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date: 11 December 2019

(p. 619) Index

(p. 619) Index

“All Lives Matter,” 268, 288, 353, 362
“Bill of Rights for People of Mixed Heritage,” (Maria P. P. Root), 385–387
“Black Lives Matter,” 244, 262, 267, 268, 306, 309, 317, 319, 352, 353, 354, 356
“black matriarch,” 583
“blood,” as indigenous racial criterion, 90, 91–93
“good Negroes,” 373
“Idea for a Universal History,” (Kant), 49–50
“Kant’s Second Thoughts on Race,” (Kleingold), 44, 46–47
“lower races,” in scientific racism, 285
“Of National Characters,” (Hume), 31–32, 34, 41
“one-drop rule,” 369, 374–375
“ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny,” 284, 285
“Race, Culture, Identity,” (Appiah), 211
“stop and frisk,” 219–220, 355, 360, 426, 592
“The Black Boy Looks at The White Boy,” (Baldwin), 273–274
“the body,” as abstract, 589–591
“The Conservation of Races,” (Du Bois), 192, 202–206, 213, 240, 371, 372;
racial essentialism of, 37, 372–373
“the race debates,” 135–136
“The Uncompleted Argument,” (Appiah), 370–371
“The White Negro,” (Mailer), 271, 272–273
“women and people of color,” 562
9/11, importance of its history, 32, 307, 342–349
abjection, destruction of black bodies and, 321
academic switch from biological to social race, 531–532
achievement gap, of white and black, Native American, and Latino students, 436
affirmative action, 4–5, 11, 13, 185, 374, 442, 501, 502, 537–547, 596
Africa, according to Hegel, 248, 251, 252, 253, 254, 255, 256, 257, 258, 325, 381
African American, culture, aesthetics, 130–131;
philosophers of race, 6–7
African American Philosophy, as academic subject, 6
African American political thought, history of, 235–236
African ancestry, mixed race and, 369–370
Africana existential phenomenology, 294–299;
question of freedom in, 299, 301
Afro-pessimism, 296–297
Alain L. Locke (Leonard Harris and Charles Molesworth), 79
Alain Locke Society, founding of, 127
Alberdi, Juan Bautista, 120–121
Alcoff, Linda, 412;
idea of ethnorace, 186–187
Alexander, Michelle, 306, 360, 452, 592
Alfano, Mark, 423
Allen, Amy, 255–257
American Indians, 93, 117, 514;
agricultural efficiency of, 27–29;
destruction of culture in boarding schools, 97
American intellectuals, and American philosophy of race, 191–192
American Philosophical Association (APA) diversity and, 1, 127
American philosophy, 3, 7, 12, 79, 127, 128, 238, 247;
and race, 191–194
Amerindians, 16, 17, 22, 26–29, 37, 40, 48;
controversies of their rights in Latin America, 115–117, 120–122
anachronism, in history of philosophy, 236;
in present studies of history of race and gender, 565–566, 573–574
ancestry, geographic assignment of race based on, 467–468
anguish, 300
(p. 620) Anishinaabe peoples, seasonal round of self-governance, 95
anthropology, 3, 7, 10, 15, 17, 44, 53, 56, 64, 79, 101, 132, 160–167, 197–201, 252–255, 284–285, 298–299, 301, 380–382, 567–568, 582;
historical, 66;
and race, according to Alain Locke, 197–198
antiblack racism, as mauvais foi, 295–296
anti-racist critical theory, 235, 244
Anti-Semite and Jew, (Sartre), 247–248, 274
anti-Semitism (antisemitism), 58, 249, 294, 305, 375
Anti-Christ, (Nietzsche), 60
apology, emotional requirements for, 517–518;
insincere, 518;
just apology, 518–522
Appiah, Anthony, 125;
critique of Du Bois, 207–209;
race as identity, 209–213;
race as illusion, 262, 370–371
applicative justice, 502, 549–554;
history of, 552–554
applied philosophy of race, 421–422
aracial MBW identity, 387–388. See also mixed black and white people
archaic humans, 162, 163
argument from reference, for existence of race, 170–171, 177–179
Aristotle, 65, 115, 130, 265, 278, 475, 520, 527;
rectificatory justice, 516
Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery, (ASVAB), 478
Army Alpha and Army Beta tests, 478
art of living, philosophy as, 411
Asian American Studies, problem with liberal narrative, 103
Asian Americans, advantages in education and discrimination against, 438;
immigration to US in 18th and 19th centuries, 103–104;
racial formation of, 107
assignment of race, by different sources, 465–466
Atkin, Albert, 136
bad faith, and fascist anti-Semitism, 275;
and racism according to Memmi, 279, 280
Bad Faith and Antiblack Racism (Gordon), 295
Baldwin, James, 249, 273–274, 588–589, 592–593
Barnes, Albert C., lectures on Alain Locke, 128
Bataille, George, workings of sex related to Africana bodies, 327–328
