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date: 14 December 2019

(p. 287) Index

(p. 287) Index

Page references for figures are indicated by f and for tables by t.

A
accommodation, 40
action, 74
categorizing, 174
cognitive view, 250
collective, 175
evolutionary/genetic view, 250–251
inner source, 248
neurological view, 250
Adams, G., 233–241, 264, 267–268, 269, 279
adaptation, 284
affections, 72–74, 98–99
affective intentionality, 28
affective transformation, 180
agency, 49–50, 67, 99
control motive, 99
destroying, 180–181
groups, identities and, 178–180
sense of self, 99
aggression, 6, 135–144, 186
capacity, human, 135, 186
cooperation and, 142–143
early views, 136–137
evolutionary strategy, 141–143
as fundamental, cross-cultural record, 138–139
General Aggression Model, 137
historical record, human, 139–140
human essence and, 135–136
as natural, 136
non-humans, 140–141, 186
prevalence, 135
as strategy, 141–142
warfare, 139
Aldguer, C. M. R., 115
Allport, G. W., 222
altruism
empathy-altruism model, 114–115, 117
reciprocal, 112–113, 116
Amish, 138
ananda, 79
anger
collective political action, 210, 213
performance, 256
animals (non-human). see also specific types
cognition, 29
culture, 262–263
existential, 35–45 (see also existential animal)
fission-fusion, 263
morality, 147–148
nature, 186
social thermoregulation, 84–86
antagonism, inter-group, 257–258
anthropology, existential and phenomenological, 30
anti-essentialist response, 234–236
anxiety
buffer, 27
prediction error, 36
apes, aggression, 140
Aplin, L. M., 263
appearance-reality schema, 200–201
approach motivation, 37
Aquinas, T., 72–73, 74, 77
Ardrey, R., 141
Arendt, H., 176–178, 181–182
Aristotelian view
classical, 8, 197
human essence talk as, 202
Aristotle
acting freely, 75
aggression, 136
control motivation (will), 74, 75
Da Anima, 248
humans as social animals, 109
intellectual life, 76
Nichomachean Ethics, The, 71, 136–137
psyche, 248
soul, organized, 77, 79
truth motivation, 78
articulateness, 61–62
Ashburn-Nardo, L., 115
assimilation, 40
assumptions
human essence, 247
relational reconstruction, 247
scholars’, 281
assumptive nature, 126
atheism, 266
attachment theory, 116
attitudes, 220–221, 255
attribute-based ontology, 197
attributes
fundamental, human essence as, 135–136, 201–202
human, 196–197
human essence talk, 202
attributional bias, 65
authorities
fairness, 167
justice as legitimation of, 165–167
relational elements in effectiveness of, 167–168
autonomy
definition, 53
responsible, 50, 53–54
self-determination theory, 67
autonomy-oriented help, 126, 128–131
B
bad faith, 22
Bain, P., 197
Baker, N., 75
Baktin, M., 255
Bandura, A., 137
Bardi, A., 227
Bargh, J. A., 87
Bastian, B., 197
Batson, C. D., 114–115, 117
Batson, J. G., 115
Battle Cat, 42, 44–45
Baumeister, R. F., 49, 52, 99, 278, 284
behavior. see also specific types
altruistic, 150–151
evolutionary explanations, 284
extreme, values, 220
prosocial, 109–119 (see also prosocial behavior)
proximate explanations, 283
regulation, morality and, 155–156
symbolic implications, 148–149
temperature-dependent social, 87–89 (see also thermoregulation (social))
behavioral approach, 42
behavioral inhibition system, 42
being
coloniality, 240
relational, 252–255
Vedic (sat), 79
Bekkers, R., 115
beliefs, 266. see also specific types
shared, 8
supernatural agents, 265–268
belong, need to, 83, 91, 160
individual-based, 126
relationship-based, 126
(p. 288) belongingness
morality, 155
shared, boundaries, 130–131
belonging to others, 123
Berkowitz, L., 137
Bernstein, R. J., 177, 178
Berscheid, E., 163, 165
better-than-average effect, 64–65
“bigger picture,” 4, 16, 95, 275–278, 281
Billig, M., 255–256
Binswanger, L., 23, 25
bio-cognitive human essence, 249–252
biological capacities, 262
biology, 173–182
action, 174, 175
destiny vs. freedom, 175–176
destroying identity, destroying agency, 180–181
group processes, 175
human nature, 173–174
as critique, 181–182
human potential and, 175–176
identities, groups, and agency, 178–180
inequalities, legitimizing existing, 174
naturalization, 173–174
reflexivity, 176–178
bliss (ananda), 79
body, individual, 96, 97–98
bonobo chimpanzee, 131, 140
Bonta, B. D., 138
Bosson, J. K., 67
