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date: 17 September 2019

(p. 1057) Index

(p. 1057) Index

abortion
1976–2003533–36
autonomy567–70
Christian right248–49
comparative law958–60
conservatives116
FACE Act157
government obligations733
Medicaid160, 733
OLP report and Supreme Court122
partial birth161, 535–36
privacy108, 530, 567–68
Roe legal reasoning104
Roe, reaction to105
social movements530–31
undue burden standard496–97
Ackerman, Bruce
administrative state262
critique of771
dualist democracy396–97
executive powers179, 186, 190, 790
Loving decision487
Adams, John
American Revolution321–22
constitutional form220–21
elections of 1796 and 180037
Marbury appointment900
representative assembly223n21
state constitutional conventions874
vetoes39
vice president912
war powers345, 351
Adams, John Quincy3
Addams, Jane85, 86
Addington, David183, 792
Administrative Procedure Act (APA) (1946)262–63, 266, 271
administrative state. See also delegation
agency-deference rules1007–9
constitutionality168, 260–64
democratic credentials264–73
epistemic capacity273–77
executive actions182–86
judicial review860
Progressive Era80
states879
affirmative action108, 117–18, 248, 464, 465–66, 550–53, 777
Affordable Care Act (2010)
constitutionality155, 169–70
federalism431
legal challenge261
religious exemptions621
Senate324
social movements254
states284, 290, 450
Supreme Court336, 448, 449
Afghanistan352
African Americans. See also racial rights; slavery
civic virtue639
Cold War191
Communist Party639
Democratic Party1003
economic bondage726
militias749–50
tribal membership708
violence against725–26
agencies. See administrative state
Alabama
AFDC benefits471
civil rights movement99
civil rights resistance372
Constitution863
(p. 1058) constitutional conventions875
segregation102
voting rights370–71, 554
Alaska
constitutional conventions873
Indian property701
privacy right881
public land304, 311, 312, 318
purchase306
state constitutional interpretation881
Albany Plan (1754)322
Alien Tort Statute (1789)934
Alito, Samuel
affirmative action553
Medicaid expansion127n90
originalism657
partial birth abortion161
prison reform123
tenure on Court114
treaty power127
al Qaeda352
Amar, Akhil Reed10, 729, 811
Amendments. See also Bill of Rights; constitutional change; Specific Amendments
Congress156, 162
Constitutional Convention33
debt limit337–39, 337n123
process863, 876, 878
social movements243–45
American Federation of Labor247–48
American Indian Religious Freedom Act (1978)712
American Indians. See Indians
American Presidency, The (Pious)189
American Revolution321–22
American Samoa304, 307, 310, 318, 591, 592
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) (1990)621
American Women Suffrage Association522
Ames, Fisher169
Anthony, Susan B.61, 244, 459, 522
Anti-Federalists
bill of rights10, 35, 445, 630, 820, 826
Brutus199, 229, 229n42, 743
education, public970–71
federalism292, 434
judiciary199
legislative representation229
minoritarian bias146
political activity819n17
Second Amendment742–44
standing armies8
state authority34
Anti-Masonic Party242, 243
Antiquities Act (1906)311
Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act (AEDPA) (1996)686, 687
Aristotle764, 954
Arizona307, 523, 873, 876
Arkansas98–99, 746, 843–44
Article I. See also commerce clause; executive powers; habeas corpus; necessary and proper clause
administrative state261, 263
bicameralism and presentment clause416
citizenship588
congressional powers125–26, 197, 207, 346, 349, 350
contracts501
delegation413
education973, 974
emergencies787
federalism431
international law922
slavery543
states’ power to regulate commerce925
suspension clause210, 677–78, 692
vetoes344
Article II
administrative state261
executive power344, 349
federalism431
officer appointments421
vesting clause187, 344, 350
Article III
administrative state262
consequentialism900
constitutional politics197, 204, 206
federalism431
judges removal900
judicial power198, 207, 387, 390–91, 439–40, 440
jurisdiction163, 198, 934–35
(p. 1059) rent-seeking999
state citizenship588
Article IV
citizenship594
federalism431
new states305, 313
privileges and immunities438
property501, 515
religious tests608
state citizenship588, 590
Article V
change due to popular movements911
constitutional change914, 916, 917, 918–19
federalism431
sovereign decision-making814n13
Supreme Court80, 911
Washington, George2
Article VI431, 844–45. See also supremacy clause
Article VII
constitutional authority807, 808, 811, 812–14, 814n13, 824–26
federalism431, 434
Article VIII811
Articles of Confederation (1781-1789)
authority824
Confederation and critical period23–24
Congress437
constitutional authority808, 809–12, 824–26
failure321, 432, 767, 922
Federalist, The1
habeas corpus678
Assimilative Crimes Act (1825)704
Austrian constitutional court390
Authorization to Use Military Force (AUMF) (2001)353, 354, 691–92, 800, 804
autonomy
economic579–80, 579n78
Fourteenth Amendment567–72, 568nn17–18, 570n28, 571n38
Second Amendment577–78
Sixth Amendment578–79, 579n77
waivers580–81
Bailey, Jeremy189
Baldwin, Abraham31
Baldwin, Roger87
Balkin, Jack728, 771, 773, 855–56
Bank of the United States
constitutionality36, 155, 168–69, 769, 916
demise330–31
equality456–57
federalism438
Second438, 456–57
Barber, Sotirios729–30, 769, 774
Barnett, Randy769
Barron, David190
Bator, Paul686
Beard, Charles A.74–75, 75
Beaumont, Elizabeth12
Bednar, Jenna283
Bellamy, Richard393
Bell, Derrick777
Benedict, Michael Les87
Benjamin, Judah54
Bentham, Jeremy503, 507
Bentley, Arthur242
Beramendi, Pablo292
Berlin, Isaiah718
Berman, Mitchell904
bicameralism and presentment clause416
Bickel, Alexander
consequentialism900
counter-majoritarian judiciary771
judicial review770
jurisprudence772
passive virtues8
political parties234
popular culture1017–18
racial desegregation465n52
Biden, Joseph163
Bill of Rights
adoption767
Anti-Federalists10, 434, 630, 734
citizenship588, 593
consent of the governed640
criminal procedure100–101, 653
draft35, 631
(p. 1060) drafter’s intent720
federalism65
Federalists9–10, 593, 631, 820–21, 820n21, 826
freedom of speech and press630–31
Indians315
liberty481, 482, 489
political process vs. judicial enforcement141
states and the48, 209, 443, 445, 867
Supreme Court86, 445–46
Bingham, John A.66, 749, 751
Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act (2001)157–58, 646
Black, Charles L.773, 896
Black, Galen619–20
Black, Hugo
appointment93
Bill of Rights100–101
citizenship591, 597
civil rights movement252n14
constitutional interpretation772–73
executive power344, 360
Fourth Amendment655
Japanese-American internment461–62
originalism889
replacement104
structuralism897
voting rights374
Blackmun, Harry104, 106, 466, 536, 567–68
Black Panther movement754
Blackstone, William504, 631, 678, 740–41
Blaine, James G.868, 884
Bobbitt, Philip772, 902
Bollman, Erich680–81
Bork, Robert91, 109, 116, 162, 242, 494, 889
Bowman, Ann O’M290
Boy Scouts of America (BSA)125
Bracton764–65
Bradley, Curtis934
Bradley, Joseph504, 505
Bradwell, Myra524–25
Brandeis, Louis
autonomy572–73
civil liberties87
clear and present danger236, 637
constitutional flexibility75
Fourteenth Amendment76
Frankfurter and94
free expression636, 637–38, 639
New Deal92
privacy567
state regulation experimentation298
Brandon, Mark12–13
Brandwein, Pamela458
Brennan, William J.
abstract principles489–90
autonomy568n18
capital punishment106, 666
constitutions1015n10
equal protection528
gender and strict/intermediate scrutiny466, 467
habeas corpus685–86
legislative apportionment100
nomination205
personal liberties494
religious displays616–17
religious exemptions620
retirement110
rights and state courts880
school funding472
undocumented children and education984
voting rights374
women law clerks252
Bressman, Lisa415
Brest, Paul889
Breyer, Stephen
federalism944
foreign and international law944, 947
Medicaid expansion127n90
originalism657
redistricting555
Second Amendment757
Britain
American Revolution321–22
constitutionalism764–67, 809
governing traditions in colonies19–20
habeas corpus674–77, 682
Jay Treaty36
right to bear arms740–42
U.S. territory303, 307, 922
Westminster model of democracy392–93
British constitutional rights321–22, 322n4
Brown, Henry Billings309, 505
Brown, John748
Brown, Rebecca419
(p. 1061) Brownstein, Robert227
Brutus199, 229, 229n42, 743
Bryan, William Jennings180, 331
Bryce, James441
Buchanan, J.997
Buchanan, James54, 971
Budget Act (1921)329
Budget Enforcement Act (1990)334
Bulman-Pozen, Jessica285
Bureau of Land Management312, 318–19
Burger Court
abortion104–5, 116
Bill of Rights guarantees880
conservatism844
criminal procedure669
equal protection104, 527–28
habeas corpus686
liberties488
originalism889, 895
religion107, 571n38, 623
Burger, Warren E.
appointment104
gender and strict scrutiny466
judicial structure203
National Rifle Association256, 755
religious displays616
retirement109
Roe108
Second Amendment755
Burgess, Susan191
Burr, Aaron, election of 180037, 912
Bush, George H.W.
abortion534
Christian Right253
Souter appointment110, 205n23
Supreme Court118
War Powers Resolution354
Bush, George W.