Beattie, James, 39–40
Being and Time (Heidegger), 274
Bell, Derick, self-empowerment of black people, 414
Bell Curve, (Hernstein and Murray), 479
Bentley, Arthur, 550
Bernasconi, Robert, 251–252;
on Hegel, 257–258;
on Neitzsche’s racism, 18
Beyond Blood Identities, (Jason D. Hill), 410
Beyond Good and Evil, (Nietzsche), 59
bias, explicit and implicit, 358
Binet, Alfred, 477
biological anthropology, biological concepts of race and, 160. See also anthropology
biological race concept, usefulness of, 167–168;
scientific rejection of, 381–382
biological variation, evolution and ideas of race in, 160–161
biomedical sciences, race as category in, 464. See also assignment of race
biopower, idea of normalization and, 286–287
biracial or multiracial, right to identify as, 377;
challenge to black identity, 377–378
black American social identity, understanding of, 369
black and white, logic of the binary, 385
black athletes, boxing champions, 493;
competition during slavery, 491–492;
importance of image of, 488–489;
symbolic link between race and athletics, 489–490
black bodies, abjection and work, 326–327;
ineligible for personhood, 594;
as subjective site of trauma, 587–588;
treatment by police and state, 354–356
black inferiority, as motivation according to du Bois, 205
Black Intelligence Test of Cultural Homogeneity (BITCH-100), 477
black male racialized trauma, daily manifestations, 587–588. See also black bodies
(p. 621) Black Philosophy, White Academy, (Bruce Kuklick), 127–128
Black Power, as identity movement, 210–211
black respectability, emergent in slave narratives, 577;
Victorian ideology and, 577–578
Black Skin, White Masks (Fanon), 296
black women in United States, representations of, 576
Black Women’s Club Movement, 583
black-on-black crime, 357
Bland, Sandra, 392, 455, 457, 460, 546
Blood of Others (de Beauvoir), 275
Bloom, Lisa, 358
Blow, Charles, 258
Blum, Lawrence, 422
Blyden, Edward, 85–86
Bolívar, Simón, 119–120
Bondage, Douglass, 243
Bowen, William and Derek Bok, 542–543
Boxill, Bernard, about Kant’s racism and ethics, 17–18
Bracey, John, 310
breeding, Nietzsche’s idea of, 57–60
Brooks, Gwendolyn, 411, 412–413, 414
Brown, Michael, 214, 219, 221, 222, 338, 339, 352, 594, 596
Brown v. Board of Education, 3, 305, 438–439, 540
Buck-Morss, Susan, 256–258
Bureau of Indian Affairs, and blood quantum, 92
Butler, Judith, 354
Calhoun, John C., 263
Carnera, Primo, fight with Joe Lewis in 1935, 491
Carter, Jacoby Adeshi, 192
Casas, Bartolomé de las, 115–117
Caws, Peter, 299
Chandler, Nahum, 297
Charlie Hebdo, 609, 613
Chavis, Benjamin, nuanced critique of hip-hop, 579
Cherry, Myisha, 307
choices and options, 300
chora, black maternal, 325
Christian bible, account of race in, 84–87
Civil War Constitutional Amendments, 499
civilization, idea of, 284
class analysis, of racism, 262;
white privilege and, 336–339
class differences, from a materialist perspective, 266–267
classic racism, 305
classification accuracy, geographic genetic traits and race, 165–167;
identity, identification and, 393–395
classificatory constructivism, as theory of meaning of race, 175–177
classroom integration, equality argument for, 441–442
climate, and ideas of race, according to Hume, 35–36
Clinton, Hillary, comments on race and HIV/AIDS, 449–450
Clinton, President Bill, apology for Tuskegee syphilis study, 508
Collins, Patricia Hill, 613
colonialism, Nietzsche’s ideas on, 60–61
Colonizer and the Colonized, (Memmi), 271
color-line, as finish line, 491;
measured in sports, 491–494
communal identity, racial norms and, 398–399
comparative anthropology, as part of new biology, 285. See also anthropology
compatibilism, Hegel’s version of free will, 253
compensation, as part of reparations, 510–511
condom use, as higher among African Americans, 450
Construction of Social Reality, (Searle), 364
contemporary race theory, Alain Locke and, 201–203
contemporary social issues, involving race, 421–424
continental philosophy, race and, 247–250
Conway, Andrew R. A., 423
Cooper, Anna Julia, 570–573, 578
Corlett, J. Angelo, 185–186
corrective justice, racial contract and, 71–73
cosmopolitan identity, 407–410
Cosmopolitanism: Ethics in a World of Strangers (Appiah), 211
Cotkin, George, 273
(p. 622) couture, as raising Africana people out of muck, 320
Covino, Deborah, 324
Crenshaw, Kimberlé, 612–613
creolizing, as term for radical kind of racial mixture, 298
