, 833–835, 838, 906, 908–909, 913
Dar es Salam, University of 109
Darling–Hammond, L. 733, 797, 801–802, 810, 812, 816, 872
Darül’elhan Conservatory 275, 284–285
Data Wise Project 10
Davies, John 556
Davison, P. D. 858
Day, C. 68
decentralization 59
DeCicco, D. 43
decision–making, see policy/policymakers
decision studies, reliability and 449
de Couve, A. C. 146, 153
Dee, J. 888
degree programs 397, see also higher education; teacher training
in Africa 109
in Australia 209
in Germany 239
in Italy 256, 268–269
in Russia 306, 309, 310f
in South America 155
in Taiwan 381
teacher certification and 187–188
US 59
de la Prada’s Academy of Instrumental Music (Argentina) 151
Del–Ben, L. 704
Demirbatır, E. 289
Demirbatır, Erol 287
Demirbatır, R. E. 290t
Demirbilek, M. 209
Demirci, B. 277
demographics
teacher evaluation and 84
of US musical education 174
Demorest, S. M. 802
DeNeal, Jennifer 865
Denora, T. 554
DeNora, Tia 553
DePascale, C. 645
deregulation 82n2
Derrida, Jacques 36
de Rudder, H. 750
Devechi, C. P. V. 332
DeVos, Betsy 82n2
Dewey, J. 25, 44
Dewey, John 303, 506, 510–511, 532, 563, 697, 872
diagnostic assessment 132, 755
Dias, E. D. 332
Diaz–Bilello, E. 645
Dickey, Mark 543
dictation
in Russia 314
in Taiwan 387–388, 388t
in Turkey 286, 287f, 288f
Dictionary of Music Education (Meißner) 236
Diderot, Denis 302
Diez, M. E. 871, 873, 874
differential facet functioning 443, 451–452, 454
differential item functioning 443, 451
differential person functioning 451
differential rater functioning 443
difficulty index, classical test theory and 473–474
Dingle, R. 619t
disabilities, see special education
Discipline and Punish (Foucault) 49
Discipline–Based Arts Education 24, 407
discriminant validity 439, 468, 585
Disney Honors 403
disposition
accreditation and 872–873
(p. 937)
behaviors/behavioral assessment and 875–876
beliefs and 876–877
cognition/cognitivist approach and 875–876
defined 871–879
formative assessment and 875
National Survey of Music Teacher Certification Programs and 879–894, 880t, 881t, 882t, 883t, 891f, 892f, 893t
process of assessing 877–878
psychometrics and 877–878, 888–889, 891–892, 891f
reflection and 878
reliability and 878, 886–887
standards–based assessment and 872–873
summative assessment and 875
teacher evaluation and 735–736, 802–804
teacher training and 871–894
21st–century skills and 894
validity and 878, 886–887
Disposition Assessment Aligned with Teacher Standards procedure 893
dispositions attributes proficiencies model 894
divergent thinking tests 613–614, 622n7
diversity 672, 690n7
Doerksen, P. 713, 890
Doerksen, P. F. 724, 916
Domaleski, C. 645
Dominican Republic 150, see also South America
Doneski, S. 557–558
Donizetti, Giuseppe 275
Dorgo, M. 562
Dorn, Charles 4
Dottin, E. S. 874, 878
Dow, G. 609
Downey, R. G. 453
Drafall, L. 803
Drake, Raleigh 543
drama
in Africa 91, 98–99, 101, 104, 108, 114, 115n3
in Brazil 329
in China 343, 350, 351t
in Germany 239
in Italy 257
in Turkey 280
Drama Academies (Italy) 257
Dreyfus, H. L. 49
Driscoll, T. 556
Drummond, M. J. 67
Duffy, M. 555
Duke, R. A. 770–771, 779, 781, 801
Dunbar–Hall, P. 674
Duncan, Arne 184, 853, 863–864
Dunn, A. H. 732
Dunn, R. 612
Dweck, C. S. 835
Dwyer, Carol 16
Dykema, Peter 543
Dysthe, O. 49
E
Early Childhood Education and Care Act (Taiwan) 379–380
e–assessment 209–210
East Carolina University 759, 759f
East Germany 246n2
Eastman, George 541
Eastman School of Music 6, 541–542
Eastman validity study 541–542
Ebert, Carl 275
Ece, A. S. 283, 287–289
Economic Opportunity Act 9
economics, see also socioeconomic status
