Show Summary Details

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD HANDBOOKS ONLINE (www.oxfordhandbooks.com). © Oxford University Press, 2018. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Handbooks Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 30 September 2020

Index

Index

Note: Tables, Figures and Boxes are indicated by italic ‘t’, ‘f’, ‘b’ and notes are indicated by ‘n’ respectively, following the page number.

A
(p. 869) abortion 403–414
access to health care for complications 411
ethical and social duty for public health community 411–412
gender health disparities and 404–405
human rights and 406–408
illegal 403, 411
induced abortion 404, 407, 409–410
legal frameworks and 406–408, 410
morality and 406–408
post-abortion care 411
public health strategy 408–411
reducing need for 409–410
religion and 406–408
selective 416, 418
unsafe abortion as global problem 403–406, 410
access to health care
abortion complications 411
children and adolescents and 199–200
for disabilities 224–227
mental health and 210–212
pregnancy and 415–425
racial and ethnic health disparities 292
accountability
big data and 355, 358, 361, 363
biosecurity and 778
carbon emissions and 746
contraception and 393
enforcement powers and 120–121
environmental health and 764
extragovernmental bodies and 123
health disparities and 297
intergovernmental bodies and 121–122
in learning health care system 169
malnutrition and 580
mechanisms for 110, 117–120, 122, 363, 803
natural disaster preparedness and 793
pandemic disease and 800, 809
policy reform and 867
for reasonableness 297–299
state role in 120–121
unintentional injuries and 613–614, 616
WHO and 121–122
World Bank and 122
Accountability for Reasonableness (Daniels and Sabin) 43, 297–299, 613n1, 800, 833
ACLU (American Civil Liberties Union) 250
acute malnutrition 572, 576, 580, 709
adolescents. See children and adolescents
advance directives 186–187, 210
adverse events 356, 432, 435, 438, 443, 682, 684, 686–687
aerial pesticides 462–463
Africa. See also specific countries
abortion in 404
carbon emissions in 743, 751
community-based participatory research in 346
contraception in 401
genetic epidemiology in 685, 693
health care workers in 138–139
health disparities in 286
health systems research in 157
HIV/AIDS interventions in 478, 480, 484
mosquito-borne illnesses in 469
noncommunicable diseases in 535
policy reform in 850–852, 855
sexual and gender minorities in 237
water security in 567
(p. 870) African Americans. See also racial and ethnic health disparities
alcohol and other drugs and 516
Black Lives Matter movement and 281–282
cancer incidence rates 537
community-based participatory research and 347
genetic epidemiology and 685
health disparities 278, 281–283
HIV/AIDS interventions and 474
mortality rates for 283
pesticides and 712
policy reform and 842
sexually transmitted infections and 384
African Union 845, 851
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality 227, 280
aging populations 181–191
defining 182–183
equity in aging 184–185
ethical challenges of public health goals 185–189
future directions for public health efforts 189–190
healthy aging goal 183–184
justice and 187–189
life extension goal 185
noncommunicable diseases and 533
promotion of well-being 185–186
protection from harm 185–186
public health goals and benefits 183–185
respecting autonomous choices of 186–187
Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) 123
agriculture
carbon emissions and 743
environmental health and 699–701
malnutrition and 581–582
occupational health and 727
pesticides use and 708–710, 713
policy reform and 854
water security and 559, 562–563, 569
air pollution 720, 729–731, 736–737, 762, 788
alcohol and other drugs (AODs) 511–523
awareness campaigns for 514–515
cancer and 536
coercion measures 516–517
education campaigns for 514–515
epidemiology of harmful use of 512
eugenics and 644
harm reduction approaches 517–519
health disparities and 260
justice and 512–513
law enforcement and 516–517
legalization campaigns 519–520
personal responsibility and 513–514
policy reform and 846, 854
regulation of 519–520
screening for 514–515
taxation of 519–520
treatment programs 515–516
unintentional injuries and 615
Allen, J. 362
Allina, A. 394
allocation of resources. See resource allocation
All of Us Research Program (Mayo Clinic) 667–668, 669t
Ameratunga, Shanthi 602, 604
American Cancer Society 540, 541
American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) 250
American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists 417
American Diabetes Association 278
American Medical Association 383
American Psychiatric Association 232
American Public Health Association 221, 333, 406–407
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) 209, 220, 222–223, 228, 230
Amnesty International 250
Anderson, Elizabeth 37
Anderson, Gerard 818, 857
animal-source foods (ASFs) 573, 578–580
antenatal care 140, 415, 417, 466
antibiotics 489, 700, 729, 824–827, 829
antimicrobial resistance 825–827
Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board 223
Arias, Daniel 818, 830
Arizona State University 318, 345
Arneson, Richard J. 513–514
Asada, Yukiko 263–264, 301
(p. 871) ASFs (animal-source foods) 573, 578–580
Association of Schools and Programs of Public Health 71
asthma 496
at-risk populations 474, 478, 481, 491, 537, 769. See also vulnerable populations
Australia, tobacco use in 496
autonomy
of aging populations 181, 186–187, 189
big data and 363
biosecurity and 775
cancer and 542–544, 546
carbon emissions and 745
of children and adolescents 200, 202
communicable diseases and 433, 683–685
community-based participatory research and 346–347, 350
conscientious autonomy 542
contraception and 392, 394
genetic epidemiology and 680–683, 684
governance and 121
health reform and 859–860
health systems research and 146–147
of immigrants 251
immunizations and 440
malnutrition and 574
mental health care and 208–209, 213–214
mosquito-borne illnesses and 465, 468
obesity and 591–592, 594
policy reform and 848, 859–863, 865
reproductive and sexual health and 374, 377, 392, 394
research and 332
social determinants of health and 271
stewardship and 834
surveillance and 323–324
tobacco and 496, 507
tuberculosis and 455
unintentional injuries and 605, 609, 613
violence and 622, 626–627, 629
AZT treatment for HIV/AIDS 433, 477–479
B
Ballreich, Jeromie M. 818, 857
Bangladesh
development in 825, 829
global public health and 528, 534
health care workers in 140
health systems research in 153
noncommunicable diseases in 528
policy reform in 850
unintentional injuries in 612
Ban Ki-moon 527
Barnes, Mark 433, 472
Barnhill, Anne 585
Barry, Michele 432, 459
Basu, S. 531
Bayer, R. 80
Beach, Frank 232
Beauchamp, Dan 82, 235
bedaquiline 454–456
Belmont principles 146, 336, 339. See also specific principles
beneficence
communicable diseases and 430
contraception and 392, 395–397, 400
duties of 247, 444
health systems and 112
health systems research and 145–148, 148t, 151
immunizations and 435, 441–442
malnutrition and 574–575
policy reform and 858, 862–863, 865
principle of 147, 328, 337, 396, 429, 801, 862–863, 866
public health research and 337–338
racial and ethnic health disparities and 284
reproductive and sexual health and 375
research and 332, 335–336, 339
resource allocation and 835–836
violence and 622
benefits of interventions