criollo, as Latin American identity, 120
critical plunder theory, 605–606
Critical Pragmatism of Alain Locke (Leonard Harris), 127
critical race studies scholarship, concept of race according to, 105–106;
critical race pluralism, 602–604
critical race theory, contemporary focus of, 266;
economic or material foundations of, 604–605;
exclusion of women in, 599–602;
metaphysics of, 602–604;
philosophy of race as, 18
Crummell, Alexander, 84–85, 571–572
Cugoano, Quobnz, 82–83
cultural pluralism, source of term, 125–126
Curry, Tommy, 562
Davis, Angela, insurrectionist ethics and, 229–232
de Beauvoir, Simone, 275
De Gobineau, Arthur, 568–569
Delaney, Martin, 84
detracking, equality argument for, 441–442
Diallo, Guinean Amadou, 592
Dieserud, Juul, 567–568
differential inclusion, against myth of voluntary immigration, 111
disadvantage, race and, 5–6
disciplinary decadence, of philosophy, according to Lewis Gordon, 271
disciplinary fear, of philosophy, according to Gayatri Spivak, 271
Discourse on the Origin of Inequality, (Rousseau), 67
diversity, in academic philosophy, 1–2, 4–5, 6–7. See also American Philosophical Association
diversity, race-neutral proposals for, 541–542, 546–547;
and structure of this volume, 11–13
Dolezal, Rachel, 580–581
domination contract, 66–67;
as racial contract, 69–71
Douglass, Frederick, 87–89, 243;
on Ida B. Wells, 313;
importance of struggle, 226
Douglass, Robert, coach of Harlem Rens, 492
Dred Scott v. Sanford, 527
drunk driving, as hypothetical case analogous to racial profiling, 429–432
Du Bois, W. E. B., 192
Du Bois, W. E. B., 192;
black sports reported in Crisis, 493;
color line, 491;
color line and philosophy of history, 494;
definition of race, 206
dual-systems theory, of racism and capitalism, 265–266, 268
DuBose, Samuel, 596
Dusk of Dawn, (Du Bois), 371–372
Dweck, Carol, 483
Dyson, Michael Eric, 219, 223
educational inequality, cultural explanations of, 443–444
effortful argon, 417
Eighteenth Amendment, prison conditions in violation of, 455–456
eighteenth-century Africans in England, discourse on race, 81–83, 89
eliminativism, of race, 126, 182–183
Encyclopedia of Philosophical Sciences, (Hegel), 252
Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals (Hume), 33
epidemiology, health differences by race, 465
epigenisis, 284
epistemological ignorance, 67;
and white innocence, 333–334
Equal Protection Clause, ambiguity of, 540;
equal protection law, development of, 526, 532–535
equality, and inequality, 3, 5, 22, 33, 37, 40, 66, 67, 103, 105;
de facto inequality, 331
Equiano, Olaudah, 82
Espiritu, Len Le, 78–79
Espris des lois, 37–38
Essai sur l’inégalité des races humaines. (Gobineau), 58
Essay on the Nature and Immutability of Truth, (James Beattie), 39–40
essentialism, about race in history of philosophy, 2–3
Ethics of Identity (Appiah), 211
(p. 623) ethnic/social race, according to Alain Locke, 200–201
ethnicity, 137;
substitution for race, 185–186
Ethnology, (A. H. Keane), 567
ethnology, science of, 567–568
ethnorace, substitution for race and ethnicity, 186–187
eugenics, 287–289;
Nietzsche’s idea of, 57–60
Europe, European racial contact during Age of Discovery and Industrial Revolution, 16
evolutionary forces, 161–162
existentialism, development of and race, 271
experiments, versuchen for racialized health, 414, 415, 416, 417
Eze, Emmanual, 37
Fanon, Franz, 247–248, 271, 591, 593;
exchange with Sartre on race, 274–276
Fanon and the Crisis of European Man, (Gordon), 295
Farr, David, 25
Fauset, Jessie, 578
feminism, related to black liberation, 562–563;
history of, 598–599
Ferguson, Stephen, 248–249
Filipinos, as colonized immigrants, 107–108
Filipinos, gender stereotypes, of, 107;
medicalization of as defective, 108;
second-class citizenship, 108
Filmer, Sir Robert, 21–23
Fisher v. University of Texas at Austin, 4, 544–546
Flower, Elizabeth, 127
fluid reasoning, 476
Fontaine, William, 4, 127
forensic anthropology, use of race concept, 167
formal equality, contradicted by real inequality, 5–6;
with nonwhite discrimination, 499–500, 502
Foster, Rube, founder of Negro National League, 495–496
Foucault, Michel, definition of racism, 345;
genealogical method, 282–284;
genealogy and social justice, 282
Fourteenth Amendment, 4, 217, 219, 220, 338, 389, 501, 526, 528, 533, 537, 538, 540, 550
Fritsch, Theodor, antisemitism of, 58
Frontiero v. Richardson, 531
Gaines, Kevin, 573
Galton, Francis, 58, 477
