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date: 28 March 2020

(p. 639) Index

(p. 639) Index

Note: Page numbers followed by b, f, or t indicate a box, figure or table, respectively.

Page numbers followed by n and another number indicate an endnote.

ABBA, 194
ABC notation and freestyle, 547–548
ABC’s of Tape Recording (Crowhurst), 91
Ableton Live software, 594
Aboriginal hip-hop artists, 519, 531, 533, 535
About LaiYouttitham video, 480
Academy of Leisure, 14
Academy of Music, Slovenia, 271
Acid House (Leeds)
allegiance to, via clothes, bodily practices, 388–389
comparison of music at, to utopian occurrence, 396
criminal element association with, 398–399
Critcher’s definition of, 385
development of music culture in, 386
Ecstasy use at, 385, 399–400
embodiment and, 392
entrepreneurial transformations of, 393–395
Haslam on cultural, social significance of, 396
identity development and, 386–390, 392
opposing ideals of adherents, 397–398
rave records, spiritual themes, 397
Reynolds’s historical account of, 385
role of location, space, place, in understanding, 391–392
utopian ideal of, 396–397
utopian memories of, 385–401
Adams, Bryan, 139
adolescence/adolescents. See also children; teenagers
emerging musicians’ influence on, 174
functions of music for, 36, 39
identity development of, 132, 139
long-term effects of music learning, 172, 175–176, 187
music’s benefits for, 35
singing’s benefits for, 41
strong experiences of music in, 49
use of music by, 37 b, 38 b, 39
Adult and Community Music Special Research Interest Group, 5
adulthood. See also elderly people; identity development, in middle adulthood
identity development in, 131–147
learning ensembles, England, 205–207, 211–213, 215, 216
motivation to continue, cease music participation in, 174, 175–178
musical explorations in, 226–228
musical opportunities in, 203–205
nonmusician musical identities in, 208–210
obstacles to music participation in, 173
performing music in, 213–215
socio-cultural benefits of music making, learning, 205–207
strong experiences of music in, 49
successful music learning in, 62
transitioning skills from childhood, adolescence, 172
Aeolian Piano Company, 244
aesthetic judgment, 48
aesthetic systems theory (AST), 522–523, 526
affinity spaces and groups, 556–557
affirmation, compilations as celebration of, 108–110
“After the Ball” (Harris), 243
(p. 640) Ahlers, Arvel W., 89
AKG412 microphones, 83
AKG D112 microphones, 83
Albini, Steve, 455
A-level Music qualification (England), 204
Alexa, 482
Alheit, Peter, 609
all-female metal bands, 310–313, 315 nn4–5
amateur, definition, 490, 586–587
amateur laptop musicians
as collaborators, 593
DJs as, 585–598
flexibility and options of, 594
performing by, 594–596
Share Project, 594
software used by, 594
as soloists, 592–593
as virtuosos, 593–594
amateur musicians. See also professional musicians; semiprofessional musicians
advancing technology’s impact on, 489
community interactions of, 491
cultural context of, 364, 589–591
at Dartington International Summer School, 363–380
description, 586–589
DISS hosting of, 365, 368, 370
entrepreneurial opportunities created by, 473
on Facebook, 494–507
Fonarow on importance of, 275–276
fundamental dimensions of, 491–492
impact of digital technologies for, 490, 590–591
Kaplan on educating, 22, 24
measures of status of, 364
mimicking of professionals by, 234
music as serious leisure for, 41, 235
music engagement research on, 187
music industry engagement by, 235
participation in virtual collectives, 475–476, 478
personality traits of, 275
pop-rock, from Italy, on Facebook, 489–512
professional musicians comparison, 587
self-description as, 209, 217
self-education by, 588
shared traits with professionals, 41
social connotations in being, 210
study of social, musical, personal goals in, 173
types of music education by, 588–589
Zanzig on quest for excellence by, 250
amateurs, at leisure (Stebbins), 33
America (pop music group), 120
American Federation of Musicians of the United States, 357
American Idol, 25
American Indians, 522, 526, 528–530
American Museum of Natural History, 248
American Musical Landscape (Crawford), 242
Amplified Elephants, sonic art ensemble for intellectually disabled people, 607–608, 615
Amsden, Benoni L., 391
Anderson, Ben, 309
Anderson, Leon, 117
Anglophone popular music, 490
Ansdell, Gary, 379–380 n1
Anthony, Wayne, 396
Appleization, 489, 510
appropriation, compilations as celebration of, 106–108
Aristotle
on eudaimonia, 163, 568, 574–575
on happiness, 32, 164
on leisure, 32, 581
opinion of professional musicians, 574
overemphasis on contemplation, 629
on use of music for purgation, 32, 36
on value of music making, 574–575
valuing of rationality by, 526
Armstrong, Melanie, 477, 483
artistic endeavors, Lukács’s description of, 413–414
The Arts: A Social Perspective (Kaplan), 14, 16
Ashforth, Blake E., 455
Asia
music summer schools in, 380 n2
Sacred Harp Singing in, 566, 581
Associated Board of the Royal Schools of Music (ABRSM), 31, 220 n2, 226
audio recorder, multitrack, 86
auditory system, 521
(p. 641) Aufegger, Lisa, 203, 204
Austin, Matthew, 117
Australia
amateur choir survey, 181
Amplified Elephants, sonic art ensemble for inttellectually disabled people, 607–608
community-based music activities, 611–612
Indigenous creation stories, 524
Musical Futures program, 69
music summer schools in, 380 n2
research with elderly people, 38–39
Sacred Harp Singing in, 566, 581
authenticity
construction of, 286, 459
in music classrooms, 70–71
playing analogue synthesizers as, 595
of polka music, 625
sense of belonging and, 577
autoethnography
defined, 117
identity development, 138–139
reflection and, 128
space and place, 391
autonomy, 35
Avsec, Andreja, 271
Bach, Glenn, 593
Bachelard, Gaston, 101, 104–105, 107, 110. See also compilations
Bailey, Roy, 432
Baker, David, 62, 64
Baker, Sarah, 451–452
Bakhtin, Mikhail, 366
Ballantyne, Julie, 40–41, 181
Baltimore Symphony Orchestra, 248
Bamberger, Jeanne, 62–63
Bandcamp, 233
Barenboim, Daniel, 365, 369
Barlow, John Perry, 358
Barnes, Barry, 189, 190, 191
Barone, Tom, 171
Barrett, James, 87
Barthes, Roland, 589–590
Bartlett, Bruce, 93
Basic Psychological Needs Scale, 44 b
Basu, Debasish, 386–387
Battlefield 4, video game, 550
Batt-Rawden, Kari, 39. See also musical agency
Bauckham, David, 359
Baudrillard, Jean
criticism of work of, 284
The Gulf War Did Not Take Place, 284
hyperreality theory of, 282, 283–285, 293
influence on cultural studies, 293
language game concept in works of, 292
on role of consumer capitalism, 449
Simulacra and Simulation, 283–284
simulacra notion of, 281, 283–285, 286, 288, 292–293
Bauman, Zygmunt, 153, 283
Bautista, Alfredo, 204–205, 218
Bayton, Mavis, 313
Beat Generation, 508
Beatlemania, 115
Beatles, 115, 120, 267, 426, 427, 430. See also specific Beatles
Becker, Howard S., 429, 430
Beer, David, 459, 460
Belgium, YouTube music making collaborations, 478–479
Belk, Russell W., 264, 265. See also extended self theory
Bell, Cindy, 181
Bennett, Andy, 115, 225, 300, 380 n4, 437, 586
Bennett, Dawn E., 156
Bergenfield (NJ) Suicide Pact, 412
Berland, Jody, 470
Berliner, Emile, 88
Bernard, Rhoda, 270–271
Berzonsky, Michael D., 135–136
Best Communities for Music Education, 26
Bhattacharya, Joydeep, 271
Bhatti, Mark, 106
Bieber, Justin, 481
Biesta, Gert, 125
Billings, William, 566
Bingley, Kate, 608–609
Birch, Anna, 443 n5
Birchard, C. C., 247
Bithell, Caroline, 181
Black, Cilla, 426
Blackfeet Indians, 530
Blacking, John, 520, 621
(p. 642) black metal music
description, 294 n1
White Medal, 281, 291–292
Winterfylleth, 281–282, 285–288, 289
Wodensthrone, 281, 288–291
Black Sabbath, 297
Blackshaw, Tony, 369, 374, 509
Blackstone, Tsianinia Redfeather, 530
Bloch, Ernst, 163
blogs
musical engagement via, 233, 287, 289, 298, 574
Ravishing Grimness, 285–286
virtual choir recruitment on, 475–476
Blood Sundae, 310
Bloom, David, 140
Bloom School of Jazz, 140
Bochner, Arthur, 408. See also narrative inquiry
bodily action coordination, use of music for, 191, 193–194, 196–197
Body Consciousness (Foucault), 122
Boer, Diana, 36
Bonham, John, 427
Booth, Wayne C., 379 n1, 586–587, 588, 626
“Born in the USA” (Springsteen), 412
Born to Groove (C. Keil), 629–633, 635 n3
Borsay, Peter, 366, 371
Bosnian folk music, 195
Boston Academy of Music, 256 n2
Boston Music Center, 365