Bosworth, M., 180
bottlenose dolphins, 149
Brahma Sutras Bhashya (Shankaracarya), 79
Brahmin, 78–79
brains, as prediction machine, 87–89, 98
Brown, R., 175, 212–213
Brown, S. L., 117
brown adipose tissue, 90
Brummet, B. H., 115
Bruneau, E. G., 115
Bruner, J., 253
Buber, M., 255
Burnstein, E., 112–113
C
camps, Nazi, 180–182
Camus, A., 35
Cannon, Walter, 85
care, 239
circle of, 152–154
materiality, 237
Carrabine, E., 180
causality, meaning and, 51
Chagnon, N. A., 138
change, 281–283
political participation, 207–216 (see also political participation, change via)
character, building, 52
Chewong, 138
chimpanzee
bonobo, 131, 140
hierarchies, 268
chit, 79
Chiu, L.-H., 197
choice, rational, 52–53
Cialdini, R. B., 117
Cieciuch, J., 225, 228, 280
Cikara, M., 115
circle of care, 152–154
circular motivational continuum, 222–225, 223f
Clark, A., 87–89
Clark, C. J., 54–55
Clark, H. H., 199
cognition
capacities, 7–8
consistency, 76–77
human vs. animal, 29
symbolic, 28
transformation, 179
cognitive dissonance theory, 76–77
cognitive “killer apps,” 61–63
cognitive neuroscience, 250
cognitive view, 250
coherence, 67
collective action, 175
collective guilt, 153
collective identities
helping and, 127–128
malleability, 128, 131
collective incentives, 210
collective political action, 207–208
emotion, 214–215
identity, 209, 211–213
ideology, 209–210, 213–214
instrumentality, 209, 210–211
motives, 209–216, 210f
movements and networks, 215–216
social psychology models, 209–210
collective relationality, 239–241
collective self-realization, 179–180
collective shame, 153
coloniality
being, 240
everyday life, 240
commitment processes, investment model, 117
commodity relations, 174
common ground, 199–200
communication, 8. see also talk
bottlenose dolphins, 149
conversation, 199–200 (see also talk)
discourse, pragmatics of use of, 255–256
lived narratives, 256
talking about people, 200–201
communion, 67
conflict resolution
for cooperation, 162–163
self-serving motivations and distributive justice, 163–164
consciousness
as full contemplation, 79
Vedic (chit), 79
consensus, 164–165
consistency, cognitive, 76–77
context, mind in, 233
context-dependent morality, 152
control
definition, 72
executive, 101
primary, 39
secondary, 39, 41
self-control, 51–52
control motivation, 72, 74–75, 98–99
cooperation, 142–143. see also prosocial behavior
challenge, 161–162
conflict resolution, 162–163
enhancing, 118
human, 159–160
institutional and community, 169
intentional, non-kin, 50
justice, 159–160 (see also justice)
morality, 50–51
prosocial acts, 116
strategy, 162
co-optation, 215
core principles, 6. see also values
Cornwell, J. F. M., 77, 78, 98–99, 279
cost-reward model, 115, 116–117
Crandall, C., 112–113
creativity, 177, 178
critical thinking, 282
Crumbaugh, J. C., 25
Csordas, Thomas, 30
cultural ecologies, 239–240
cultural embeddedness, 9, 103, 104, 261–269. see also specific topics
culture as uniquely human, 262–263
cumulative culture, 263–265
evolutionary approach, 262
supernatural agents, belief in, 265–268
terms defined, 261
cultural-phenomenological school, existentialism, 23
culture, 23
adaptations, 50
aggression, 138–139
cumulative, 269
definition, 262
entity conception, 235
human essence talk as a human essence, 198–199
individual carriers, 253–254
WEIRD, 234, 236–238, 241
cumulative culture, 263–265
D
Da Anima (Aristotle), 248
Damasio, A. R., 98, 99
Dart, R., 141
Darwin, C., 276, 283, 285
Davidov, E., 225
Davis, M. H., 114, 115
(p. 289) Dawkins, R., 265
de-categorization, 118
Decety, J., 114
Deci, E. L., 225
decolonial approach, 233–234
defenses
distal, 26
proximal, 26
self-defense, 64
defensive helping, 129
dehumanization, 197, 198
Dennett, D. C., 49
dependency-oriented help, 126, 128–130
Dependent Personality Scale, 125
depression
clinical psychologists on, 21
dialectical-psychological school, 29
existential view, 22
experimental existential psychology on, 27, 28
learned-helplessness theory, 28
phenomenology, 25
social psychologists on, 21–22
Descartes, R., 40
destiny, biology as, 175–176
Deutsch, M., 164
development, 284
de Waal, F. B. M., 131, 148
diachronic self, 62, 64, 66
Diagnostic Statistical Manual- 5, 25, 277–278
Diagnostic Statistical Manual-III, 25