aging populations and 185
alcohol and other drugs and 519
big data and 362–363
biobanking and 667, 670–671
biosecurity and 777, 781
cancer and 540–541, 543
carbon emissions and 744, 748
communicable diseases and 433
community-based participatory research and 345, 348
contraception and 394–400
(p. 872) data collection and 316–318
development and 820–827
distribution of 187, 325, 326, 348, 355, 800, 821, 827, 837
environmental health and 699, 758–759
genetic epidemiology and 682–684
genetics and 638–639
health disparities and 291, 294–297
health systems and 110–111
health systems research and 148, 150, 153–154
HIV/AIDS and 475–477
immunizations and 435–436, 440
learning health care system and 167
maximization of 240, 623, 800, 858
mental health care and 212–214
mosquito-borne illnesses and 462–463
newborn screening and 655–658
occupational health and 722–726
pandemic disease and 800
reproductive and sexual health and 372–374
research and 332–339
resource allocation and 836–837
sexual and gender minorities and 235, 241
social determinants of health and 271, 273
surveillance and 323–326
tobacco and 499–500
tuberculosis and 450–451, 454–455
unintentional injuries and 612–613
violence and 622–623, 626–627
Bentham, Jeremy 35, 39
Bernheim, Ruth Gaare 175
Beyrer, Chris 179, 232
Bhadelia, Afsan 818, 857
big data 354–367
accountability and 363
beyond health care system 356–357
civic empowerment and 362
control of data 360
data sharing 360
ethical challenges 357–363, 358f
fairness in distribution of benefits 362
harm mitigation and 361–362
from health care system 355–356
nonstate actors and 360–361
privacy and 358–360
Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation 438
biobanking 638–639, 664–677
All of Us Research Program (Mayo Clinic) 667–668, 669t
case studies 665–668, 669t
community engagement 671–672
confidentiality 669–670
ethical issues 668–673
Geisinger MyCode Community Health Initiative 665–666, 669t
GeneScreen KP-NWBB 667, 669t
informed consent 670–671
return and disposition of individual results 672–673
sample identifiability 669–670
bioethics
aging populations and 190
big data and 365
biosecurity and 782
cancer and 542, 544, 545–546
carbon emissions and 743–745, 749–753
children and adolescents and 200, 201–202
emergency preparedness and response 773
environmental health and 700, 701, 703, 763–764
environmental justice and 736, 737
genetic epidemiology and 689, 692
governance and 125
health disparities and 265, 299
health systems and 113–114
health systems research and 146–151, 156–157
HIV/AIDS and 482, 483
immunizations and 445–446
learning health care system and 171
mental health care and 216
mosquito-borne illnesses and 463, 465, 469–470
newborn screening and 656, 660–663
overweight and obesity and 594–595
pandemic disease and 810–811
policy reform and 819, 848, 853–854
pregnancy-related services and 425
resource allocation and 839, 841
sexual and gender minorities and 242
social determinants of health and 269, 274
(p. 873) tuberculosis and 457
unintentional injuries and 610, 614, 616
violence and 628
water security and 568
biological threats and biosecurity 774–785
crisis response 779–782
efficiency vs. fairness 778–779
efficiency vs. justice 777–778
ethical principles 775–776
prevention 776–779
recovery stage 782
biomedical research 145–151, 154, 158–159, 288, 317, 638, 659. See also research
biosurveillance 327. See also surveillance
Bishai, David M. 815
Black Lives Matter 281–282
Black Report (1980) 79
Blank, Danilo 602, 604
Bloom, Gerald 820
Bolivia, mosquito-borne illnesses in 462
Bonnie, Richard J. 178, 205
Boorse, Christopher 50
Botkin, Jeffrey R. 637–638, 653
Botswana, HIV/AIDS interventions in 472
Brawley, Otis W. 492–493, 536
Brazil
genomics research in 636
health care workers in 141
HIV interventions in 480
mosquito-borne illnesses in 462–467, 471
Zika virus in 464–465
Brinkerhoff, D. W. 116, 118
Brown, Michael 281–282
Brownell, K. D. 586
Buchanan, David R. 60–61, 77, 318, 342
Buck, Carrie 99n2
burden of disease
alcohol and other drugs 511, 521
biosecurity and 782
cancer 538
children and adolescents and 194
communicable diseases 431
genetic epidemiology and 678
global public health and 525, 526–527, 533
injuries 603
malnutrition 550, 552–553, 578
mosquito-borne illnesses 461
noncommunicable diseases 489, 491, 493, 494
overweight and obesity 595
pandemic disease 804
policy reform and 819
sexual and gender minorities and 236
tobacco and 508
Burkina Faso, health systems research in 152
C
CABs (community advisory boards) 669, 671, 677
Cadigan, R. Jean 638, 664
Callahan, Daniel 185
Cambodia, pregnancy-related services in 419
cancer 489–490, 536–546
aging populations and 182
alcohol and other drugs and 511
autonomy and 542–543
biobanking and 666
environmental justice and 730
equity in community interventions 538–539
equity in treatment for 539–540
global public health and 524–525
health disparities and 261
immunizations and 441
incidence rate 537–540
malnutrition and 573
medical paternalism and 542–543
mortality rates 536, 538
mosquito-borne illnesses and 462
occupational health and 719
pesticides and 704–706, 712, 716
policy reform and 852
prevention 353, 492, 537, 539, 541, 543–544
racial and ethnic health disparities and 277–278, 282–283
research 539, 544, 546
screening for 537, 540–543, 546
social justice and 537–540
surveillance and 320
tobacco and 496, 509
treatment for 539–540, 542–544
Capron, Alexander 772
carbon emissions. See energy and emissions
Carens, Joseph 249, 250
(p. 874) Cassell, J. 149
Ceauşescu, Nicolae 408
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
on advance care planning 186
on aerial pesticides 462
on disabilities 221
on health systems 109
on HIV/AIDS 473, 474
on immunizations 438
legal framework and 89
on noncommunicable diseases 531
public health system and 66
on sexually transmitted infections 379
on social determinants of health 279
surveillance and 361
CES4Health 344
cesarean sections 421–422
Chicago Department of Public Health 356
chikungunya 459. See also mosquito-borne illnesses
children and adolescents 192–204. See also newborns and infants
access to confidential health services 199–200
alcohol and other drugs and 518, 519, 521, 522, 523
biobanking and 666
cancer and 538, 540
carbon emissions and 747
communicable diseases and 430
contraception and 391, 393, 398, 400
Convention of the Rights of the Child (UN) 195–196, 386
disenfranchisement of 195–196
environmental health and 757–759, 764
environmental justice and 731
eugenics and 643, 645
governance and 123
health information and health promotion for 197–199
HIV/AIDS and 482
immigration and 250–251, 253
immunizations and 436, 438–440, 443–445
maltreatment of 619, 621–622
mosquito-borne illnesses and 462, 467
occupational health and 719
parental rights and duties 196–197, 200–201
pesticides and 707, 711, 714, 716
presumption of incapacity 197
public health challenges 197–201
sexual and gender minorities and 240–241
sexually transmitted infections and 379, 382, 385–386
social and economic power lacking for 195–196
stewardship of 196–197, 200–201
tobacco and 496, 500
tuberculosis and 449–450
violence and 617, 621, 631
water security and 558
Children’s Health Care of Atlanta 80
Chile
environmental justice in 732
occupational health in 719, 726
China
abortion in 408, 413
air pollution in 731, 738
carbon emissions in 743, 751
contraception in 392