Christian Right253
executive/emergency powers128–29, 185–86, 187, 346, 349, 350, 353–54, 792, 799–800, 802–3
habeas corpus691–92
law, non-enforcement357
prescription drug benefits337
Supreme Court118, 205, 253
unilateralism183
War Powers Resolution354
Bushrod, Washington505
Butler, Pierce31, 92, 93
Byrd, Robert225
Byrnes, James252n14
Calhoun, John C.46, 328
California
affirmative action465, 537
constitutional initiative process876, 877
death penalty881, 883
firearms restrictions754
free speech637
gender equality538
hours laws880
Indians705, 706
poverty and rights470
primaries232
same-sex marriage469–70, 882, 883
state constitutional interpretation880, 881, 882, 883
taxes870
women’s suffrage523
California Alien Land Law (1913, 1920)462
Cameron, Charles178
campaign finance152, 157–58, 518, 646
capital punishment106, 665–66, 881, 883, 936–37
Cardozo, Benjamin76, 92, 335, 335n108, 489–90
Carswell, G. Harold109
Casper, Jonathon770
Catt, Carrie Chapman244
Chafee, Zechariah, Jr.87, 725
Charles I322
Chase, Salmon P.58, 66
Chase, Samuel503, 512
Chayes, Abram981
checks and balances144, 158–67
Chemical Weapons Convention Implementation Act (1998)126–27
Cheney, Dick183, 187, 792
Chesterman, Simon792–93
children
child labor159
citizenship591, 592–93
Indian316, 706–7
parental control571, 571n38
undocumented and education107
victims of sex abuse881
Choper, Jesse412, 422, 854
(p. 1062) Choudhry, Sujit954–55
Christian Right248–49, 251, 253
Cicero764, 766
C.I.O. (Committee/Congress on Industrial Organization)247, 248
Circuit Courts of Appeals Act (1891)203
Circuit Judges Act (1869)202–3
citizenship rights
Constitution evolution588–89, 589n4
cross-border602–6, 605nn91, 93
duties of citizenship598–99
education and984
federalism and442–43, 587–88, 590–93, 591nn7, 11
modern83–88
overview587–88, 606
rights of citizens593–96
right to citizenship596–97
slaves55
voting64
Civil Liberties Act (1988)158
civil rights
1960s99, 245, 246, 254–55, 554
criminal prosecutions546
Democratic Party247–48
movement252n14, 554, 642, 725, 855, 974
resistance to372, 403
Civil Rights Act (1866)59–60, 505, 544, 972
Civil Rights Act (1875)544, 972
Civil Rights Act (1964)
Brown decision99
Democratic Party248
desegregation after848–49
education974–75, 983
equal protection545
gender equality524, 526, 531–32
provisions372
public accommodations157
racial quotas983
Reconstruction Amendments546
Civil War. See also slavery
constitutional issues during53–58
draft598
federalism297
habeas corpus688–89
Lincoln’s extraordinary powers186–87, 795, 798, 802
monetary and tax policies331–32, 332n89
popular support834
right to bear arms748
Civil War (English)766
Clark, Bradford854–55, 934
class legislation, emergence456–57
Clay, Henry38, 45
Clean Water Act (1972)511, 513–14, 514n62
clear and present danger236, 645
Cleveland, Grover328
Clinton, Robert N.701
Clinton, William J.165, 184, 186, 355, 535–36
Cohen, Felix507
Coke, Edward676, 765, 766
Cold War
African Americans191
education funding974
extraterritorial jurisdiction317
overview95–96
state-building348
war powers190, 351, 352–53, 355
Coleman, Jules777
colonies diversity21–22
Colorado468, 523, 870–71, 873, 876
Colt, Samuel745
commerce clause
child labor159
federalism438–39
Indians697–98
judicial review152
original intent892, 892n24
state regulations49, 83, 925
Supreme Court jurisprudence698, 1004–6
Committee on Industrial Organization (C.I.O.)247
Common Core standards977, 985
Common Sense (Paine)219
Communist Party639
comparative constitutional law. See also international law and the Constitution
Constitution as model and anti-model950–54
debating947–50, 947n10
(p. 1063) migration of jurisprudence/ideas954–63, 960n80
overview12, 943–47, 963–64
confederation and critical period23–24, 139–41
Congress. See also delegation; Fifteenth Amendment, enforcing; House of Representatives; Senate/senators; separation of powers
abortion536
affirmative action551
Affordable Care Act431
agencies and185, 270, 272–73
ambition of members224
Article I powers125–26
balanced budgets337, 870
Bank of the United States438–39
Bill of Rights743, 767, 821
central banking330–31
checks and balances144, 158
citizenship for elective office588
citizenship right596, 597
Confederation23–24, 969
congressional dominance models266
constitutional change909, 914–16
Constitutional Convention design of25–26, 27–28
constitutional law837, 839, 840, 863
Continental23, 322–23, 630
debt and spending332–36, 332n91, 333–34, 334nn103, 105, 335n108
departmentalism846–47, 846n23, 848
education, public969, 970, 972–77, 986
Eighteenth Amendment244
environmental laws511
Equal Rights Amendment459, 466, 527, 533, 536–37
executive branch/president and28–29, 181–86, 190, 224–25, 326, 346–50, 356
Fourteenth Amendment891
habeas corpus686, 688–89, 692
intellectual property501–2
international law922–23, 935
judiciary and29, 197, 198–99, 203, 388, 392, 834
legislative opposition855
military29, 163–64, 304, 311, 351, 635, 832
poverty471
prescription drug benefits337
presidential vetoes180
principal-agent framework264–65
professional composition272–73
public lands310–13, 501, 515
religion clauses613
rent-seeking legislation996–97, 1001, 1006
right to bear arms749
slavery31, 38, 543
social safety net335–36
states and127, 140, 449, 651–52
structure138, 140–41
Supreme Court and the49, 205–7, 441–42, 447–48, 851, 854, 900
taxation599
territories306–8, 310, 319
Thirteenth Amendment56
treaties927–30
vetoes416, 853, 858, 894, 996–97
Voting Rights Act556
war powers351–55
Congressional constitutional interpretation
changes over time167–70
Congress’s capacity to interpret170–74
process156–67
Congressional Research Service157
Congressional Union522, 523
Congress on Industrial Organization (C.I.O.)247, 248
Connecticut
colony19–20, 21, 22
Confederation24
Constitutional Convention25
Constitution ratification325
contraceptives ban102
NCLB Act976
property503
same-sex marriage882
Sandy Hook758
state constitutional interpretation882
(p. 1064) consequentialism900–901
constitutional authority
derivative809–12, 809n5, 810n7
foundation-augmenting819–21, 821nn22–23
multidimensional824–27, 825n25
overview12–13, 807
popular authorization/acceptance812–17, 813n12, 814n13, 821–24
republican governance standards817–19, 819n17
constitutional change. See also Amendments
overview774–75, 909, 919
Constitutional Convention
education970
fiscal issues324–26, 325, 326n42
freedom of speech and free press630–31
Hamilton25, 323
international law922
judicial branch198
legality of809–10
originalism890
politics25–26
state sovereignty22–23
suspension clause677–78
as voice of the people813
Washington323
constitutional development 1620 to early republic
Bill of Rights35
colonies, diversity of21–22
Confederation and critical period23–24
design of the Constitution26–34
early republic36–40
enduring Constitution40
influences on the Constitution19–20
politics of the Constitutional Convention25–26
ratification34–35
states as sovereign entities22–23
constitutional development 1980–2014
conservative activism124–31, 127nn90, 92, 128n95, 130n108
liberal activism116–24
overview113–16
state864
constitutional development Gilded Age–Progressive Era. See also Progressive Era
administrative state261, 263
citizenship83–88
executive power79–80
federalism82–83, 441
judicial review/power78, 80–81, 392, 396, 397, 398
patronage-based parties222–23
racial antagonism545
reorienting constitutional government71–78
constitutional development Jackson–Reconstruction
Civil War53–58
constitutional politics and constitutional law43–44