dialectical-psychological school, existentialism, 22–23, 29
discourse, pragmatics of use of, 255–256
disengagement, moral, 187
disposition, latent, 220
distal defenses, 26
distribution, fair, 163
distributive justice, 163–164, 189
dolphins, bottlenose, 149
dominant groups, 8
“do no harm,” 154, 155
Dovidio, J. F., 110, 112, 113, 115, 118
dread, existentialism, 29–30
dualism, 255
Durkheim, E., 180
Dweck, C. S., 197
E
Eagleton, T., 174
Eastern motivational perspective, 78–79
effectiveness of motive organization, 78
effervescence, 180
efficacy, 67
egalitarians, 174
ego depletion, 52
Ehrenberg, A., 23
Eichmann, A., 176–177, 182
Eigenwelt, 23, 25, 28
Ellemers, N., 186, 190
emotions. see also specific types
collective political action, 214–215
doing of, 256
embodied performances, 256
intergroup social, helping and, 129
self-condemning, 151–152
empathy, 6, 150
affective responses, 114
definition, 114
dispositional tendency, 114
non-human animals, 148
other-oriented, 114
prosocial behavior, 113–116
taking subjective perspective of another, 114
empathy-altruism model, 114–115, 117
Empirically Supported Treatment, 25
empirical rigor and practice, 277
empowering helping, 129
entity theory, 197–198
entrepreneurship model, 7, 174
equality, 166
error, prediction, 36
essence. see also human essence; specific topics
definition, 110–111, 191, 261
meaning, 71
motivation, 71–72
prosocial behavior, 110–112
essentialism, 112
cultural psychology anti-essentialist response, 234–236
definition, 234
psychological, 197, 198, 200, 234
eusocial insects, threat response, 114
evaluation, 220
evil, banality of, 176–177, 182
evolution, 265
Darwin’s theory, 276, 283, 285
explanations, 284
evolutionary/genetic view, 250–251, 284
executive control, 101
existential animal, 35–45
Knights and Priests, 35, 36–41, 44 (see also Knights and Priests)
meaning, 35, 37
schemas, 36
existential anthropology, 30
existential psychological perspective, 21–31, 277
clinical approaches, 24–26, 30
contemporary, 24–27
cultural-phenomenological school, 23
dialectical-psychological school, 22–23, 29
experimental existential psychology, 26–27, 30
future issues, 29–31
historical overview, 22–24
human essence, view of, 27–29
meaningful engagements, concrete situations, 28
terror management theory, 26–27, 30–31
threat and freedom, 28–29
uniqueness of humanity and individual existence, 27–28, 29–30
existential psychotherapy, 24
Exline, J. J., 52
expectations, 39
environmental modeling, 35–36
violated, 98
expected uncertainty, 39
Experiences of Depression (Ratcliffe), 21–22
experimental existential psychology (XXP), 26–27, 30–31
explicit knowledge, 61
external perspective, values, 220
F
facilitation, 211
fair distribution, 163
fairness, 150
decision making, 167
non-human animals, 148
faith, bad, 22
Festinger, L., 77
Fischer, R., 284
Fiske, A. P., 104, 236, 279
fission-fusion, 263
fit, direction of, 63
forgiveness, as performed response, 256
Frankfurt, H., 229
Frankl, V., 24
Franks, B., 77, 78
Fransson, A. L., 89
freedom
biology as, 175–176
existentialism, 28–29
free will, 5, 47–56, 99
beliefs about, 54–55
definition, 47, 48–49
humans vs. other animals, 47–48
idea, 47
meaning and causality, 51
rational choice and other volition, 52–53
rationale, 49–51
responsible autonomy, 50, 53–54
self-control, 51–52
Freud, S., 3, 39, 137
friendliness, 150–151
function, 284
fundamental attribute, essence as, 135–136
futures, alternative, 5
G
Gaertner, S. L., 115
Gamson, W. A., 214
Gee, J. P., 253
Genealogy of Morals (Nietzsche), 36, 41
gene carriers, 265
General Aggression Model, 137
generalized other, 200
generativity, developmental studies, 31
generosity, prestige from, 126–127
genes, survival of, 265
(p. 290) genetics
human genome project, 176
selfish gene, 112
Geras, N., 176, 182
Gergen, K. J., 102, 251, 253, 255–257, 261, 269
Giner-Sorolla, R., 278
Goddard, H., 174
golden rule, 150
Goldman, E., 173
González, R., 212–213
“good,” the, 221
Goodman, David, 25
good soul, 77–78
Gordon, Adam Lindsay, 123
gorilla, 131, 140
gossip, 196, 200–201, 263
gratitude, 124–125, 186
Graziano, W. G., 186, 189, 278, 284
Greenberg, J., 26
Gregg, A. P., 59–67, 100, 102, 278, 283
Grossberg, S., 227
grounding, 199, 200–201
group processes, 175, 185