development in 822, 825, 828–829
global public health and 528
governance in 121
health care workers in 139–140
noncommunicable diseases in 528
occupational health in 719
one-child policy in 408
reproductive and sexual health in 374
tobacco use in 496
tuberculosis in 449
water security in 560–562, 566
chronic diseases
aging populations and 187–188
development and 824
disabilities and 224, 228
free rider problem 83–85
genetic epidemiology and 683
global public health and 525, 533
harm principle and 80–82
individual liberties, threats to 81–82
interventions 79–85
(p. 875) justice and 82–83
malnutrition and 583
opportunity costs 81
racial and ethnic health disparities and 285
sexually transmitted infections and 383
social solidarity dilemmas 83–85
stigma and 80–81
cigarettes. See smoking; tobacco
City of Milwaukee v. Washington (2007) 94–95
civil society organizations (CSOs) 116, 119, 123, 152, 838. See also specific organizations
Clean Air Act of 1963 284
climate change
carbon emissions and 739, 742, 745–746, 748–751, 753
development and 822, 825
environmental health and 700–702
environmental justice and 729, 731–732, 737
malnutrition and 572, 579–580, 582–584
policy reform and 816
water security and 549, 562, 567–568
cluster trial methodology 146, 154, 337
Cohen, Devin Alexander 433, 472
Cohen, G. A. 42
Colgrove, James 430–431, 435
collective action 23–24
Colombia
mosquito-borne illnesses in 462
Zika virus in 467
Commission on Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights 372
Commission on the Social Determinants of Health (WHO) 269, 302
Commission to Build a Healthier America 279
Committee for the Ethical Aspects of Human Reproduction and Women’s Health 410
commodification of water 562–565
common-pool resources problem 559–562
communicable diseases 427–485. See also immunizations; pandemic disease
aging populations and 182
alcohol and other drugs and 516, 522
autonomy and 683–685
biosecurity and 783–784
community-based participatory research and 351
cost-benefit analyses of genomic interventions 682–683
development and 820–821, 824, 827
emergency preparedness and response 768, 771
emerging epidemics 687–688
environmental justice and 731
eugenics and 642, 646
genetic epidemiology and 639–640, 678–695
global public health and 525, 529, 534
health care workers and 127
health disparities and inequities 685–686
HIV/AIDS 472–485 (see also HIV/AIDS)
immunizations and 435–447
malnutrition and 574
mosquito-borne illnesses 459–471 (see also mosquito-borne illnesses)
occupational health and 720
pandemic disease and 798, 801–802, 804, 807, 810
pesticides and 712
policy reform and 859
privacy and 683–685
research and 331
resource allocation for 683
sexually transmitted infections and 378, 389
surveillance and 320–321, 325
tuberculosis 448–458 (see also tuberculosis)
community advisory boards (CABs) 669, 671, 677
community-based participatory research (CBPR) 342–353
autonomy of community and 346–347
environmental justice and 734
ethical challenges of 344–349
ethical framework of 317–318, 336, 340
evolution of 343
harm principle and 345–346
legitimated representation and 347–348
practical challenges of 343–344
research design issues 348–349
scope of responsibilities 348
(p. 876) Community-Campus Partnerships for Health 344
community engagement
big data and 362
biobanking 671–672
genomics 671–672
health systems research and 151–152
public health research 335–339
community health workers (CHWs) 131–133, 139–141, 400, 546
compensation for vaccine injuries 443–444
confidentiality
big data and 359
biobanking and 669–670
children and adolescents and 199–200
community-based participatory research and 349
contraception and 396
data collection and 316, 318
environmental health and 701–702, 754, 757, 762
genetic epidemiology and 681–682
genetics and 639
genomics 669–670
global human resources for health and 132
health care workers and 132, 135, 137
health systems and 111–112
learning health care system and 163, 169
mental health care and 214
mosquito-borne illnesses and 465
research and 333, 757
sexually transmitted infections and 379, 381, 384–385, 387
surveillance and 323–324, 326, 328
tuberculosis and 452–453
unintentional injuries and 611
violence and 623–624
Conly, Sarah 498
conscientious autonomy 542
consent. See informed consent
consequentialism 6
contact tracing
genetic epidemiology and 639, 679–681, 688
HIV/AIDS 475–476, 479
pandemic disease 770
sexually transmitted infections 375, 379–381, 387
surveillance and 316
tuberculosis 453
contraception 391–402
abortion and 409–410, 412–414
beneficence principle and 395–397
carbon emissions and 747
communicable diseases and 432
distributive justice principle and 397–399
emergency contraception 409–411, 413, 471
mosquito-borne illnesses and 465–469
research on 394, 396, 398–399
respect for persons principle and 392–395
service delivery and 393–394, 395–396, 397–398
sexually transmitted infections and 388
contribution principle 38
Convention of the Rights of the Child (UN) 195–196, 386
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (UN) 386
cosmopolitanism 246–247
Costa Rica, life expectancy in 733
Council on Linkages Between Academia and Public Health Practice 71
Courtwright, Andrew 590
Crenshaw, Kimberlé Williams 235
criminalization
of HIV transmission 382–384
of sexual and gender minorities 237–239
criminal justice system 206, 216, 515, 517, 627
critical consciousness 343
Cuba
communicable diseases in 433
genomics research in 636
health care workers in 140
HIV interventions in 433, 476
mosquito-borne illnesses in 462
D
Daniels, Norman 43, 50, 83, 263, 290, 304, 307, 512, 605, 607, 612, 613n1, 833
DARE campaign 515
data collection 313–367
big data and 354–367 (see also big data)
(p. 877) community-based participatory research 342–353 (see also community-based participatory research)
public health research 331–341 (see also research)
public health surveillance 320–330 (see also surveillance)
Davis, Claire 549
Dawkins, Richard 357
Dawson, A. 84, 338, 339
Deaton, Angus 821, 822
DeBruin, Debra 60, 63
decision-making processes
abortion and 409
aging populations and 186–187, 189
biosecurity and 778, 782–783
cancer and 542–543
carbon emissions and 746–747
children and adolescents and 200
contraception and 391, 393–394
emergency preparedness and response 768–770, 772
environmental justice and 728, 730–731
genetic epidemiology and 687–688
global public health and 527
governance and 116–119, 121–122
health disparities and 263, 297–299
health inequity metrics and 304, 306
health systems and 113
immunizations and 435–437, 439
learning health care system and 164
malnutrition and 579–580
mosquito-borne illnesses and 464, 467
occupational health and 723–724
pandemic disease and 800–801, 804–806
pesticides and 710, 712–713
policy reform and 816–818, 847–848, 866
pregnancy-related services and 416, 419–420, 422
reproductive and sexual health and 374–375
resource allocation and 830–838
surveillance and 329
unintentional injuries and 608–609
water security and 565
Declaration of Human Rights (1948) 248, 270
DEET 466, 470
delamanid 454–456
dengue 459, 464. See also mosquito-borne illnesses
Denmark, immunizations in 443
deontological approach 6–7, 818, 858
Department of Agriculture (USDA) 66
Department of Health and Social Security (UK) 79
Department of International Development (UK) 152
Depo-Provera (DMPA) 395, 397
development 820–829. See also economic development