Jacksonian Era44–53
overview43
Reconstruction58–67
constitutional development New Deal–Reagan Revolution
civil rights96–99
Cold War95–96
New Deal92–94
overview91, 109–10
Supreme Court92–93, 104–9
World War II94–95
constitutionalism
characteristics768–75
constitutional failure779
critical theories775–78
origins764–68
overview12–13, 763–64
constitutionalism outside the courts
judicial supremacy844–53, 846n23, 847n36, 851n69, 852n72, 75
constitutionalism, state
amendment and revision872–79, 919n59
design863–71
development878–83
constitutional structures
bottom-up forces/participation141–49, 144n9, 145n14
design138–41
executive branch79–80
federalism82–83, 436–37
judicial review/power78, 80–81, 149–52, 151n24
overview137–38, 153
Cooke, John Rogers875
Cooley, Thomas87, 931
corporate speech646
Corwin, Edward190, 392
Council of Chief State School Officers977
courts. See judiciary
Cover, Robert905, 1021
Covey, Russell660
Coxe, Tench743, 744n16
Crain, Mark997–98
criminal procedure
Bill of Rights100–101
Indian country jurisdiction703–4, 709–10
mass incarceration667–70, 668n96
OLP report and Supreme Court120–22
plea bargaining659–62
race and remedies662–67, 663n70, 664n76, 666n87
technology and investigations654–58, 656nn31–2, 35
victim’s rights869–70
Critical Legal Studies (CLS)722–23, 775–77
Critical Race Theory777
Croly, Herbert71
Cromwell, Oliver139
Cross, Frank721
culture. See also public
Constitutional education986–87
Constitutional interpretation559–60
Constitution in986–87
Indian sacred sites712
international and foreign law939
multinational corporations646
overview1013–14, 1032
social movements253–57
Curtis, Michael Kent986
Dahl, Robert286, 400, 401, 402, 770, 853
Dallas, Alexander327
Dane, Perry577
Darnell, Thomas676
Davis, David689, 791, 792
Davis, Kenneth Culp415
death penalty106, 665–66, 881, 883, 936–37
Debs, Eugene636
Declaration of Independence
equality456
Indians314
Locke767
popular constitutionalism849–50
property503, 505
taxation322
voluntary expatriation599
Declaration of Rights (1688)740
Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (2007)712
Defense of Marriage Act (2012-2013)166–67
De Figueiredo, Rui, Jr.292
Delaney, Erin293
Delaware
amendment process876
colony21, 22
Constitutional Convention25
Constitution ratification35
free press647
school desegregation98
delegation
accommodation and methodological inconsistency415–20, 416n42
Constitutional and ordinary law permeability423–28
(p. 1066) criticism of Court decisions420–23
overview409–15
Democracy and Distrust (Ely)494, 889
Democracy in America (Tocqueville)303
Democratic Party
administrative state277
Affordable Care Act155, 169–70
African Americans1003
agency staffing1008
civil rights245, 246, 247–48
Civil War54, 543
Clinton impeachment165
Defense of Marriage Act166–67
federal judiciary203
filibuster rule206
Fourteenth Amendment457
ideological difference with Republicans173–74
Jacksonian Era47–48, 51, 53
judicial nominees249
labor movement246–47
New Deal93
partisan deadlock217–18
post-Reconstruction70
public colleges and universities971
Reconstruction64, 543
right to bear arms749–50, 754
social welfare spending245–46
Supreme Court and109–10
white primaries231
women526
Democratic-Republican Party36–37, 208
departmentalism845–48, 846n23, 847n36
Department of Education975, 976, 977, 986
Department of Justice (DOJ)113, 115, 166, 184, 375, 726, 750, 975
Department of State168
DePriest, Oscar247
DeShaney, Joshua731
design of the Constitution26–34
Detainee Treatment Act (2005)692
Dick Act (1903)751
Dickinson, John27
Dinan, John11, 290
discrimination107
District of Columbia
citizenship590
firearms possession578, 754
schools973
voting rights304, 595, 818
doctrinalism898–99, 899n61
Dole, Robert186
domestic security103
Douglass, Frederick61
Douglas, Stephen A.51
Douglas, William O.
appointment94
eminent domain513
free speech645
liberties486–87, 494
parental rights571n38
religious exemptions623
retirement106
DREAM Act984
Dripps, Donald669–70
Du Bois, W.E.B.86, 972
Dudziak, Mary191
due process. See also Fourteenth Amendment
autonomy570
children’s education978
creditor rights332
criminal procedure protections546
labor law880
LGBT rights119
liberty480, 481–89, 579
physician-assisted suicide117
property501
protection496–99, 497n93
slaves/slavery51, 53
statutory benefits732
substantive444, 447
territories309
welfare recipients727
Dworkin, Ronald
Constitution769
doctrinalism899
intended meaning892
judicial review393
rights10, 398
Dyzenhaus, David188
(p. 1067) Economic Interpretation of the Constitution of the United States, An (Beard)74–75
Economic Opportunity Act (1964)471
economics of constitutional law
agency-deference rules1007–9, 1009n85
doctrines promoting political engagement1004–7, 1006nn72–73
neoliberal political economy518–19
standing doctrine and political stakes993–96, 995nn16, 20, 996n21
Edelman, Murray185
education
19th Century971–73, 973n37
20th Century974–75
21st Century976–77
affirmative action552–53
autonomy575, 575n57
Constitution and civic984–87, 985n107
equal protection and equal opportunity981–84
higher97
overview12, 967–68, 987
parental rights571n38, 619
religion and101–2, 107, 248, 251, 402, 615–16, 619, 979–80
right to732–33
school funding472, 980
school inter-district equity881
school segregation/desegregation97–98, 105–6, 123, 161, 462, 464, 545, 547–48, 843–44, 851–52, 971–73, 974–75
Supreme Court967, 969, 976, 977–84, 978n58, 985, 986–87
undocumented children107
women522, 523, 537
Education of all Handicapped Children Act (1975)975
Eighteenth Amendment. See Prohibition
Eighth Amendment483, 936–37
Eisenach, Eldon72
Eisenhower, Dwight D.98, 205n23, 248, 253, 352, 843
Elazar, Daniel J., Jr.284, 285, 299
elections
179637
180037, 912
186053
186456
186861
1872522
194393
corporate spending157–58
District of Columbia304
political party organizing731
primaries231–33
Puerto Rico304
Electoral College141, 304, 432, 543, 595, 912
Elementary and Secondary Education Act (1965)975
Eleventh Amendment39, 126, 588, 882, 929
Elhauge, Einer999
Ellsworth, Oliver30, 199, 208
Ely, John Hart397, 494, 558, 771, 889, 897–98
emancipation54–55
Emancipation Proclamation58–59, 543–44
emergency and war powers. See also Specific presidents
Cold War190, 351, 352–53, 355
Congress155, 165, 351–55
legislative accommodations801–4, 802nn122–23, 803nn128, 131, 134
prerogative power358–60
Supreme Court803–4
Emerson, Thomas640
Emery, Lucillus A.752, 753, 755, 756
eminent domain508–9, 512–13
empire
citizenship590–91, 591n7
extraterritoriality305, 316–18
overview9, 303–6, 318–20
sovereignty and the territories306–10
Enabling Acts (1802–1910)969
Endangered Species Act (1973)513
Endo, Mitsuey690
Enemy Aliens Act (1798)688
Enforcement Acts (1870, 1871)62, 366–67, 369, 370, 371, 750
England. See Britain
environmental and land-use regulation125, 510–11
Environmental Protection Agency184–85
EPA (Environmental Protection Agency)184–85
Epstein, Richard757
Equal Educational Opportunities Act (1974)975
equality/equal protection
Burger Court104
democracy47–48
early America456–57
early twentieth century459–64
early twenty-first century464–66, 465n52
economic hazards727–28
education881, 981–84, 983, 984
freed slaves544
gender466–68
Indians316
interracial marriage487
overview11, 455, 473–74
post-bellum upheaval457–59
post-Reconstruction83–86
poverty470–73
public accommodations157
racial rights508, 541–42, 547–50
redistricting555
selective law enforcement664
sexual orientation468–70, 469n73
strict scrutiny594
undocumented children and education107