Boston Symphony Orchestra, 354
Bourdieu, Pierre, 69, 163–164, 199 n6, 620
Bowen, George Oscar, 249
Bowman, Wayne, 121
Bragg, Billy, 432
brain
auditory system, 521
impact of Indigenous music-dance on, 527
music education’s benefits for, 180
music’s impact on, 48
brain stem reflex, 48
Brandt, Thompson A., 380 n3
Brazil
Musical Futures program, 70
YouTube ensemble participation, 477
BRECVEMA framework, 48
Bright Balkan Morning (Keil and Keil), 619, 622, 629
Brooks, Evan, 87
Brown, Allison, 73–74
Brown, Phil, 46–459
Bruford, Bill, 155–156
Bruner, Jerome, 417
Bull, Michael, 195
Bulldog Band, 251
Burgess, Jean, 471, 482
Bush, Jeffrey E., 257 n13
Bushman World Ukulele Contest (2007), 472
Butkovic, Ana, 271
Butler, Judith, 283
Cage, John, 520, 589
Campbell, Patricia Shehan, 443 n5, 607, 610, 614
Canada
Aboriginal hip-hop artists, 519, 531, 533, 535
global collaborative performances, 479
musical ensembles in, 173
Musical Futures program, 69–70
Music Performance Trust Fund partnership, 357
New Horizons music group participation, 268
state of music education in, 627
tensions with Indigenous peoples, 528
YouTube music making collaboration, 478–479
“Canon Rock” (Lim Jeong-hyun), 467–468
canzone d’autore, Italian singer-songwriter tradition, 490
canzonetta, 490
Cardin, Fred, 530
carnivalesque concept (Bakhtin), 366, 367, 369
Casablanca pub (Liverpool, England), 430–432, 431 f
Cascone, Kim, 596
CASP-12, quality of life measure, 44 b
casual leisure. See also serious leisure
benefits of, 351
core activities, 352
defined, 350
identity and, 351
informal classroom learning model and, 66 (p. 643)
serious leisure comparison, 32–33, 210, 231
tourist space and, 358–359
casual vs. serious leisure, 32–33
Cavern Club, 430
Cayari, Christopher, 358, 482, 483
CDs (compact discs), compilations on, 99–100, 111 n3
Central Park, New York, 82, 246
Chakraborty, Kaustav, 386–387
Chanan, Michael, 84
Chang, Jerry (a.k.a. Jerry C), 467
Chao, Y. R., 521, 522
Charlesworth, Simon, 389
Chekhov, Michael, 367
Chernoff, John, 621
Chicago Jazz Ensemble, 140
children. See also adolescence/adolescents; teenagers
benefits of El Sistema programs, 46, 46 b, 47 b
emerging musicians’ influence on, 174
Green’s research on, 226–227
impact of learning an instrument, 172
motivations for instrument choice, 173
musical explorations by, 226–228
need for support for lifelong engagement, 177–178
risk factors for music learning commitment, 173–174
singing’s benefits for, 41
use of music by, 37 b, 38 b
Chipmunks novelty singing, 91
chiptunes, 552–553
Chivarria, Tony, 523
choral performance. See also Sacred Harp (SH) Singing
amateur choral society, 180
competitions, 246
concertizing tradition of, 566
at DISS, 370
global virtual collaboration, 475–476, 482
musical identity and, 209
participation in adulthood, 181
People’s Choral Union (NYC), 246
spirituality and, 271
Christensen, Axel, 244
Christensen School of Popular Music (Chicago), 244
Cisco Systems, 468
Civilization, video game series, 557
Clark, Kenneth S., 247, 249–250
Clarke, Eric Thatcher, 251
classical musicians, 354–355
Cleveland Orchestra, 252
Clift, Stephen M., 41, 271
Cloonan, Martin, 425
“Close to the Edge” (Grandmaster Flash), 412
Cochrane, Graham, 94
coding, of video games, 551–553
Coffman, Don D., 269, 273, 275, 276
cognitive well-being
El Sistema programs and, 46 b, 47 b
Music for Life Project findings, 45 b
music’s benefits for, 43
Cohen, Judith, 621
Cohen, Sarah, 301, 427–430, 434, 438, 443 n1
Cole, Natalie, 482
Cole, Nat “King,” 482
Collaborative Innovation Network (CoIN), 511 n3
collective identity, use of music for affirming and exploring, 191
collegiate marching band study, of motivational profiles regarding music making, 326–336
advice networks, 325–328, 330 t, 332–336
changes in motivational profiles, 330
friendship/advice nominations data, 328
friendship networks, 328, 330–332, 334–336
future research directions, 336–337
goal, 326
measures, 327–330
participant profile, 326–327
participatory motivation, 322–326, 328, 329 t, 334–336
procedure, 327
results, 329–330
SDT application in, 326, 328, 332–334, 337
SNA application in, 326, 334
Collin, Matthew, 387, 396, 399–400
Collins, Randall, 579
Columbia College, 140
(p. 644) Commission on Music Education in the Community, 16
Commission on Music in the Community (MENC), 21
communicative agency, 285, 293. See also human agency; musical agency
communicative leisure, 283
Community clusters, 508
community music (communities of practice), 601–615. See also Acid House; collegiate marching band study; community music facilitators; Dartington International Summer School; ensemble music making; Indigenous music-dance making; Italian amateur pop-rock musicians on Facebook study; learning ensembles; Musical Futures; Sacred Harp (SH) Singing
amateur musicians and, 41
in Australia, 607–608, 611–612
basis of attraction to, 49
choirs, 364, 612
Commission on Music in the Community, 16
contemporary practices in, 605
contexts for music activities, 601–603
development as a profession, 24
DIY recreational recording, 90, 93, 94
dynamic nature of, 75
enduring power of, 123
in Europe, 255, 611
fan communities, 40
fluid objectives in, 217–219
in gaming communities, 8, 541–543
gender and, 611–612
global perspective on, 601–602
Higgins conceptual framework for, 602–603
historical foundations of, 257 n13
identity development in, 132, 195, 217–219
intergenerational opera project, 41–42
interventionist approach to, 601–615
Kaplan’s involvement with, 14, 16, 18, 20–27
learning contexts characteristics, 366
motivations to continue in adulthood, 175–178
Music for Life Project, 44 b, 45 b
music recreation programs, 20
in Nazi Germany, 604
online, 25, 181, 472–473, 475, 492
production community, 459–460
in residential homes, for adults with dementia, 609
scholarly studies of, 24–25
seeking affirmation, verification in, 41
in Sierra Leone, 608–609
story-sharing, English-language learning classrooms, 606–607
Tremaine’s promotion of, 244–245
in the U.K., 9, 203–205, 283–284, 303, 603, 609, 611
as a vehicle for social benefits, change, 196, 267, 320, 603–605
vocal singing, 194
Wenger’s definition of, 74–75
workshops, 609
WPA Music Program, 15
on YouTube, 233, 467–484
community music facilitators
improvisation by, 613
multiple goals of, 611–613
potential tensions, dilemmas, 613–614
sites, skills, attributes of, 605–611
toolkit of, 609–614
compilations, 99–112
artistic aspect in creating, 100–104, 107
on audiocassette tapes, 102, 111 n3
Bhatti and, 106
on CDs, 99–100, 111 n3
as celebration of affirmation, 108–110
as celebration of appropriation, 106–108
hazards in creating, 108
inner chords enlivened by, 101
motivations for creating, 110–111
as poetic spaces of connection, 100, 101, 104–106, 109
repercussion phase, 100, 104–107, 109, 110
resonation phase, 100, 104–108
reverberations phase, 100, 104–107, 109–110
scholarly work on, 102–104, 111 n4
video, 481
completeness, symbols of, 266
(p. 645) computers. See also amateur laptop musicians
advanced production capabilities, 490, 499, 504, 510, 555
computer-based music technology, 65
creation of backing tracks on, 140–141
in DIY recreational recording, 87, 457
music availability on, 31
online collaborations via, 472
in pop-up studio, 83
video gaming on, 542, 558
conquered spaces, 353, 469
Conquergood, Dwight, 300
contagion
defined, 48
social contagion model, of motivation, 335
continuing education programs, 204, 238 n1
Cook, Nicholas, 232
Coolidge, Calvin, 247–248
Cooper, Harris, 380 n3
cosmologies, of Indigenous cultures, 525, 526–527, 530, 532, 533
Cottrell, Stephen, 156, 380 n4
Coulson, Susan, 380 n4
covers (reimagining of a popular song), 555
Crawford, Richard, 242, 243
creation/origin stories, 524–526
creative analytic practices (CAP), 102
Creative Scotland’s Youth Music Initiative, 238 n2
Creative Tape Recording recording guide, 91
creativity, Wallas’s classic model of, 134
Creech, Andrea, 67, 68–69, 70, 72, 268, 272, 273, 379–380 n1
Cree Indians, round dances, 519
“crisis heterotopia” (of Foucault), 416–417
Critcher, Chas, 385, 386, 399, 400
Croom, Adam M., 273
Cross, Ian, 320
Crouch, David, 391
Crowhurst, Norman H., 91
Crumb, R., 621
Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly, 139, 265, 269–271, 568, 578. See also flow state/flow theory
Cubase software program, 504, 512 n24
cultural determinants of amateur or professional success, 364
