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date: 26 February 2020

Abstract and Keywords

Ideas of race in the discourse of Africans living in the shadow of the dominant colonialist racial theory(ies) included Ignatius Sancho, Olaudah Equiano, and Quobna Cugoano in eighteenth-century England; and David Walker, Martin Delaney, Alexander Crummell, Edward Blyden, and Frederick Douglas in nineteenth-century America. Africans in England were active in abolitionist causes and expressed outrage at callous treatment of slaves at sea. African American abolitionists argued against slavery with the use of both religious and scientific principles. Douglass argued for the existence of only one human race and extended his arguments against slavery to opposition to the exploitation of Asian workers in the “coolie” trade.

Keywords: race, Ham, Africans, slavery, Frederick Douglass

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