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date: 20 February 2020

(p. 541) Index

(p. 541) Index

A
Abascal, M., 400
abominations of the body, 5, 9, 30, 43, 500
abortion, 6, 117, 133, 135, 293, 295, 296
ACC (anterior cingulate cortex) activation, 245–246, 251–252, 255–256, 258, 272
Aceves, M., 385
action readiness, 18, 324–326
Adam, E. K., 279
Adaptive Disengagement Scale, 388
adolescence. See also parenting/parental buffering effects
affect mediation and, 359–360
anti-stigma programs and, 418
cortisol levels in, 229
internalized racism and, 169
neighborhood disadvantage and, 154
perceived discrimination and, 274, 278, 358–359, 364–365, 501
psychophysiological systems in, 232
racial discrimination in, 171–175
racial identity and, 366, 368
rumination and, 483
self-control and, 360–361
sexual behavior and, 361
structural stigma and, 115
substance use in, 293, 357–358, 369–370
weight-based stigma and, 41, 504–505, 509, 510, 512
advertising campaigns, 176. See also fear-based campaigns
aesthetic qualities, of stigma, 5, 10, 30, 184, 195
affective processes
ANS changes and, 275
cognitive-affective processes, 482–483
health damaging behaviors and, 11
neuroscience and, 241
stigma/health relationship and, 17, 275
affective responses
ANS activation, 275–278
externalizing negative affect, 268–269
to immune system, 274
measurement of, 267–268
neural responses, 272–273
to neuroendocrine system, 273–274
pre-disease biomarkers, 275
to social identity threats, 91–92
of stigmatized persons, 265–267, 266f
uncertainty, 269–271
unhealthy behaviors and, 278–279
affiliation
in cognitive mediation, 361–362
cultural status and, 406
in distributive justice, 446
racial/ethnic identity and, 227
with risky peers, 362, 363, 365
sexual behavior and, 367
social interaction and, 403
age. See also adolescence
impact on discrimination, 370–371
weight-based stigma and, 512
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 34, 185
agent-based models (ABMs), 116
Ahern, J., 359
Aiello, A. E., 274
Akinola, M., 252
Albrecht, T. L., 15
Allen, J. J. B., 251
Allen, K. A., 361
Allen, M., 431
allostasis, 152
allostatic load
anger and, 234
in biosocial health model, 149f, 158, 220f
in Black youth, 24
concentrated poverty and, 152–156
discrimination and, 171, 205, 214, 232–233, 336
emotional support and, 338–339
high self-control and, 347
John Henryism and, 386
parental responsiveness and, 337
physical/mental health and, 534
physiological processes in, 484
repeated stress responses and, 91
in social identity threat model, 87, 87f
spatially concentrated disadvantage and, 15, 149
stress and, 11, 223, 272
term usage, 506
from weight-based identity threat, 508
American Association of University Professors, 432
American Cancer Society, 431
American Civil Liberties Union, 432
American Heart Association, 235, 431
American Lung Association, 431
American Medical Association, 7
American Psychological Association, 432
Amnesty International, 442
Amodio, D. M., 255, 256
Anderson, C., 75
Anderson, E., 447
ANS activation, 276–278. See also autonomic nervous system (ANS)
anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) activation, 245–246, 251–252, 255–256, 258, 272
anticipated sexual stigma, 38–39
anticipated stigma
concealability and, 6, 17
in conceptual model, 9f
in health-related behaviors, 21, 24
in health-related outcomes, 30–31
occurrence of, 11
perception of discrimination and, 24
race-based, 34–35
social identity threat and, 86
anticipated weight-based stigma, 42. See also weight-based stigma
anti-fat attitudes, 7, 190, 501–502, 509, 512–513
Anti-Fat Attitudes questionnaire, 501
Anti-Homosexuality Act (Uganda), 37
anti-obesity campaigns, 19, 501, 511. See also fear-based campaigns
anti-smoking campaigns, 19, 511. See also fear-based campaigns
anti-stigma programs/agendas
agenda competition, 417
to change public stigma, 417–419
to change self-stigma, 419–420
effect of messages in, 419
research directions on, 423
rights agenda, 416–417
self-worth agenda, 417
services agenda, 415–416
unintended consequences, 420–422
Apfel, N., 97 (p. 542)
appeals, fear-based. See fear-based campaigns
appraisals
discrimination-related, 220
goal-directed actions and, 223
schema activation and, 222, 225–226
of social identity threat, 90
threat appraisals, 223–225, 227, 229, 232, 234
Archer, D., 5
Aronson, J., 35, 98, 187, 188
Aschbacher, K., 275
attitude thermometer, 40
attributional ambiguity theory, 44, 92, 268, 270
Auster-Gussman, L., 7
Austin, J., 294
Australian Research Council, 313
autonomic nervous system (ANS)
in affective health-links, 275–276
in affect research, 275–276
function of, 242–244
illustration of, 243f
reactivity responses and, 276–278
autonomy, 19, 224, 404, 429–430, 432–433, 435
aversive racism, 54, 59, 530
avoidance of disease, 9, 60, 61, 526
Ayala, G., 364
Ayduk, O., 22, 383
B
Baldassarri, D., 400
Ballester, E., 22
Barnes, L. L., 274
Barton, A. W., 13, 18
Bayer, R., 19, 441, 442, 443, 445, 448
Beach, S. R. H., 368, 370
Beals, K. P., 294
Bearman, P. S., 405
Beauchamp, T., 432, 433, 436
Beekman, J. B., 366
behavioral responses, 12, 55, 86, 139, 169, 207, 212, 230, 247, 266–268, 278, 340f
Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), 113, 209, 210
behavior change campaigns, 431. See also fear-based campaigns
beliefs, legitimizing ideologies and, 383–386
Bellatorre, A., 38, 114
belonging uncertainty, 63, 97
Bennett, G. G., Jr., 34, 92, 248
Bennett, W. L., 191
Berg, J. A., 403
Berger, J., 326
Berkman, L. F., 56
beyondblue (social marketing campaign), 176, 415, 417, 422
bias. See also explicit bias; implicit bias
among health care providers, 186–187
cardiovascular reactivity and, 91, 92
enacted stigma and, 501
skin tone bias, 13
unconscious bias, 168–170
Weight Bias Internalization Scale, 502
Bink, A. B., 19
bioethics, 429, 432, 434–435
Bioethics, 434
biomarkers