cultural globalization, 490
Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT), 206–207
cultural-musical systems, 521
cultural theory of music making and leisure, 281–294
Baudrillard’s influence on, 293
theoretical framework, 282–285
White Medal, analysis of interview with, 281, 291–292
Winterfylleth, analysis of interview with, 281–282, 285–288, 289
Wodensthrone, analysis of interview with, 281, 288–291
cyberspace, 357, 358, 593
Dabback, William M., 204
dabblers/dilettantes, 33
Dahlberg, Magnus, 198
daimon (true self), 152–154, 155–156. See also eudaimonism
Damrosch, Frank, 246
dance music, electric, 385
Dancing with the Stars, 25
Dartington International Summer School (DISS, U.K.), music making by amateurs and professionals, 7, 363–380
alternative identity development at, 371–374
aspirations of, 378–379
Elmhirst’s description of, 367
establishment of, 365, 367
financial realities at, 369–370
inclusiveness of atmosphere at, 368
opportunities at, 366
otherness of, 366–371
participants’ reflections on time at, 371–378
program description, 365–366
school choir at, 370
as a “spiritual home,” 367–368
teaching and learning at, 374–378
time-bound nature of, 369
utopian quality at, 368–371
White’s description of, 366–367
Davidson, Jane W., 443 n5
Davis, Angela Y., 530
Davis, Erik, 591–592
(p. 646) Dawe, Kevin, 115
Dawson, Frank, 140
The Day After, made-for-tv movie, 413
Deacon, Terrence W., 523
Deadmau 5 (Joel T. Zimmerman), 197, 592
death metal music, 297, 302, 303, 305
Deci, Edward L., 153, 162. See also self-determination theory
Deeks, Mark, 299
degreecat, 503 f, 504, 512 n23
Deleuze, Gilles, 112 n9
Della Fave, Antonella, 163
demonstration (demo) recordings, 93
DeNora, Tia, 39, 189, 191, 197, 225, 379–380 n1, 492. See also musical agency
Denzin, Norman K., 386
Department of Music, National Education Association, 245
Derek and the Dominos, 112 n11
Developing Expertise theory (Hallam and Bautista), 204–205
devotee work
defined, 161, 350
helping space and, 357
music making and, 165
resource space and, 355
sales space and, 356
sense of achievement in, 161
Dewar, John, 528
Dewey, John, 65, 134
Diaz, Frank M., 380 n3
Dickens, Luke, 443 n5
Dierendonck, Dirk van, 153, 272
digital audio workstation (DAW), 86–87, 93, 471, 547, 552, 591
digital sampling, 586
digital technologies. See also amateur laptop musicians
benefits for amateur musicians, 590–591
ease of production, dissemination with, 235–236, 238 n10, 586
impact on music motivation, 585
music compilation proliferation from, 111 n5
musicianship/musical practice and, 210
teenager engagement with, 62
Théberge on, 585
VST/virtual studio technology, 504, 512 n24, 557, 591
Di Meola, Al, 142
Diné people, 524, 528. See also McHorse, Christine
Dire Straits, 120
disc-based gramophone, 88
Discipline and Punishment (Foucault), 123
disruptive technology, 586
DIY (do-it-yourself) leisure, 393
DIY (do-it-yourself) recreational recording, 81–95. See also home recording; recording music
benefits of, 94–95
editing, 91–92
Hi-Fi vs. Lo-Fi, 92–94
instructional resources, 93, 94
multiple takes, 85–86
music consumption vs., 188, 197
pop-up studio, 82–84
post-1945, tape mentality, 89–92
pre-1945, recording as fun, 87–89
starting with recording strategy, 84–85
use of DAW in, 86–87
DIY (do-it-yourself) systems of dissemination, 297–298
DJ Hero, music game, 546
DJ Kool Herc, 591
DJs (deejays). See also Grandmaster Flash; Grand Wizard Theodore; Miller, Paul D’Shonne
as amateur laptop musicians, 585–598
appropriative art created by, 106–107
Doniger, Wendy, 524
double-diamond model, of identity development, 133, 134 f
downloaders, occasional, 34
D-Pad Hero 1 and 2, video games, 53
Dreamtime, creation myth, 524
Drew, Robert, 587
“Drift Away” (Williams), 480
Driver, Christopher, 298
Drudkh, 286, 288
drug use, in recording studios, 457–459, 462
drum kits, 71, 82–83, 152, 306, 313, 430, 440
(p. 647) drummer-researcher perspective, on music making, 425–443. See also under Liverpool, England
drummers/drumming. See also Smith, Gareth Dylan
blurred life boundaries for, 9–10 n1
eudaimonic lives of, 153, 155
fulfillment from, 151–152, 154–155
identity realization of, 151–152, 153
indigenous music-dance making and, 520, 523–527, 533
in Italian amateur musicians Facebook study, 494–499, 503, 505, 509
in the recording studio, 83–86
Smith’s study of, 62
stereotyping as nonmusicians, 427
Drummond, John D., 380 n4
Dubbe, Richard F., 90–91
Dubin, Robert, 626
Le Duc des Lombards, jazz club (Paris), 354
Duff, Cameron, 309
Duffy, Michelle, 308, 410–411, 456
Duggan, Maeve, 475
du Pré, Jacqueline, 365
Durkheim, Émile, 578–579
Durrant, Colin, 65
Durrant, John D., 379 n1
Dykema, Peter, 246–247
ear, playing by. See playing by ear
East London Late Starters Orchestra (ELLSO, U.K.), 203
Eastman School of Music, 253
Echology journal (Keil), 619, 621
Ecstasy (MDMA), 385, 399–400
Edison, Thomas, 87
education. See music education
elderly people
Australian research of, 38–39
community music in residential homes, 609–610
music for reminiscing by, 36, 38
music’s benefits for, 35, 36, 38–39, 43, 173
electronic dance music (EDM), 385, 555, 586, 594
Electronic Musician magazine, 93
Elfman, Danny, 558
Elkington, Sam, 210, 347, 349, 357–358. See also serious leisure
Elliott, David, 579
Elmhirst, Leonard, 367
El Sistema programs, 46, 46 b, 47 b
Elvis impersonators, 3
embodiment, defined, 392
Emmerson, Stephen Bryan, 271
emotional FX
elicitation by studio staff, 450
emotional labor and, 452
recording studios and, 454–457, 462
emotional labor
defined, 452
emotional work vs., 199 n3
key role in recording studios, 456
emotional space of recording studios, 449–462
emotional work vs. emotional labor, 199 n3
emotions/emotional well-being
BRECVEMA framework impact on, 48
from ensemble membership, 176
music as an outlet for, 193–194
Music for Life Project findings, 44 b, 45 b
music’s benefit for, 31–32, 36, 37 b, 38 b, 42–43, 49, 191
singing and, 41
Engeström, Yrjö, 206
England. See also extreme metal music, in England; Liverpool, England
adult community-based groups, 203, 205
ethnographic fieldwork on music making in, 425–443
Every Child a Musician (ECaM)3 program, 209–210
Leeds, Acid House culture, 385–401
Leeds, Extreme Metal scene, 297–315
Musical Futures program, 61–75
music education in, 63, 64
music qualifications in, 204
Northern black metal bands, 281–294
pop-rock music, 490
study of adult learning ensembles, 205–207
Taking Part survey, 178
working-class music venues, 304
English Heritage Black Metal, 287
(p. 648) ensemble music making, 319–338, 363. See also choral performance; collegiate marching band study; learning ensembles
adult preferences for, 268
body as part of rhythmic movement in, 119
changing goals in, 132
community ensembles, 22
in El Sistema programs, 46 b
Kokotsaki/Hallam’s study, 269
by laptop musicians, 593
learning ensemble, defined, 211
motivational/social network dynamics, 176–177, 179, 205, 269, 271–272, 319–338
in music education programs, 226
by “nonmusician” adults, 203, 205–208, 211–216
positive benefits of, 173
questioning the value of participation in, 321
SNA and social structures of, 325
spiritual connections and, 271
traits of people involved in, 189
vocal ensembles, 250
Enslaved, 288
episodic memory, 48
EQ magazine, 93
Erickson, Frederick, 264, 520
Erikson, Erik H., 132, 264
ethnic identity, 39. See also Indigenous cultures
ethnographic fiction, 301, 315
ethnographic fieldwork on music making, in Liverpool, 427–443
Euclidean-Cartesian space-time, 525, 528
eudaimonia. See also happiness
Aristotle on, 163, 568, 574–575
drummers, drumming, and, 153–154, 155
hedonic enjoyment vs., 153
of Sacred Harp singers, 574–577, 580, 581
video games and, 548, 557–558
eudaimonic well-being, 272
eudaimonism. See also daimon
careers, flow, leisure play, and, 154–156
ethical questions raised by, 162–163
flow comparison with, 270
Frankel on, 154
identity realization and, 262
masculine stance promoted by, 163–164
Norton on, 153
problematizing, 162–164
self-actualization and, 263
serious leisure and, 161–162
(un)popular music making and, 151–165
Waterman on, 154
Welton on, 164
Europe. See also specific countries
community music advocacy in, 248, 255
master-apprentice discourse in, 126
metal bands/music in, 283, 287
music conservatories in, 245, 271
music making initiatives in, 242
music summer schools in, 380 n2