Garber, David, 236–238
Garcia, J. L. A., rejection of racial and ethnic identity by, 185
Garner, Eric, 214, 219, 372, 593, 595
Garrett, Aaron, about Hume’s racism, 17
Garvey, Marcus, idea of New Negro, 131
Garza, Alicia, 352
Gay Science, (Nietzsche), 59
Gender and Jim Crow, (Glender Gilmore), 572–573
gene flow, 161–162
general ability, g of intelligence, 477–478
genetic clusters, and race, 154–157
genetic distance, as related to geographic distance, 163
genetic drift, 161–162
genetic isolation, as related to geographic closeness, 163
genocide, in Kantian teleology, 51–52;
Nietzsche’s idea of extinction, 49
geographic race, 164–165
geography, in Kant’s ideas of race, 17–18
Gill, Kathleen, conditions for legitimate apology, 517–518
Gilmore, Glenda, 572
Glasgow, Joshua, 137
global genetic variation, 162–164;
and race, 164–166
globalization, 118–119
Gobineau, Joseph-Arthur de, 58
Gods, as law makers, 300–301
Gooding-Williams, Robert, 193–194
Gordon, Lewis, 250, 603
Gracia, Jorge, 137
Gracia, Jorge, identity of Latin Americans, 122–123
Grandin, Temple, 397
Gratz v Bollinger, 4, 539
Greave, William, 310
Grotius, Hugo, 25–26
growth mind set literature, 483
Grutter v Bollinger, 4, 538–540
Guttiérrez, Gustavo, 117–118
(p. 624) Habermas, Jürgen, 256
Hacking, Ian, 364
Haeckel, Ernst, on breeding and eugenics, 59
Haller, J. S., 568
Ham, in racial mythology, 78, 83, 84, 85, 86, 89, 323, 529
Hardimon, Michael, 136
Harkin, Senator Tom, apology for slavery, 522
Harlem Globetrotters, 490
Harlem Rens, black owned and coached basketball team, 492
Harris, Eric, 594–595
Harris, Leonard, 79–80;
description of racism, 225–226;
importance of struggle, 226
Hartman, Saidiya, 328
Haslanger, Sally, 172–177, 235
health disparities, by race and mass incarceration, 449–454
Hegel, concerning race, 257–258;
influence of Haitian Revolution, 256. See also Africa
Hegel, Haiti, and Universal History (Buck-Morss), 256–258
Heidegger, Martin, 274
Herrnstein, Richard and Charles Murray, 479
Hill, Jason D., 366
hip-hop culture, as misogynoir, 578–580, 581;
congressional hearings on, 578–579;
economics of, 580
Historically Black Colleges, scholarship on race in, 4
historicism, 240–241
history of human species, 162–164
History of Jamaica, (Edward Long), 29
history of philosophy, related to current practices, 236–240
HIV/AIDS, cause of death among African American women, 449–454
Holden, LaTasha, 423
Homeland, as complex imaginary, 348–349
Honneth, Axel, 251
horse racing, history of black jockeys, 492
human biology, race and, 135–136
human genetic diversity, as clinal, 165
human rights, in globalization context, 118–119;
related to white privilege, 337–339
Hume, David, racism of, 17;
influence of his ideas of race, 41;
on uniformity and diversity, 33–34, 35
hypodescent, 369
Iberian Conquest, in 15th and 16th centuries, 114–115
ideal theory, about justice, 548–550
identities, in contemporary social discourse, 392
immigration policy, racial aspects of, 500;
white-Latino education gap and, 437–438
immutability, concept for race and gender by US Supreme Court, 531
imperialism, as cause of racial formation, 105–107;
as embodied presence, 107
Imus, Don, 576–577
In the Shadow of Du Bois, (Gooding-Williams), 235, 241–243
Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl, (Harriet Jacobs), 577
indigeneity, as identity, 98–100;
fraudulent claims to, 94;
as imposed identity, 91–94;
indigenous erasure by settlers, 95–98
indigenous Tribes, blood criteria and, 92
industrial settler colonialism, 95–98;
ecological problems and, 99–100
Inequality of the Human Races, (Arthur de Gobineau), 568–569
injustice, asymmetry of, 551
institutional and structural racism, 305
insurrectionist ethics, core tenets, 227–229;
character traits of, 231–232
integration, civic argument for, 442
intelligence, tests for, 478;
measurement invariance problem, 478–480;
metaphysics of, 477–480;
studies in philosophy, 474;
theories of as entity and incremental, 483
intersectionality, as methodological concept, 562, 612–613
Jackie Robinson Story, 1950 film, 489;
Jackie Robinson myth, 495–496
Jacobs, Harriet, 577
James, Joy, 306
(p. 625) Japanese Americans, internment and reparations, 513
Jeffers, Chike, 192–193
Jefferson, Thomas, 581–583
Jensen, Arthur, 479
Jim Crow, response to, 241–242;
resubordination of African Americans, 511–513
Johnson, Clarence Sholé, 193
Johnson, Jack, world boxing champion, 493