among Black adolescents, 44
CAC function and, 275
concentrated poverty and, 154–155
context and, 273
epigenetics and, 157
mental illness stigma and, 536
metabolic syndrome and, 349n7
racial discrimination and, 171, 344
sexual orientation and, 488
biopsychosocial mechanisms, 219–220, 220f
biosocial model of stratification
allostatic load in, 152–156
concentration of poverty in, 150
gene expression in, 156–158
spatially concentrated disadvantage in, 148–150
telomere length in, 150–152
Bird, C. E., 56
Bird, S. T., 194
bisexual individuals. See sexual minority stigma
Blackburn, E. H., 151
Blacksher, E., 19
Black-White health disparities. See racism and health
Blair, I., 11, 16, 235
Blake, B. J., 194
Blascovich, J., 33, 212, 257, 258
Bleich, S. N., 191
blemishes of individual character, 5, 9, 30, 43, 192, 500
Bless, H., 387
Blodorn, A., 7, 23, 507
Bobo, L. D., 163
body image, 502, 511
Bogart, L. M., 194, 364
Borrell, L. N., 368
Bosson, J. K., 248
Boster, F. J., 431
Bourdieu, P., 54, 532
Bowleg, L., 361, 365
Boylan, R., 364
brain activation, 16, 242, 246
brain responses
to social exclusion, 245–246
to stereotype threat, 244–245
Braithwaite, J., 61
Branscombe, N. R., 17, 309, 310, 313
Bränström, R., 64
Brewis, A. A., 510
British Social Attitudes survey, 165
Brodish, A. B., 368
Brodmann, S., 128, 150
Brody, G. H., 13, 18, 24, 154, 349, 361, 368, 370
Brondolo, E., 11, 12, 16, 235, 248
Brown, R., 384
Brownell, K. D., 508
buffers, to racial discrimination
changes in parenting, 365–366
identity affirmation, 366–367
individual differences in, 365
racial identity, 366
social support, 365
substance use, 365
Bullock, C. S., III, 399
Burgess, D. J., 187, 327
Burgess, K. D., 248
Burke, J., 187
Burke, P. J., 21, 404
Burnette, J. L., 7
Burris, S., 433–434, 442–443, 450
Butler, K., 323
C
CACs (circulating angiogenic cells), 266f, 275
Calabrese, S. K., 14, 25, 193
Callahan, D., 430, 432, 434, 444, 445, 500
Campbell, D., 110
Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, 313
cancer-based stigma
among health care providers, 195–196
among patients, 196–197
quality of health care and, 195
research directions, 197
cardiovascular mechanisms. See also neural mechanisms/processes
coping abilities and, 248–249
discrimination and, 248
learning from, 258–259
low-quality health care and, 256–257
research directions for, 260–261
research findings in, 249, 253
in stigma-stress-health pathway, 247–248
suboptimal health behavior and, 252–253
cardiovascular reactivity
bias and, 91, 92
in discrimination experiments, 206, 228–230
(p. 543)
group identification and, 90
health outcomes over time, 249
of low SES adolescents, 269
perceived discrimination and, 33
racial discrimination and, 372
self-distancing and, 389
in sexual minority individuals, 481f, 481t, 483
suspicion and, 270
weight-based social identity threat and, 507
cardiovascular responses
anticipation of bias and, 91
experienced stigma and, 249
to minority stressors, 485
schemas and, 229
suboptimal/negative health outcomes and, 16, 244, 258
Carpenter, K. M., 110
Carr, E. R., 174
Carter-Harris, L., 196
Caspi, A., 156
Cassel, J., 339
C-CAPS (culturally constituted cognitive-affective processing system framework), 380–383, 380f, 386–390
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 109, 450
Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, 111
central nervous system (CNS), 242–244, 243f
Chae, D. H., 64, 108, 356, 366
Chambers, S., 196
Champagne, F. A., 157
Chan, W. Y., 364
Chaudoir, S. R., 20
Chen, E., 154, 341, 342
Chen, J. T., 112
Chen, P., 357
Chen, S.-P., 399
Chen, Y., 368
Cheryan, S., 325
Chicago Police Department, 155
Chicago School Readiness Project, 155
children/youth. See adolescence
Choi, K., 364
Christ, O., 21–22
Christensen, J. L., 323
circulating angiogenic cells (CACs), 266f, 275
Civil Rights Act of 1964, 167
Clark, K. B., 533
Clark, M. K., 533
Clark, R., 249
Cleary, S. D., 343
Clift, A., 304
Clinton, B., 168
Clouston, S., 58
Cobb, S., 339
cognitive control processes
in biopsychosocial model, 220f
discrimination and, 220, 226–227
goal-directed behavior and, 233
goal orientation in, 227
health promotion goals and, 232–233
schemas in, 222–223, 231
in social cognition, 219
stress recovery and, 233
substance use and, 232
cognitive reappraisal, 18, 99, 388–389
cognitive responses, 11–12, 17
Cohen, G. L., 97
Cohen, S., 336, 339, 341
Cole, S. W., 383
collective identity, 7–8, 106, 307
collective representations, 88–89, 90, 524, 530
collectivity, of stigma, 5, 7–8
Collins, P., 251
Coming Out Proud (COP) program, 420
communitarianism, in public health, 444–446
community-based participatory research (CBPR), 423, 448
community ladder, 74–75
community-level exclusion, 4, 9f, 10, 11, 13
Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software, 208
concealability, of stigma, 5–6, 17
concealable stigmatized identities. See also minority stress theory; modified labeling theory; rejection sensitivity
cognitive/emotion burden and, 294–295
costs/benefits on health, 289f, 290–291
definition of, 289–290
health outcomes and, 287–289
in hostile or supportive environments, 292–294
mental health outcomes and, 288, 290, 291, 292, 293
methodological limitations, 296–297
moderators/mediators of, 291–292
research directions on, 296
of sexual minorities, 483–484
sexual orientation and, 287–288, 290–296
concentrated disadvantage, 12, 15, 24
concentrated neighborhood disadvantage. See neighborhood disadvantage
concentrated poverty
allostatic load and, 152–156
gene expression and, 156–158
segregation and, 15, 24, 150
telomere length and, 150–152
conditional cash transfer (CCT), 175
conflict detection system/mechanisms, 251, 255–256, 258
Conley, D., 156
contact theory/hypothesis
basics of, 399–401
health-related stigma in, 404–405
identity/interaction/networks in, 403–404
networked-embedded stigma system, 408f
network theory and, 402–403