opinion of ragtime music in, 244
Sacred Harp Singing in, 566, 578, 581
eutopia, 395
evaluative conditioning, 48
Everitt, Anthony, 379 n1
Every Child a Musician (ECaM)3 program (England), 209–210
Ex Cathedra choirs, 380 n7
experiential learning framework (of Kolb), 134
experimentalist musicians, 589
extended self theory, 262, 264–266, 274, 275
extreme metal music, in England, 297–315. See also specific bands
all-female bands, 310
band fragmentation issues, 303–304
dissemination via DIY systems, 297–298
embodiment of sociality, “brutal belonging,” 298
emotion, affect, working-class identities, 304–306
extreme music making practices, 306–310
in Leeds, England, 297–315
moshpit practices, 286, 299
music making practices of, 300
in Northern England, 285–294
performative ethnography of music making practices, 299–301
phenomenological aspects of, 298
promotional challenges, 302–303
range of subgenres in, 297
Ravishing Grimness fan-critic site, 286 (p. 649)
social fractures in Leeds metal scene, 301–304
spacial/musical shifts in, 299
subcultural literacy in, 284
Facebook. See also Italian amateur pop-rock musicians on Facebook study
impact on Musical Futures programs, 74
musical sharing on, 102, 233, 573
music industry and, 233
online desktop research via, 429
research on amateur musicians on, 489–510
role in identity formation, 493
self-expression on, 102
Fallout 3, video game, 543
Family Fun in Tape Recording (Ahlers), 89–90
fandom, 34, 300, 311, 472, 557, 577
Federal Music Project, Works Project Administration, 15, 252–253
Feld, Stephen, 621
Ferguson, Alex, 455
55 Songs and Choruses (Dykema), 247
Filipetti, Frank, 456
film scoring, 554
Final Fantasy VI, video game, 543
Find Your Voice process, 65, 76 n3
Finnegan, Ruth, 177, 188, 199 n7, 379 n1, 380 n4, 427, 588, 589
Fiumara, Corradi, 522
Fleetwood Mac, 120
Flicker, 545
Flint Community Music Association, 249
flow state/flow theory (Csikszentmihalyi)
description, 154
eudaimonism, play, careers, and, 154–156
eudaimonism comparison, 270
in identity tailoring process, 137–138, 137 f
in music making, 265, 269–271
Sacred Harp Singing and, 568
Folkestad, Göran, 227
folk musicians, 354–355
folk music revival, U.S. (mid-1960s), 490
folk-rock music, 195
Fonarow, Wendy, 275–276
Ford, Mary, 90–91, 92. See also Paul, Les
formative experiences of music learning, 173–175
Forrister, Donald, 171–172
Forsyth, Alasdair, 425
Foucault, Michel
Body Consciousness, 122
on care of/practices of the self, 122, 127
“crisis heterotopia” of, 416–417
critique of the “docile body,” 127
Discipline and Punishment, 123
on establishing “a place outside of all places,” 415–416
music education and, 122–124, 128
on relationship between agency and structure, 188
Foundations and Frontiers of Music Education (Kaplan), 14, 255
FRACT OSC, music exploration game, 547
France, YouTube music making collaboration, 478–479
Frankel, Viktor E., 153–154
Freeman, Walter, 320
French chansonnier, 490
Fried, Doug, 405–420. See also Red Light Jams
Frith, Simon, 223–224, 225, 236, 298
Fritz, Barbara Smolej, 271
“funtwo-Canon Rock 2012” (Lim Jeong-hyun), 468, 484 n2
Fury, Billy, 426
Gabrielsson, Alf, 48–49
Gadamer, Hans-Georg, 155
Gaines, Donna, 405, 411
GarageBand, software, 594
Garratt, Sheryl, 397
Gates, J. Terry, 33
Gaunt, Helena, 156, 379–380 n1
Gavin, Helen, 177
GCSE Music qualification (England), 204
Gee, James P., 511 n12
Geertz, Clifford, 292, 621
gender
Acid House experience and, 396
affinity spaces, groups, and, 556
Baudrillard and, 284
bias related to, 453
Butler’s work on performance and, 283
children/adolescents’ use of music, 37 b, 38 b (p. 650)
community music and, 611–612
differences, in music making, 492–493
entwinement of music and, 298
eudaimonism and, 163–164
identity formation and, 263, 264, 299
Leeds’s extreme metal scene and, 302, 311, 315
leisure choices and, 282
leisure time and, 363
music, the body, and, 127–128
music education and, 122
music making and, 492–493
Generation X, 508
Germany
adolescent music listening research, 36
amateur choir survey, 181
community-based music activities, 611
Ecstasy study, 399
Sacred Harp Singing in, 573, 578
shared music making history, 604
World War II audiotape recordings, 89
YouTube music making collaboration, 478–479
Gerry and the Pacemakers, 426
Gibson, Chris, 427
Giddens, Anthony, 153, 188, 189, 190, 197
gig guides, 429
Gilbert and Sullivan festival, 365
Gill, Rosalind, 156
Gilmore, Patrick S., 243
Glass, Pepper G., 301
Glennie, Evelyn, 520–521
globalization, 490, 631
Gloor, Peter, 511 n3
Glyndebourne Opera Education Department (England), 42
Godfrey, John, 387, 396, 399–400
Gollwitzer, Peter M., 266
Goodall, H. Lloyd, 152
Goodwin, Andrew, 595
“Graceland” (Simon), 105
Grandmaster Flash, 412, 591
Grand Theft Auto, video game series, 543, 550
Grand Wizard Theodore, 591
Great Depression, U.S. (1930–1940), music and leisure during, 251–253
Great Plains Indians
communal music-dance making by, 528
sacred hoops, 519
Sun Dance, Grass Dance, 528, 531, 534
Green, Joshua, 471, 482
Green, Lucy, 62–63, 65, 68, 72, 74, 174, 226–227, 229. See also Musical Futures
Greenfield Community College (England), 73–74
Gregorian chant, 194, 566
Grolle, Johan, 246
Grossberg, Lawrence, 307–308
Guattari, Félix, 112 n9, 522–523
Guildhall Connect, 44 b, 65
Guildhall School of Music and Drama (London), 44 b, 65
guitar
autoethnographic meditations on, 117–121
Bennett/Dawe on cultural space of, 115–116
building an “imagined community” with, 119
creating a musical atmosphere with, 118
as “crossroads instrument” in music education, 116
cultivating curiosity with, 119–120
dimensions of leisure guitar culture, 121
emulating certain sounds with, 120
as extension of daily life, 121
gaining nearness to music with, 118–119
guitar events, 120–121
learning through listening with, 120
leisure culture of, 117–121, 123–124
place in leisure and schooling, 116–117
slack-key guitar, 530
guitar-based groups, 115–116
Guitar Hero, video game, 543, 546, 551–552
The Gulf War Did Not Take Place (Baudrillard), 284
Gunkel, Ann Hetzel, 623
Guthmers Hahl album, White Medal, 291
Guthrie, Woody, 432
Habermas, Jürgen, 188, 283
Hallam, Susan, 37 b, 38 b, 67, 68–69, 70, 72, 156, 204–205, 207, 218, 268, 269, 272, 379–380 n1
Hamera, Judith, 300
(p. 651) Hamilton, Andree, 522–523
Hancox, Grenville, 41, 271
happiness. See also eudaimonia
Aristotle on, 32, 164, 568
El Sistema programs and, 47 b
fulfillment, the daimon, and, 152–154
leisure and, 250
music engagement and, 38–39, 48, 64, 272–273, 625
Waterman’s conceptions of, 153
well-being and, 35, 41, 272–273
Hargreaves, Andrew J., 210
Hargreaves, David J., 262, 264
Harney, Ben, 243–244
Harris, Charles K., 243
Haslam, Dave, 396
Hays, Terrence, 38, 272, 273
Hazen, Margaret Hindle, 243
Hazen, Robert M., 243
health/physical well-being
Music for Life Project findings, 44 b, 45 b
music’s benefits for, 35, 42–43
singing and, 41
“Heart of the Sunrise” (Yes), 410
heavy metal music. See also black metal music; death metal music; extreme metal music, in England; specific bands
all-female bands, 310–313, 315 nn4–5
Baudrillardian analysis of, 284–285
femininity and, 313
in the U.K., 297
in the U.S., 82, 297
Hebdige, Dick, 388
hedonic well-being, 153
Hegel, Georg W. F., 153
Heider, Anne, 570, 571, 578–581
Helmecke, Gus, 627
helping spaces, 357, 359, 469
Helson, Rake, 94
Hendry, Leo, 4, 62, 66
Hennion, Antoine, 198, 456
Henry, Pierre, 589
Hesmondhalgh, David, 451
Hewison, Robert, 156
The Hidden Musicians (Finnegan), 588
hierarchy of needs concept (Maslow), 35, 262, 263, 267, 269, 272, 275
Hi-Fi vs. Lo-Fi, 92–94
Higgins, Lee, 255–256, 257 n13, 520, 524, 602–603, 607, 610, 612, 614
Higginson, Steve, 426
Highbury Opera Theatre, 380 n7
High Fidelity (Hornby), 102
High-Minded and Low-Down (Tawa), 242
Hill, Harold (character, The Music Man), 241
Himonides, Evangelos, 379 n1
hip-hop music. See also Indigenous music-dance making
Aboriginal artists, 519–520, 531, 533, 535
DIY recordings of, 93
Glastonbury Festival performances, 438
headline news related to, 460
HUB Festival performances, 426, 428 f, 435–436
interviews with, 430, 434
manipulation of sounds in, 589, 591
Native hip-hop cypher, 519–520
in New York City, 82
hobbyists, 33
Hodkinson, Paul, 283, 298, 300, 429
hollow square seating, in Sacred Harp Singing, 567, 569, 581
Holst, Imogen, 367
homeless people, music’s benefits for, 43, 173