education reform and 7–8
policy and 58, 71–72
Russia and 305
ECTS (European Credit Transfer System) 268, 706
Ecuador 147, 151, 168n1, see also South America
Edgar, S. 803
Edmund, D. 725t, 732
Edmund, D. C. 34
Educate America Act 398, 655, 657
Education Act for Indigenous Peoples (Taiwan) 380
educational governance 60–63
educational policy, see policy/ policymakers
(p. 938) Educational Policy for the Construction of a New Japan 125
Educational Testing Service
conflicts of interest and 66–67
higher education and 699, 701–702, 730–731, 733
international impact of 188, 404–406
policy and 15–16, 61, 65
test development and 560, 659
Educational Theatre Association 660
education reform
in Germany 240
global 227–228
in Italy 258
philosophy of assessment and 39
policy and 4–9, 15–17, 19–21, 59–60
in Russia 306–307
Education White Paper of 2012 (Taiwan) 381
Educator Teacher Performance Assessment
higher education and 731t, 733–734, 752
international impact of 188–190
policy and 15–17, 406
teacher evaluation and 814–815
test development and 561
Ege University (Turkey) 284
Ehrenforth, K. H. 246n6
Eisenberg, J. 612
Eisenhower, Dwight D. 407
Eisner, Elliot 14–15, 24, 50, 538, 564
Eisteddfod festival 3
e–learning 131, 209–211, 380, 429, 431, 549
E–learning Promotion Plan (Taiwan) 380
Elementary and Junior High School Student Arts Quality Evaluation Regulations (China) 122
Elementary and Secondary Education Act
policy and 184–185, 398–400
teacher evaluation and 848, 904
test development and 657–658
Title I of 7, 9, 39, 399–400
Title II of 400
elementary education, see primary and secondary education
Elementary Rhythm and Pitch Test (McCreery) 542
Elementary/Secondary Education Act 176
Elliott, D. 563, 660, 697, 737, 742
Elliott, David 33, 41, 48, 514–515
Elliott, D. J. 676, 679
Elman, Mischa 303
Elpus. K. 190
Elui, E. P. 110
embedded assessments, curriculum 15
Embretson, S. E. 449
Emigh, L. 878
emotional stimulation
culture and 554–555
self–reporting and 554
test development and 551–556
empowerment, teacher 138–139
endorsed policy 178–179
Engelhard, G. 432, 444, 780
Engelhard, Jr., G. E. 484
England, see also Europe
accountability in 227–229
composition in 222–223
creativity/aesthetics in 222
curriculum in 219–231, 529t, 530
higher education in 230, 707
holistic assessment in 222–223, 225
improvisation in 223
instrumental music in 222, 237
level statements in 222–223, 225, 228
listening in 222
measuring progress in 225–227
notation in 222
Ofsted and 12, 224–226, 231n1
parental input in 220–221
performance in 222
politics in 220–221
primary and secondary education in 219–231
process in 219, 224, 227–228
professional development in 529t
state and local input in 224
testing in 12
ensemble 18–19, 20, 22, 47, 81, 181, 187, 207–208, see also vocal training/chorus
African societal framework and 97, 99, 105
in Asia 121, 124
in Australia 205–207
in China 346t
in Germany 237
(p. 939)
improvisation and 598
in Italy 255–256, 257t, 267
observation and 837
peer assessment and 207–208
self–assessment and 208
in Singapore 360, 371
in South America 164
in Turkey 280
environment 609, 613, see also socioeconomic status
equity, fairness and 452–453
equivalence coefficient, reliability and 446, 465
Erasmus Network for Music “Polifonia” 706
Eroğlu, Ö. 289
error 430, see also classical test theory; standard error of measurement
classical test theory and 461–464
halo 453–454
leniency/severity 453–454
occasion 430
random 463
range restriction 454
rater 453
response set 454
systematic 463
weighting of, in rubrics 641–642, 642t
Esnaola conservatory 150