stigma-related categories in, 405–408
contractualism, in public health, 443–444
controllability, of stigma, 6–7
Cooley, C.H., 403
Cooper, D. C., 249
Cooper, L. A., 191
coping processes, 13, 25
coping responses
behavioral strategies, 95–96
cognitive strategies, 94
in perceived discrimination, 363
to social identity threats, 93–94
social strategies, 94–95
coping strategies
individual differences in, 248–249
for stigma-related stress, 246–247
Cornwell, B., 44
Corral, I., 368
Corrigan, P. W., 19, 399, 400, 413, 418, 533
cortisol/cortisol levels
acute stress reactivity and, 228–230
allostatic load and, 152–153
in behavioral pathway, 207
in children, 337–338, 346
coping skills and, 126, 127f
cortical pathways and, 226
disclosure of minority sexual identity and, 295
dysregulation of, 33, 214, 335, 356
general health and, 210
in-group member presence and, 306
HPA axis/activation and, 484–485
in negative race-related events, 173
neighborhood SES and, 75
neuroendocrine system and, 273–274
out-group social rejection and, 279
perceived discrimination and, 171
physiologic influence and, 271
power/status/stigma and, 80
rumination and, 483
shame and, 507
sleep impairment and, 231, 233
social identity threat and, 90, 91
in stress response pathway, 205
structural stigma and, 115
threat appraisals and, 228
weight-based stigma and, 41, 42, 508–509, 510
Cosley, B., 385
“countermarketing” campaigns, 176
Courtwright, A., 443, 444, 445, 449
Couture, S., 399
Crabtree, J. W., 307
Crandall, C. S., 8, 9, 61, 189
criminalization laws, 461, 464–465, 467, 468 (p. 544)
Crocker, J., 4, 8, 43–44, 53, 270, 310
cross-race rejection, 34, 212, 253
Cross Racial Identity Scale (CRIS), 386
Cruwys, T., 17, 312
Cullen, F. T., 401
cultural buffers, 366–367
cultural discrimination, 221, 222, 224, 233
cultural inertia, 139
culturally constituted cognitive-affective processing system framework (C-CAPS), 380–383, 386–390
culture, role of, 138–139
Curran, J., 436
Cyclic Obesity/Weight-based Stigma (COBWEBS) model, 510
D
Daniels, N., 435, 446
David, M. C., 295
Davis, A., 383, 531
deafness/deaf people, 8, 135, 406–407
Deasy, L. C., 524
Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA), 110
de Hoog, N., 431
Delahanty, D. L., 194
Derks, B., 12, 16, 257
desperate ecologies, 129–131, 135–139
deviance, 5, 8, 89, 343, 448, 523–524
Devine, K. A., 75
Devine, P. G., 256
de Wit, J. B. F., 431
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM- 5), 521
Dickerson, S. S., 507
Diez-Roux, A. V., 64, 368
DiFonzo, K., 294
DiMarco, M., 294
dimensions of stigma, 5–8, 16, 30, 43–44, 189, 192
Dingle, G. A., 312
disabilities/disabled persons
community-based participatory research and, 423
as discredited/discreditable, 415
influence loss in, 77
interaction with, 408
label changes for, 420
modified label theory and, 288
motivation for stigmatization of, 61
negative effect of discrimination on, 302, 311
pity and, 421
public health and, 434, 442
in public service ads, 407
the rights agenda and, 416
self-worth agenda and, 417
in sexual minority individuals, 479, 480f, 490
situational cues of, 89, 99
disability, impact of stigma on, 55–56t
disclosure reactions, 292, 293
discriminating ecologies
health outcomes and, 126
physiological responses to, 15
residential segregation in, 127
stress-and-coping approach in, 126–127
discrimination. See also interpersonal discrimination; perceived discrimination; racial discrimination
access to resources and, 132–133
adult sex ratios and, 133
anticipated stigma and, 11, 37
cognitive responses and, 11–12
experiences of, 6, 17, 23, 24
group structure and, 133–134
health care disparities and, 15–16
by health care workers, 85
life history theory and, 14
mechanisms for, 61–62
opportunities for growth in, 220–221
physiological reactions to, 126
psychophysiological systems and, 232–233
race-based stigma and, 32–35
relationship to health, 8, 12
schemas/schema activation and, 222–226
self-reinforcement and, 134
vs. social exclusion, 371
socially conferred marks and, 13
stress reactivity/recovery and, 227–231
unpredictable environmental variation in, 133
weight-based stigma and, 40–42
disease, avoidance of, 61
distributive demand, 19
distributive justice, 440, 446
Doane, L. D., 231
doctor-patient interactions, 76, 255, 259–260, 487
Doctors Without Borders, 442
Dodd, Christopher, 499
Does, S., 257
Dohrenwend, B. P., 401
Dover, T. L., 212
Dovidio, J. F., 5, 14, 15, 22, 193, 242
Downey, G., 383, 385, 531
Drury, C. A., 190
Drury, S. S., 151, 152
Duke University, 173
Dumbelton, L., 304
Dworkin, Gerald, 432
dynamic construction of identity, 18, 322–324, 329, 330
E
Earl, A., 327
earned income tax credit (EITC), 175
Earnshaw, V. A., 15, 30, 193
ecology-driven strategies, health implications of, 135–138
educational level/attainment, 55–56t, 74, 77, 112, 133, 169, 288
Edwards, C. L., 34, 92, 248
Eibach, R. P., 214
Eisenberger, N. I., 245, 371
Eliezer, D., 91, 249, 386
Ellemers, N., 257
Ellen, I. G., 155
Elmore, K. C., 322
Elwert, F., 155
emotion
concealable stigmatized identities and, 294–295
interpersonal racism and, 168
suppression of, 92–93
weight-based stigma and, 506, 507
empathy, neural processes and, 254–255
enacted stigma
concealability and, 13
in conceptual model, 9f
experiences of discrimination, 23, 24
in health care disparities, 15–16, 184
in health-related outcomes, 30–31
interpersonal processes, 528–530
occurrence of, 10–11
race-based, 33–34
sexual stigma as, 37–38
social identity threat and, 85–86
structural processes in, 527–528
weight bias and, 501
Ending Self-Stigma, 419
enforcement of social norms, 9, 60, 61, 526
English, D., 363
English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, 510
Environmental-Risk Longitudinal Twin Study, 152
Epel, E. S., 151, 385
epigenetics, 156, 370, 525f
Erickson, L. D., 156
Etcheverry, P. E., 360, 362, 365
ethics, of public health. See public health ethics