home recording, 87–89, 92–94, 238 n10, 450
Home Recording 101: Creating Your Own Affordable Home Recording Studio (D.I.Y. Music) (Helson), 94
Home Recording and All About It (1932), 89
Home Recording for Musicians for Dummies (Strong), 94
The Home Recording Handbook (Everard), 93
Hornby, Nick, 102
Horning, Schmidt, 88, 89
how-to books, about DIY recording, 93
How We Gave a Phonograph Party, 88
HUB Festival (Liverpool, England), 426, 428 f, 434–436, 442
Hugill, Andrew, 596
Huizinga, Johan, 19, 155
Hull House, 246
human agency. See also communicative agency; musical agency
benefits in attending festivals, 41
meaning making/identity work and, 282, 284
practices of the self and, 127
sociological viewpoint on, 188–189
of students, benefits of MF program, 61
use in making communicatively rational decisions, 282
human capital theory, 4
human-centered design (HCD) model, of identity development, 133
human motivation theory (Maslow), 263, 265, 267–270, 274
Humphrey, Ronald, 455
Hurtig, Brent, 93
Huta, Veronika, 153, 162
hyperreality theory (Baudrillard), 282, 283–285, 293
identity development. See also identity development, in middle adulthood; identity realization; identity tailoring process
Acid House culture and, 386–390, 392
in adolescence, 39, 62, 63–64, 139
at DISS, 371–374
from drumming, 151–152
in early adulthood, 139
early stages of, 140
Erikson on, 132, 135–136
extended self theory and, 262, 264–266, 274, 275
and implementation for music makers, 263–264
M-A-M-A cycles in, 145
music’s relationship to, 32
“optimal” states/experiences, 138, 139
persona creation on YouTube, 473–474
psychological processes in, 262
role of leisure in, 363
role of social networking in, 493
Schwartz on, 136
self-definition and, 39, 225, 232, 266
Smith’s “snowball self” model of, 263
symbolic interaction theory and, 135, 136
in young popular musicians, 232
identity development, in middle adulthood, 131–147
autoethnographic account of, 138–139
developmentalists on, 132
Marcia’s perspective on, 135–136
stages, challenges, obstacles, 140–141, 143–144
tailoring process ( See identity tailoring process)
identity literature, 145
identity realization, 63, 152–153, 262–263
identity tailoring process, 133–138
adjustments/alterations in, 144–145
comparison of models, 135 t
creative model, 134, 135
design phase, 141–142
double-diamond design model, 133, 134 f
engaging leisure play activities in, 137–138
experiential learning model, 134, 135
flow in, 137–138, 137 f
human-centered design (HCD) model, 133
pattern making phase, 143–144
Rathunde/Isabella’s model, 263–264
self-differentiation in, 136–137, 143, 146, 263–264
self-reflection in, 137
social integration in, 137, 137 f, 143
tailoring model, 135 t, 137 f, 147 n2
I Drum, Therefore I Am (Smith), 263
Ihde, Don, 103, 111 n6
IKEAization, 489, 509–510
IMAGO community opera, 42 b
immune system, 41, 43
Indigenous, defined, 536 n1
Indigenous cultures
American Indians, 522, 526, 528–530
of Australia, 519, 524, 533
cosmologies of, 525, 526–527, 530–533
creation/origin stories, 524–526
embodied/expressive practices of, 526
of Pacific Northwest of Canada, 532–533
Indigenous music-dance making, 519–537
aesthetic systems of, 522–523, 526 (p. 653)
African American influence, 529
as an adaptable spatio-temporal stage, 526–527
blues and jazz influence, 530
chanting, 525, 527, 528, 534–536
creation/origin stories and, 524–526
drumming and, 520, 523–527, 533
as embodied physicality, 523, 534
existential aspects of, 527
globalizing forces, 534–536
historical background, 519–520
legacies of, 528
navigating colonial structures, 527–530
as part of the community fabric, 521–522
self, subjectivity, and, 523
singing and, 524–526, 530, 532–533, 535
space-time, past and present, 530–532
space-time concepts and, 525
Sun Dance, Grass Dance, 528, 531, 534
survivance through, 527–528, 529, 531, 534
well-being and, 532–534
individuation theory, 152–154
identity realization and, 262
transcendent function in, 261–262
industrial music, 245, 256 n5
INSPIRE Music, 72, 76 n5
Instagram, 74, 238 n8
Institute for Studies of Leisure (University of South Florida), 14
instruments. See musical instruments
intellectual disabilities, music’s benefits for, 43
Interlochen Center for the Arts, 355
The International Journal of Community Music, [link] , 257 n13
Internet. See also Facebook; Instagram; Twitter; YouTube
IMAGO and, 42 b
Lim’s popularity on, 468
music in advertising on, 225
music message boards, 49
online video presentations data, 468
spread of disinformation via, 289–290
user-generated video content on, 468–469
video cell technology, 157
virtual space/serious pursuits, 357–358
Internet Symphony no. 1-Eroica (Tan Dun), 476–477
interventionist approach, to community music, 601–615
Iowa Band Law, 240
Ireland
Ecstasy (MDMA) study, 399–400
Sacred Harp Singing in, 573, 578
Iron Maiden, 297
Isabella, Russell, 263–264
Italian amateur pop-rock musicians on Facebook study, 489–512
centralization and power, 497 t
discourses, analysis and discussion, 498–507
intertwining thematic areas, 509
networks, analysis and discussion, 495–498, 496 t
research design, data collection, data organization, 494–495
sampled Facebook pages, 494 t
social structures of musicians, 499 f, 500 f, 501 f
subgroups: connected components, communities, 498 t
thematic analysis: factor space, 503 f
thematic analysis: percentages, 502 f
Word associations: Italia, 507 f, 507 t
Word associations: suonare (playing), 505 t, 506 f
Italian canzonetta, 490
Italian Millennials, 508
Ito, Mizuko, 544
Jackson, George Pullen, 568, 569–570, 575, 582
Jaffurs, Sheri E., 443 n5
jamming. See also Red Light Jams
as group composition process, 229–230
at guitar events, 121
Jarrett, Michael, 456
Jasen, David A., 244
Jazz Age, U.S. (1920–1929), music and leisure during, 247–251
jazz bands, 159, 205, 363
jazz blues, 529
jazz clubs, 354
jazz guitar, 116, 119
(p. 654) jazz musicians, 140, 352–354, 356, 359
jazz music schools, 116, 140
Jenkins, Henry, 544
Jeong-hyun, Lim, 467
Joel, Billy, 82
“Joe’s Garage” (Zappa), 99
John, Elton, 275
Johnson, Bruce, 443 n5
Johnson, Corey W., 102
Johnston, Wade, 472, 478, 482
Joplin, Scott, 243
Jordan, Nicole, 443 n5
Jorgensen, Estelle R., 64
Joselit, Jenna, 380 n3
Judas Priest, 297
Julliard School of Music, 253
Jung, Carl, individuation theory, 152–154, 261–262
Jurström, Ragnhild, 196
Jutras, Peter J., 273
Kahn, Otto, 247
Kahn-Harris, Keith, 283, 298, 437
Kalākaua (Hawaiian King), 529, 531
Kamakawiwo’ole, Israel, 472
Kanaka Maoli (Native Hawaiian) culture, 524–526, 525, 528–529, 531–534, 536, 536–537 n11
Kāne, Raymond, Kaleoalohapoina’oleohelemanu, 530
Kaplan, Max
biographical background, 14, 23
community music programs, 14, 20–21, 23
“cultivated society” of, 15
definition of leisure, 17, 32
on functions of music in leisure, 24–25
moving forward with vision of, 25–27
music education role, 6, 14, 16, 18, 21–23, 254–255
on social function of music, 18, 23, 27, 254
theory of recreational music, 18–20
vision for music teachers, 22–23, 26, 27
vision of societal function of music, 13–14
written works of, 14, 16–17, 21, 255
Karlsen, Sidsel, 199 n2
Katz, Mark, 88, 589
Keil, Angeliki
Bright Balkan Morning, 619, 622, 629
Polka Happiness, 619–620, 624–625, 627, 629
Keil, Charles
Born to Groove, 629–633, 635 n3
Bright Balkan Morning, 619, 622, 629
Echology journal, 619, 621
journals of, 619
Polka Happiness, 619–620, 624–625, 627, 629
“They Want the Music but They Don’t Want the People,” 633
Tiv Song, 620–621, 629
Urban Blues, 620, 621, 629
Kekuku, Joseph, 530
Kenya, adolescent music listening research, 36
Keynes, Milton, 177
Kingsbury, Henry, 380 n4
Kiralyfalvi, Bela, 414
Kirschner, Tony, 152, 163, 364
Kohn, Eduardo, 523
Kokotsaki, Dimitra, 269
Konewko, Mark, 483
Koskoff, Ellen, 621
Kraftwerk, 595
Krauss, Allison/Union Station, 9–10 n1
Krikun, Andrew, 257 n13
Kruger, Linda E., 391
Kumar, Krishan, 395, 396–397
kumu hula (hula masters), 529
Kuntz, Tammy, 275
Lacher, Kathleen T., 34
Laing, Ronald D., 153
Lai YouTube channel, 479–481
Lakota Indians, 523
Lamb, Roberta, 128
Lamont, Alexandra, 39, 379–380 n1
Lange, Patricia G., 473
lapsed musical participation, 171–182
motivations to continue/cease in adulthood, 175–178
music learning, formative experiences, 173–175
music learning, lasting effects of, 178–180
Lashua, Brett, 393
Lave, Jean, 24, 212