antimicrobial resistance and 825–827
ethics of 821–823
management of 823–825
urbanization and 823–825
Diamond, Jared 820
digital disease detection 356
dignity, individual 189, 518
directly observed therapy (DOT) 77
disabilities 219–231
access to public health programs 224–227
conceptual frameworks and approaches to 221–224
empowerment and 227
ethical dimensions of public health approaches 224–227
historical perspectives 219–221
implicit bias and 225–227
legal framework for 222–224 (see also specific acts)
medical model of 222
prevalence of 182, 220, 225, 228
procedural justice and 227
public health implications 220–221
social model of 178, 222
structural bias and 225–227
disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) 155, 527, 529, 538
disadvantaged groups. See also vulnerable populations
cancer and 539
environmental justice and 734
health care workers and 130
health disparities and 262, 303, 305
health systems research and 148–149
natural disasters and 794
(p. 878) noncommunicable diseases and 490
overweight and obesity and 589
tobacco and 502–503
disaster risk reduction (DRR) 787, 790, 795
discrimination
abortion and 412
aging populations and 188
big data and 361, 363
data collection and 315
disabilities and 223, 225–226, 228
emergency preparedness and response 770
eugenics and 648–649
genetic epidemiology and 684, 688
health care workers and 141
health disparities and 292, 299
health inequity metrics and 303
HIV/AIDS and 472, 476, 481
natural and industrial disasters and 788
reproductive and sexual health and 373–375
sexual and gender minorities and 233, 236–240, 244
sexually transmitted infections and 379, 384–386, 389
social determinants of health and 268
stigma and 236, 384–386, 788
surveillance and 324
tuberculosis and 452
violence and 621, 627
disease transmission 199, 429–430, 439, 442, 464, 681, 820
DiStefano, Michael J. 110, 115
distributive justice 36–40
aging populations and 187
contraception and 397–399
contribution principle 38
correlative principles 36–39, 39t
effort principle 38–39
egalitarianism principle 37
emergency preparedness and response 769
health disparities and 291
immunizations and 440, 444
maximization principle 36
mosquito-borne illnesses and 468
newborn screening and 658
noncorrelative principles 36–38, 39t
occupational health and 724
overweight and obesity and 588
policy reform and 845
prioritarianism principle 36–37
research and 332, 338
resource allocation and 834, 837, 840
sexual and gender minorities and 233
social determinants of health and 271–272
sufficientarianism principle 37–38
tradition principle 39
unintentional injuries and 607–608, 612
DNA. See genetics
doula services 422
Down Syndrome 225, 418, 424
Drug Resistant TB 457
Du Bois, W. E. B. 286
Duggal, Priya 639, 678
duty to care 736, 771–772, 781, 801, 808, 810
Dwyer, James 702, 728
E
Ebola virus disease (EVD) 254n1, 775, 778, 780–781, 783, 801, 803, 807, 809
e-cigarettes 503, 506–507, 510
ecological footprints 732–733, 733t
economic development
carbon emissions and 752
contraception and 391
environmental health and 699, 702
environmental justice and 735–736
industrial chemicals and pesticides 710–711
noncommunicable diseases and 493
occupational health and 718
pesticides and 710
policy reform and 852, 867
social determinants of health and 275
water security and 563
Ecuador
mosquito-borne illnesses in 462
Zika virus in 467
educational interventions 78–79
alcohol and other drugs and 514–515
big data and 356
children and adolescents and 197
community-based participatory research and 351
(p. 879) genetic epidemiology and 686
governance and 123
health systems research and 148
learning health care system and 164
malnutrition and 581
noncommunicable diseases and 489
overweight and obesity and 596
sexually transmitted infections and 385–386
surveillance and 330
tobacco and 496–497, 503–504
efficiency 23–24, 777–779
effort principle 38–39
egalitarianism principle 37
elder abuse 185–186
elderly populations. See aging populations
electronic health records (EHRs) 355–356, 358, 364, 665–668, 670, 672
Electronic Support for Public Health (ESP) 356
Ellis, L. E. 152
El Salvador, Zika virus in 467
emergency contraception 409–411, 413, 471
Emergency Medical Treatment and Active Labor Act of 1986 90, 253
emergency preparedness and response 765–811
ethical complexities 769–771
natural and industrial disasters 786–796 (see also natural and industrial disasters)
pandemic disease 797–811 (see also pandemic disease)
emissions. See energy and emissions
employers 133–134, 137, 229, 373, 681, 720–721
energy and emissions 739–753
causes 739–740
environmental impacts of 740–742
ethics of 744–746
health impacts of 742–746
intersectoral cooperation on 743–744
policy design 746–748
enforcement powers 120–121, 516–517
environmental health 697–764
energy and emissions 739–753
environmental justice 728–738
industrial chemicals 704–717
intentional exposure studies 761–762
occupational health 718–727
pesticides 704–717
research 754–764
environmental interventions 78–79
environmental justice 728–738
air pollution 730–731
climate change 731–732
ecological footprints 732–733, 733t
industrial chemicals and pesticides 711–712
waste disposal and 729–730
work of 734–736
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 13, 66, 471, 706–707, 715, 728–731, 734, 737, 755–756, 758–759, 762–763
epigenetics 577–578
equality
aging populations and 189, 191
alcohol and other drugs and 513–514, 520, 521
big data and 365
biosecurity and 775
cancer and 538–539
carbon emissions and 751
development and 821, 824, 829
environmental justice and 734
global public health and 528, 531
governance and 120
health care workers and 129, 138
health disparities and 260, 261–263, 290–300
health inequity metrics and 301, 302, 303–311
health systems research and 148
immigration and 249, 255–256
learning health care system and 165–166
mental health care and 214
mosquito-borne illnesses and 470
natural and industrial disasters and 792
occupational health and 722
overweight and obesity and 588–589
policy reform and 843, 845, 848, 850–851, 854–855, 860
pregnancy-related services and 415, 421–422
(p. 880) racial and ethnic health disparities and 282, 284
reproductive and sexual health and 373
sexual and gender minorities and 243
sexually transmitted infections and 384
social determinants of health and 265–266, 268, 269–275
tobacco and 496–497, 502
violence and 624, 629
water security and 559, 563, 565
equity
abortion and 403, 404–405
aging populations and 184–185, 188, 190
alcohol and other drugs and 521
benefits and 326, 348
big data and 363
cancer and 538–541, 544
carbon emissions and 749
children and adolescents and 201, 203
community-based participatory research and 349
contraception and 396
definition of 264, 302–304, 306–307
disabilities and 220, 221, 224
emergency preparedness and response 772
environmental justice and 736
genetic epidemiology and 680, 685
genetics and 639
global human resources for health and 129–131
global public health and 527, 532–533
health care workers and 129–131, 137–138, 139, 142–143
health disparities and 263, 290–296, 300
health inequity metrics and 301–303, 305, 307, 309–311
health systems and 114
health systems research and 156
immunizations and 437–438, 441, 444
injuries and 602
magnitude of 264, 302, 307–308
malnutrition and 553–554, 578–579, 582, 584
measurement of 264, 302, 304–305, 309