Group Processes (Brown), 175
groups, 190
agency, identities and, 178–180
large-scale, 189
group self, 152
growth-oriented relationality, 236–238
denaturalizing, 238–241
collective relationality, 239–241
interpersonal relationality, 239
guilt, 151–152
collective, 153
helping induced by, 129
H
habits, 280
handicapping principles, 127
Hardy, C. L., 127
Hart, J., 27
Haslam, N., 187, 197, 198
hegemonic psychology, 234–237
Heidegger, M., 23
helpfulness, 114, 123
helping relations, 6, 123–131, 189
being helped, 124–125
belonging to others, 123
helpfulness, 123
human essence, 130–131
independence from others, 123–124
non-human animals, 130, 148
research overview, 124
summary, 130
helping relations, group-level, 126–130
between-group helping, 127–130
collective identities, 127–128
help seeking and status, 129–130
social emotions, 129
structurally unequal groups, 128–129
within-group helping, generosity breeds prestige, 126–127
hierarchies
chimpanzee, 268
primates, 265
thermoregulation (social), 89–90
Higgins, E. T., 77, 78, 98–99, 279
Hinduism, 78–79
Hobbes, T., 137, 198, 252
Hogerzeil, L. J., 97, 102, 103, 284
holistic approach, 25
Hollander-Blumoff, R., 167
homeostasis, 85, 89
homeotherms, 84–85
homunculus, 101
horizons, 23
human, 261
human essence, 3–17. see also specific topics
assumptions, 247
“bigger picture,” 4, 16, 95, 275–278, 281
bio-cognitive, 249–252
chapter overviews, 9–16
consensus on, lack of, 275–276
cultural construction and consequence, 248–249
definitions, 3, 8, 95, 186, 191, 196, 261, 266
distinguishing elements, 136
diversity in views of, 186–187
existence precedes, 27–28
fundamental attribute, 135–136
history and conceptualizations, 3–4, 248
human nature, 248
identifying, value of, 6–8
individuated, 196
meaning, 5–6, 35
meta-theoretical traditions, 4
natural, 136
parenting instinct, 3–4
perspectives, diversity in, 276–277
psychology, 4
reason, 174
relational being, 252–255 (see also relational being)
social psychology, 3–4
talk about, 195–203 (see also talk, about human essence)
transcendental nature, 197
understanding, 276
human genome project, 176
humanistic psychology, 24
humanists, 251
human nature, 173–174, 198, 248. see also human essence
as critique, 181–182
human potential and, 175–176
Hume, David, 65–66
humility, utility of, 126
hypersociality, 268–269
I
identification, 62
group, 212
identity(ies), 62, 280–281
collective
helping, 127–128
malleability, 128, 131
political action, 209, 211–213
destroying, 180–181
dual, 212–213
group, 153
agency, and, 178–180
multiple, simultaneous, 212
relational essence, 257
social, 152–154
perspective, 127–128
theory, 113
identity crisis, psychologists’, 281
ideology. see also specific types
collective political action, 209–210, 213–214
IJzerman, H., 84, 87–88, 90, 97, 102, 103, 284
imagination, 62
importance, 219
incentives
collective, 210–211
selective, 210
inclusion, morality, 155
independence from others, 123–124
independent selfways, 236
individual, 95–96
body and mind, 96
as culture carrier, 253–254
individual bodies, 97–98
individual capacities, 5
individualism
methodological, 234
ontological, 234
individuality, 9. see also specific topics
individual minds, 98–100
individuated essence, 196
inequalities
income, 175
legitimizing existing, 174–175
ingroup members, 153, 212
inhibition motivation, 37
instrumentality, collective political action, 209, 210–211
integration
structure, potential, 278–280
theoretical, 279
integrative theorizing, 282
intellect, 72, 75–77, 98–99
intelligence, social, 161–162
intentional cooperation, among non-kin, 50
intentions, benevolent vs. harmful, 150
interdependence, human, 142–143
interdependent selfways, 238
(p. 291) inter-group antagonism, 257–258
internal perspective, values, 219–220
interpersonal relationality, 239
inter-subjective selves, 254–255
investment model, commitment processes, 117
J
Jackson, M., 30
Jaspers, K., 23
Jemmolo, S., 67
Johnson, J. D., 115
Judd, C. M., 201
judgements, 220
Jung, Carl, 3
justice, 159–170, 185, 189
caring about, rationale, 160–161
cooperation, 159–160
creation, 160
definition, 159
distributive, 163–164, 189
importance, 159
institutional, 168–169
as legitimation principle, 165–168
legitimation of authorities, 165–167