Layla and Other Assorted Love Songs (Derek and the Dominos), 112 n11
Leach, Bernard, 367
Leak, Graeme, 607
learning ensembles. See also community music; ensemble music making
being moved by music in, 216–217
creating, interpreting, responding to music in, 211–213
description, 205, 211
feeling musical in, 215–216
fluid objectives, shifting identities in, 217–219
key factor to learning, 212
performing music in, 213–215
study of, in England, 205–207, 211–213
learning music. See music learning
“Learning to Live with Recording” (Tomes), 85
Lebler, Don, 181
Led Zeppelin, 427
Leeds, England
Acid House culture, 385–401
Extreme Metal scene, 297–315
Left for Dead (L4D), game series, 551
legitimate peripheral participation (of Lave and Wenger), 212
leisure. See also casual leisure; leisure and sonic participatory cultures; leisure music production; leisure play; leisure research, music making as; leisure space; leisure time; serious leisure
amorphous boundaries of, 3
Aristotle on, 32, 581
casual vs. serious, 32–33, 231
defined/described, 32–34, 333
at DISS, 363–380
Elkington on, 210
enchantment as, 108–110
Frith on, 223–224
general and core activities, 351–352
during the Great Depression, 251–252
Green on, 63
guitar as, 115–128
Hendry on, 4, 62, 66
Kaplan on, 13–27, 32
Kleiber on, 146
Mantie on, 61
in midlife, 132
music education and, 66–69, 115–128, 226
music learning and, 178–180
Pieper on, 100, 109–110
as play and mimesis, 374–378
popular music as, 225–226
professionalization of, 230–233
project-based, 210, 350, 541, 545, 552, 558, 576 f
Rojek’s construction of, 449
Shaw on, 4
space and place for, 347–349
as surrogate/alternative identity, 371–374
as “symbol, play, and the other” (Borsay), 366
through the lifespan, 31–50
undesirable connotations of, 4
leisure and sonic participatory cultures
around video games, 557–558
overlaps and intersections, 558
through video games, 553
within video games, 548–549
leisure career framework, 165 n4
Leisure in America: A Social Inquiry (Kaplan), 16–17
leisure music production, 347–360
Leisure: Perspectives on Education and Policy (Kaplan), 17
leisure play, 132–133, 138, 141, 146, 155
leisure research, music making as, 425–443
leisure space, 283, 293, 315, 347–349. See also serious leisure, spaces for
leisure time
Aristotle on noble uses of, 32
IKEAization and Appleization of, 489, 510
individualized approaches to, 363
music activities during, 187–198
musical agency perspective on music activities, 187–199
music creation by Italian Millennials, 508
Stong’s warning on dangers of, 252 (p. 656)
teenagers engagement with music during, 62
work time vs., 223
Lennon, John, 267, 427
Leonard, Marion, 426
Levellers, 432
Levine, Lawrence, 621
Levitas, Ruth, 369, 395
lexical correspondence analysis (LCA), 500, 512 nn21–22
Leyshon, Andrew, 437, 450–451
Lies, Eugene, 251
Lindenberg, Siegwart, 34
Lindström, Siv, 48–49
listening. See also music listening
as an invocation, 522
auditory system mechanics, 521
maieutic listening, 522, 533, 535
passive, by Native Americans, 522
listening to music. See music listening
Little Symphony Project, on YouTube, 477
Liverpool, England, 425–443
Casablanca pub, 430–432, 431 f
characterizations of, 426–427, 430–433
drummer-researcher perspective, on music making, 425–443
as European Capital of Culture, 430
folk music/football in, 430–433
HUB Festival, 426, 428 f, 434–436, 442
leisure research, 442–443
music making, 437–443
participant observation study method, 428–429
rehearsal spaces, 437–442, 439 f, 440 f, 443 n5
rock scene, 301
unique musical heritage of, 426–427
youth, race, place in urban music, 434–436
Lomax, Alan, 569–570, 632
Long, Jonathan, 429
Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth, 275
Lonie, Douglas, 443 n5
Lord of the Rings Online, video game, 543, 547
Loss album, Wodensthrone, 289, 290
Love Is a Mix Tape: Life and Loss One Song at a Time (Sheffield), 102
Lucas, Caroline, 299
Lukács, György, 413–414
Lynd, Helen, 248, 254
Lynd, Robert, 248, 254
MacDonald, David, 262, 522–523
MacDonald, Raymond, 210
machinima, 549–550, 553, 555
Madchester music scene, 396
Madison Square Garden, 82
Mahone, Austin, 481
maieutic listening, 522, 533, 535
Making the Ultimate Demo (Robair), 93
M-A-M-A cycles (in identity literature), 145
“Mamma Mia” (ABBA), 194
Manning, Nikki, 523
Mantie, Roger, 61, 75–76, 225, 276, 374, 405
open letter to Charles Keil, 619–634
“Maple Leaf Rag” (Joplin), 243
Marcia, James E., 135–136
Marcuse, Herbert, 623
Marin, Manuela M., 271
Mario Paint, 547
Markus, Hazel, 207
Marshall, Nigel A., 264
Marx, Karl, 265
mash-ups, 436, 475, 590–591, 598 n5
Maslow, Abraham H.
hierarchy of needs concept, 35, 262, 263, 267, 269, 272, 275
self-actualization concept, 152, 262, 263, 266, 268
self-transcendence concept, 261, 262, 263, 269–270
theory of human motivation, 263, 265, 267–270, 274
Toward a Psychology of Being, 139
Mason, Lowell, 242, 256 n2
Massingham, Ursula, 73–74
master-apprentice teaching style, 126, 172
MayDay Group, 27 n1
McCartney, Paul, 267, 427
McGraw, Hugh, 580
McHorse, Christine, 528
McIan, Peter, 93
McKay, George, 607
McLaughlin, John, 142
(p. 657) McNeill, David, 320
McQueen, Hilary, 67, 68–69, 70, 72
meaning of music, 6
mediating artifacts, 206, 217, 218
melancholy, shades of, 142
“The Menace of Mechanical Music” (Sousa), 243
mental health
Music for Life Project findings, 44 b, 45 b
music’s benefits for, 43
Merriam, Alan, 621, 627–628
Merseybeat, 426
Mexico, adolescent music listening research, 36
Meyer, Leonard, 621, 628
Middletown study (Lynd and Lynd), 248, 254
Midgley, Mary, 395
MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface), 86, 93, 140, 547, 592
Miell, Dorothy, 210, 262
Mikserii, Finnish music site, 557
Millard, André, 90
Millennials, 508
Miller, Kiri, 544
Miller, Paul D’Shonne (a.k.a. DJ Spooky, That Subliminal Kid), 107
Mills, Janet, 210
Minecraft, video game, 543, 548, 550, 551, 552, 557
Minichiello, Victor, 38, 272, 273
minor scales (Phrygian mode), 142
Mithen, Steven, 634
Mittelman, Karen, 380 n3
mixing console, 87
mix tapes, 6, 102
Mix trade magazine, 93
Mizerski, Richard, 34
modding, 551–553, 558, 559
Mohan, Krishna, 153, 272
moods, music’s benefit for, 31–32, 36, 37 b, 38 b, 191
Moon, Keith, 427
Moran, Aldan, 271
Morris, Joe, 530
Morton, David L., 88, 409
Moser, Pete, 607
moshpit practices, 286, 299
Mosing, Miriam A., 271
motivation. See also collegiate marching band study, of motivational profiles regarding music making; participatory motivation; Transcendent Model of Motivation for Music Making
to continue/cease music participation in adulthood, 175–178
digital technologies’ impact on, 585
in ensemble music making, 319–338
Hallam/Creech/Varvarigou’s research, 268
in identity tailoring process, 137, 138
intrinsic, importance of, 141
as long-term effect of music, 49
Maslow’s theory of, 263, 265, 267–270, 274
in Musical Futures schools, 67, 71, 73
Music for Life Project and, 45
personal/musical, 268–269
predictors, in purchasing particular recordings, 34
for singing, 42
social, 267–268
social contagion model, 335
Motives for Physical Activities Measure-Revised (MPAM-R), 328, 329 t
MP players, 100, 108, 111 n3, 195, 468
MTV, 405, 412
Mullen, Phil, 614
multitrack audio recorder, 86
Multi-Track Recording for Musicians (Hurtig), 93
MUSE (Musicians United for Superior Education), 627
M.U.S.E. Letter (Keil), 619
musical agency, 7, 187–199. See also communicative agency; human agency
bodily action coordination and, 191, 193–194, 196–197
collective dimension, 190
collective identity and, 191, 195–196
individual dimension, 190
production, consumption, and, 188, 197–198
self-identity and, 62, 192–193
self-protection and, 190, 191, 194–195
self-regulation and, 190–191, 193–194
(p. 658) Musical Futures (MF), 61–76
classroom voice, choice, collaboration, 66–67, 71
Classroom Workshopping strand, 67
community of practice, 74–75
enabling of teachers as musicians, 68–69
global spread of, 69–70
at Greenfield Community College, 73–74
impact on staff-student relationships, 67–68, 74
informal learning model of, 66–69
mission of, 61, 64
pedagogical practices of, 65–66, 70–71
perceived risks to teachers, 72
space/time/resource challenges, 70–71
staffing challenges, 71–72
student’s opinion of, 67
teachers in MF schools, 61–62, 65–75
musical instruments. See also drummers/drumming; guitar
benefits of playing, 45–46