natural and industrial disasters and 792
overweight and obesity and 588, 596
pandemic disease and 805
pesticides and 705
policy reform and 818, 854, 855, 858, 862
public vs. private provision 131
racial and ethnic health disparities and 283–285
reproductive and sexual health and 375
research and 339
resource allocation and 834–836, 838–841
sexual and gender minorities and 232, 233, 239, 241
sexually transmitted infections and 379, 384
social determinants of health and 275
surveillance and 321, 324, 325, 329
tobacco and 496–497
unintentional injuries and 611, 614, 616
water security and 560, 569
ethical frameworks 165, 169, 340, 772, 775, 793, 797, 804, 810
ethical norms 771, 822–823, 834
ethical principles. See also specific principles
biosecurity and 777, 782
contraception and 392, 400–401
emergency preparedness and response 773
environmental health and 755
genetics and 636
health care workers and 137
health systems and 112
health systems research and 157
mental health care and 209
natural disasters and 792
pandemic diseases and 801
policy reform and 817, 828, 836, 839, 858, 861, 865
reproductive and sexual health and 375
research and 331–332, 341
surveillance and 329
violence and 622
Ethiopia, community health workers in 132
ethnic health disparities. See racial and ethnic health disparities
eugenics 637, 642–652
advocates for 647–648
ethical problems with 649–650
future of 650–651
Holocaust and 648–649
legal framework for 645–647
population health and 644–645
Evans, Nicholas 771, 774
Expanded Program on Immunization (WHO) 438
extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) 450, 451–452
F
Fabi, Rachel, E. 179, 245
Factor, R. 84
Faden, Ruth R. 8, 9, 12, 21, 35, 111, 112, 124, 159, 162, 165, 284, 339, 513
fairness
big data and 362
biological threats 778–779
in distribution of burdens 24
for health care workers 132–134
injury prevention and 612
overweight and obesity and 588–589
fairness-standardization method 306
family planning 133, 371, 388–392, 394, 396–402, 409, 412–413, 465. See also contraception
Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act of 2009 96
Fanzo, Jessica 549, 571
Fathalla, Mahmoud F. 375–376, 403
Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs) 253
Fenton, Elizabeth 175, 771, 786
fetal origins hypothesis 577–578
Fiereck, K. 236
Fifth Amendment 92
First Amendment 92
Fleurbaey, M. 303
Flexner Report (1910) 128
flu. See influenza
Foege, William H. 78
Food and Drug Administration (FDA) 13, 22, 66, 96, 454, 477–478, 480, 483, 706
food security 550, 554–555, 566–569, 575, 580, 582–584, 708
Ford, Clellan 232
Fourteenth Amendment 92
Framingham Heart Study 78
France, immunizations in 443
Francis (pope) 467
freedom. See individual freedom
freedom of movement 179, 246–252, 451, 681, 775
free rider problem 83–85, 439
Freire, Paolo 343, 604
Frieden, Tom 611
Fuentes, L. 394
G
Galton, Francis 637
Gay Men’s Health Crisis (advocacy group) 480
Geisinger Health System 161
Geisinger MyCode Community Health Initiative 665–666, 669t
Geller, Gail 636, 639, 678
gender. See also sexual and gender minorities; women
abortion and 404–405
health disparities 290, 293–294, 371, 373–374, 376, 404–405
social justice and 372–373
gender dysphoria 233
gender identity 178, 234, 236–238, 243–244, 303, 389
gender identity disorder 233
gender minorities 179, 232–241, 243, 385, 505
GeneScreen KP-NWBB 667, 669t
genetic epidemiology 639–640, 678–688
genetics 633–695
biobanking 638–639, 664–677
eugenics 637, 642–652
infectious diseases 639–640, 678–688
malnutrition and 577–578
mosquito-borne illnesses and 463–464
newborn screening 637–638, 653–663
noncommunicable diseases and 491
pesticides and 705
pregnancy-related services and 417
racial and ethnic health disparities and 279
social determinants of health and 269
surveillance and 321
genomics 664–677
All of Us Research Program (Mayo Clinic) 667–668, 669t
case studies 665–668, 669t
(p. 882) community engagement 671–672
confidentiality 669–670
ethical issues 668–673
Geisinger MyCode Community Health Initiative 665–666, 669t
GeneScreen KP-NWBB 667, 669t
informed consent 670–671
return and disposition of individual results 672–673
sample identifiability 669–670
genomic sequencing 656–657, 666
Germany, immunizations in 437, 443
Ghana, noncommunicable diseases in 528
GID (gender identity disorder) 233
Global Abortion Policies Database 407
Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of NCDs (WHO) 526
Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization 438
Global Burden of Disease Study 138, 217, 494, 508, 521, 523, 555, 581–582, 595, 603, 615, 629
Global Code of Practice on International Recruitment of Health Personnel (WHO) 111
Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM) 480
Global Health Workforce Alliance (GHWA) 129
global human resources for health. See human resources for health
Gomez, A. M. 394
Goodin, Robert 498
Google Flu Trends 356–357, 361
Gostin, Lawrence 5, 89, 91, 235
governance 115–117, 124–126
absence of 838–839
biobanking and 665
carbon emissions and 748
definitions 830–832, 832t
health care workers and 140
health systems and 110
health systems research and 144, 157
malnutrition and 554
pandemic disease 803–804
policy reform and 818
promotion of 836–838
resource allocation and 830–833, 835–841
social determinants of health and 269
stewardship and 115–117
stewardship as ethically conscientious governance 116–117
stewardship of health systems and 115–117
water and 562–565
water security and 556, 562
Grant, R. W. 117, 118
Greisman, Laura 432, 459
Group Health Cooperative 161
Guillain-Barré syndrome 465
Guthman, Julie 588
Guthrie, Robert 637
Gwatkin, David 293
H
HAART for HIV/AIDS 477–479
Haddon Matrix 98n1
Haiti 467, 473, 719, 726
Hanfling, Dan 771, 786
harm principle
aging populations 185–186
alcohol and other drugs and 512, 514, 517–519
avoidable harms 196, 200–201, 332
big data and 361–363
carbon emissions and 741–742, 744–747
children and adolescents and 198–200
chronic diseases 80–82
communicable diseases and 429–431
community-based participatory research and 344–345, 345–346, 350
conceptual framework 24–26
contraception and 396
development and 823–824
emergency preparedness and response 770
environmental health and 699, 756–759
environmental justice and 735
genetic epidemiology and 680–682
genetics and 636, 638
immunizations and 435, 437–440, 442–444
injury prevention and 602, 609–610
interventions and 80–82
mental health and 208, 212–213
occupational health and 722, 724, 725
(p. 883) pandemic disease and 805
pesticides and 710
policy reform and 863, 866
pregnancy-related services and 421, 423
prevention of harm 111, 185, 210, 212, 491, 518, 608, 610
reproductive and sexual health and 373–374
research and 332–333, 337–338
resource allocation and 838–839
risk of harm 212, 338–339, 430, 624, 626
sexual and gender minorities and 241
sexually transmitted infections and 379–384, 380, 387
social determinants of health and 274
surveillance and 319–320
third-party harms 490–491, 499
tobacco and 498–500
tuberculosis and 450–451, 452
unintentional injuries and 605–606, 609–610, 612, 614
violence and 623–625
Hausman, Dan 304, 609
Hausmann, L. R. M. 226
Havasupai Indian tribe 345
Health Atlas Ireland 161
health care workers (HCWs)
biosecurity and 775, 777, 781
communicable diseases and 431
emergency preparedness and response 770–772
fairness to 132–134