relational elements, in effectiveness of authorities, 167–168
negotiations among people, 161–165
conflict resolution, for cooperation, 162–163
conflict resolution, self-serving motivations and distributive justice, 163–164
consensus, 164–165
cooperation, challenge of, 161–162
procedural, 164, 166–167, 169, 190
punishment, 189–190
retributive, 164
rules, 160, 162–163, 190
social evolution, 169–170
K
Kant, I., 229
Karlsson, H., 89
Kashima, Y., 8, 197, 200–201, 261, 266, 280
Kierkegaard, S., 22, 27, 30
Killer Ape theory, 141
"killer apps,” cognitive, 61–63
kin selection, 112–113, 116
Kitayama, S., 112–113
Klandermans, B., 209–216, 210f, 280
Klein, M., 124, 254
Kluckhohn, C., 227
Knights and Priests, 35, 36–41, 44
archetypes, 36–37
meaning, 37–38
meaningful existing
Knights, 37, 38–39
Priests, 37, 41
meaning violated, 37, 39–40
knowledge
explicit, 61
self-knowledge, motives, 63
Kruglanski, A. W., 282
Kurtiş, T., 235–237, 241
L
Laing, R. D., 25
Langbein, H., 180
language, 5–6
human use of, 61–62
meaning and, 51
latent disposition, 220
learned-helplessness theory, depression, 28
Le Bon, G., 175
legitimation, justice as, 165–168
of authorities, 165–167
of authorities, relational elements in effectiveness of, 167–168
Leviathan (Hobbes), 137
Lewis, B. P., 117
life regulation, 98
limit-horizons, 23
lived narratives, 256
Logic of Collective Action, The (Olson), 211
logotherapy, 24–25
loneliness, 103
Lorenz, K., 137
love, 239
love and (well-)being
cultural psychology analysis, 236–241, 237
prevention-focused, 237
promotion-focused, 236–238
growth-oriented relationality, 236–238
growth-oriented relationality, denaturalizing, 238–241
collective relationality, 239–241
interpersonal relationality, 239
hegemonic psychology, 234–237
independent selfways, 236
maintenance-oriented relationality, normalizing, 238
promotion-focused approaches, 236–238
Luce, C., 117
Luke, M. A., 188
M
Maholick, L. T., 25
maintenance-oriented relationality, normalizing, 238
Maio, G. R., 188
Malle, B. F., 48–49
Manzi, C., 67
Mark, K., 176
market pricing relational models, 236
Marshall, C. R., 199
Marx, K., 174, 178
mass mobilization, 268
Masters of the Universe, 41–44
Two Aristocrats, 42–45
Two Cats, 41–42, 44–45
materiality of care, 237
matrix, prosocial, 110, 111t
McAdams, D., 228
McDougall, W., 4
Mead, G. H., 254
meaning
causality, 51
definition, 35, 51
human essence, 5–6, 35
human quest, 5
Knights and Priests, 37–38
symbolic, 51
violated, 37, 39–40
meaningful engagements, with concrete situations, 28
meaningful existing
Knights, 37, 38–39
Priests, 37, 41
Medin, D. L., 197, 198, 200
Mencius, 198
mental illness. see also specific types
definition, 247
diagnostic labels, 247–248
mentalism, 250
mental time travel, 62, 76, 131, 177
metaphysical interpretations, values, 229–230
meta-theoretical traditions, 4
Milgram, S., 176–177
mind
individual, 96, 98–100
reality, 255
Mind, self and society (Mead), 254
mind in context, 233
Mischel, W., 75
Mitwelt, 23, 25, 28
mobilization, 215, 216, 268
monkeys, vervet, 86
Monroe, A. E., 48–49
moral compass, 155
moral disengagement, 187
morality, 6, 50, 185, 186, 189, 190
animal, 147–148
context-dependent, 152
dilemmas, moral, 150
vs. sociability, 150–151
social functions, 149
social meaning, 152
universal morals, 156–157
morality, social identity and, 147–158
care, circle of, 152–154
empathy and fairness, 150
guilt and shame, 151–152
sociability vs., 150–151
social functions, 149, 154–156
behavioral regulations, 155–156
belongingness and inclusion, 155
self in relation to others, 154–155
symbolic implications, 148–149
moral obligation, 213
(p. 292) moral outrage, helping from, 129
moral reputation, 50
motivational perspectives
Eastern, 78–79
Western, 72–78
control motivation (will), 72, 74–75, 98–99
good soul, 77–78
intellect, 72
truth motivation (intellect), 72, 75–77, 98–99
value motivation (affections), 72–74, 98–99
motives (motivation), 71–72, 157
approach vs. inhibition, 37
empathy, 116
self-evaluation, 59–67, 100 (see also self-evaluation motives)
self-knowledge, 63
self-serving, conflict resolution, 163–164
movements
collective political action, 215–216
politics, 208–209
multiplying, 221
Murray, H. A., 227
Muselmann, 181
mutual constitution, 236
N