Johnson, Marissa, 267
Johnson-Reed Act of 1924, 104
Jones, Janine, 306
Joyce, Richard, insincere apologies, 518
Judaken, Jonathan, 249
Jung, Moon-Hu, 104–105
just apology, as specific kind of moral apology, 519;
and reconciliation, 521–522;
requirements of, 520–521
justice and racial profiling, 426, 432–434. See also racial profiling
Kallen, Horace, 125–126
Kant, Immanuel, ideas of race and racism of, 17;
philosophy of history, 47–48;
teleology in history, 47–52;
three famous articles on race, 44–45
Kaufman, Walter, 54–55, 61–62
Keane, A. H., ethnology as field of anthropology, 567
Kleingold, Pauline, 44, 46–47
Kofman, Sarah, 55
Koopman, Colin, on Foucault’s method, 282–283
Koramatsu v. United States, 530–531, 533–534, 540
Kort, Louis, insincere apologies, 518
Kristeva, Julia, 323–324
Kuklick, Bruce, 127
Kymlicka, Will, 66
Laney, Lucy, 572
Latin American philosophy, distinctive theorizing of, 114
Latin Americans, identity of, 119–123
law, social technologies of regarding race, 343
Law of Peoples (Rawls), 549
Lectures on the Philosophy of History, (Hegel), 251
Letter Concerning Toleration, 26
Lever, Annabelle, 422
Léville, M., cited by Michel Foucault, 319–320, 325
Lewis, Joe, fight with Primo Carnera in 1935, 491
Lewontin, Richard, 143
liberation, insurrectionist ethics and, 225
liberation theology, in Latin America, 117–118
Lines of Descent: W. E. B. Du Bois and the Emergence of Identity, (Appiah), 212
Locke, Alain, 79–80;
American pragmatism and, 130;
archives of, 125;
biography of, 128–129;
idea of race as social culture, 198–200;
primary conceptions of race, 195–196;
remains of, 131–132
Locke, John, modern idea of race, 16;
racist involvements, 69;
on reparation, 516;
two theories of slavery of, 21–23
Lorde, Audre, life as eros, 614–615
Louis, Joe, 493
Lukács, György, 268
lynching, 310–318
Lyons, David, 501
Mailer, Norman, 271
making up people, 364
Malcolm X, 358–359
male patriarchy, as trans-racial value, 601–602
Mallon, Ron, 365–366
Martin, Trayvon, 214, 352, 361, 416, 556, 558
Marxism, perspective, on race, 248–249;
racism, 261–262
masculine and feminine, distance from and ethnological ranking of racial groups, 568–570
mass incarceration, related to spread of HIV/AIDS, 450–454
materialist approach, to race, 263, 268–269
McBride, Lee, 193
McClendon, John H., III, 424
McClinntock, Ann, white race as male and black as female, 569–570
(p. 626) McIntosh, Peggy, invisible knapsack, 333, 337, 338
McPherson, Lionel, 364–365
McWhorter, Ladelle, 249–250
measurement invariance, racial differences on IQ tests, 480
median wealth, of whites and blacks, 266
mestizaje, ideas of, 120, 122
metaphysics of race and ethnicity, 135–137, 181–183
method of cases, for defining race, 140–141, 142
Mexico, failure of positivist government in, 122
micro-aggressions, effects of, 608
militants against racism, historical, 230–231
Mill, John Stuart, applications for racial identity by Appiah, 211;
moral rules of justice and human social feelings, 519;
on social tyranny, 388–389
Mills, Charles, 344–345, 590;
as critical theorist of race, 18;
dual-systems theory of, 265–266
minimalist biological phenomenon of race, 152;
concept of race, specifications, 150–152;
existence of, 152–154, 157–159
minority power movements, of late 1960s and early 1970s, 103
misogynoir, 581, 583. See also hip-hop culture
Mitchell, Michelle, 573
mixed black and white people (MBW), identities of, 380;
claiming mixed identities, 382–383, 383–384, 387
mixed race, racial assignment and, 467
MLB (Major League Baseball), as racially progressive, 490
mockery, joy in, 611;
mocking images, 613–614
model minority myth, of Asian Americans, 104–105
models of justice, 549;
compatible with racial injustice, 550–551
modern political society, racial contract in, 69–71
monogenetic theory, as defended by Kant, 17, 45
Montesquieu, 37–38
moral causes, of racial differences. See Hume: on uniformity and diversity
moral suasionism, failure of against racism, 226
Morgan, Jennifer, 326
Morrison, Toni, documentary narration on Ida B. Wells, 310
Mosley, Albert, 78
Moynihan, Senator Patrick, 583
multiculturalism, 284, 402, 407, 409;
in academy, 6, 7
Murphey, Murray G., 127
muslims, racialization of post 9/11, 349
mutation, 161–162
narrative, ability to motivate racial justice, 556–557
narrow tailoring, as applied by US Supreme Court, 4, 537
National Center for Health Statistics, birth or death certificate for assignment of race, 465–466