Essential Academic Learning Requirements 421
Ester, A. 767
estimating ability, item response theory and 494, 495t, 496
ethics, see also values
morality lessons and 98, 100–101, 105, 107–108, 112, 115n1
policy and 60, 68–74, 76–77, 81
validity and 442
Europe, see also specific country or region
accreditation in 750
Bologna Declaration/Process and 306, 309, 703, 706–707, 749–750
curriculum in 706
higher education in 703, 706–707, 761–762
national standards within 43
Polifonia Working Group on Assessment and Standards 201
private instruction in 778
European Association for Conservatories 706–707
European Association for Quality Assurance in Higher Education 750
European Commission 778
European Conservatoire model 197
European Credit Transfer System 268, 706
European Higher Education Area 309, 749–750
Evaluating the Arts in Education 24
evaluation, see also policy/policymakers; tests/testing; specific country or region; specific type, e.g. quantitative evaluation
Area Documents and 331, 331t
assessment vs. 51n1
attitudes towards 44–46
culture and 673
culture of 327
defining 51n1, 180–182
in higher education 330–331, 331t
in the moment 35
online 131
philosophy of assessment and 41–43, 45, 51n6
teacher (see teacher evaluation)
“Evaluation of Music Teachers and Teaching, The” (Taebel) 807
Evaluation of Potential Creativity 622n11
Evans, P. 557
Every Child Achieves Act 399
Every Student Succeeds Act of 2015
international impact of 175, 180, 184–186, 191–193
policy and 58, 78, 399–400, 409
teacher evaluation and 848
test development and 537, 556–558, 656–658
evidence–based assessment, teacher evaluation and 811
evidence–centered design 425–426, 428, 631–632
Ewell, P. 699
(p. 940) Ewell, P. T. 711
Exame Nacional de Cursos (Brazil) 749
Exame Nacional de Descepenho dos Estudantes (Brazil) 749
Exame Nacional de Desempenho dos Estudantes (Brazil) 325–329, 335
Exámenes Generales para el Egreso del Técnico Superior Universitario (Mexico) 749
Examen General para el Egreso de la Licenciatura (Mexico) 748–749
Examen Nacional de Ingreso al Posgrado (Mexico) 749
examination–based curriculum 371
examination syndrome, see anxiety
exemplars for assessment 202
Expansion of Digital Opportunities in Remote Areas (Taiwan) 380
experience, see teacher training
explicit policy 178–179
expression, see creativity/aesthetics
external factors of validity 441
external moderation 203
External School Review exams (Hong Kong) 124–125
extracurricular activities, see cocurricular activities
F
Fahnestock, E. 546
fairness 450–454
analysis of variance and 454
bias and 451–452
classical test theory and 451–452, 473
construct–irrelevant variance and 450
content and 450
context and 450
defined 450
differential facet functioning and 451–452, 454
differential item functioning and 451
differential person functioning and 451
holistic approach to 454, 455t, 456
item response theory and 451–454
response types and 450–451
testing procedure and 452–453
Family Education Act (Taiwan) 380
Farnesi, Josefina 148
Farnsworth, P. R. 550, 554
Farnum, S. 546
Farnum, S. E. 644
Farnum, Stephen 557
Farnum Music Notation Test 546
Fautley, M. 68, 563
Favaro, E. 12
Fechner, Gustav 539
Federal Institute of Pedagogical Measurements (Russia) 316
“Federal Program of Education Development for 2011–2015” (Russia) 306
Federal Testing Center 316
feedback
as assessment 197, 204–205
critical response process as 209
formative 631
in Germany 242
from observation 837–838
social media 206
summative 631
teacher evaluation and 805, 814, 842–847, 904
Feiman–Nemser, S. 871