ethnic density concept, 172
ethnic discrimination. See also racial discrimination
evidence of, 166
exposure to, 336
individual reports of, 221
measurement of, 205, 208
during pregnancy, 171
in schema formation, 229
ethnic minorities
health inequalities and, 163
structural stigma and, 112–113
European Men Who Have Sex with Men Internet Survey (EMIS), 116
Evans, G. W., 231, 337
Evans, M. K., 363
Evans-Lacko, S., 116
event-related potential (ERP), 251
Everyday Discrimination Scale, 383 (p. 545)
evoked culture, 138–139
evolutionary psychology, 125
expectations. See anticipated stigma
“expectation states,” 61
Experiences of Discrimination Scale, 382–383
explicit attitudes, 31, 59, 107, 108, 186, 191, 192, 195, 197
explicit bias, 24, 33, 185, 190, 194, 267
exploitation/domination, 9, 60–61, 526
F
Faden, R., 432, 433, 446
Fairchild, A., 19
Family and Community Health Study (FACHS), 231, 358–363, 365–368, 370
Farina, A., 529
“fast” strategies, 128–130, 134
Feagin, J., 164
fear-based campaigns
bioethics and, 432–433
burdens posed by, 433–434, 436
efficacy of, 430–432
as hard hitting vs. below the belt, 436–437
public health duty and, 434–436
Feinberg, J., 435
felt stigma
in conceptual model, 9f
experiences of discrimination, 23
health care disparities and, 15–16, 24, 184–185, 187, 196, 197
occurrence of, 11
Fernández, S., 309
Feshbach, S., 431
“fight or flight” response, 228, 242, 276
Finch, B. K., 154
Fischer, M. J., 151
Fisher, J. D., 20
Fisher, O., 12, 18
Fiske, S. T., 255
Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire, 389
Fletcher, J. M., 156
Fleuriet, K. J., 75
Forbes, C. E., 86, 245, 251, 389
Forsyth, J. M., 368
Fox, L., 150
Fraga, M. F., 157
Fragile Families Study, 152
framework(s). See also C-CAPS (culturally constituted cognitive-affective processing system framework)
for categorizing stigmatized marks, 5
of social cognition, 221–223
for study of individual differences approach, 380–382
for study of racism and health, 167f
Fraser, N., 447
Freidson, E., 402, 404, 407, 409
French, J. R. P., 70
Fried, C. B., 98
Frost, D. M., 291
Fryberg, S. A., 304, 324, 327
Fuller-Rowell, T. E., 231, 273–274
fundamental cause/causes
discriminatory practices and, 62–63
future research possibilities on, 63–65
health inequalities and, 53
racism as, 59–60
stigma as, 59
stigmatized statuses and, 60–62
theory of, 57–59
Fuster, M. J., 292, 308
G
Gable, S. L., 294
Gaertner, S., 188, 189
Gage-Bouchard, E. A., 75
Galea, S., 359
Galinsky, A. D., 71, 75
Gallup Daily tracking survey, 109
Galvan, F. H., 364
Gangi, C., 385
Garcia, J., 97
Garza, A. A., 310
gay individuals. See sexual minority stigma
gender. See also minority stress theory; sexual minority stigma; weight-based stigma
in cardiovascular risk, 169
gender-based violence, 462
goal implementation and, 256
in HIV risk-reduction behaviors, 460
identity and, 322–323, 328
immune system and, 274
intersectional issues in, 44
in maladaptive coping, 244
perceived discrimination and, 362, 368, 370
rejection sensitivity and, 90
in social exclusion, 371
social identification and, 249
as status characteristic, 45n1, 74, 76, 166
in types of discrimination, 213–214, 248, 302–303, 363–364
gene-environment interactions, 156–157
gene expression, concentrated poverty and, 156–158
“generalized other” concept, 524, 530
General Social Survey/National Death Index data set, 111, 114, 213
genomics, 367–368, 370
Geronimus, A. T., 128, 151, 154
Gerrard, M., 34, 363
Giamo, L., 307
Gianaros, P. J., 246
Gibbons, F. X., 13, 18, 33, 34, 359, 360, 361, 362, 365, 366
goal orientation, 227, 387
Goffman, E.
on acceptance, 97
on concealment, 287, 294
influential frameworks of, 5
on interpersonal discrimination, 529
on mental hospitals, 527
on misrecognition, 448
“moral career” concept of, 402
network cultures of stigma model, 19
network cultures of stigma model of, 405–407
on “normal appearances,” 526
on the out-group, 399
on people living with HIV, 192
on power hierarchies, 54
on social category membership, 30
on social construction of identity, 403
on social interaction, 398, 407
stigma definition of, 53, 77, 421
Stigma: Notes on the Management of a Spoiled Identity, 4
terminology/categories of, 6, 7, 523
on types of stigma, 9, 43, 415, 500
Goldberg, D. S., 430
Goldfried, M., 384
Goldman-Flythe, M., 385
Gómez, Á., 309
Gomez, P., 323
Gonzalez, B. D., 196
Good, C., 98
Goodin, R., 432, 453
Gordon-Larsen, P., 368
Gove, W., 524
Gramzow, R. H., 295
Green, E. C., 431
Greenwald, A. G., 186, 187
Gregorich, S., 364
Griffin, J., 187
group-based discrimination, 292, 302, 304, 306–307, 308, 311–312
group-based exclusion, 17, 302
group boundary permeability, 310
group identification, 8, 13, 18, 24, 25, 90, 249, 305–308, 311–312, 386–387, 422
group membership
as coping resource, 307
curative properties of, 303
health outcomes and, 302, 306, 309, 311–313
psychological resources and, 305, 308, 310
self-categorization and, 304
vs. social isolation, 306
group processes
power and status in, 69–70, 73–74
socioeconomic status in, 74–76
stigma and, 77–78
group structure, segregation and, 131–132, 133–134
Growing Up Today Study (GUTS), 510
growth mindset interventions, 329
growth opportunities, 220–221 (p. 546)
Gruenewald, T. L., 507
Gruenfeld, D. H., 71
Gudzune, K. A., 191
Guendelman, M., 325
Gunnar, M. R., 341
Gustafsson, P. E., 154
Gutsell, J. N., 251, 255
Guttman, N., 434
Guyll, M., 248, 276
H
Hagiwara, N., 183, 188
Haider, A., 186
Haiman, F., 432
Hall-Clifford, R., 402, 403, 409
Hamann, H. A., 196
Hamilton, M. A., 76
Handbook of Medical Sociology (Bird, et al), 56
Hansen, N. B., 193, 387
Hare, T. A., 250
Harmon-Jones, E., 256
Harris, L. T., 255
Hasin, D. S., 114
Haslam, C., 307, 312
Haslam, N., 17
Haslam, S. A., 307, 311, 312, 313
Hastings, G., 434
Hastings Center Report, 430
hate crimes, 10, 38, 106, 108, 133, 294, 478
Hatzenbuehler, M. L.