narratives, lived, 256
naturalization, 173–174
Nazi camps, 180–182
need to belong, 83, 91, 126, 160. see also thermoregulation (social)
negative self-views, 66–67
negotiations, among people, 161–165
conflict resolution, 162–163
consensus, 164–165
cooperation, challenge of, 161–162
self-serving motivations and distributive justice, 163–164
networks
building new, 215–216
collective political action, 215
social, 216
Neuberg, S., 117
neurological view, 250
neutrality, 167, 168
Nicaraguan Sign Language, 199
Nichomachean Ethics, The (Aristotle), 71, 136–137
Nietzsche, F., 23, 30, 35–36, 55
Nilsson, K., 89
O
object relations theory, 254
Octodon degus, 85
ontogenetic perspective
behavior, 284
values, 227–229
ontological individualism, 234
organization, soul, 77
Orientalism, 236
Ortony, A., 197, 198, 200
other
belonging to, 123
generalized, 200
self in relation to, 154–155
taking subjective perspective of, 114
other-oriented
behavior, non-human animals, 148
empathy, 114
Otterbein, K. F., 138
outgroup members, 153–154, 212
P
Palitzsky, R., 97–98, 277
Pals, J., 228
Panthor, 42, 44–45
parenting instinct, 3–4
Park, B., 201
participation, political. see political participation
passions (affections), 72–74, 98–99
passivity, 74
peaceful societies, 138
Pearson, A. R., 115
Penner, L. A., 110, 112, 113, 115, 118
Pettigrew, T. F., 187
phenomenological anthropology, 30
phenomenology, 23
of self, 60
phylogenetic perspective
behavior, 284
values, 226–227
Piliavin, J. A., 110, 112, 113, 115, 118
Pinker, S., 139–140, 143
planning, 53
Plato, 75–76, 78
poikilotherms, 84–85
political participation, 207, 208–209
political participation, change via, 207–216
collective political action, 207–208
collective political action, motives, 209–216, 210f
emotion, 214–215
identity, 209, 211–213
ideology, 209–210, 213–214
instrumentality, 209, 210–211
movements and networks, 215–216
social psychology models, 209–210
democracies, new and old, 207
purpose, 208
politicization of collective identity, 213
politics, relational, 257, 268
positivism, 234
Postmes, T., 209
potential, human
boundary, 197–198
human nature, 175–176
Potter, J., 255
power, 179
prediction error, 36
prediction machine, brains as, 87–89, 98
preferences, 220
prejudice, 257
prevention focus, 73–74
prevention-focused approaches, 237
Priests, 35, 36–41, 44. see also Knights and Priests
meaningful existing, 37, 41
primary control, 39
primates
aggression, 140
helping, 131
social hierarchies, 265
Prisoner’s Dilemma, 113, 161
procedural justice, 164, 166–167, 169, 190
progression, 28
promotion-focused relationality, 73–74, 236–238
prosocial acts, 189
prosocial behavior, 109–119
consilience, 111t, 112
definition, 109
empathy, 113–116
essence, 110–112
evolutionary influences, 112–113
human essence, 109–110
human vs. non-human, 118
multi-level approach, 110
prosocial matrix, 110, 111t
relationships, 116–118
prosociality, 6
prosocial personality orientation, 114
Proulx, T., 5, 98
proximal defenses, 26
proximate explanations, 283
psyche, 248
psychological essentialism, 197, 198, 200
psychological experience
cultural constitution, 235
psychological constitution, 235
psychological science. see also specific topics
as essentialist, 234
subject matter, 234
psychology, etymology, 71
psychotherapy, existential, 24
punishment, 189–190
Purpose in Life scale, 25
Puryear, C., 186, 188, 189, 278
Pyszczynski, T., 26
R
Rai, T. S., 279
Rank, Otto, 24
Ratcliffe, M., 21–22
rational choice, 52–53
rationality, 53
reality
appearance-reality schema, 200–201
of mind, 255 (p. 293)
of self, 59–61
shared, 77
reason, 174
reciprocal altruism, 112–113, 116
reciprocal cycles, of caring and gratitude, 125
recursion, 62
reflexivity, 62, 176–178, 185, 190
Regalia, C., 67
regression, 28–29
Reicher, S. D., 8, 179, 186–187, 188, 190, 279
relatedness, 67
relational being, 252–255, 269
future making, 256–258
individuals as culture carriers, 253–254
inter-subjective selves, 254–255
traditional conceptions, 252–253
relational essence, 233–241
bio-cognitive, 249–252
cultural construction and consequence, 248–249
cultural psychology as anti-essentialist response, 234–236
decolonial approach, 233–234
experience, 241
love and (well-)being, 236–241 (see also love and (well-)being)