Feistritzer, C. E. 187
Ferguson, Ronald 560
Festival Disney 403
Figueiredo, S. 704, 749
Filho, J. F. da S. 333
Final State Certification (Russia) 315–316, 318
Fine Arts Academies (Italy) 257
Fine Arts Portfolio 855, 858–867
Finland, education reform in 4
Finn, Chester 7, 10
Finnigan, K. S. 60
Fischer, H. 234
Fisher, D. 521
Fiske, D. W. 584–585
Fiske, H. E. 769
Fives, H. 876
Fixed–Do 355
Flexner, Abraham 541
Flohr, J. W. 579
Flolu, J. E. 104
Florida International University 874
(p. 941) Flowers, C. 888
Folkestad, G. 613
Forester, J. 69–70
formative assessment
accountability and 755–756
Alignment Loop and 525f, 526–527
in Australia 205
in China 121
curriculum and 519
disposition and 875
higher education and 755–756
purposes of 630–631
summative assessment vs. 37
in Taiwan 132
test development and 545
Foro Latinoamericano de Educación Musical (Peru) 152
Fortune 38
Foucault, M. 371
Foucault, Michel 49–50
Fowler, W. F. 60
Framework for Teaching, see Danielson Framework for Teaching
France, see also Europe
conservatories in 147
normal school tradition of 151
Frank, A. 749, 750, 757
Frederickson, W. 770, 889
free form playing, see improvisation
Freeman, L. 872, 874–875
Frega, A. L. 152, 153, 563
Freschi, A. M. 263–264
Frey, N. 521
Fries, M. 653
Froseth, James 543
Frost, D. 80
Fujimura, K. 557
Füller, K. 234, 240, 242
Fullerton, Charles A. 22
Full–Time Compulsory Education Curriculum Standards (China) 120
functionality 610, 622n5, 676, 691n9
funding 40, 74
Fung, C. 619t
Fung, C. F. 772
Fursenko, Andrei 306
Furtak, E. 630–631
G
Gabrielsson, A. 544
Gainza, V. 148
Galton, Sir Francis 461, 539
García, Z. 153
Gardner, David 7
Gardner, H. 607, 611, 622n7
Gardner, Howard 552
Garmendia, E. 164
Gaston, E. Thayer 22, 543
gatekeeping 134, 361, 733
gateways, teacher training and 724–727, 725t
Gaunt, H. 770, 777, 782, 784
Gay, G. 888
Gazi Education Institute (Turkey) 281
Gazi Higher Teacher School (Turkey) 280
Gazi Secondary Teacher School and Training Institute (Turkey) 280
Gazi University Gazi Education Faculty (Turkey) 280
Gazi University Music Teacher Training School 287
Gembris, H. 544
Gembris, Heiner 552
Gençel Ataman, Ö. 289
gender
improvisation and 597f, 598, 599f, 600
policy and 9
test development and 540
generalizability
classical test theory and 464, 475
culture and 672–678, 690n4, 691nn10–12
psychometrics and 429–431
reliability and 448–449
teacher evaluation and 801–802, 840–841
validity and 441
General Music Syllabus Program (Singapore) 127
Generic Crosscultural Assessment Framework for African Musical Art (Human) 671–690
genericism, see generalizability
(p. 942) Geneva Emotional Music Scales 554
Georgia 192
Gergen, Kenneth 61
GERM (global educational reform movement) 227–228
German Pedagogical Mission 150
Germany 233–246, see also Europe
accountability in 750, 762
accreditation in 750, 757
Bildung and 12, 233, 237–240
composition in 236, 240, 241f
curriculum in 529–531, 529t
degree programs in 239
drama in 239
education reform in 240
ensemble in 237
feedback in 242
gymnasia in 234, 236, 239, 245
higher education in 246n4, 750, 762
history of assessment in 233–236, 246n2, 246n4
instrumental music in 12, 241f, 244–245
learning objectives in 234
measuring progress in 239–242, 241f
music theory in 236, 240, 241f
politics in 236
primary and secondary education in 234–235, 237, 239–242, 241f, 245–246
private instruction in 237, 244–245
process in 234–237, 243, 246
professional development in 529t, 531
reflection in 242
research in 242–246, 244f
rubrics in 236, 240–242, 241f
Russia and 302
socioeconomic status in 246n4