voting rights554
Warren Court118
Equal Pay Act (1963)531
Equal Rights Amendment459, 466–67, 524, 526, 527, 533, 536–37, 539, 916
Eskridge, William335, 858, 859
Espionage Act (1917)635–37
establishment clause cases104, 122–23
eugenics85, 529
European Court of Justice140, 152
European Union140, 152, 393, 949
Evarts, William203
exclusionary rule120
executive branch/president. See also administrative state; delegation; emergency and war powers; separation of powers; Specific presidents
checks and balances144, 158
choosing presidents142
citizenship requirements588
Congressional investigations165–66
Constitutional Convention design28–29
constitutional law835, 839, 840
departmentalism846, 846n23
early republic39
impeachment832
international law923
Jacksonian Era46
judiciary and834
modern79–80
national monuments311
oath of office1015n9
OLP report and DOJ lawyers127–29
orders182–86
politics832
president as national representative177–79
presidential dominance theses266–67
social movements and judicial nominees249
spending326
structure138
Supreme Court204–5, 205n23, 851
term of president835
(p. 1069) vice presidency912–13
war/military29, 155, 177, 180, 181, 182–83, 184, 187, 190–91, 343, 345, 350–51, 358, 688, 832
executive powers. See also emergency and war powers
Congress and346–50
emergencies and prerogative power358–60
formal and informal179–82
methodological considerations344–45
outer limits355–60
overview343, 360
removal168
unilateralism and extraordinary182–90
war and foreign affairs350–55
Fabré, Cecile723
Fair Housing Act (1968)546
Fair Labor Standards Act (1938)94
Fallon, Richard901–2
Family and Parental Medical Leave Act (1993)254
Farber, Daniel358, 847
Farrand, Max303
Fatovic, Clement189
Faubus, Orval98, 843–44, 845, 846, 848, 861
federalism
benefits of fluctuation290–99, 291n53, 293n69
Bill of Rights65
boundaries285–90, 286n24, 289n41, 43
centralization claim284–85
citizenship rights442–43, 587–88, 590–93, 591nn7, 11
Civil War56
comparative law961–62
Constitutional Convention on31–32
empire308
judiciary774
liberty479–80
New Deal435, 436, 437, 446–51
political safeguards854–55
Progressive Era82–83
property rights513–15, 514n62
Reconstruction62–63, 544
Rehnquist254
rights under442–46
role of government71
slavery543
structuralism896–97
Supreme Court857
women’s movement245
Federalist Party36–37, 202, 208, 208–9
Federalists. See also Hamilton, Alexander; Madison, James
bill of rights9–10, 593, 631, 820–21, 820n21, 826
constitutional authority821n23, 825
education, public970
federalism432–34, 437
First Amendment610–11
judiciary200, 202, 208–9
minoritarian bias145–46
Ninth Amendment821n23
people and government229
pro-Constitution34
Second Amendment742–43
seditious libel632
Federalist, The
comparative law954
empire305
executive branch355
federalism432–33, 434, 436
nation’s well-being729–30
people’s control of government228, 289
ratification34–35
republican governance817–19
Federal Reserve Act (1913)331
Federal Trade Commission (FTC)347, 348
Federation for Business and Professional Women526
Feingold, Russ158
Feminist Legal Theory777–78
Ferejohn, John335, 858, 859
Field, Stephen J.66–67, 82–83, 438, 481, 504–5, 506
(p. 1070) Fifteenth Amendment
citizenship589, 594
federalism443–44
republican governance818
Republican party70
Supreme Court731
transparent disenfranchisement553–54
voting544, 729
white primaries231
women’s suffrage61
Fifteenth Amendment, enforcing
1870–189065, 366–69, 367n13, 369n29
1890–1965369–72, 370n37, 371n51
1986–2005376–79
overview365
VRA reauthorization and the Roberts Court379–84, 380nn142–44, 382nn164–65
Fifth Amendment. See also due process
autonomy581
exclusionary rule120
federalism83
grand jury483
liberty480, 481
New Deal legislation92
property501, 509
self-incrimination904
slavery50, 53
takings clause125, 495, 836, 869
filibusters162, 206
Filippov, Mikhail289
First Amendment. See also freedom of association; freedom of speech and free press; religion
1960s102–3
civil rights demonstrations546
commercial speech152, 157–58
comparative law958
domestic security103
drafting610–11
education and religion979–80
establishment clause cases104, 122–23
freedom of association230–31, 576
Indians315
neoliberal political economy518, 519
political parties230, 232, 236, 237
privacy567
as proposed35
Roberts Court130
technological innovations911
fiscal constitution evolution
British constitutional rights321–22, 322n4
central banking and implied powers330–31, 330nn77–78
Civil War331–32, 332n89
constitutional amendment to limit debt337–39, 337n123
Constitutional Convention324–26, 326n42
Gallatin326–27
overview321
presidents’ influence327–29, 327n51, 328nn53–54, 56, 329nn67, 70
Revolutionary War debt322–23
traditional fiscal limits collapse336–37, 337nn117, 120
Fish and Wildlife Service312
Fisher, Louis188, 191
flag burning163, 172
flag salute94
Florida
affirmative action465
constitutional commissions877–78
constitutional conventions873
electronic eavesdropping882
funding religious institutions868
initiative process877
state constitutional interpretation882
statehood308
women on juries525–26
Foner, Eric357
Forbath, William724, 725
foreign affairs and executive power128–29, 186–91, 348, 350–55, 923
foreign policy, religion624
Forest Service311, 312
Fortas, Abe104, 109
Fourteenth Amendment. See also due process; equality/equal protection
affirmative action118, 551
Brandeis on76
Brown902
citizenship544, 589, 590, 591, 593, 597, 601
Congress156, 159, 160, 973
disparate impact liability118
education974, 983
federal debt334
federalism82, 443–44, 449
incorporation613–14, 637
Indians314, 315
Jim Crow law99
liberty480, 481
original intent892–93
political rights368
poll taxes371
private action368
property501, 504–5
provisions60
public conduct375
ratification61, 891
Republican party70
right to bear arms/Second Amendment749, 750–51
states209, 578
Supreme Court65–66, 545, 728, 731–32, 882
welfare rights727
white primaries231
women’s suffrage64, 522
Fourth Amendment
exclusionary rule120, 121
extraterritorial jurisdiction317
federalism83
good-faith exception882
habeas corpus686
police officers836, 837
privacy567, 655–56
probable cause663–64
technological innovations910–11
unsettled issues regarding836
Foushee, Matthew366–68
Francis, Megan725–26
Franck, Thomas794
Frankfurter, Felix
appointment93–94
autonomy573, 573n47
Bill of Rights100–101
executive power349
extraterritoriality of constitutional rights603
India’s constitution951–52
minimalism899n61
on Vinson97
Franklin, Benjamin30, 321–22
Freedmen’s Bureau972, 973
Freedom of Access to Clinics Entrances Act (FACE) (1994)157
freedom of association230–31, 576
freedom of speech and free press
1938–early 1970s639–43
1960s102–3
Bill of Rights631
civil liberties725
Constitutional Convention630–31
criticizing government policies835
democracy and637–39
early doctrinal developments/wavering630–33, 643–45
education981
fighting/offensive words898
flag burning163
Hand on95–96
initial cases634–35
overview629–30
political parties230–31
private property508, 735
recent developments645–48
technological innovations911
teenagers1020–21, 1020n30
World War I cases635–37
Freehling, William305
Free Soil Party242, 243
Fried, Charles573, 757
Friedman, Barry293, 853
Frontiero, Sharron528
Fugitive Slave Act (1793)683
Fugitive Slave Act (1850)51, 52, 53, 683
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut (1638-1639)19–20
Funston, Richard770
(p. 1072) Gadsden Purchase (1853)306
Gallatin, Albert326–27, 336
Garfield, James913
Garner, William366
Garrison, William Lloyd50
Garrow, David849