on factor plausibility, 110–111
on flexible resources, 534
on future research, 213
on health disparities/inequality, 24, 296, 445, 533
on mortality inequalities, 64
multilevel stigma construct model of, 106f
on multiple stigmatized statuses, 55
on perceived weight discrimination, 507
on racism/mental illness stigma, 65
on role of power in stigma, 59
on social determinants of health, 56, 63–64
on stigmatized identity, 291, 296
on structural stigma, 14, 22, 114–115
He, Y., 304
health. See also physical health; racism and health; suboptimal health behavior/outcomes; suboptimal health care
among socially disadvantaged groups, 29–30
anticipated race-based stigma and, 34–35
anticipated sexual stigma and, 38–39
anticipated weight-based stigma and, 42
enacted race-based stigma and, 33–34
enacted sexual stigma and, 37–38
enacted weight-based stigma and, 41–42
group processes and, 69–70
internalized sexual stigma and, 39
internalized weight-based stigma and, 42
power/status/stigma and, 72–73, 79–80
social determinants of, 4, 11–12, 14, 19, 25–26, 54–56
social inequities in, 58f
socioeconomic status and, 75
Health and Retirement Study, 510
Health at Every Size (HAES) approach, 511
health behaviors. See also HIV-based stigma; risky behavior; risky sex/risky sexual behavior; weight-based stigma
among MSM, 38
campaigns to change, 433–434
discrimination and, 231–232, 253, 363
expectations of assimilation and, 448
HIV-based stigma and, 194
identity-based motivation and, 318f
impact of stigmas on, 55–56t
internalized racism and, 169
meta-analysis results on, 211
network theory and, 404
perceived discrimination and, 16, 206–207, 359
research directions on, 116, 213
social identity threat and, 93
supportive parenting and, 342
health care disparities. See also HIV-based stigma
communication in, 191
definition of, 15, 183
explicit/implicit processes, 187
provider/patient stigmatization and, 192, 194
as race based, 185
role of stigma in, 34, 184–185
health care providers. See also medical interactions
biased thoughts/stereotypes of, 186–187
enacted stigmas and, 184
health care system, mistrust of, 187–188
health disparities
between Black/White Americans, 32–34
definition of, 14
obesity related, 40, 42
role of stigma in, 3
sexual orientation and, 35–36
stigma processes and, 30–31
health equity, 440, 447, 450
health implications
of stigma collectivity, 7–8
of stigma concealment, 5–6
of stigma controllability, 6–7
health implications, of ecology-driven strategies
addictions, 137–138
cancers, 138
infant health, 135
physical injuries/death, 134–135
sexually transmitted diseases, 135
weight-/obesity-related diseases, 135–137
health inequalities
fundamental cause theory and, 53
interventions to reduce, 174–177
mediating mechanisms in, 58f
stigma as fundamental cause of, 14
Healthy People initiatives, 478
Healthy Self-Concept, 419
heart-rate variability (HRV), 243–244, 252, 276
Heatherton, T. F., 245
Hehman, E., 22, 383
Herek, G. M., 37
Hermann, C. P., 196
heterosexism, internalized, 37
Heubner, D. M., 292
Higgins, E., 387
Hill, S., 140
Himmelstein, M. S., 508
Hipes, C., 530
“Hispanic/Latino paradox,” 32
HIV/AIDS
impact of stigma on outcomes in, 55–56t
interventions for, 25
physical health disparities and, 35–36
public health ethics and, 440–441
HIV-based stigma
among health care providers, 192–193
among patients, 193–194
bidirectional associations, 458f
bidirectional effects, 460–466
diagnosis/treatment and, 191–192
intervention implications, 466–468
literature review, 458–460
research directions, 194, 468–469
role in HIV epidemic, 192
treatment behavior care continuum, 459f
Ho, H.-Y., 14
Holland, R. W., 324
homophobia, internalized, 37, 463, 482–483, 484, 533
hopeful ecologies, 129–130
Hopkins, N. P., 305
Hornsey, M. J., 312
Horsburgh, C. R., 361
Horsman, J. M., 192
Horton, K. D., 365
Hostinar, C. E., 341
Houser, J. A., 76
Hoyo, C., 157
Hoyt, C. L., 7
HPA axis/activation
allostatic load and, 152
cortisol levels and, 273
dysregulation of, 484–485
(p. 547)
health outcomes and, 266f
hippocampus and, 153
immune system regulation and, 245
loneliness and, 483
long-term effects on, 230–231, 235, 272
in maltreated infants/toddlers, 346
in minority stress theory, 480
protective/supportive parenting and, 342, 344
sexual minority stigma/health model, 480f
shame and, 507
threat perception and, 228, 341
vagal nervous system and, 153
weight-based stigma and, 42, 504f, 508–510, 513
Huebner, D. M., 295, 364
human rights, in public health, 442–443
Hunger, J. M., 12, 20, 42, 507
Hunter, J., 293
hypersegregation, 15, 147, 150, 158. See also segregation (racial/ethnic)
hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis. See HPA axis/activation
I
identity affirmation, as cultural buffer, 366
identity-based motivation
action readiness and, 324–326
dynamic construction and, 322–324
gender in, 322
in interpretation of difficulty, 318–319, 319f
interventions in, 319f, 328–329
procedural readiness and, 326–328
research directions on, 331
situated process model for, 318f
social hierarchy and, 317, 320–321
synthesized stigma model for, 318f, 328, 329
theory of, 321–322, 329–331
identity management strategies, 308–309, 311
illness identity, 296, 419–420, 422
illness stigma, 404, 420, 422–423. See also anti-stigma programs/agendas
immune system, in affective health-links, 274
impaired communications, 35, 187–188
Implicit Association Test (IAT), 31, 366, 501
implicit attitudes, 31, 59, 76, 166, 170, 191, 194, 195, 197
implicit bias, 24, 31, 33–34, 54, 166, 170, 176, 185–186, 188, 190, 194, 501
implicit theory interventions, 98
impression engulfment, 4
Incollingo Belsky, A. C., 508
individual differences approach
anticipation of discrimination in, 383–385
buffers to racial discrimination in, 365
cognitive reappraisal and, 388–389
coping strategies and, 248–249
framework for study of, 380–382
legitimizing ideologies in, 385–386
perception of discrimination and, 382–383
regulatory focus and, 387–388
research directions in, 389–391
understanding group-level disparities, 379–380
individual-level discrimination, 164, 224, 235
individual mobility ideology, 309–311
individual stigma, 106, 115
Institute of Medicine, 170, 183
institutional discrimination, 111, 148, 221, 224, 233, 234, 291, 504
interactional discrimination, 61
interactions, doctor-patient, 76, 255, 259–260, 487
intergroup contact, 22, 257, 400
internalized homophobia, 37, 463, 482–483, 484, 533
internalized race-based stigma, 35
internalized racism, 163, 165, 168–169, 176
internalized self-stigma, 527, 533
internalized sexual stigma, 39
internalized stigma
collectivity and, 8
in conceptual model, 9f
controllability and, 7
health outcomes and, 14