children’s motivations for choice of, 173
children’s self-fulfilling expectations, 174
intimacy/closeness of playing, 121
progressive era manufacturing of, 244
YouTube instructional videos, 66–67, 73, 227
musicality
of animals, 536 n4
Blacking/Erickson on, 520
in Liverpool, 426
musical identity and, 74, 208
Roberts on, 427
musical life history study (Pitts), 174
musical participation, lapsed, 171–182
musical performances, live, benefits of attending, 40–41
music-dance making. See indigenous music-dance making
Music Division, National Federation of Settlements, 245
music education. See also Musical Futures; music learning; music teachers
associated organizations, 5, 16, 21
continuing education programs, 204, 238 n1
dropout rate from teacher-directed American wind band system, 175
Foucault and, 122–124
gender and, 122
guitar’s place in, 116–117
impact of politics of learning on, 124–126
impact of teachers on, 172
Kaplan’s role in, 6, 14, 16, 18, 21–23, 24
Keil’s comment on, 626–627
leisure/recreation and, 4
limitations in the U.S., 64
Mantie’s opinion of, 628
master-apprentice teaching style, 126, 172
Music Foundation on, 64
music learning’s relation to, 121, 125, 126–127
online communities, 25
questioning of large ensemble participation, 321
relation of the body to, 121–122, 127–128
role of popular musicians in, 237
role of teachers in, 126–127
school-based, U.K. dissatisfaction with, 228
sociological turn in, 24
sociology of, 188
as statutory in England, 63
strategy for securing long-term positive impact for, 180–181
Suzuki method, 206
Music Educators Journal, 21
Music Educators National Conference (MENC), 16, 21
Music for Life Project, 44 b, 45 b, 609
“The Musician in America: A Study of His Social Roles. Introduction to a Sociology of Music” (Kaplan), 14
musicians. See also amateur laptop musicians; amateur musicians; nonmusicians; popular musicians; professional musicians; semiprofessional musicians; (un)popular musicians
amateur vs. professional, 19–20, 25, 41
Aristotle’s opinion of, 574
challenges of defining, 209–210
developing self-identity as, 192–193
experimentalists, 589
helping space for, 357
learning to play, playing to learn by, 229–230
motivations of, 33, 41 (p. 659)
musical identity and, 208–210
music teachers’ exemplification of being, 211
resource space for, 355–356
sales space for, 356–357
self-taught, 174, 175, 588
showcase spaces for, 353–354
TMMMM’s applicability to, 262
tourism space for, 358
virtual spaces for, 357–358
work-life balance, 156
musician through activity, 210
musician through profession, 210
Music in American Life (Zanzig), 250–251
Music Industries Chamber of Commerce, 244
music industry, 234–236
amateur musicians and, 234
engagement with via social media, 233
eudaimonism’s shared ideology with, 163
mentors working with young musicians, 224
professional musicians and, 231
young musicians and, 234–235
music in identities (MI) concept (Hargreaves and Marshall), 264
Music in Institutions (van de Wall), 253
musicking vs. music making, 458, 588
music learning. See also learning ensembles; Musical Futures; music education
Biesta on, 126
children’s self-fulfilling expectations, 174
classroom experiences in, 63
communities, among Italian amateur rock musicians, 8
curation of, in the classroom, 63
ethnomusicology’s interests in, 620
formative experiences of, 173–175
Foucault on, 123, 124
history of, as a discipline, 614
informal, 227
lasting effects of, 178–180
life history approach to, 172
long-term effects of, 172–173, 175–176, 178–180
motivations to continue or cease in adulthood, 175–178
Musical Futures program and, 64–66, 69, 71–72, 75
music education’s relation to, 121, 125, 126–127
music making’s connections with, 6–7
NHIMA programs, 203–204
in online communities, 25
politics of learning’s impact on, 124, 126
technological disruptions in, 589
music listening. See also playing by ear
to absent one’s self from surroundings, 194–195
benefits of, 35, 36, 38–40
online, 34
self-regulation of, 193–194
seven components of, 48
“squirrel” listeners, 39
by teenagers, 63
music making, 233, 467–484. See also ensemble music making; musicians; playing by ear; popular music; Transcendent Model of Motivation for Music Making
advancing technology’s impact on, 489
aging adults and, 204
Aristotle on the value of, 574
benefits of, 41–49
Bennett on, 586
collegiate marching band study, 326–336
communal, 321
at Dartington International Summer School, 7, 363–380
dependence on institutional structures, resources, 175
differing reasons for, 6
drummer-researcher perspective on, 425–443
in ensembles, 319–338
extended self theory and, 262, 264–266, 274, 275
by extreme metal bands, 299–301
flow theory and, 265, 269–271
gender differences in, 492–493
guitars and, 121
happiness and, 272–273
identity development and, 138–139
increasing opportunities for, 31–32
individual/collective manners of, 7–8
in intergenerational community, 42 b (p. 660)
intrinsic rewards of, 272–274
lapsed learners and, 171–182
by laptop musicians, 585–598
as leisure research, 425–443
making time for, 4
Mason’s insight on, 242
musicking vs., 458, 588
neurobiological effects of, 204
by Northern English extreme “metallers,” 285–292
plunderphonic approach to, 550
and pursuit of the daimon, 155–156
quality of life and, 272–273
rehabilitative potential of, 204, 216–217
self-completion theory and, 262, 264, 265–266, 271
as social experience, 320–321
social motivations for, 267–268
spirituality and, 31–32, 39, 270–272, 274
sponsorship of, in the Jazz Age, 249
study of (un)popular musicians, 156–162
technology and, 31
transcendence and, 270–271
transcendent, 270–271
well-being and, 35, 38, 40–47, 272–273
by young people, 223–238
on YouTube, 233, 467–484
music making practices, 8
The Music Man (Wilson, 1950), 241
Music Matters (Elliott), 579
music memory contests, 256 n4
Music of the People (van de Wall), 253
music participation
benefits of, 172–173
effects on self-growth, self-knowledge, 579
interviews with “lapsed” musicians, 175
lapsed, potential long-term value of, 171–182
lifelong, laying foundations for, 180–181
motivations for ceasing, continuing in adulthood, 175–178
as potential source of confirmation, confidence, 41
social aspects of, 176–177
withdrawing from, as coping strategy, 176
Music Performance Trust Fund, 357
music production, 450–452. See also recording studios
budget crisis in, 450–451
changing employment relationships, 451–452
DIY recreational recording, 81–95
leisure music production, 347–360
Leyshon on decline of studio sector, 450–451
Théberge on growth of commercial studios, 451
Music Supervisors Journal, 246
Music Supervisors National Conference (MSNC), 245, 246–247
music teachers
in El Sistema programs, 47 b
exemplification of being a musician by, 211
impact on students, 172, 174
Jorgensen on, 64
Kaplan’s vision for, 22–23, 26, 27
learning music without, 174
master-apprentice teaching style, 126, 172
in MF schools, 61–62, 65–75
relation to public recreation agencies, 21
Seeger’s encouragement of, 27 n1
Smith/Durrant on obligations of, 65
Music Teachers National Association, 245
music therapy, 253
musique concrète (of Schaeffer and Henry), 589
MySpace, 238 n7, 286
Namakelua, Alice, 530
Nardi, Bonnie A., 218
narrative inquiry, 406, 408–409
National Association of Music Merchants (NAMM), 26, 245, 275
National Association of Piano Dealers of America, 245
National Bureau for the Advancement of Music, 244, 245, 247
National Education Association, Department of Music, 245
National Federation of Music Clubs (NFMC), 245–246
(p. 661) National Institute for Music Education in Wartime, 27 n1
National Music Week (U.S.), 247–248
National Phonography Company, 88
National Piano Manufacturers Association, 244, 256 n9
National Recreation and Park Association, 15
National Recreation Association, 15, 245, 251
National Socialist Black Metal (NSBM), 287–288, 291
Native hip-hop cypher, 519–520
Native Instruments, virtual instruments, 594
Naughton, Chris, 285, 286, 287
Neel, Julien, 478–479
Nemser, Ari, 380 n3
Neogi, Rajarshi, 386–387
neo-Nazis, 286, 287, 289–291, 293
Nettl, Bruno, 380 n4
Neuman TLM103 microphones, 83
neurobiological effects, of music making, 204
neuroscientific research, 521
New Horizons International Musical Association (NHIMA, U.S.), 203–204
New Zealand, adolescent music listening research, 36
Nielsen, 475
Nietzche, Friedrich, 589–590