Gates, Robert184
gays, lesbians, bisexuals, and transgendered persons (LGBT). See also gender and sexual rights
critical scholarship778
equality455, 468–69
free association576
marriage163, 210, 250, 284, 446, 464, 469–70, 473, 480, 493, 539, 778, 857, 871, 882, 883
military119, 186, 464, 470
public accommodation573n52
right to bear arms756
Supreme Court118–19, 252, 496, 1018
gender and sexual rights. See also gays, lesbians, bisexuals, and transgendered persons (LGBT)
1787–1920521–23
autonomy570–71
culture254
education983
equality466–70, 469n73
gay service members119
morality of homosexuality125
OLP report116
overview521, 539
post-1973 (sex)533–36, 533n53, 534n56
post-1976 (gender)536–39, 537n76, 538nn80–81
social movements250
sodomy laws108
General Allotment Act (1887)700, 703
George, Robert769
Georgia
Cherokee Nation45
colony21
constitutional conventions873–74
death penalty665–66
education545
habeas corpus685
Indians698
legislature865
parental rights571
slavery31
statehood22
voting rights369
Gerken, Heather285
German empire309
Gerry, Elbridge22, 33
Gewirth, Alan723
G.I. Bill (1944)974
Gibson, John Bannister771
Giles, Jackson370–71
Gillman, Howard456
Gilman, Charlotte Perkins85
Ginsburg, Ruth Bader
foreign constitutions943
gender equality467, 983
ideology400
liberal feminism778
originalism657–58
redistricting555
voting rights and discrimination381, 383
Women’s Rights Project250–51
Gitlow, Benjamin637
Gleeson, John660
Glorious Revolution (1688)740, 766
Goldberg, Arthur101
Goldman, Emma87
Goldsmith, Jack185–86, 188, 792, 934
Goldstein, Leslie6
Goldwater, Barry163
Golove, David937
Goluboff, Risa251, 726
Gonzales, Alberto792
Gordon, Sarah Barringer622
Gormley, Ken567
Gould, Jon403
Government Accountability Office157
Graber, Mark401, 725, 733, 771
Grant, Ulysses S.61, 62, 161, 184, 689, 972
Great Depression333, 460, 524
Great Recession339
Green243
(p. 1073) Greene, Jamal493
Green Parties243
Griffin, Steven7, 8
Grodzins, Morton285
Guam304, 306, 307, 318, 591
Guantanamo detainees128–29, 164, 317, 691–92, 803–4
Guinier, Lani184, 777
Gulf War (1991)352
Gun Control Act (1968)754
gun rights. See right to bear arms
Gurstein, Rochelle87
habeas corpus
colonial to constitutional writ677–82
detention without trial687–88
in England and empire674–77
federal court jurisdiction209–10
Guantanamo detainees164
legislative and judicial finality685–86
Lincoln suspension55, 181, 186, 358
national security and688–91
overview673–74, 693
post-2001691–92
reconstructing683–84
slavery682–83
state trials685
suspension clause692
Habeas Corpus Act (1679)676, 681, 682, 683
Habeas Corpus Act (1833)683
Habeas Corpus Act (1863)209, 689
Habeas Corpus Act (1867)209, 683–84, 685
Halberstam, Daniel283
Hale, Robert507–8
Hall, Dominick688
Hamdi, Yaser Esam691
Hamilton, Alexander. See also Federalist, The
Bank of the United States330, 916
Confederation government767
Constitutional Convention25, 323
constitutionalism763
on dual sovereignty30
emergency powers787
empire305
establishing good government919
federalism289n41, 432n7, 439
government spending326, 326n42
judicial review769, 769–70
on judiciary848
jury trial and hapeas corpus678
liberty479
nationalist constitutionalism60
the people229, 289
presidents/executive branch224–25, 355
Revolutionary War debt322–23
rights in Constitution820
as Treasury Secretary36
vetoes998
Washington and184
Hand, Learned76, 95–96, 770
Hans, Kelsen951
Harding, Warren G.636
Harlan, John Marshall
due process491
extraterritoriality of constitutional rights603, 604
Fourth Amendment655
Lochner dissent494
Plessy dissent65
rational continuum490
replacement104
Harper, Robert Goodloe681
Harpers Ferry raid748
Harris, Cheryl I.777
Harris, William F., II774
Hartley, Thomas224
Hawaii84, 513, 690, 777, 868
Hayek, Friedrich188, 274–75
Hayes, Rutherford B.63
Haynsworth, Clement109
Haysom, Nicholas961
Hegel, Georg776
Henkin, Louis567, 925, 928, 929
Henry of Bratton (Bracton)764–65
Henry, Patrick324
Herndon, Angelo639
Hershkoff, Helen735
Higher Education Act (1965)975
Hobbes, Thomas502, 507, 577, 766, 778
Hofstadter, Richard8
Hohfeld, Wesley719
Holland/Netherlands321–22
Holmes, Oliver Wendell, Jr.
civil liberties87
clear and present danger236, 635–36, 637
(p. 1074) economic theory502
eugenics law529
Frankfurter94
free expression634–35, 635–36
judicial deference115
judicial restraint81
judicial review397
Lochner dissent494
sociological jurisprudence76
territories316
voting restrictions371
Holmes, Stephen22, 722
Homestead Act (1862)311
Hoover, Herbert, Great Depression333
Horwitz, Morton776
House of Representatives. See also Congress
anti-slavery movement243
apportionment588, 589, 589n4
election of 1800912
electors citizenship594
Nineteenth Amendment244
number of legislators147
slavery543
tax legislation324
vacancy913
voting for142, 595
Howard, Jacob749
Howell, William186
Howe, Ward522
Hughes, Charles Evans92, 93, 203, 348, 638
Hulsebosch, Daniel937
Hume, David503, 504
Humphrey, Hubert247
Idaho523, 873
Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act (1996)687, 984
Illinois525, 880
immigration and naturalization604–6, 605nn91, 93, 687–88, 984
impeachment61, 165, 177–78, 184, 357, 832, 851
Imperial Presidency (Schlesinger)189
implied powers and central banking330–31, 330nn77–78
Impoundment Control Act (1974)165
incarceration, mass667–70, 668n96
Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA) (1978)706–7
Indian Citizenship Act (1924)315
Indian Civil Rights Act (1968)315, 697, 707–8, 710
Indian Claims Commission Act (1948)712
Indian Country Crimes Act (1817)704
Indian Reorganization Act (1934)697, 701, 707
Indians
1700–1770s695
1780s–1871695–96
1887–1970s696–97
1970-present697
citizenship591, 591–92n11
commerce regulation31
Congress922
Federal Indian law principles697–99
Federal-tribal relations700–704
future challenges713
Indian defined699
Indian tribe/nation defined699
international law principles712
religion612, 620, 624
state-tribal relations45, 704–7
tribal governance707–12
U.S. empire304–5, 314–16, 315n52, 320
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) (1990)975
Inman, Robert292
intellectual property501–2
Inter-American Commission on Human Rights712
International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights (1976)718
international law and the Constitution. See also comparative constitutional law
citizenship587
constitutional founding and text922–25, 924n20
customary international law933–35
Indians712
interpretation generally935–40
overview921–22, 940
treaties/executive agreements29, 925–32, 926n35, 927n39, 930n62
International Religious Freedom Act (1998)607
(p. 1075) interpretation. See also originalism
adjudication903–5, 904nn82, 86
Brown and the anti-canon902–3
consequentialism900–901
critical race theory560–61
doctrinalism898–99, 899n61
liberal political theory774
moral theories558–59, 774
pluralism901–2
popular theories559–60
pragmatism773–74
process theories557–58
public845
racial considerations556–61
social movements845
structuralism773, 896–98
textualism772–73
tradition773
Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC), creation80
Iowa882
Iran-Contra355, 357, 360
Iraq War (2003)352
Iredell, James390, 503–4, 931
Islamic State353
Issacharoff, Samuel800–801
Jackson, Andrew
judicial review770
judicial system201
martial law688
national bank456
states rights442
vetoes328
Jacksonian Era. See also constitutional development Jackson–Reconstruction
central banking331
constitutional issues44–53
equality456
overview3–4
state constitutions854
Jackson, Robert H.