genetic epidemiology and 687
immunizations and 441, 445, 446
natural and industrial disasters and 789
occupational health and 720–721
pandemic disease and 800, 801–802, 805, 808
personnel policies and practices 133
safe and professional environment for 133–134
tuberculosis and 455
violence and 620
health disparities 259–312
communicable diseases 685–686
definitions 302–304
HIV/AIDS 293
metrics for 301–309
operationalization of 304–307
population health improvement and 290–300
prioritization of 294–295
quantification of 307–308
racial and ethnic 277–289
rationing problems 293–294
reasonableness in disagreements on 297–299
social determinants of health and 266–276
health gradient 268–270
health information and education. See educational interventions
health insurance 210, 229, 280, 718, 860–862
health outcomes
contraception and 391
development and 821, 824
disabilities and 225
governance and 124
health care workers and 137
health disparities and 261, 263, 291
health inequity metrics and 301–302, 305–307
learning health care system and 161
malnutrition and 572, 573–574, 576
mosquito-borne illnesses and 463
natural and industrial disasters and 788
newborn screening and 654
policy reform and 819, 858, 866
racial and ethnic health disparities and 281
reproductive and sexual health and 373
resource allocation and 834
sexually transmitted infections and 381, 387
social determinants of health and 268
surveillance and 320–321
tobacco and 497
unintentional injuries and 612
health reform 424, 818, 857–868
ethical approaches 858–859, 864–866, 865t
in India 862–863
individual autonomy vs. state 859–860
in Mexico 863
policy process 864–866, 865t
in United States 860–862
(p. 884) Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) 66
health systems 109–172
global human resources for 127–143
learning health care system 159–172
research ethics 144–158
stewardship, governance, and accountability 115–126
health systems research 111–113, 144–158. See also research
beneficence principle 147–148, 148t
bioethics principles in 146–151
citizen engagement 151–152
collaboration and partnership with research users 152
ethical framework for 151–154
justice principle 148–151, 150t
respect for persons principle 146–147
sustainable research translation 153
Healthy People Initiative 280
Healthy People 2000 82
Healthy People 2010 280
Healthy People 2020 280, 305
Hecht, Robert 818, 830
Heckler Report (1985) 280, 282
Henderson, Gail E. 638, 664
Henry, Leslie Meltzer 371, 767
hepatitis 378, 381, 441, 444, 446, 518, 678–679, 685, 689–695
herd immunity 439–440
HGP (Human Genome Project) 635, 650
high-income countries (HICs)
cancer in 537
development in 826–827
global public health and 525, 529
health care workers in 128, 134, 140
health disparities in 259–260
health systems research in 144, 151
injuries in 600
malnutrition in 551, 553, 573, 580
mental health care in 206
overweight and obesity in 588
policy reform in 850
pregnancy-related services in 415, 417, 422
reproductive and sexual health in 372
sexually transmitted infections in 384, 388
social determinants of health in 269
tobacco use in 495
tuberculosis in 448, 450
violence in 619
highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) 776, 779
Hippocratic Oath 408–409, 442
HIV/AIDS 429–433, 472–485
alcohol and other drugs and 518
AZT for 477–479
children and adolescents and 194
community-based participatory research and 345–346, 352
contraception and 395–396, 401–402
gender-based health disparities 293
genetic epidemiology and 679–680, 685, 691
genomic interventions 685–686
global public health and 525, 528–529
governance and 125
HAART for 477–479
health disparities and 291, 293, 300
health systems research and 157
immigration and 251, 252–254, 256
pandemic disease and 801
racial and ethnic health disparities and 283
research and 338
resource allocation and 838
sexual and gender minorities and 233, 236, 239–240, 242, 244
social determinants of health and 269
testing absent effective treatments (1980s) 473–477
tuberculosis and 449
HIV Prevention Network 480, 482–483
Holmes, Oliver Wendell, Jr. 92–93, 99n2
Holocaust 648–649
homosexuality. See sexual and gender minorities
Hooker, Evelyn 232
Horsburgh, C. R. 454–455
housing standards 726
HPAI (highly pathogenic avian influenza) 776, 779
HPV vaccine 381–382, 441
Human Development Index 35
Human Genome Project (HGP) 635, 650
human resources for health (HRH) 127–143. See also health care workers (p. 885)
demand for 127–128, 134–136
equity and 129–131
ethical aspects of national HRH strategies 129–134
fairness to health workers 132–134
privacy and confidentiality 132
quality of care 131–132
strategies for improving 128–129
supply of 128
task-delegation in 131–132
human rights 47–55
abortion and 405–408, 411–412
alcohol and other drugs and 522
basic health as 51–53
big data and 361, 366
biosecurity and 784
carbon emissions and 746, 749–751
children and adolescents and 195
conceptual framework for 7–8
contraception and 391–392, 399, 402
development and 829
environmental health and 699
ethical approaches 385, 387, 558, 746
eugenics and 651
framework 379, 864
governance and 125
grounds of 48–49
health care workers and 138
health systems research and 158
HIV/AIDS and 482–483
immigration and 247–248, 255–256
mental health care and 209
mosquito-borne illnesses and 467, 470
nature of 48–51
pandemic disease and 804, 810
pesticides and 713
policy reform and 855
pregnancy-related services and 423
public health implications 53–55
sexual and gender minorities and 242–243
sexually transmitted infections and 384–387, 389
social determinants of health and 269–270, 276
water security and 556–558, 563, 566–569
Hume, David 39
Hurley, Susan 39
Hurricane Katrina 712, 745, 769, 788, 791, 850, 853
Hyder, Adnan A. 109, 110, 111, 112, 144, 153, 599, 602, 617, 815
Hyder, Myra F. 602, 617
I
immigrants and refugees 245–254
border policies and 248–249
carbon emissions and 741
communitarian obligations to noncitizens 249–250
detention of 250–251
ethical issues 247–250
freedom of movement and 247–248
governance and 121
health screenings at border 251–252
human rights and 247–248
natural and industrial disasters and 789
normative positions on 246–247
pregnancy-related services and 416
public health issues 250–254
publicly funded health care in destination country 252–254
types of 246–247
undocumented 252–253
Immigration Act of 1882 251
Immigration Act of 1990 251
Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952 251
immunizations 435–447
communicable diseases and 430
compensation for vaccine injuries 443–444
compulsory 438–442
genetic epidemiology and 686–687
for health care workers 441–442
historical overview 436–438
influenza 24, 441–442
mosquito-borne illnesses and 468
nonmedical exemptions for compulsory immunization 440–441
personalized vaccines via genomics 686–687
policy reform and 858
scarcity and rationing of vaccines 442–443
school vaccination mandates 381–382
sexually transmitted infections 381–382
(p. 886) India
carbon emissions in 740, 743
contraception in 392, 401
development in 828
environmental justice in 733
genomics research in 636
health care workers in 138, 141–142
health reform in 862–863
malnutrition in 582
natural and industrial disasters in 790
noncommunicable diseases in 528
policy reform in 819, 844, 852–854, 857, 867–868
pregnancy-related services in 419
tuberculosis in 449, 457
water security in 560