self, 255–256
relational politics, 257
relational reconstruction, 247–258
assumptions, 247
history and conceptualizations, 248
question formulation, 247
relational responsibility, 257
relational scenario, 256
relational transformation, 179
relationships, 7
attachment theory, 116
independent selfways, 236
need to belong, 83, 91, 126, 160
prosocial behavior, 116–118
repression, 211
Republic (Plato), 75–76
Research Domain Criteria (RDoC), 25
responsibility, 53–54
individual, 257
relational, 257
responsible autonomy, 50, 53–54
restitution, 165
retribution, 166
retributive justice, 164
right and wrong, 77
rituals, 266, 267
Rochon, Th. R., 214
Rokeach, M., 222, 226
roles, social
division, socially consensual, 265
early emergence, 265
Rothbart, M., 197
Rousseau, J.-J., 137, 188, 198
Ruhs, D., 213
rules
breaking, 162
justice-based, 160, 162–163, 190 (see also justice)
Ryan, R. R., 225
S
safety and security, 42
Saguy, T., 115
Sampson, E., 252
Sartre, J.-P., 22, 27–28
sat, 79
satchitananda, 79
Saxe, R. R., 115
Scabini, E., 67
Scheler, M., 221
schemas, 36
Schooler, J. W., 54
Schroeder, D. A., 110, 112, 113, 115, 118, 186, 189, 278, 284
Schwartz, B., 249, 280
Schwartz, S. H., 222–227, 223f, 224t
scientific theories, 48
Searle, J. R., 53
secondary control, 39, 41
security system, 27
Sedikides, C., 59–67, 100, 102, 278, 283
selective incentives, 210
self
clarifying, 59–60
diachronic, 62, 64
emergence, localizing, 284
group, 152
inter-subjective, 254–255
phenomenology, 60
reality, 59–61
relational constitution, 255–256
in relation to others, 154–155
skepticism about, 60–61
synchronic, 62
term and meanings, 59–60
self-aggrandizement, 64
self-assessment motive, 63–64, 66
self-awareness, 239
self-categorization theory, 212
self-concept, 62
self-condemning emotions, 151–152
self-construal, independent vs. interdependent, 235
self-control, free will and, 51–52
self-defense, 64
self-determination theory, 31, 67, 75
self-efficacy, 75
self-enhancement motive, 64–66
self-esteem, 64
being helped as threat to, 125–126
implicit, 66
self-evaluation motives, 59–67, 100
additional, 66–67
definition, 59–60
“killer apps,” cognitive, 61–63
reality of self, 59–61
self-assessment, 63–64, 66
self-enhancement, 64–66
self-improvement, 66
self-verification, 66–67
self-focused values, 42
self-improvement, 5, 66
self-interest motive, 189
selfish gene, 112
selfishness, 198
indirect, 148
strategic, 187
self-knowledge, motives from, 63
self-realization, collective, 179–180
self-referential talk, 195
self-reflection, 37
self-reflexive capacities, 7–8
self-regard, 186
self-regulation, thermoregulation and, 90
self-sacrifice, for cohorts, 6
self-selective mechanisms, 280–281
self-serving
bias, 65
motivations, conflict resolution, 163–164
self-threat in help, coping with, 126
self-verification, 66–67
self-views, negative, 66–67
selfways
independent, 236
interdependent, 238
selvations theory, 279
shame, 151–152
collective, 153
Shankaracarya, 79
Shaw, L. L., 115
Sheep, 36
Shepherd, J., 49
shivering, 85
Shnabel, N., 129–130
Shotter, J., 256
Shweder, R. A., 234–235
Simon, B., 209, 213
Sipes, R. G., 138
sociability vs. morality, 150–151
social adaptations, 5
social behavior, temperature-dependent, 87–89. see also thermoregulation (social)
social elements, 185–191
group processes, 185
structure of social phenomena, 189–191
views of essence
diversity, 186–187
social psychological research, 187–189
social functions, morality, 149, 154–156
behavioral regulations, 155–156
belongingness and inclusion, 155
self in relation to others, 154–155
(p. 294) social identity, 152–154
morality and, 147–158 (see also morality, social identity and)
perspective, 127–128
social identity model of collective action (SIMCA), 209–210
social identity theory, 113, 160–161
social intelligence, 161–162
sociality, 9, 103. see also specific topics
socially-centered theories, 253
socially constructed tools and scaffolding, 235
socially predictable, 88
social network, 216
on lifespan, 83
social phenomenon. see also specific types
structure, 189–191
social thermoregulation, 6, 83–92. see also thermoregulation (social)
socio-biology, 250
Sofsky, W., 180–181
Solomon, S., 26
soul, 248
definition, 72
good, 77–78
organization, 77