appointment94
on the Constitution236
emergencies789, 797
executive power347–49, 801, 802
flag salute94
habeas corpus690
Japanese-American internment95, 462
judicial review392
separation of powers418
taxes599
Jackson, Vicki954
Jacobsohn, Gary774
James II740
Japanese-American internment94–95, 158, 181, 358, 461–62, 546, 690
Jay, John. See Federalist, The
Jay Treaty (1794)36
Jefferson, Thomas
ancient traditions322
banking and currency330, 330nn77–78
budgets326
church and state separation101
constitutional change872, 873
departmentalism846
education, public968, 969, 970–71, 984
elections of 1796 and 180037, 912
emergency powers788, 802
empire305
executive power791–92
federal power36
Gallatin326
government debt325–26, 327
judicial power207–8, 208n37
judicial reforms900
judicial review770
Locke767
Louisiana Territory37, 181, 305–6, 326, 330
Marbury900
political coalition327
principles of ’9844
rights in the Constitution821, 821n22
Sedition Act (1798)632
Sedition Acts434
self-government724
vetoes39
as vice president912
Virginia Constitution823
Washington and184
Jim Crow. See also Fifteenth Amendment, enforcing
Brown99, 903
dual federalism441, 442
(p. 1076) economic bondage726
education, public972
Radical Republicans83–84
Supreme Court544–45
John, King765
John of Salisbury765
Johnsen, Dawn115
Johnson Act (1962)704
Johnson, Andrew
black equality457
cabinet346
Freedmen’s Bureau Bill972
impeachment61, 177–78, 184, 357
Reconstruction59–60, 201, 201n13
secretary of war184
Johnson, Lyndon
affirmative action248
Civil Rights Act246, 372
Democratic Party248
education right974, 975
sex discrimination526–27
Vietnam War353, 354
war on poverty471, 975
Johnson, Reverdy750
judicial review
agencies271
consequences of402–3
constitutionalism769–72
constitutional structure149–52, 151n24
evolution293
necessity of392–95
positive rights735
judiciary. See also separation of powers; Supreme Court
checks and balances144, 158
Civil War57–58
Constitution197–98, 213
Constitutional Convention design29
constitutional law837–38
counter-majoritarian judiciary770–71
early republic39–40
emergency powers799n98
federal jurisdiction439–41
international obligations923–24
judicial personnel204–7, 204nn20–21, 205n23, 206n32
judicial power78, 207–13, 208n37, 209n43, 212n60
life tenure918
modern constitutional theory80–81
political views831–32
positive rights730
restraint81, 559, 895–96
slavery52–53
supremacy, revolt against844–53, 846n23, 847n36, 851n69, 852n72, 75
Judiciary Act (1789)49, 199, 202, 203, 208, 389, 440, 679–80, 681, 683, 845
Judiciary Act (1801)200, 202–3, 208, 209
Judiciary Act (1807)200
Judiciary Act (1837)201
Judiciary Act (1862)201
Judiciary Act (1875)66
juries
all-white107
citizenship598
disappearance10
Hamilton678
plea bargaining10, 660
jurisdiction
admiralty924n20
Article III934–35
extraterritorial316–17
religion clauses614n24
Supreme Court29, 439–41
territories307
Kagan, Elena127n90, 657
Kania, Justice952
Kansas523, 747, 868–69
Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854)51, 141, 747
Katyal, Neal185
Keller, Morton77–78
Kelley, Florence86
(p. 1077) Kelsen, Hans951
Kennedy, Anthony
administrative agencies424
affirmative action553
autonomy565–66, 570
confirmation109, 162
due process483, 492, 937
extraterritoriality of constitutional rights603–4
gerrymandering/redistricting555, 1001–2
judicial review1022n35
Lawrence opinion119
Medicaid expansion127n90
prison reform123
Roe and Planned Parenthood110
sexual orientation discrimination468
tenure on Court114
Kennedy, Bobby754
Kennedy, Edward109
Kennedy, John
affirmative action465
African Americans248
assassination754, 913
civil rights99, 191
legislative apportionment100
sex discrimination526–27
Kent, James4, 5, 874
Kentucky
federal courts200
right to bear arms746
Sedition Act (1798)632–33
seditious libel904
statehood311
voting rights366–68, 521
Kercheval, Samuel872
Kilpatrick, James Jackson98
King, Martin Luther, Jr.248, 777
Kleinerman, Benjamin189–90
Koh, Harold794
Kollman, Ken284, 298–99
Komesar, Neil11
Korean War96, 190, 345, 347, 351–52, 360
Korematsu, Fred95, 461, 690
Kosovo355
Kramer, Larry257, 395, 849, 851–52, 856
Kriner, Doug178
Kristol, William187
Ku Klux Klan62, 93, 643, 750, 751
Ku Klux Klan Act (1871)689
labor movement/rights87–88, 241, 246–47, 258, 459–61, 524–25, 724
Lacey Act (1900)704
Landis, James M.262
Land Office311
Langdell, Christopher Columbus81
Law, David949
Lawson, Gary414, 421
Laws, The (Plato)801
Layton, Frank753
League of Nations351
League of Women Voters73, 526
Lederman, Martin190
legal realism76, 507–9, 514, 516, 517, 775, 776
legislature. See Congress
Lehman Brothers339
Lessig, Larry422
Levi, Edward398
Levinson, Daryl225, 226
Levinson, Sanford
Constitution13
constitutional hardwired features180, 394
emancipation728
partisan entrenchment771, 856
Second Amendment755–56
tri-cameralism5
libel law102
liberty
competing understandings of489–93
economic vs. personal493–95, 494nn76–77
incorporation482–83
overview479–82
positive vs. negative718–19
protection of496–99, 497n93
substantive due process483–89
Libya355
Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act (2009)158
Lincoln, Abraham
Civil War53–58, 186–87, 297, 358, 359, 923, 925, 933
Emancipation Proclamation543–44
(p. 1078) executive power186–87, 795, 798, 802
free soil platform53
habeas corpus suspension688–89
judicial power/review207–8, 208n37, 770
public colleges and universities971
public reverence for the laws1019
Reconstruction58–59
Lincoln-Douglas debate180–81
Line Item Veto Act (1996)167
Llewellyn, Karl859
Lobel, Jules791
Local Prejudice Act (1867)209
Locke, John
government authority20
liberalism771
natural rights456
prerogative powers187, 189, 359, 792
property503, 504
social contract577
state of nature766–67, 778
Long, Norton267
Louisiana869, 873–74
Louisiana Territory/Purchase37, 181, 305–6, 326, 330
Lowi, Theodore188
Lynch, Gerald661
Macey, Jonathan999
Machiavelli, Niccolo181, 187
MacKinnon, Catharine498, 777–78
Madison, James. See also constitutional authority; Federalist, The
administrative state168
Bank of the United States37, 168–69
commercial power32
compound republic71
congressional debt325–26
Constitutional Convention25, 27
constitutional veneration872
debt limiting337
draft bill of rights631, 743
dual sovereignty30
education, public968
emergency powers787–88
empire305
executive branch28
federalism36, 283, 286, 291, 438, 774
First Amendment610–11
Gallatin326
individual rights protection833
judiciary39, 769, 850
majoritarian excess145–46
national security324
opposite/rival interests855
people and government228, 229
political coalition327
as president35
refusal to sign Constitution33
representation275
Revolutionary War debt322–23
separation of powers422
slavery443
state constitutional conventions874
state constitutional reforms3
state senates22
Supreme Court jurisdiction29
vetoes39, 44, 328, 389
Magliocca, Gerard3, 180
Magna Carta (1215)19, 322, 765, 937
Maine867, 873
Major Crimes Act (1885)700, 701, 704
Mann, Horace971
Manning, John420, 422
Mann, Tom13
Mansfield, Harvey181, 187
Marbury, William39, 900
marijuana use117
Mark, Gregory575
marriage
Defense of Marriage Act166–67, 470
interracial463, 469n70, 486
same-sex163, 210, 250, 284, 446, 464, 469–70, 473, 480, 493, 539, 778, 857, 871, 882, 883
women’s rights522
Marshall Court
federalism438–39
international law933
state laws39–40
Marshall, John
autonomy568n18
consequentialism900
constitutional change916
federal authority328
(p. 1079) habeas corpus680–82, 688
Indians314, 698, 702
international law935–36
judicial review396, 770
judicial supremacy845–46
nationalist constitutionalism60
property504
public faith in government323
state constitutional conventions874
state constitutional reforms3
structuralism896–97, 897
territories307, 307–8
women and draft registration601–2
Marshall, T.H.719
Marshall, Thurgood
capital punishment106, 666
free expression640
obscene materials103
poverty472
retirement110
school segregation97
Martin, Lisa188
Martin, William McChesney331
Marx, Karl776
Maryland21, 25, 472, 647
Mashaw, Jerry412
Mason, George30, 32
Massachusetts
abortion534
amendment proposals35
colony21
Confederation24
Constitution220, 221n13, 876, 945
Constitutional Convention25, 27
death penalty883
education, public969
gender equality538
import revenue325
judiciary866
positive rights869
right to bear arms742, 746
same-sex marriage469–70, 882
state constitutional convention874
state constitutional initiative process876
state constitutional interpretation882, 883
state constitution anti-discrimination provisions879