in health-related outcomes, 30–31
occurrence of, 11
physiological stress responses to, 12
research directions on, 24
social identity threat and, 86, 88
internalized weight-based stigma, 42
International Classification of Diseases- 9 (ICD-9), 115
interpersonal discrimination. See also perceived discrimination
behavior pathway in, 206–207, 206f
definition of, 16, 203–204, 221, 233
health inequalities and, 203
measurement of, 204–205
prevalence of, 221
interpersonal discrimination, meta-analysis of
average correlations in, 210t
coder reliability, 208
data integration, 208
inclusion criteria, 207–208
limitations of, 212
literature search results, 207
physical conditions in, 211
research directions for, 212–214
results/results summary, 208–212
sample description, 209t
self-rated health in, 210–211
symptomology, 210
total physical health in, 209–210
interpersonal racism, 164, 165–166, 170
interpersonal stigma, 106, 115, 213, 481, 485, 532
interventions
to change implicit theories, 98
to cope with stress, 467–468
for growth mindset, 329
to increase HIV risk-reduction, 466–467
for racial discrimination, 371–372
to reduce health inequalities, 174–177
to reduce prejudice, 467
to reduce social identity threat, 96–97
to reduce weight-based stigma, 511
for self-affirmation, 97–98, 328–329
for sexual minority stigma, 491–492
for social belonging, 97
for stigma and stereotyping, 328
involuntary responses, to social identity threats, 91
Inzlicht, M., 251, 252, 255
J
Jackson, J. S., 278
Jacobson, K. C., 357
Jamieson, J. P., 34, 212, 253
Jandorf, L., 188
Janis, I., 431
Jarcho, J. M., 245
Jargowsky, P. A., 150
Jensen, R. E., 193
Jetten, J., 13, 17, 292, 306, 308, 310, 312, 313, 387
“John Henryism,” 95, 230, 347, 385–386
Johns, M., 86
Johnson, B. T., 22
Johnston, D. W., 233
Johnstone, M., 312
Jones, E. E., 4, 5, 6, 30, 184, 189, 192, 194, 195, 197
Jones, J. M., 306
Jones, P. R., 187
Juster, R. P., 295, 484
K
Kaiser, C., 23, 380, 384, 386
Kalichman, S. C., 294
Kandel, D., 357, 358
Kane, J. B., 157
Kang, S. K., 252
Karl, A., 246
Kaslow, N. J., 174
Kaur, A., 11, 12, 16
Kawachi, I., 64
Keller, J., 387
Kelley, W. M., 245
Kellizi, B., 312 (p. 548)
Kelly, J., 274
Keltner, D., 75, 269
Kemeny, M. E., 383, 507
Kenrick, A. C., 14–15
Kenrick, D., 140
Kerns, K., 14
Kessler, R., 383
Keyes, K. M., 114, 357
Kiefe, C., 368
King, K., 157
King, M., 405
King, M. L., Jr., 183, 198
Kingdon, D., 419
Klein, D. J., 364
Kleinman, A., 402, 403, 409
Klonoff, E. A., 383
Knight, C., 312
Knight, K. M., 278
knowledge, as SES-related resource, 57–60, 64, 65
Kogan, S. M., 361, 365
Kok, G., 324, 434
Koller, M., 399
Kosenko, K. A., 193
Koslov, K., 34, 253
Kraus, M. W., 75, 269
Krendl, A. C., 245
Kressin, N., 382
Krieger, N., 111, 112
Krivo, L. J., 150
Krupa, T., 399
Kubota, J. T., 256
Kunstman, J. W., 72, 212
Kurzban, R., 8, 9, 61
L
label avoidance
care seeking and, 415
in mental illness, 414t, 420–421
normalcy vs. solidarity, 421–422
pity vs. parity, 421–422421
strategies to address, 418t
labeling theory, 20, 523–525. See also modified labeling theory
Lacoe, J., 155
Landrine, H., 364, 368, 383
Lattanner, M., 16
Latzman, R. D., 364
Lauderdale, D. S., 113, 213
Leary, M. R., 8, 9, 61
Lee, A., 114
Lee, Y., 114
legitimacy, of discrimination, 17, 303, 311
legitimizing ideologies, 385
Lehavot, K., 291
Lei, M. K., 154
Leitner, J. B., 18, 22, 245, 383
Lemert, E. M., 523
Leurgans, S., 274
Levin, B., 64
Lewis, N. A., Jr., 327
Lewis, T. T., 214, 274, 383
LGBT individuals, 8, 20, 113–115. See also sexual minority stigma
Lick, D. J., 20
Lieberman, M. D., 245
life course perspective, 15, 105, 147, 151, 155, 157, 165, 171, 173, 175, 383
life history theory/strategies
adult sex ratios in, 130–131, 133
desperate ecologies, 129–131, 135–139
discrimination and health in, 14, 125–129
ecological harshness/unpredictability, 129–130
fast/slow strategies, 128–130, 134, 139
group structure in, 131–132
hopeful ecologies, 129–130
interventions in, 139–140
role of culture in, 138–139
Lin, J., 151
Link, B. G.
on cognitive processes, 448
on elements of stigma, 443
on fundamental causes, 57–60, 64
on health inequality, 14, 24
on interventions, 15
on mental illness stigma, 20
on modified labeling theory, 524, 531
on personal/social networks, 401
on power, 4, 54, 79
on resources/socioeconomic status, 445, 533–534
on stigma process, 77
on stigmatized statuses, 55
Littleford, L. N., 256
Liu, K. Y., 405
Lordan, G., 233
“Lose Weight or Lose Your Job,” 508
Louis, M., 190
Loukas, A., 365
Lovaglia, M. J., 76
Lu, A., 291
Lucas, J. W., 14, 65, 77, 530
Luedicke, J., 41
Luke, W., 294
Lupien, S. J., 295
Luthar, S. S., 346
Luu, P., 251
M
MacArthur Scale of Subjective Social Status, 74–75, 80
Mackenbach, J. P., 58
Macklin, R., 432, 433
Magee, J. C., 71
Magnusson, J., 6
Maier, S. U., 250
Major, B.
on anticipated stigma, 11
on bias anticipation, 91
on cardiovascular activity, 33–34
on cognitive responses to stigma, 12–13
on concealment/suppression, 295
on contextual nature of stigma, 4
on cross-race rejection/mistreatment, 212
on defining stigma, 53
on framing obesity as a disease, 7
on gender identification/discrimination, 249
identity threat stigma model, 86
on meritocracy beliefs, 386
on perceived discrimination, 23
on positive evaluations, 270
on social identity threat, 14, 507
on stigma consciousness, 384–385
on stigma/suboptimal health link, 242
on weight-based stigma, 20, 42, 44
worldview verification model of, 230
Major Experiences of Discrimination Scale, 383
Makwana, A. B., 250
maladaptive coping, 244, 246, 249, 342
Malat, J. R., 76, 187
Manago, B., 13, 18
Maner, J. K., 72
manipulation, 80, 91, 206, 228, 268, 270, 362, 371, 432–433, 489, 508
Mann, J., 442, 458
Mann, T., 430
Manze, M., 382
marginalization, 383, 435, 441, 444, 449, 457, 460, 463, 468, 469, 505
Marini, M., 190
marital status
effect on substance use, 358
federal benefits and, 117
in racism and health, 166, 167f
Markus, H., 304
Marlow, L. A., 195
Marteau, T. M., 196
Martin, J. F., 387
Massey, D. S., 12, 15, 128, 150, 151
Masten, C. L., 272, 371
Master, A., 97
McCoy, D. C., 155
McCoy, S. K., 33, 212, 385, 386
McDonald, J. A., 356
McGarrity, L. A., 292
media/media presentations, 176, 223–224. See also fear-based campaigns
mediating mechanisms
inequalities in health and, 58f
reproduction of disadvantage and, 63f
self-control as, 360–361
types of affect as, 359–360
medical adherence, 35, 187, 206, 364
medical interactions, 5, 34, 184, 186–188, 191, 194, 258
medical mistrust, 187–188
medication/ARV adherence, 251, 290, 459f, 460, 465, 466, 467
memory capacity, reduced, 2, 93, 99, 244
Mendes, W. B., 11, 12, 17, 33, 34, 212, 242, 249, 252, 253, 385, 386, 390 (p. 549)