testing in 12–13
UK and 235–236
US and 234–235
vocal training/chorus in 243
Getting Teacher Evaluation Right (Darling–Hammond) 802
Getty, J. Paul 407
Getty Center for Education in the Arts 404, 407
Getty Education Institute 659
Getty Museum 407
Ghana 104, 111, see also Africa
GI Bill 6
Gieseler, W. 234
Gilbert, D. 889
Gildersleeve, G. 546
Gill, M. G. 876
Gillard, Julia 25
Giolo, J. 326
Gipson, R. C. 768, 772
Glass, G. 7–8
Glass, Gene 40
Glazunov, Alexandr 303
Glenwright, B. 555
global assessment, Africa and 102–105
global educational reform movement 4, 227–228
globalism 672, 674–675
Goals 2000 657
Goals and Objectives Project of 1969 403
Goe, L. 805, 864, 911
Goffi, J. 776
Göktürk, D. 277
Göktürk, Dilek 531
Göktürk–Cary, D. 277
Goldie, S. B. 724, 734
Gong, B. 645
Gonzales–Moreno, P. 174, 183–184
González, G. 157
Gorbachev, Mikhail 305, 320
Gorder, W. 559, 615–616
Gorder, W. D. 578–579, 581
Gordon, E. 657
Gordon, Edwin 6, 391, 394, 469, 543–544, 547
Gordon, E. E. 580
Gordon Commission on the Future of Assessment in Education 61, 65
Gordon Instrument Timbre Preference Tests 542–543
Gove, Michael 221
Governali, J. F. 183
government support of music 4, 176–177, 752
curriculum and 4
policy and 191–192
in Russia 310
scholarship programs and 165–166
Grade 1–9 Curriculum Guidelines (Taiwan) 131–133, 390
Grade 1–9 Curriculum of the Arts and Humanities (Taiwan) 392
Graduate Record Examination 699, 701
Graduate Record Examination: Advanced Tests 549
Grammy Foundation 562
Gramsci, Antonio 51
Grant, C. 770
Grant, J. 803
Gray, P. 712
GRE (Graduate Record Examination) 699, 701
Great Britain, see United Kingdom; specific country
Green, Lucy 553
Greenwood, Ernest 178
Griboski, C. M. 326–327
Griffith University 202, 209
Grissom, J. 810
Grossman, P. 847, 918–919
group, see ensemble
group assessment, in Russia 317
group invariance 452–453
Growth in Learning Determination Information System 860
Guangdong Flower City Publishing House (China) 342, 352
Guidelines for Basic Education Curriculum Reform (Trial) (China) 120
“Guidelines for Calculating Workload in Credits in the Educational Programs” (Russia) 309
Guide to Accountability in Music Instruction (Labuta) 37–38
Guildhall School of Music and Dance 777, 784
Guilford, J. P. 581
Guilford, J. Paul 613–615, 622n7
Guitar Performance Rating Scale 773
Gulkers, J. 46
Gutiérrez conservatory 150
gymnasia 234, 236, 239, 245, 302
H
Haack, P. 796, 805–806, 808
Hacettepe University Ankara State Conservatory (Turkey) 287, 288f, 289f
Hadfield, M. 80
Haertel, E. 733
Hagan, G. 455t
Hagedorn, V. 619t
Hall, S. 674
Hallam, S. 49
Hallam, Susan 553
halo errors 453–454
Halpin, P. 17
Hambleton, R. K. 449, 486
Hambleton, Ronald 491
Hamilton, L. 665
Hamilton, L. S. 902
Handbook for Inspection (England) 226
Handbook for Music Lessons in Primary School (Gieseler) 234
Handbook of Music and Emotion: Theory, Research and Applications (Juslin & Sloboda) 552
Handbook of Practical Teaching in Secondary Schools (Jank) 237
Handbook of Research on Music Teaching and Learning 807, 809
Handbook of School Music (Valentin) 234
Handbook of Teaching Music (Lohmann) 235
Handel and Haydn Society 174
handicaps, see special education
Han dynasty 3
Hanley, W. 65–66
Hansen, Forest 160
Hanson, Howard 541
Hanushek, E. A. 60, 911
Hare 874
Hargreaves, A. 68, 76
Hargreaves, D. 613
Hargreaves, David 553
Hargreaves, D. J. 554, 587
Harnischmacher, C. 245–246
Harris, A. 68
Harrison, S. 208, 704
Harvard Educational Review 6
Harvard University, Data Wise Project of 10
Hasselhorn, J. 241, 244–245
Havnes, A. 45, 49
Haydn, Joseph 389