vetoes23
Matsuda, Mari777
Mayflower Compact (1620)19, 1031
Mayhew, David227
McCain, John594, 594n30
McCardle, William684
McCloskey, Robert770
McConnell, Mitch334
McIlwain, Charles392, 765
McKean, Thomas631
McKinley, William913
McPherson, James358
McReynolds, James92, 93, 753
Medicaid127, 160, 733
Medicare336, 337
Meese, Edwin, III (Ed)115, 357, 844, 889
mental deficiencies581, 687
Merrill, Thomas422–23
Merryman, John688
Merry, Sally Engle955, 963
Mexican-American War306, 351, 745
Michelman, Frank727–28
Michel, Rosenfeld948
Miers, Harriet205, 253
Mikva, Abner171
military. See also war
academy970
Anti-Federalists8
autonomy571, 571n39
central function of government8
citizenship duty598, 601
civil power741
Civil War55, 57, 187
commissions/tribunals55, 57, 63–64, 95, 128–29, 349, 689, 690–91
Congress29, 163–64, 304, 311, 351, 635, 832
conscientious objection619
Constitutional Convention32
desegregation182, 184, 185, 247
draft598, 643
executive branch29, 177, 180, 181, 182–83, 184, 187, 343, 345, 350–51, 358, 688, 832
(p. 1080) extraterritoriality of constitutional rights603
federal lands313, 313n38, 318, 319
gays and lesbians119, 464, 470
habeas corpus674–75, 680, 683, 688–89
Indian treaties315, 696
Japanese-American internment462, 690
National Guard752
nationalists32
overseas316–17, 319, 603
Reconstruction60, 61, 62, 63–64, 66, 163, 684, 687, 748–50
religion624
states22, 27
takeovers139
veterans311
well-regulated militia741
women467, 532, 537, 539, 601–2
Military Commissions Act (MCA) (2006)164, 209–10, 692
Military Extraterritorial Jurisdiction Act (2000)317
Milkis, Sidney79
Miller, Jack753
Miller, Mark661
Miller, Samuel F.458
Milligan, Lambdin689
Mill, John Stuart566
minimum wage460
Minnesota705, 873
Minor, Virginia522
Miranda rule exceptions120
Mississippi369, 550, 748, 876
Missouri38, 123, 533–34, 866
Missouri Compromise51, 141
Mitchell, Arthur247
Monaghan, Henry427
Monroe, James3, 39, 44, 327, 874
Montagu, Henry674
Montana, constitutional conventions873
Montesquieu, Charles-Louis de Secondat20
Moore, Wayne12–13
Morrill Act (1862)971
Morrill Act (1890)973
Morris, Gouverneur25, 306
Morrison, Trevor186
Murphy, Frank462, 690
Murphy, Jeffrie777
Murphy, Walter400, 402, 771, 774, 848
Murray, Patty169
NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People)106, 242, 245, 250, 469n70, 473, 725–26, 974
National American Women’s Suffrage Association522, 523
National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP)985
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. See NAACP
National Bank. See Bank of the United States
National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL)976
National Defense Act (1916)751
National Defense Education Act (NDEA) (1958)974
National Education Association976
National Environmental Policy Act (1970)510–11
National Environmental Policy Act (1973)511
National Firearms Act (1934)752–53
National Governors Association977
National Guard752, 843
National Industrial Recovery Act (1933)92, 247
National Labor Relations Act (1935)93, 247
National Organization for Women (NOW)466, 526
National parks311, 312, 318
National Rifle Association (NRA)256, 754–55
National Security Act (1947)353
National Security Agency (NSA)187, 911
National Security Council (NSC)353
National Woman’s Party459, 466, 524
Native Americans. See Indians
naturalization and immigration policy604–6, 605nn91, 93
natural law503–4, 504n22, 544, 558, 724n25, 764, 766, 769, 776, 991n1
Nazi saboteurs95
NCLB (No Child Left Behind Act (2001)285, 976–77
Nebraska705, 865
(p. 1081) necessary and proper clause
education973
federalism32
Hamilton’s program36
separation of powers421
structure of government420
treaties923
War Powers Resolution354
Nelson, William456
Netherlands/Holland321–22
Neustadt, Richard26, 179, 185
Nevada304, 313, 876
New Deal
administrative state80, 261, 262, 270
African Americans247
constitutionality389–90, 485, 499
delegation412
education right974
ethnic and immigrant urbanites639
federalism435, 436, 437, 442, 446–51
judicial review392, 396, 398
positive rights724–25
public opinion834
Supreme Court77, 91–103, 447–48, 509
New England colonies/Confederation21–22, 24
New Hampshire742, 866, 874, 875
New Jersey21, 25, 35, 325
New Mexico307, 316, 705
New York
amendment proposals35
colony21
Confederation24
Constitutional Convention25
Constitution ratification1, 34–35
free speech637
hours laws880
import revenue325
maximum hours law485, 579
right to bear arms742
state constitutional conventions/amendments874, 879
state constitutional interpretation880, 882
taxation323
vetoes23
voting rights373–74, 378–79
welfare benefits471–72
New York Times102–3, 641–42
Niagara Movement86
Nietzsche, Friedrich777
Nineteenth Amendment
citizenship589, 600, 601
poll taxes371
republican governance818
social movements244
women473, 523
Ninth Amendment35, 486, 815, 821n23
Niskanen, W.266
Nixon, Richard
affirmative action248
Equal Rights Amendment466
executive power796
Indians697
public opposition165
race and election campaign464
Supreme Court104–6, 527
Vietnam War354
war powers346
Watergate355, 360
No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) (2001)285, 976–77
North (U.S.)
civil rights movement99
federal judicial system201
Hamilton’s program36
right to bear arms746
slavery and the31, 49–52, 433
under Confederation24
North Carolina21, 814, 865
North Dakota873
Northern Marianas Islands303–4, 318, 591n7
Northwest Ordinance (1787)303, 304, 310–11, 318, 320, 677, 679
Novak, William77–78
NOW (National Organization for Women)466, 526
Nozick, Robert720
NRA (National Rifle Association)256, 754–55
NSA (National Security Agency)187, 911
NSC (National Security Council)353
Nugent, John D.289
Nunn, Sam186
(p. 1082) Obama, Barack
Congress174, 217–18
federal courts131
judicial nominees162
Libya355
secretary of defense184
unilateralism183
war governance185–86
war powers353
Obligation of Contracts clause (Article I, section 10)48
O’Connor, Flannery612
O’Connor, Sandra Day
affirmative action551
Constitutional education987
in divided court106
due process483
eminent domain513
gender equality467, 983
habeas corpus691–92
judicial review1022n35
nomination205
redistricting555
religious displays616
replacement161
Roe and Planned Parenthood108, 110
strict scrutiny466
Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs (OIRA)273–74, 275–77
Office of Legal Counsel (OLC)354
Office of Legal Policy (OLP) report115–30
Office of Solicitor General (OSG)113
Ohio200, 865, 867, 880
Oklahoma371, 470, 486, 873
OLP (Office of Legal Policy)115–30
Olson, Mancur241
Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act (1968)653
On Liberty (Mill)566
Ordeshook, Peter289
Oregon308, 705, 873, 876, 883
originalism
enumerated rights494
international and foreign law938–39
new right vs. old right495
original intent vs. meaning773
overturning precedent901
racial rights542, 557
Supreme Court655, 656–58, 757
Ornstein, Norman13
Orren, Karen3
Ostrom, Vincent285
Owen, Robert L.159
Paine, Thomas9, 22, 219, 227, 767–68
Panama Canal332
Parker, John J.242
Partial Birth Abortion Act (2003)536
Patric, Gordon402
Paul, Alice244, 523, 524
Paul, Ron158
Paulsen, Michael Stokes797–98
Peabody, Bruce172
Peller, Gary777
Pendleton Act (1883)425
Pennsylvania
colony21, 22
constitution (1776)219, 227
Constitutional Convention25
Constitution ratification35
defendants and witnesses881
free speech648
legislature865
religious schools615
right to bear arms741–42
slavery543
state constitutional interpretation881
statehood22
taking510
Pentagon Papers103
Perju, Vlad955
Perry, Rick292
Philadelphia Convention. See Constitutional Convention
Philippines84, 304, 306, 307, 591n7, 690, 953
Phillips, Wendell50
physician-assisted suicide117, 492
Pickerell, Mitch172
Pildes, Richard225, 226, 800–801
Pinchot, Gifford311
Pinckney, Charles37, 678
Pious, Richard189
(p. 1083) Planned Parenthood530
Plato764, 801
plea bargaining10, 659–62
Polanyi, Karl507
political engagement
agency-deference rules1007–9, 1009n85
doctrines promoting1004–7, 1006nn72–73
standing doctrine and political stakes993–96, 995nn16, 20, 996n21
political parties. See also Democratic Party; Republican Party; Whigs
anti-partisanship221–25, 223n21
constitutional237
Democratic-Republican Party36–37, 208
divided people220–21, 221n13
early republic36–37
federalism289
Federalist on8
Federalist Party36–37, 202, 208, 208–9
ideological13
Jacksonian Era through Reconstruction43–44
partisanship217–18
presidents and177–78
promise of party government227–30
separation of powers217–18, 225–27