Mendoza-Denton, R., 18, 22, 381, 383, 384, 385, 387, 390, 531
Mental Health First Aid (MHFA), 416
mental illness
education/cognitive restructuring in, 419
impact of stigma on, 7, 20, 55–56t, 413, 423
peer contact/selective disclosure and, 419–420
physical health inequalities and, 522–523
mental illness stigma
bidirectional processes in, 521–522
causes of symptoms, 526
comorbidity in, 534–535
conceptual model of, 525f
environmental stress and, 534
labeling theory and, 523–525
links to physical health disparities, 525–526
minority stress in, 527–522
physiological stress and, 534
research directions for, 535–536
residual rule-breaking in, 526
resource reduction and, 533–534
societal reactions and, 526–527
Merluzzi, T. V., 356
Merritt, M. M., 34, 92, 230, 248
metacognitive processing, 92. See also rumination
methylation, 156–158
Mewse, A. J., 310
Meyer, I. H., 30, 107, 287, 291, 527
Mickelson, K. D., 383, 509
microaggressions, 31, 106, 185, 380f, 381, 461, 529
MIDUS (Midlife Development in the United States), 208–211, 503, 506, 512
Miller, C., 507
Miller, G. E., 154, 341, 342
mindfulness, 207, 209, 259, 389–390
Minior, T., 359
minority stress, stigma mechanisms of
interpersonal processes, 528–530
social psychological processes, 530–533
structural processes, 527–528
minority stress theory, 288, 480, 486, 492, 527
Mirowsky, J., 154
mistrust of health care system, 187–188
Mitchell, C., 152, 157
moderating factor(s)
buffers as, 365–367
of concealable stigmatized identities, 291–292
coping style as, 363
genomics as, 367
research directions on, 24, 117
risk factors and, 364–365
self-control as, 364f
social support as, 17, 18, 212
in stigma-health relationship model, 9f
in weight-based stigma, 512–514
modified labeling theory, 288, 521, 523–525, 530–531
Molero, F., 292, 308
Mollen, S., 324
Molloy, B. K., 361, 371
Mongeau, P., 431
Monin, B., 325
Morales, J., 309
Moriano, J. A., 292, 308
motivation, to stigmatize, 60, 61, 62–63
motivation, identity-based
action readiness and, 324–326
dynamic construction and, 322–324
gender in, 322
in interpretation of difficulty, 318–319, 319f
interventions in, 319f, 328–329
procedural readiness and, 326–328
research directions on, 331
situated process model for, 318f
social hierarchy and, 317, 320–321
synthesized stigma model for, 318f, 328, 329
theory of, 321–322, 329–331
Moving to Opportunity (MTO), 175, 234
Muennig, P., 512, 513
Multidimensional Inventory of Black Identity (MIBI), 386
Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM), 386
Mu’min, A. S., 387
Münte, T. F., 251
Murphy, H. S., 524
Murphy, S., 157
Murry, V. M., 368
Muscatell, K. A., 11, 17
N
Naliboff, B. D., 245
name changes, in mental illness, 420–421
National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI), 8
National Association to Advance Fat Acceptance (NAAFA), 8
National Center for Health Statistics, 108, 379
National Conference of State Legislatures, 113
National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), 109, 112, 114
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (N-HANES), 154
National Health Service (NHS), 177
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), 511, 512
National Institute of Mental Health’s Research Domain Criteria (RDoC), 521
National Institutes of Health (NIH), 421
National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS), 209, 211
National Longitudinal Survey of Freshmen, 151
National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 506
National Science Foundation, 391
National Stigma Studies, 406
National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS), 208–211, 503, 506, 512
natural experiments, 22
Needham, B. L., 151
negative thoughts/emotions, suppression of, 92–93
neighborhood disadvantage, 15, 149–152, 154–155, 158, 224
“neighborhood effects” hypothesis, 148–149
neighborhoods
concentrated poverty in, 24
hypersegregation of, 15
implications for health in, 75, 127
improvement of conditions, 175
power/health linkages and, 72
racial segregation in, 63
social determinants of health and, 12
structural racism and, 112
structural stigma and, 38, 107, 109, 114
neighborhood segregation, 112, 173, 224. See also residential segregation
Network Embedded Symbiome, 401
networks. See social networks
network science, 397–398, 401, 403–404, 407–409
Neubaum-Carlan, E., 349
Neuberg, S. L., 14–15, 99, 140
neural mechanisms/processes. See also cardiovascular mechanisms
coping strategies and, 246–247
empathy and, 254–255
learning from, 258–259
prejudiced responses and, 255–256
research directions for, 260–261
research findings in, 249
of social categorization, 253–254
stereotype threat and, 244–245
in stigma-stress-health pathway, 244–246
in suboptimal health behavior, 250–252
neural responses, in affective health-links, 272–273
neuroendocrine system, 273–274
New York City Department of Education, 155
New York City Health Department, 441
New York Police Department, 155, 176
Nock, M. K., 34, 212, 253 (p. 550)
Northern Swedish Cohort Study, 154–155
Nosek, B. A., 186, 190
“not in my backyard” (NIMBY), 527, 534
Nussbaum, M., 434
O
Obama, B., 168
Obama, M., 234
obesity. See also anti-fat attitudes; anti-obesity campaigns; weight-based stigma
definition of, 39–40
fear-based campaigns for, 430
impact of stigma on outcomes in, 55–56t
social burden of, 430
stigma of, 500–501
“obesity paradox,” 40, 499
Obesity Prevention Act, 499
O’Brien, L. T., 86, 386
O’Dougherty Wright, M., 256
O’Hara, R. E., 362
Ompad, D., 359
Ong, A. D., 231
oppression, internalized racism and, 168–169
Ostroff, J. S., 196
other-categorization, 87
Ouellet, E., 295
Outten, R., 307
the “Own” group, 405–408
Oyserman, D., 12, 18, 304, 322, 324, 327
P
Pachankis, J. E., 20, 64, 106, 116, 384
Page, S., 529
Page-Gould, E., 384, 390
Pandey, K., 305, 306
Panel Study of Income Dynamics, 155
parasympathetic nervous system (PNS), 242–244, 276
Paredez, S. M., 325
parenting/parental buffering effects
changes in, 365–366
children’s health and, 18, 337–339
conceptual model of, 340–341, 340f
developmental considerations, 343–344
dose response, 344
empirical literature/considerations, 336–337, 343
establishment of causality, 345–346
facilitation of healthful behaviors, 342
facilitation of reappraisal, 341–342
forms of discrimination and, 348–349
health disparities and, 348
individual competencies and, 345
interventions in, 371
“nature” of parenting, 344–345
protective effects of, 13, 341–343
as protective factor, 346–347
putative mechanisms, 342–343, 348
reduction/elimination of stress reaction, 342
research directions on, 345–349
skin-deep resilience and, 347–348
substance use and, 365
theoretical literature on, 339–340
Park, J. H., 61, 151
Park, R. E., 148
Parker, K. J., 341