Spears, R., 209
Spinelli, E., 31
Spranger, E., 222
status
divisions, socially consensual, 265
early emergence, 265
on help seeking, 128–130
Stillman, T. F., 49
strategic helping, 127
Stürmer, S., 209
subjective values, 221
Sullivan, D., 27, 97–98, 277
supernatural agents, belief in, 265–268
Swann, W. B., 67
symbolic capacities, 62
symbolic cognition, 28
symbolic meanings, 51
sympathizers, targeting, 215
synchronic self, 62
T
talk, 199–200, 263. see also communication
about people (gossip), 196, 200–201, 263
common ground, 199–200
discourse, pragmatics of use of, 255–256
lived narratives, 256
self-referential, 195
talk, about human essence, 195–203
Aristotelian view, classical, 197
attribute-based ontology, 196–197
definition, 196
entity theory, 197–198
example, 195
as a human essence, 198–201
cross-cultural comparisons, 198–199
talk, 199–200
talking about people, 200–201
human essence in, 196
as individuated, attribute-based, classically Aristotelian, and transcendental, 201–202
individuated essence, 196
self-referential, 195
Taussig, M., 30
Taylor, C., 177, 252
Taylor, M., 197
temperature. see also thermoregulation (social)
homeostasis, 85, 89
homeotherms, 84–85
poikilotherms, 84–85
shivering, 85
terror management theory (TMT), 26–27, 30–31
theoretical integration, 279
theories. see also specific types
of mind, 37, 39
psychological, 95
thermoregulation (social), 6, 83–92
animals, 84–86
attachment system, 91
definition, 84
hierarchical organization, 89–90
human cognition and prediction, 87–89, 98
humans, 86–87
need to belong, 83, 91
relationships, 83–84
self-regulation, 90
Thibaut, J., 165
thinking. see also reflexivity
critical, 282
as rhetorical skill, 255–256
Thompson, M. S., 201
thoughtlessness, 177
threat dialectic theory, 22–23
threats
eusocial insect response, 114
existential, 28–29
existential vs. non-existential, distinguishing, 27
threat-to-self-esteem model, 125
Tilly, C., 211
time travel, mental, 62, 76, 131, 177
Tinbergen, N., 283–284
Todd, M., 115
Tomasello, M., 50
toolmakers, 264–265
transcendence, 22
transcendental, human essence talk as, 202
transformation
affective, 180
cognitive, 179
relational, 179
relational essence, 258
tripartite motivational human essence, 71–80
Aristotle’s “the good,” 71
Eastern motivational perspective, 78–79
Hinduism and Vedanta, 78–79
satchitananda, 79
motivation, 71–72
Western motivational perspective, 72–78
control motivation (will), 72, 74–75, 98–99
good soul, 77–78
intellect, 72
truth motivation (intellect), 72, 75–77, 98–99
value motivation (affections), 72–74, 98–99
Trope, Y., 63
truth, 72
truth motivation, 72, 75–77, 98–99
two-tier analysis, 149
Tyler, T. R., 161, 163–169, 189, 278–279
U
Umwelt, 23, 25, 28
uncertainty, expected, 39
unconditional reinforcer, 91
understanding, 38
unexpected, unexpected, 39
uniqueness, humanity and individual existence, 27–28, 29–30
V
valuation, 221
value motivation (affections), 72–74, 98–99
values, 6, 219–230. see also morality
alternative (metaphysical) interpretations, 229–230
circular motivational continuum, 222–225, 223f
concept, 219
core element, culture and human beings, 226–229
ontogenetic perspective, 227–229
phylogenetic perspective, 226–227
definitions, 72, 220–222
economic opportunities and living conditions on, 267
external perspective, 220
higher-order and narrowly defined, 223–225, 224t
internal perspective, 219–220
motivational content, 222–226, 223f, 224t
philosophical heritage, 221
psychological approach, 221
scholars’, 281 (p. 295)
self-focused, 42
shared, 8
subjective, 221
Vandello, J. A., 186, 188, 189, 278
Van Stekelenburg, J., 209, 210, 210f
Van Vugt, M., 127
van Zomeren, M., 209, 253, 276, 278, 279
Vedanta, 78–79
Vernon, P., 222
vervet monkeys, 86
Vignoles, V. L., 67
violated expectations, 98
violated meaning, 37, 39–40
violence, 258
Vohs, K., 54
volition, 52–53
Vygotsky, L. S., 253
W
Walker, L., 165
Walster, E., 163, 165
Walster, G. W., 163, 165
warfare, 139
warmth, 150, 190
WEIRD cultures, 234, 236–238, 241
Wetherell, M., 255
will, 27
control motivation, 72, 74–75, 98–99
free, 3, 47–56, 99 (see also free will)
Williams, L. E., 87
Wilson, E. O., 112
Wittgenstein, L., 255
X
xing, 198
Xunzi, 198
Y
Ya̧nomamö, 138
Z
zero sum game, 164