Socialist Party244
social movements and70, 241–43, 245–53, 249nn7–8, 855–56
unconstitutional235–37, 235n62
unified people218–20
Women’s Party522
politics
Civil War constitutional56
Constitutional Convention25–26, 432–33
constitutionalism853–60, 854n85–86, 857n107
constitutional law829–41
law and order platforms669
standing doctrine993–96, 995nn16, 20, 996n21
states rights44–46
Politics Presidents Make (Skowronek)180
Polk, James Knox328
Pope, James728–29
popular movements. See social movements
popular opinion, Constitution834
pornography103
positive rights
in the Constitution717, 720–21, 724–30, 724nn25–27, 726n36, 728n44
distinguishing717–19, 719n5
non-judicial enforcement717, 734–35
overview717, 736
Supreme Court and717, 730–33, 730n54, 731n59
vs. negative717, 718–19, 720, 722–23
Posner, Eric268–69, 793, 793n62, 799
Posner, Richard188, 480, 720, 793, 900–901
Pound, Roscoe75, 76
Powell, H. Jefferson890
Powell, Lewis
abortion533–34
affirmative action551
appointment104
autonomy575n57
cultural awareness254
in divided court106
education472, 487n45
equal protection527–28
gender and strict scrutiny466
habeas corpus686
regulation of family497
strict scrutiny465
Powell, Thomas Reed, judicial restraint81
Preamble
administrative constitutionalism858, 859
federalism431, 433
liberty479, 480
the people588
popular constitutionalism849–50
positive rights729
rights820
Pregnancy Discrimination Act (1978)532
prerogative power358–60
Prison Litigation Reform Act (1995)123
prison reform123
Pritchett, C. Herman400
privacy right. See also autonomy
abortion108, 530, 567–68
criminal procedure655–56
liberties488
reproductive/sexual rights108, 530, 536
states869, 881
Process of Government, The (Bentley)242
Progressive Era. See also constitutional development Gilded Age–Progressive Era
clear mistake doctrine772
constitutional initiative process876
gangster weapons752–53
labor law (state)882
labor relationships724
positive rights725
state constitutional conventions874
state constitutional interpretation880, 882
Prohibition70, 242, 243, 244, 523, 871, 910
Promise of American Life, The (Croly)71
property rights
conventionalism and essentialism502–4
ecology12
federalism513–15, 514n62
federal property515–16
laissez-faire, classical504–9
neoliberal political economy518–19
overview501–2
redistribution and development512–13
regulatory property507–9, 516–18
Thirteenth Amendment729
women522
public. See also culture; social movements
constitutional authority821–24
constitutional initiative process876–77
influence on executive branch184–85
Madison on public opinion12
national vs. state focus293–94
opinion of Constitutions834
referendums/initiatives866–67
relationship with government229, 289
Supreme Court402–3, 770–71
Vietnam War353
public lands310–13, 501
Publius. See Federalist, The
Puerto Rico304, 306, 318, 591
Quasi War (1798)345, 351
racial rights. See also African Americans; Fifteenth Amendment, enforcing
constitutional change911
criminal justice662–67, 663n70, 664n76, 666n87
Critical Race Theory777
denial of service254–55
doctrine547–56
history542–47
interpretation theories556–61
Kennedy, John F.191
military desegregation184, 185
miscegenation463
overview541–42, 561
political parties245
protest645
racially exclusive covenants508
resistance to372, 403
states rights434
white juries107
white primaries96–97, 231
railroad regulation74, 80
Railroad Retirement Act (1934)92
Randolph, Edmund33, 202, 330
Randolph, John3
Rapaczynski, Andrezej953
ratification of the constitution33, 34–35, 890–91
Rawls, John727, 987
Reagan, Ronald
abortion534
affirmative action108
anti-regulatory movement511
Bork, Robert109
budget negotiations338
Christian Right253
constitutional change113–17
(p. 1085) executive power348
Iran-Contra355, 357, 360
judicial supremacy844
law and order platform669
military buildup127n92
originalism889
Supreme Court114–16, 118
War Powers Resolution354, 356
reapportionment100, 873, 874
Reconstruction
courts209
education971–73
elections of 186861
equality457–58
Fifteenth Amendment61, 366–69, 367n13, 369n29
habeas corpus683–84, 684
instability of South62–63
Johnson59–60, 61, 201, 201n13, 357
normalizing Union relations58–60
rights543–44
right to bear arms740, 748–51
Southern instability62–63
state constitutional conventions874
Supreme Court63–67
women’s suffrage61
Reconstruction Act of 186760, 972
Redish, Martin421
redistricting554–55
Red Scare87
Reed, Sally527–28
Reese, Hiram366–68
Reeves, Andrew178
Rehabilitation Act (1973)975
Rehnquist Court
affirmative action552
conservatism844
criminal procedure120–21
on detention of U.S. citizens128–29
executive powers130
federalism449, 897
habeas corpus686
judicial review394
liberty480
OLP report125
RFRA124
school segregation/desegregation123
states rights434
structuralism897
voting rights376–77, 381
Rehnquist, William
appointment104
Chief Justice appointment109
culture254
due process492, 732
equal protection527–28
extraterritoriality of constitutional rights603
governmental duty to protect731–32, 731n59
judicial rights-protection114
land-use decision125
Lochner115
Roe dissent105
Reich, Charles471, 516, 727, 732
religion
autonomy124, 576–77, 576n63
Christian Right248–49
colonies19
education and101–2, 107, 248, 251, 402, 615–16, 619, 979–80
education and free exercise979–80
establishment clause608, 615–18, 618n34
First Amendment drafting610–11
flag salute94
free exercise clause618–21, 619n39
government funding868
incorporation613–14, 614n24
Indian sacred sites712
laws promoting87
military chaplains624
Mormon Church307, 308
non-Constitutional law regarding622–23
parental rights571n38
prohibition242, 244
religious expression647
religious free exercise979–80
right to bear arms742, 743
(p. 1086) school prayer/religious instruction101–2, 107, 251, 402
in the U.S.611–13
Religious Freedom Restoration Act (RFRA) (1993)124, 159, 249n7, 377, 576n63, 577, 620–21
Religious Land Use and Institutionalized Persons Act (RLUIPA) (2000)124, 159–60, 621
Reno, Janet159
Republic (Plato)764
republican governance25, 817–19, 819n17
Republican Party
abortion535–36
Affordable Care Act155, 169–70, 254
African Americans247
agency staffing1008
Christian Right248–49, 251, 253
civil rights84, 245, 248
Civil War53, 54, 55, 57, 543
Clinton impeachment165
Defense of Marriage Act166–67
Fourteenth Amendment457
ideological difference with Democrats173–74
Jacksonian Era51–52, 53
Johnson’s secretary of war184
judiciary and209, 245
Madison on the222
National Rifle Association256
partisan deadlock217–18
post-Civil war pensions334
presidential non-enforcement356–57
Progressive Era86
public colleges and universities971
Reconstruction59–60, 62–65, 201, 201n13, 543, 544
redistricting554
right to bear arms740, 748–50, 754, 756
seditious libel632
Southern expansion306
Southern strategy248
Supreme Court and109–10, 113–16, 287–88
unions247
Reynolds, George618–19
RFRA (Religious Freedom Restoration Act)124, 159, 249n7, 377, 576n63, 577, 620–21
Rhode Island
colony21, 22
Constitutional Convention323
Constitution ratification814
judiciary866
religious displays616
religious schools615
state constitutional convention875
taxation323
veto power865
voting47
right to bear arms (Second Amendment)
autonomy566, 577–78
changing meaning739–40
civil war through Reconstruction748–51
collective rights theory751–53
English origins740–42
liberty481
military service598
modern debate regarding754–58, 757n72, 758n74
Second Amendment origins254–55, 742–44, 744n16
state laws868–69
Right to Financial Privacy Act (1978)158
Riker, William284, 289, 293, 308
Ritter, Gretchen467
Roane, Spencer209, 389
Roberts, Benjamin971–72
Roberts Court
conservatism844
criminal procedure120–21
on detention of U.S. citizens128–29
(p. 1087) environmental and land-use regulation125
executive powers129–30
First Amendment130
free speech646–47
OLP report125
originalism657
religious exemptions621
separation of powers420
VRA reauthorization379–84, 380nn142–44, 382nn164–65, 556
Roberts, John
affirmative action553
doctrinalism899
Medicaid expansion127
prison reform123
tenure on Court114
Roberts, Owen J.92, 93, 462, 639
Robinson, Joe93
Romney, George594
Roosevelt, Eleanor244
Roosevelt, Franklin D. See also New Deal
on the Constitution916
economic insecurity718
executive power351, 360
Great Depression333
judicial review392, 770
labor247
Social Security334–35
Soviet Union926
Supreme Court77, 91, 92–93, 161, 162, 207–8, 210, 252, 252n14, 331, 524, 918
Roosevelt, Theodore79, 80–81, 182, 311, 360
Rosenberg, Gerald91, 283, 403, 774, 848
Rosenfeld, Michel948
Ross, John316