Native Americans, reparations due to, 513
natural history, and new science of biology, 284–285
natural law theory, controversy about indigenous rights and, 115
natural rights, realist conception of, 116–117;
slavery in tradition of, 25–26
natural selection, 161–162
NBA, institution of color line by, 490
negritude poets, 275
Negro Women’s Club movement, 310
Neitzsche, Friedrich, ideas of race and racism of, 18;
agon, 414–415;
nihilism, 414
neoliberalism, and racism, 290–292
neo-racisms, 305–306
neo-realism, about race, 182–183
nested diversity, within human populations, 165
New Negro, (Alain Locke), 126–127
Newman, Louise, 570
Nietzsche, as race theorist, 55–57. See also eugenics
nihilism, according to Cornel West, 216–217
nineteenth century African American discourse on race, 83–89
(p. 627) nonideal theory, about justice, 549–550;
thought experiment for, 72–73
normalization, as linked to biopower, 286–287
normative humanity, idea of, 109
normative whiteness, invisibility of, 333–334
Notes on the State of Virginia (Thomas Jefferson), 581–583
Obama, Barack, extrajudicial killings of black men and, 217–218;
as first black president, 384
O’Conner, Justice Sandra Day, 538, 540–541
OMB, five categories of race in US, 464;
self-reporting for assignment of race, 465
Omi, Michael and Howard Winant, 364
On the Genealogy of Morality, (Nietzsche), 56, 60
ontological freedom, 274
ontological status of race, as social, 263
ontopolitics, 344–348
oppositional culture, and educational inequality, 444–445
ordinary concept of race, in US, 171–172
Osborne, Frederick, 288–289
Our Home Colony (Moses Fleetwood Walker), 493
Outlaw, Lucius, against Appiah’s critique of Du Bois, 209;
on Africana philosophy, 553
Oyewùmí, Oyèrónké, 323
Ozawa v. United States, 529–530
Paget, Henry, 297
Parks, Rosa, resistance before Jackie Robinson, 490
passing, 388–389
Pateman, Carol, 65, 67
Patriarcha, (Robert Filmer), 21, 22–24
Pettigrove, Glen, insincere apologies, 518
PGA tour, African Americans on, 493
pharmacology, use of race differences in, 465
phenomenology, non-European origins of, 294
Philosophical Society or Wise Club of Aberdeen, 4
Philosophy Born of Struggle, (Leonard Harris), 128
Philosophy in History, (Rorty, Schneewind, and Skinner), 236
Philosophy of Alain Locke, (Leonard Harris), 127
philosophy of race, as academic subject, 6–7, 8–10;
philosophy of science and race, 135–137
phobogenic objects, 271
phylogeny, relevance to ethnology, 568
Pillar of Salt, (Memmi), 271, 276
Pippin, Robert, 253
Plessy v. Ferguson, 528–529
Plum Bum, (Jessie Fauset), 578
pluralism, in ideas of race, 77–80
police homicide, of African Americans, 214. See also racial profiling
Political Discourse, (Hume), 35
political philosophy, by whites, 68–69;
whiteness of, 72–73
political struggle, importance of for social justice, 514–515
politics of difference, diversity within societies and, 180–181
politics of expressive self-realization, 241
polygenesis, 39–40
polylogism, identical in all racial identities, 402
population clusters, as failed definition of race, 145–147
population genetics, 161–162;
and existence of race, 153–154
positive manifold, correlation over intelligence tests, 477–478
positivism, autochthonous in Latin America, 121–122
post-Obama existential threat, to black men, 217–218;
prophetic pragmatism and, 221–223
potentiated double consciousness, 297
power, existential phenomenological aspects of, 299–300;
exploitation and, 262
presentism, 240–241
Prison Rape Elimination Act, 455–456
Process of Government, (Arthur Bentley), 550
property, Locke’s idea of, 25–26
prophetic pragmatism, 215–217
psychology of intelligence, scientific history, 475–477
public apathy, towards incarcerated, remedies for, 456–458
(p. 628) Rabossi, Eduardo, 118–119
race, as behavior and institutions, 488;
defined from armchair, 140–141;
defined from origins, 140, 141;
defined from “the folk,” 140, 141–142;
definitions, 139–147;
functional account of, 342;
history of connection with education, 436;
idea of in history of philosophy, 2–3;
ideas of in modern philosophy, 15–19;
ideas of in twentieth-century philosophy, and law, 3–4, 499–503;
meaning of as racism, 380;
meaning of related to racial profiling, 427;
nature of for racial identification, 397–398;
as necessary for racial identity, 395–397;
and political philosophy, 499–503;
as proxy in epidemiology, 468–469;