individual freedom and liberties
abortion and 407–408
big data and 361, 363
biosecurity and 775, 784
cancer and 542
carbon emissions and 744, 747
communicable diseases and 430
contraception and 391–392, 396, 399
disabilities and 223
emergency preparedness and response 769–770
eugenics and 645
genetic epidemiology and 683–684
governance and 120
health care workers and 130, 137
immigration and 246–248, 250
immunizations and 436, 438, 446
injury prevention and 608–609
interventions and 81–82
mental health care and 208–209, 214
mental health treatment needs vs. 208
natural and industrial disasters and 792
occupational health and 722, 724
pandemic disease and 798, 805, 810
policy reform and 858, 860, 861, 862–863
racial and ethnic health disparities and 284
reproductive and sexual health and 374, 375
research and 333
sexually transmitted infections and 379–384, 385–386, 387
social determinants of health and 271–272, 276
surveillance and 320, 322
tobacco and 498, 502
tuberculosis and 451
unintentional injuries and 605, 608–609, 610, 611, 613
water security and 568
Indonesia, tuberculosis in 449
induced abortion 404, 407, 409–410
industrial chemicals 704–717
agriculture vs. public health 708–710
economic productivity vs. public health 710–711
environmental impact of 712–713
environmental justice and 711–712
ethical issues 708–713
historical background 705–706
regulation of 706–708
susceptible populations and 711–712
infectious diseases. See communicable diseases
influenza
Google Flu Trends 356–357, 361
HPAI (highly pathogenic avian influenza) 776, 779
immunizations 24, 441–442
pandemic influenza 69–71, 326, 778, 810–811
information asymmetry 131
informed consent
big data and 358, 359
biobanking and 669–671
biosecurity and 781
cancer and 545
children and adolescents and 199
community-based participatory research and 345, 346, 350
contraception 393–394
environmental health and 701, 755, 757
genetic epidemiology and 681, 684, 689, 694
genetics and 639
genomics 670–671
health care workers and 132
health systems research and 154
HIV/AIDS and 478
(p. 887) injuries and 601
learning health care system and 166, 168, 170, 172
mosquito-borne illnesses and 463
newborn screening and 659–660
pregnancy-related services and 419
research and 332, 334–337
sexually transmitted infections and 380
surveillance and 323–324
tuberculosis and 455, 457
violence and 624, 627
Inglesby, Thomas 771, 774
injury prevention 597–631
burdens of program 611–612
fairness and 612
harm principle and 609–610
individual freedom and 608–609
justice and 607–608
moral responsibility and 605–607
program effectiveness 611
public health goals of 611
unintentional injuries 604–616
violence and 617–631 (see also violence)
insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) 460, 461–462
insect repellants 466
Institute of Medicine (IOM)
biobanking and 666, 675
biosecurity and 777, 780, 784
children and adolescents and 192, 202
community-based participatory research and 343, 352
disabilities and 225–227, 229
on disability bias 225–226
emergency preparedness and response 769, 772–773
genetics and 636, 640
governance and 121, 125
health disparities and 290, 300
immigration and 252, 256
on learning health care system 159, 160
learning health care system and 159–160, 170–171
natural and industrial disasters and 792–793, 795
overweight and obesity and 585, 588, 595
public health definition 65, 91, 176
on public health law 90
racial and ethnic health disparities and 280
research and 331, 334, 340
sexual and gender minorities and 232–234, 236, 241, 243–244
surveillance and 325
unintentional injuries and 615
violence and 627, 629
Institute on Taxation and Economic Policy 249
institutional review boards (IRBs) 165, 167, 328, 340, 348, 350, 677, 755, 763–764
integrated water resources management (IWRM) 559–560, 562, 567
intentional exposure studies 702, 754, 758–759, 761–762
Interagency Committee on Disability Research 227
Intermountain Healthcare 161
International Civil Aviation Organization 135
International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) 221, 222
International Conference on Harmonisation Guideline for Good Clinical Practice 392
International Conference on Human Rights 391–392
International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) 371, 405, 410
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1966) 248
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (1966) 7, 47, 238, 252, 386
International Development Association 122
International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics 410
International Health Regulations (IHR) 15, 325
international market for health personnel 134–136
global conventions for 135–136
Montreal Convention (1999) 135
pull factors in 134–135
push factors in 134
WHO Global Code of Practice on International Recruitment of Health Personnel 135–136
(p. 888) International Monetary Fund (IMF) 131
interpersonal violence 194, 201, 338, 386, 390, 602, 617, 619–620, 622–623, 626
intersectionality 235
interventions. See public health interventions
Iran
contraception in 402
sexual and gender minorities in 240
Ireland, learning health care system in 161
isolation. See quarantine
Israel
community-based participatory research in 343–344, 347, 351–352
injuries in 600–601
research in 336, 340
J
Jackson, J. S. 292
Jacobson v. Commonwealth of Massachusetts (1905) 61, 81, 92, 94, 430, 437, 439, 770
Jaffe, Elana 376, 415
Jain, S. H. 357
Jamaica
sexual and gender minorities in 240–241
Zika virus in 467
Japan
aging population in 184
immunizations in 443
influenza immunization policy in 24
life expectancy in 260
tobacco use in 496
Joffe, S. 167
Jonas, Monique 602, 604
Jones, G. C. 225
Juengst, Eric T. 636, 638, 664
justice 33–46
aging populations and 187–189
alcohol and other drugs and 512–513, 512–514, 519, 523
biological threats 777–778
cancer and 539
capabilities metrics 35
carbon emissions and 749
chronic diseases and 82–83
contraception and 392, 400–401
development and 828–829
disagreements about 42–43
distributive 36–40, 39t
environmental health and 763–764
environmental justice and 733–734, 736–738
genetics and 636–637
global 41
global public health and 531–532
governance and 121, 123–124
health disparities and 290–291, 293–294, 297, 299–300
health inequity metrics and 303–304, 310–312
health systems and 110, 112
health systems research and 145–146, 148–151, 150t
immigration and 247, 254–256
immunizations and 440–441, 444, 446
individual rights and 40
injury prevention and 602, 607–608
interventions and 82–83
issues of 423, 702, 728–732, 734
malnutrition and 553–554, 578–580
mental health and 210–212
metrics of 34–36
overweight and obesity and 588–589, 596
policy reform and 862–863
principle of 150, 154, 304, 324, 338–339, 443, 514, 605, 722
public health research and 338–339
reproductive 376, 411–412, 420
research and 332
resource allocation and 840
resource metrics 34–35
scope of 41
sexual and gender minorities and 235
site of 41–42
social determinants of health and 269–272, 274–276
violence and 621–623
water security and 556–559, 567–569
welfare metrics 35–36
K
Kaiser Permanente Colorado 161
Kampala Declaration and Agenda for Global Action 129
(p. 889) Kass, Nancy E. 81, 111, 112, 152, 159, 605, 610, 611, 612
Kassam-Adams, Nancy 600
Kawachi, I. 84
Kellogg Foundation 343
Kennedy, John F. 860–861
Kennedy Krieger Institute (KKI) 756–757, 763
Kenya
contraceptives in 396