Hayes, T. 681
Head Start 7, 9, 398
health, US assessment policy and 6, 11
Healy, David 561
Hechinger Report 63
(p. 944) Heckman, J. J. 72
Heifetz, Jascha 303
Helper, S. 177
Henkin, A. 888
Hennessey, B. A. 613
Henry, M. 558
Hepler, L. E. 768, 772
heritage, see culture
Herman, J. 633
Herman, J. L. 180
Hevner, K. 554
Hevner, Kate 550
Hewitt, M. P. 643
Hickey, M. 551, 607, 612, 613, 619t, 889
higher education 397, 401–402, 699–703, 709–712, 714, see also degree programs; teacher training; specific country or region
accountability and 702–703, 747–763
accreditation and 702–703, 729, 748, 757–761, 759f, 760f
achievement and 548–549
authentic assessment and 755
backward design and 754
course assignment and 711–712
criteria for assessments and 708–709
curriculum mapping and 710–711
diagnostic assessment and 755
evaluation in 330–331, 331t
formative assessment and 755–756
international standards and 703–708
methods of assessment and 709–710
performance–based assessment and 756–757
philosophy of assessment and 697–698
policy and 181, 198–200
preservice teacher evaluation and 721–743
private instruction and (see private instruction)
programmatic assessment and 710–711
representatives from, policy and 43, 51n6
rubrics and 756–757
state and local input and 751–753
teacher certification and 187–188
test development and 548–549
Higher Education Act 702, 752
Higher Education Funding Councils (UK) 750
Higher Education in Arts and Music (Italy) 262
Higher Education Standards Panel (Australia) 198
Higher Institutes of Music and Art of Dancing (Italy) 256–257, 257t
Higher Learning Commission 401
“highly qualified” designation 180, 185, 398–400, 742
High School Curriculum Guidelines (Taiwan) 132
High School Curriculum Program (Experimental) (China) 120–121
High School Curriculum Standards (Experimental) (China) 120
Hill, H. 918–919
Hill, H. C. 847, 910
Hillbrand, E. 556
Hindemith, Paul 275, 285
Hitler, Adolf 240
Hoare, Q. 51
Hobsbawm, E. 148
Hodges, Donald 553
Hodsoll, F. 697
Hoepfner, R. 581
Holdheide, L. 805
holistic approach/assessment 13, 454, 455t, 456
in Africa 92, 105–106, 111, 115n2
in Australia 200, 207
in China 121
to curriculum 512
in England 222–223, 225
philosophy of assessment and 40, 51n5
private instruction and 772, 774, 777
to rubrics 430, 635, 637t, 639t, 756–757
in Singapore 359–360, 362, 373–374
standards–based assessment and 672, 678, 683–684, 690n5
Holmes, A. V. 34
Holmes, J. 704
Holmes, Jonathan 199–200
Holmstrom, L. G. 544
Hong Kong 122–125, 134–136, 139, see also Asia
Hong Kong Diploma of Secondary Education 13, 134
Hope, S. 175, 724, 726, 729–730
(p. 945) Hope, Sam 10, 14
Horowitz, Vladimir 303
Horton, Gerald 7
Hourigan, R. 889
House, Ernest 44–46
House, R. 808
Howe, Harold 9
“How We Think About Evaluation” (House) 44
Hoxby, C. 60
Hsieh, Y.–M. 392
Hughes, D. 705, 711
humanizing policy 91–115, 115n2
Humboldt, Wilhelm v. 238
Hutchinson, H. 546
hypotheticodeductive model of theory 440
I
ICE (International Contemporary Ensemble) 81
Illinois 423–424, 549
Illinois Performance Evaluation Model 423–424
Ilomäki, L. 770
immigration 7
Imperial Music School (Ottoman Empire) 284
implementation of policy 74–79
implicit policy 179–180
imposed policy 178
improvisation 20
accompaniment and 578, 579f, 592–593, 593f, 594f
administration of tests for 579–580
in Africa 99
in Asia 124, 128
in Brazil 328
in China 343, 347, 348t, 350, 356
creativity/aesthetics and 582f, 583–584, 584f, 612–613
criteria for assessments and 582–584, 582f, 584f
in England 223
ensemble and 598
freely conceived 593–601, 595f, 597f, 599f
gender and