and public policy, 499–503;
scientific definitions, 142–148;
as social culture, 198–200
race and ethnicity, preserving concepts, 179, 186–187;
epistemic problems of, 181
Race Matters, 215
racial categories, new, as result of immigration, 103–104;
US classification of, 463–464
racial contract, 344–345
Racial Contract (Mills), 65, 68–73;
responses to, 73–74
racial criteria, instability of, 181
racial discrimination, understanding problem of, 532–535
racial diversity, importance of for US Supreme Court, 538–541
racial generalizations, as source of problems with racial profiling, 428–429
racial identities, as biological collectivism and moral laziness, 403–404;
collective, 393;
as problematic, 402;
substitution for race and ethnicity, 183–184;
value of, 206
racial norms, 398–400
racial profiling, forms of philosophical reflection on, 425;
homicide by police, 5;
in medicine, 469–472;
preventative/preemptive police racial profiling, 426–427;
statistical determination approach, 426, 428–429, 432–433
racial subjectivism, 405–407
racial taxonomy, according to Hegel, 253
racial uplift, evolutionary doctrine used in 19th century black thought, 570–573
racial variation, within geographical racial groups, 165–167
racialization, of Middle Eastern Men, 307
racialized identities, requirements for healthier ones, 416–417
racial-sexual contract, 580–583
Racism, (Memmi), 271, 278–279
racism, 305–306;
in disciplinary society, 289–290;
genealogy of, 283;
invention of term, 289;
and neoliberalism, 290–292;
tilted view as permanent, 413–414
racist ideology, 263
radical contract theory, 67–68
radical democracy, 359–361
Raengo, Alessandra, 591
Rankineau, Claudia, on Serena Williams, 496
ranking of races, by Kant, 48
rap music, commercialization of and attention to women and sexuality, 576
rape, dimension of shame from, 615;
distorted as white victimization, 310–312
rational improvisation theory of meaning, of race, 172–177
Rawls, John, 66, 68, 74, 548–550
rectificatory justice, requirements of compensation and apology, 517
recyclability and nonrecylability, of black people, 321–322
Red Record (Ida B. Wells), 310
redoubled gesture, 297
Reed, Adolph, 265, 267
Regents of the University of California v. Bakke, 4, 531, 533–534;
relevance to affirmative action, 537–539
Relethford, John, 137
reparations for slavery, moral argument for, 505, 507–509;
what should have happened in 1865, 509–511
residential segregation, 306, 555–556
responsibility for racial disparities, 445–446;
of whites for racial inequality, 334–335
Retamar, Fernández, 122–123
(p. 629) Rice, Tamir, 214, 352, 354, 595
Rich, Adrienne, 589
Rickey, Branch, Dodger President, 494
ridicule, politics of, 609;
as awe’s underside, 610
Righteous Propagation, (Michelle Mitchelle), 573
Risse, M. and R. Zeckhauser, on racial profiling, 427, 428–429
Roberts, Rodney, 501
Roosevelt, Theodore, characterization of Filipinos, 107
Root, Maria P. P., 385–387
Root, Michael, 423
Rosenberg, N., et al., 154–157
Rothstein, Richard, Economic Policy Institute Report on Residential Segregation, 555
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques, 66
Rubin, Rick, founder of Def Jam Records, 579
Sancho, Ignatius, 82
Sander, Richard, 543–544
Sanders, Bernie, 267
Saperstein, Abe, Harlem Globtrotters and, 490
Sarkozy, Nicholas, colonialist views, 325–326
Sarmiento, Domingo, 120–121
Sartre, Jean-Paul, 247–248;
critique of Memmi, 276–278;
exchange with Fanon on race, 274–276
SAT and ACT tests, 478
Scenes of Subjection (Hartman), 328
scientific racism, prehistory of, 284–286
The Scope and Content of the Science of Anthropology (Juul Dieserud), 567–568
Scott, Jacquline, 366
Scott, Walter, 214, 556, 557, 596–597
Scottish philosophers, of eighteenth century, 32, 33, 39–40
Searle, John, 364
Sebastiani, Silvia, 17
Second Treatise of Government, 21–23
segregation, meanings of, 438–440
semantics, as criteria for applying terms, 171
Sepúlveda, Juan Ginés, 115
sexuality, as ascribed to Negroes, 273–274;
as key to racial discipline, 288
Shakur, Assata (Joanne Chesimard), 309
shame crimes, 615–617
Shank, Gerd, 55
Sharpley-Whiting, T. Denean, 562–563
Shelby, Tommie, 361
Sheth, Falguni, 307
Shrage, Laurie, 422–423
Simmons, John, on Rawlsian nonideal theory, 549
Simon, Theodore, 477
Simplican, Stacy, 67
Sketches of the History of Man, (Lord Kames), 39
Slaughterhouse Cases, 528
slave trade, exploitation and, 263;