Parsell, C., 312
Partners in Health, 442
Pascoe, E. A., 16, 205, 207, 211, 307, 308, 341, 357
Paul, J. P., 364
Pearl, R. L., 14
peer contact, selective disclosure and, 419–420
Penn, D. L., 399
Pennebaker, J. W., 288
Penner, L. A., 14, 15, 22, 35, 183, 188, 189
Peplau, L. A., 294
perceived discrimination. See also interpersonal discrimination
definition of, 203–204
experiences of, 16, 170
individual differences approach and, 382–383
moderators of, 17, 18
permeable/impermeable boundaries and, 309
psychological well-being and, 301–302, 307–308
relationship to health, 8, 23
research directions on, 312
perceived discrimination, meta-analysis of
average correlations in, 210t
coder reliability, 208
data integration, 208
inclusion criteria, 207–208
limitations of, 212
literature search results, 207
physical conditions in, 211
research directions for, 212–214
results/results summary, 208–212
sample description, 209t
self-rated health in, 210–211
symptomology, 210
total physical health in, 209–210
perceived racial discrimination
FACHS on, 358–359
health effects of, 356
health problems and, 356–357
interventions for, 371–372
laboratory studies on, 362–363
measurement of, 368–369
mediators of, 359–361
positive reactions to, 368
research directions for, 370–371
research methodology for, 369
self-control as mediator/moderator of, 364f
sexual behavior and, 361–362
Perceived Racism Scale, 382
perceived stigma, 88, 194, 398, 415, 501
peripheral nervous system (PNS), 242–244
Perry, B. L., 398, 402
Perry, J., 6
personal characteristics, 14, 86–90, 87f, 148
personal identity, 7, 231, 303
person-to-person discrimination, 61
Pescosolido, B. A., 13, 18
Peters, G. J., 432, 434
Peterson, J. L., 41
Peterson, L., 364
Peterson, R. D., 150
Pettigrew, T. F., 399, 400
Phelan, J. C., 4, 7, 9, 14, 15, 20, 24, 54, 55, 57, 58, 59–60, 64, 65, 77, 79, 443, 445, 448, 526, 530, 531, 533–534
Phelan, S. M., 189
Philibert, R. A., 368
Philip, E. J., 356
physical health. See also health
of Black Americans, 32
body weight and, 39–40
interpersonal discrimination and, 209–210
mental illness and, 522–523
pathways to negative effects on, 16–17
sexual orientation and, 35–36
stress buffering for, 337
physiological reactivity, 12, 222–223, 226, 229, 230, 231, 232–233, 235
physiological stress responses, 11–12, 91
physiologic changes, in affective-health links
ANS activation in, 276–278
to autonomic nervous system, 275–276
to immune system, 274
to neural responses, 272–273
to neuroendocrine system, 273–274
pre-disease biomarkers, 275
unhealthy behaviors and, 278–279
physiologic influence, anxious affect via, 271
Pietrzak, J., 383, 385, 531
Pinel, E., 384, 531
Platow, M. J., 306
Pocock, A. M., 361
political power, as element of stigma, 4, 54, 443
Pollack, H. A., 505
possible identities, 323
Postmes, T., 307
post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 273, 274
poverty, concentrated
allostatic load and, 152–156
gene expression and, 156–158
segregation and, 15, 24, 150
telomere length and, 150–152
power
co-variance with status/stigma, 70
(p. 551)
in definition of stigma, 53–54
group processes and, 69–70
health and, 72–73, 79–80
as key element of stigma, 4, 14
political, 4, 54, 443
research directions on, 80–81
social structure and, 70–72
stigma and, 79
Powers, M., 446
Pratt-Hyatt, J., 380
pre-disease biomarkers, 275. See also biomarkers
prejudice
labeling and, 420
in mental health examples, 414t
neural processes and, 255–256
relationship to stigma, 5
research directions on, 423
self-stigma and, 415, 419, 422
stereotypes and, 413–414
by stigma type, 414
prevention focus, 387–388
Priest, N., 15, 16
procedural readiness, 18, 326–328
Project EAT study, 510
Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN), 155
promotion focus, 387–388
Protestant work ethic, 385
Psychological Bulletin, 432
psychophysiological pathways, 242f
psychophysiological reactivity, 222, 223, 229, 233
psychophysiological systems, dysregulation in, 232–233
public health, use of stigma in
communitarian approach, 444–446
contractualist approach, 443–444
ethics of, 440–441
human rights approach, 442–443
implications of, 449–450
social justice and, 19, 446
utilitarian approach, 441–442
public health ethics, 19, 434–435, 447
public stigma
agendas for erasing stigma, 416t
examples from mental illness, 414t
label avoidance and, 415
lessons learned from, 422
occurrence of, 414
programs directed toward, 416
research directions on, 423
strategies to change, 417–418, 418t
Puhl, R. M., 41, 430, 507, 508, 510, 511
Purcell, D., 76
Purdie, V., 383, 531
Purdie-Vaughns, V., 214
Q
Quillian, L., 150
Quinn, D. M., 17, 294, 310, 406
“Quit Smoking or Lose Your Job,” 508
R
race
physical health and, 32
“race” categorization, 164
structural stigma and, 112
race-based rejection sensitivity, 224, 253, 384–385, 390
race-based stigma
among health care providers, 185–187
among patients, 187–188
anticipated, 34–35
enacted, 33–34
health care disparities and, 185
internalized, 35
prevalence/pathway of, 32–35
research directions on, 188–189
racial attitudes/emotions/beliefs, 168
racial crossover, in substance use, 357–358
racial discrimination. See also perceived racial discrimination
health-risk behavior and, 18
intersectional issues in, 235
in media depictions, 223
negative schema development and, 230
stress recovery and, 230
racial identification, 176, 274, 307, 366
racial stratification, 148
racism. See also aversive racism; internalized racism; interpersonal racism; perceived racial discrimination; systemic racism
definition of, 163
as fundamental cause of health inequalities, 59–60
health effects of, 15, 164–165
persistence of, 165
by Whites, 32–33
racism and health
Black-White health disparities, 32, 383
framework for study of, 167f
internalized racial attitudes in, 168
interventions in, 174–177
oppression in, 168–169
pathways/mechanisms of, 166–168
perceived discrimination in, 170–172
research directions on, 169, 173–174
systemic racism, 172–173
unconscious bias in, 168–169
Rafferty, J. A., 278
Ramrattan, M., 384
Rand, L., 326
Raudenbush, S. W., 155
Rauscher, E., 156
Raven, B., 70
Raver, C. C., 155
Rawl, S. M., 196
Rawls, J., 446
Raymond, K., 382
Reardon, S. F., 150
recognition
of difference, 30
of external threat, 152
in groups, 75
as high status, 76
of illness, 415, 422
misrecognition vs., 447–448
in public life, 19, 446, 477
as requirement of justice, 440, 447, 449–450
of same-sex marriage, 478
of social identity, 386
recognitional demand, 19
recognitional justice, 447
Redd, W., 188
Reddit, 501
Reed, E., 361
“Reforms as Experiments” (Campbell), 110
regulatory focus, 18, 328, 387–388
Reicher, S. D., 305, 312
Reid, A. E., 22
rejection. See