nineteenth century, music and leisure in the U.S., 242–243
NodeXL software, 498
nonmusicians. See also learning ensembles
musical identities of, 208–210
possible selves of, 7, 207–208
self-confessed, musical lives of, 203–220
stereotyping drummers as, 427
nonrepresentational theory, 298–299
Norman, Don, 133, 162
Northern English extreme “metallers.” See White Medal; Winterfylleth; Wodensthrone
Norton, David, 152, 153, 154
Norwegian folk music, 195
notation program, 86–87
note blocks, 548
Noudelmann, François, 589–590
Nunes, Julia, 472
Nu Pogodi!, 309–310, 313–314, 315 n5
Nurius, Paula, 207
occasional downloaders, 34
Oceania, 525
O’Connell, Michael, 271
Olssen, Mark, 127
One Life: The Free Academic (Kaplan), 14
online communities, 25
online listeners, 34
ontological security (of Laing and Giddens), 153
“optimal” states/experiences, 138, 139
Orwell, George, 163
Ostertag, Bob, 596
otherness of Dartington International Summer School, 366–371
Outpia (“nowhere”), 395
Overell, Rosemary, 298
Packer, Jan, 40–41
Page, Kate, 609
paideia, defined, 629, 630
Palmer, Anthony J., 271
Pandora, self-expression on, 102
Papageorgi, Ioulia, 156
Papua New Guinea, shark-calling practices, 524
Park, Nansook, 35, 48
Parkinson, Tom, 70, 165
Parry, Diana C., 102
participant observation, 428–429
participatory motivation
advice/friendship networks and, 326
advice network and, 335–336
friendship network and, 334–335
measurement scales, 328, 329 t
SDT approach to, 322–325, 334
Partti, Heidi, 156
Pasdzierny, Matthias, 550
Passeron, Jean-Claude, 69
passive identity realization, 153
Paul, Les, 90–91, 92, 95. See also Ford, Mary
Paul, Timothy, 380 n3
Peace and Harmony, 397
pedagogic authority, 69
(p. 662) Peggie, Andrew, 379 n1
Penna, Joe (a.k.a. Mystery Guitar Man), 473–474, 475
Pensado, Dave, 94
People’s Choral Union, 246
People’s Singing Classes (New York), 246
performance ethnography, 300
performative writing, 300–301, 315
performing places, defined, 410
Perkins, Rosie, 203, 204
persona creation, on YouTube, 473–474
Peters, Michael, 124
Peterson, Christopher, 35, 48
Pet Shop Boys, 595
Philippines, adolescent music listening research, 36
phonograph systems, 87–89
Phuture, Acid House DJ team, 591
physical disabilities, music’s benefits for, 43
physical well-being. See health/physical well-being
Piekut, Benjamin, 482
Pieper, Josef, 100, 109
Pilcher, Tim, 399
Pink Floyd, 120
Pitts, Stephanie, 41, 209, 365, 373, 379–380 n1, 492
Plains Indians. See Great Plains Indians
Plato, 32, 261
play element of culture, theory (Huizinga), 19
Playground and Recreation Association of America, 15, 250
Playground Association of America, 15
“playing along” in video gaming, 544
playing by ear
as challenge for teachers, 68
in learning by beginners, 229
musical curiosity cultivated by, 119–120
by performing video game music, 555
as tacit form of music making, 121
plunderphonic, approach to making music, 550
Poland, Sacred Harp Singing in, 573, 578, 582
Polka Happiness (Keil and Keil), 619–620, 624–625, 627, 629
polymodality, 521, 535
polyvocal phenomenology, 102–103
Poni Mō’ī (coronation ceremony), 529
popular music. See also (un)popular music
Baker on, 64
gender and, 122
guitar-based groups, 115–116
interrelated aspects of making, 231
as leisure, 225–226
Randles/Smith on, 65
young people and, 233–238
“Popular Music, Cityscapes, and Characterization of the Urban Environment” project, 443 n1
popular musicians
avoidance of motivation dependence by, 174
copying/mimicking of, 234
Green’s research on, 62, 72, 227, 229
Musical Futures and, 70, 72
relation to audiences, 492
role of, in formal education settings, 237
work-life balance study on, 156
pop-up recording studio, 82
Portal, video game series, 558
possible self/selves
description of, 207
music as means of discovering, 45 b, 174
performing music and, 213–215
positive vs. feared, balancing, 207–208
serious leisure and, 33
Powers, Nikki, 520
practicing music
self-regulation of, 193–194
solitary, 195
Pratt, Andy C., 156
Primordial, 288
Prior, Nick, 592
“productive consumption” notion (Barrett), 87
Professional-Amateur-Public (PAP), 33
professionalization of musical leisure activity, 230–233
professional musicians. See also amateur musicians; semiprofessional musicians
amateur musicians comparison, 587
cultural determinants of success, 364
intertwinement with amateur musicians, 199 n7
measures of status of, 364
multifaceted identity of, 210 (p. 663)
Music for Life Project and, 45
recreation programs networking with, 23
shared traits with amateur musicians, 41
Solmsen on, 32
work as leisure for, 33, 41, 230–233
young musicians’ desire to become, 43–44, 193
Professional-Public (PAP) system (Stebbins), 587–588
Profound Lore (underground label), 285
Progressive Era, U.S. (1890–1920), music and leisure during, 243–247
project-based leisure, 210, 350, 541, 545, 552, 558, 576 f
Proskynesis, 303–304, 308, 315 n2
Protestant work ethic, 4
Pro Tools, 87
Pruitt, Lesley, 611–612
psychological well-being, impact of music on, 48
Pueblo Junior College, 254–255
quality of life, music making and, 272–273
Quapaw Indians, 530
Quintette du Hot Club de France, 9–10 n1
radio, availability of music on, 31
ragtime music, 243–244
The Ragtime Review (Christensen), 244
Ramones, 139
Randles, Clint, 65, 68
Rathunde, Kevin, 263–264
Ravishing Grimness blog, 285, 286
Reagan, Ronald, 412
Recording Demo Tapes at Home (Bartlett), 93
recording music. See also DIY recreational recording
bit-by-bit vs. perfect-take mentality, 84–85
historical background, 87–92
learning to live with vs. live to learn with, 85
Paul’s “how to” guides, 90
software-enabled technology, 87
recording studios. See also DIY recreational recording
conventional model, 84
drug use in, 457–459, 462
ecosystems of, 83
eliciting strong performances by artists, 456
emotional FX and, 454–457, 462
emotional labor in, 452–461
emotional space of, 449–462
home recording, 92–93
“live” ideal, 85
music performance’s uniqueness in, 455–456
music production in, 450–452
Paul’s “studio-as-instrument” approach, 91
pop-up, 82–83
power relations in, 461
rites of passage for young workers, 461
state-of-the-art, 139
unknown nature of the work in, 460–461
work content/work context in, 455
recreational music theory (Kaplan), 18–20
amateur vs. professional musicians, 19–20, 25
function of music, 18
implementation of programs, 20
leadership categories, 15
principles of, 19–20
recreationists, 33
recreation movement, development of, 15–16
Red Light Jams (of Fried and Pignato), 406–421
“acts of meaning” created in, 417
catharsis and, 413–415
connectedness created by, 406, 415–416
impact on musicianship, 406–407
musical currency created by, 418
“Prouder, Stronger, Better” narrative and, 410–413
role played in growing up, 417–420
space (location) of, 409
space transition to place, 410, 415–417
structured reminiscence about, 407–409, 411–415, 418–420
symbolic sense of liberation from, 416
Regelski, Thomas, 27 n1, 63, 74, 379 n1
rehabilitative potential, of music making, 204, 216–217
rehearsal spaces, in Liverpool, England, 437–442, 439 f, 440 f
(p. 664) Reinhardt, Django, 9–10 n1
“The Relation of Music as Taught in Junior College to Certain Leisure-Time Activities Students” (Strong), 252
religion. See also spirituality
connections with music, 20, 39, 271–272, 364
leisure and, 146–147
neo-Nazis and, 290
transcendent music making and, 270–271
reminiscence (reminiscing), music and, 36
repercussion phase, of compilations, 100, 104–107, 109, 110
residential homes, community music in, 609
resilience, music and, 39
resonation phase, of compilations, 100, 104–108
resource spaces, 354, 355–356, 469
reverberations phase, of compilations, 100, 104–107, 109–110
Revokation, 304
Reynolds, Simon, 385, 396
Rhythm for Life project (U.K.), 203, 214–215, 219
rhythm games, 546–547
rhythmic entrainment, 48
Richter, Goetz, 574
Robair, Gino, 93
Roberts, Brian, 386
Roberts, Ken, 388
Roberts, Les, 427
Rochberg-Halton, Eugene, 265
rock guitar, 119
rock music (rock ‘n’ roll), 152, 450
rock musicians, 354–355
Rohwer, Debbie, 272, 273
Rojek, Chris, 449
Roland TB303 synthesizers, 591
Rolfing, R. C., 256 n9
Rolling Stones, 427
Rolnik, Suely, 522
Ronnie Scott’s (London), 354
Ronson, Mark, 460
Roosevelt, Franklin D., 252–253
Ross, Andrew, 449–450
round dances, Cree Indians, 519
routinization, 189, 197
Royal College of Music,