Jim Crow, history of and its effects, 506–507;
Locke’s theories of slavery, 21–24;
Nietzsche’s ideas on, 60–61
slaves, prevented from learning to read, 436;
societies with, 191
Smith, Nick, categorical apology, 518
social bonds, importance of repairing, 616–617
social construction, racial identities and, 363–367
Social Contract, (Rousseau), 67
social contract theory, golden age of, 66;
mainstream, 65–67
social Darwinism, Kant and, 18
social tyranny, passing and, 388–389
socioancestry, as source of black identity, 375–377
Souls of Black Folk, (du Bois), 126, 241–243
Southern Horrors (Ida B. Wells), 310
Sowell, Thomas, 542
Spanish American War, colonization of, 106
spirit, according to Hegel, 252–253
spirit of seriousness, 298
sports, capitalism and, 488–489
Steele, Claude and Joshua Aronson, 481
Stein, Ben, on Michael Brown’s body as a weapon, 594
Sterba, James, 502
(p. 630) stereotype threat, measurement invariance and, 481–484
stereotyping, of blacks as ontological, 592
Sterling, Donald, ousted as LA Clippers owner, 489
Stockett, Kathryn, 581
strict scrutiny, as applied by US Supreme Court, 4, 537
subrace, and superrace, 354–355
subspecies, as failed definition of race, 143–144
Sullivan, Shannon, 306–307
Suspicion Nation, (Lisa Bloom), 358
suture, as repairing stitches made on the body, 320
symbolic aggression, 608
Tallbear, Kim, 98–99
Taylor, Charles, 238–240
Taylor, Paul, 240–241
Terman, Lewis, Sanford-Binet test, 477–478
terror, focus on by Ida B. Wells, 310
The Help, (Kathryn Stockett), 581
Theory of Justice, (Rawls), 66, 548–549
Thinking in Pictures (Temple Grandin), 397
Thomas, Justice Clarence, 539, 541
Troublesome Inheritance, (Nicholas Wade), 479
Truman, President, military desegregation by, 3
truth, as important for identity, 211–212;
as unpalatable, 412–413
Twilight of the Idols, (Nietzsche), 59
Two Treatises of Government, 21
Tyler, Imogen, 323
U.S. Supreme Court, on social justice in higher education, 4–5
under-education, 306
UNESCO, 3;
Statement on Race, 55
United Nations, indigenous issues and, 92
Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), 553–554
University of Texas, Top Ten Percent Plan, 545–546
unsocial sociality, (Kant), 50
Uplifting the Race, (Kevin Gaines), 573
US Census, multiracial category in, 383
US Congress, apology to African Americans for slavery and Jim Crow segregation, 522–523
US Supreme Court, switch from social to biological idea of race, 526–531;
use of Caucasian and white categories, 529–530
US v. Bhagat Sing Thind, 529–530
USA Patriot Act, 346–347
Uzgalis, John, on Locke’s ideas of race, 16–17
Vietnamese, as war refugees, 108–110;
racialization as subordinate, 109
Virchow, Rudolf, survey on race, 56
Vitoria, Francisco de, 115, 117
Vogt, Carl, idea of Negroes as female, childish, or senile, 570
Voice from the South, (Julia Ann Cooper), 578
voting rights, contemporary obstacles to, 554–555
vulnerable solidarity, 359–361
Wade, Nicholas, 479
Walker, David, 84
Walker, Moses Fleetwood, 493
Wallace, Robert, quarrel with Hume, 38
War on Terror, contributions to racialization of Muslims, 342–344
Washington, Booker T., 373
We Who Are Dark, (Tommie Shelby), 361
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), 478
Wells, Ida B., political pamphlets, 310
Weschler, David, 476
West, Cornel, 214–217;
and post-Obama existential threat, 221–223
Western philosophy, accounts of rectificatory justice in, 516
When Peoples Meet, (Alain Locke and Bernard Stern), 79, 131
white class privilege, 307
white ethnics, 4
white man’s burden, as waste management problem, 319, 320
(p. 631) white privilege, 306–307;
support for by US Supreme Court, 533–534;
and white class differences, 336–339;
white privilege, as term, 332
white supremacy, global, 335–336
white-black and white-native American education gap, 437
whiteness, racial, as European and Christian, 322–323;
whiteness, as norm and invisible racial identity, 412
Whyte, Kyle Powys, 78
Wilkerson, Doxey A., 249;
on racist mythologogy, 263
Willett, Cynthia, 563–564
Williams, Robert, 477
Wood, Allen, 49–51
world citizenship, according to cosmopolitanism, 408
World Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance, 2001, 516
world history, according to Hegel, 253, 255–257
Yancy, George, 298, 563;
on “effortless grace,” 415
Zack, Naomi, 29, 39, 183, 219, 262, 301, 336, 357, 377, 427, 502, 532, 563, 592, 613
Zambrana, Rocío, 248
Zong massacre of 1783, 82