learning health care system in 161
Keohane, R. O. 117, 118
Kershner, Stacie P. 61–62, 89
Khoury, Muin 635–636
Kindig, D. 65, 176, 177
Kinsey, Alfred 232
Kirkland, Anna 588
Koenig, Barbara 432, 459
Krahn, G. L. 223, 226, 227
Krubiner, Carleigh 153, 818, 830
Kukla, Rebecca 542
Kuppermann, M. 419
L
Lalonde Report (1975) 78
Langmuir, Alexander 315
Largent, E. A. 162, 167
Laxminarayan, R. 826
Leadership Consortium for Value & Science-Driven Health Care 167
learning health care system (LHCS) 159–172
characteristics of 160
data generation in 163
data interoperability in 164
ethical challenges 162–165
ethical guidance for 165–169, 166t
moral justification for 162
research-practice distinction and 164–165, 167–169
transitional activities 160–161
transparency in 164
Lee, Lisa M. 316–317, 320
legal framework 89–98
abortion and 403, 406–408, 409–413
aging populations and 186, 190
alcohol and other drugs and 518, 521
big data and 363–364
biobanking and 676
biosecurity and 783–784
case examples 93–98
children and adolescents and 192, 202, 204
communicable diseases and 434
definitions 89–90
disabilities and 219, 222–224
environmental health and 703
environmental justice and 729
ethics and 93
eugenics and 643, 645–647, 649
genetic epidemiology and 684
health care law vs. public health law 90
HIV/AIDS and 481–482
immigration and 253
immunizations and 436–437, 440, 444, 446
infectious disease control 94–95
mental health care and 214–215, 217
mosquito-borne illnesses and 467–468
obesity prevention and control 97–98
occupational health and 727
pesticides and 706, 715–716
policy reform and 857, 860–861
reproductive and sexual health and 373–376
research and 340–341
resource allocation and 839–840
scope of public health law 91–93
sexual and gender minorities and 237
sexually transmitted infections and 382
sources of public health law 91–93
tobacco regulation 95–97
as tool to improve health 90–91
tuberculosis and 456
unintentional injuries and 608, 610
violence and 628–630
legalization of drugs 519–520
Leider, Jonathon P. 60, 63
Levine, Sol 261
Lewis, Michelle Huckaby 637–638, 653
Liao, S. Matthew 9, 47, 49
Liberia
communicable diseases in 434
emergency preparedness and response in 770
health care workers in 133, 143
water security in 567
libertarian paternalism 543, 592, 596, 609
life expectancy
aging populations and 182, 185
disabilities and 225
environmental justice and 733
health disparities and 259–260, 264
health inequity metrics and 301, 307–309
mental health care and 206
noncommunicable diseases and 489, 491
racial and ethnic health disparities and 277, 283, 286
social determinants of health and 268, 274
tobacco and 496
Lin, Justin Yifu 822–823
Little, Margaret Olivia 376, 415
Littlejohn, Tonya 179, 232
living wills 186–187
Lloyd-Sherlock, P. 528
local health departments (LHDs) 64
Lombardo, Paul 637, 642
long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) 394
Long-Bellil, Linda 178, 219
low- and middle-income countries (LMICs)
carbon emissions in 740, 743, 745
global public health and 524–526, 528–529, 531–532
health care workers in 127–128, 131–134
health systems research in 144–145, 148, 150–152
HIV interventions in 480–481
injuries in 599–602
learning health care system in 161–162
malnutrition in 550, 552, 573, 576–578
policy reform in 844, 846
pregnancy-related services in 417
tuberculosis prevention and treatment in 448–458
violence in 619, 623, 626
low-income countries (LICs)
abortion in 406
aging populations in 182
children and adolescents in 193
development in 828
genetic epidemiology in 678
global public health and 534
governance in 119
health care workers in 141
health disparities in 259–260, 263
HIV interventions in 479
immunizations in 438
malnutrition in 553, 573
policy reform in 845
reproductive and sexual health in 372
sexually transmitted infections in 379
tobacco use in 502
Lucas, Henry 111, 127
luck egalitarianism 303–304, 514
Lyerly, Anne Drapkin 376, 415
M
MacGregor, Hayley 492, 524, 817, 820
Mackenbach, J. P. 269
Mackenzie, Catriona 613
MacPherson, Cheryl C. 702, 739
Madagascar, contraceptives in 396
Madoff, Lawrence 318, 354
malaria 459, 464. See also mosquito-borne illnesses
Malawi, health care workers in 136
Malaysia, tobacco use in 496
malnutrition 550, 571–584
acute malnutrition 572, 576, 580, 709
beneficence principle and 574–575
cross-sector cooperation and 575
definitions 571–572
epigenetics and 577–578
fetal origins hypothesis and 577–578
genetics and 577–578
inequities of diets 578–579
justice and 578, 579–580
overweight and obesity 573, 576–577, 579–580
resource allocation and 576
stunting and 572–573, 575
wasting and 572–573
mandated outpatient treatment (MOT) 208, 213, 214n3
mandatory reporting
elder abuse 186
sexually transmitted infections 333, 380–381
marijuana legalization 517, 518, 519
Marine Hospital Service (US) 59
(p. 891) marketing restrictions on tobacco 501–502
Marmot, Michael 79, 302
Martin, Trayvon 281
Master Settlement Agreement (1998) 97, 99n6
maternal mortality 395, 401, 415, 421–422, 425
Mathews, Debra J. H. 635
maximization principle 36
Mayo Clinic 638, 665, 667, 675
MCA (mutual collective accountability) 118, 204
McGinnis, J. Michael 78
McKee, M. 531
Meagher, Karen M. 638, 639, 664
Mechanic, David 295, 296
Medicaid 210, 215, 223, 226, 253, 422, 424, 438, 861
medical model of disabilities 222
mental health 205–218
access to care 210–212
alcohol and other drugs use and 512
carbon emissions and 741
compounded disparities in 206–207
deinstitutionalization policies 207–208
epidemiology of mental illness 205–206
ethical challenges 210–214
ethical principles 209–210
global public health and 524
health care workers and 132, 141
individual rights vs. treatment needs 208
justice and 210–212
occupational health and 721
pesticides and 712
preventing harm 212–213
privacy rights 213–214
psychiatric hospitals as model of care 207
relational autonomy and 213–214
tuberculosis and 451
US policy history 207–208
utilization of services and supports 210–212
violence and 621, 627–628
Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act of 2012 211
Merritt, Maria W. 5, 109
methadone maintenance programs 516
Mexico
contraception in 401
global public health and 527–528, 531, 533–534
health reform in 863
health systems in 113
health systems research in 155
noncommunicable diseases in 492, 528, 531
policy reform in 819, 857, 867
Mill, John Stuart 24–25, 26, 320, 380, 439
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 138, 158, 293, 415, 525, 577
Miller, David 248, 249
Miller, F. G. 167
Miller, Mark F. 702, 704
Minkler, Meredith 342
Mitra, Monika 178, 219
Montreal Convention (1999) 111, 135, 139
Moon, Margaret 177, 192
Morain, Stephanie 111, 112, 159
moral responsibility
abortion and 406–408
injury prevention and 605–607
overweight and obesity 589–590
mortality rates
cancer 536–537, 538
children and adolescents 193–194
social determinants of health and 268
tobacco and 496
mosquito-borne illnesses 459–471
aerial pesticides 462–463
case study 464–468
genetically modified mosquitoes and 463–464
insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) 461–462
insect repellants, safety of 466
public health interventions 460–464
surveillance 461
Zika virus 464–468
MOT (mandated outpatient treatment) 208, 213, 214n3
Mozambique, community health workers in 132
Mullings, L. 226
multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) 450