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date: 12 July 2020

(p. 503) Index

(p. 503) Index

Page numbers followed by f indicate figures. Numbers followed by n indicate notes.

ABA (Architectural Barriers Act), 130, 157n42, 444
ableism, 30, 33, 40n45, 86, 138n30, 165166, 469470
abortion, 391, 398399, 402n15
ACCD (American Coalition of Citizens with Disabilities), 449
access
barrier-free design, 130, 150, 157n42, 444
do-it-yourself (DIY), 147149
to economic citizenship, 439442
to education, 371
to employment, 204206
physical, 150, 444
to public education, 445446
accessibility, 169170
accidents, work-related, 202203, 250
accountability, 170171
Accra, Ghana, 218
Achilles, 44
Ackerknecht, Erwin, 107
activism, 109, 488492. See also disability rights movement
activity objects, 132
actor network theory, 138n38
ADA (Americans with Disabilities Act), 130, 439, 451–54n1
ADA Amendments Act, 452
Adams, George Washington, 495n19
Adams, Mark B., 99n17
Adams, Rachel, 14n17
ADAPT (American Disabled for Accessible Public Transit), 450
ADAPT quilt (Selders), 172n6
Adas, Michael, 136n11
Adichie, Chimamanda, 171
advertisements, 330
advocacy, 383n50, 451
Aeneas, 330
aesthetics, 129130, 138n35, 146
affect theory, 138n38
Afghanistan, 484
AFL (American Federation of Labor), 249, 251254, 259n20
AFL-CIO, 255256
AFPH (American Federation of the Physically Handicapped), 253254, 443
Africa. See also specific countries
British West Africa, 213227
postcolonial, 489, 498n52
African Americans, 129. See also specific individuals by name
on antebellum stage, 351353, 357361, 363, 364n9
disabled veterans, 239240, 443444
life insurance for, 233234, 243n32
Progressive Era, 230241
veterans’ organizations, 490491
African Marine Society, 249
Aftershock (Tangshan da dizhen, 2010), 408, 416418, 420
Agar, N., 102n52
Agent Orange, 483
Age of Reason, 309
Agesilaus, 4546
aging, 111112
agrarian doctrine, 224n9
Ahmed, Sara, 467
Aid to the Blind program, 255
Aid to the Permanently and Totally Disabled program, 255
Air Carrier Access Act, 450
Alabama, 256
(p. 504) Alaska, 448
al-Basri, Abu ‘Uthman ‘Amr b. Bahr (al-Jahiz), 73
Albrecht, Donald, 137n19
Albronda, Mildred, 436n12
Aleppo, Syria, 7576
Alexander, 46
alienation, 4
alienism, 317
Alison, S. Scott, 184185
Allen, Barry, 135n7
AMA (American Medical Association), 107, 255
American Annals of the Deaf, 430431
American Asylum for Deaf-Mutes, 361
American Coalition of Citizens with Disabilities (ACCD), 449
American Disabled for Accessible Public Transit (ADAPT), 450
American Expeditionary Force (AEF), 237
American Federation of Labor (AFL), 249, 251254, 259n20
American Federation of the Physically Handicapped (AFPH), 253254, 443
American Historical Review, 7, 21
American International Shipbuilding Association, 236
American Journal of Insanity (later of Psychiatry), 294
American Legion, 443444, 490
American Medical Association (AMA), 107, 255
American Museum, 355357, 365n14
American National Standards Institute (ANSI), 132
American National Standard Specifications for Making Buildings Accessible to, and Usable by, the Handicapped (1961), 150, 157n42
American Psychiatric Association (APA), 313, 459, 462, 465467, 486
American Psychological Association (APA), 237238
American Red Cross, 238
American Revolution, 481
American Sign Language, 29
American Standards for Barrier-Free Design, 444
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), 130, 439, 451–54n1
amniocentesis, 390
amphetamines, 498n53
amputees, 245n59, 250, 481
AMSAII (Association of Medical Superintendents of American Institutions for the Insane), 311, 313
anatomy, unusual, 385406
ancient world, 4153, 123n40, 495n15
Anderson, Melissa, 430
Angola, 489, 491
animal studies, 138n34
ANSI (American National Standards Institute), 132
al-Antaki, Dawud, 77, 82n26
antebellum stage, 351368
anthropometry, 235238
antidiscrimination laws, 448, 451
antipathy, 363
antiquity, Greco-Roman, 4153
antisemitism, 9697, 490
anxiety, 295296
APA (American Psychiatric Association), 313, 459, 462, 465467, 486
APA (American Psychological Association), 237238
Apgar, Virginia, 390
Appalachia, 256
Appleyard, B., 102n52
Arabic, 7273
Arab world, 63, 7183
ARC (Association for Retarded Citizens), 445
archaeology, 58
Archaic Age, 4344
Architectural Barriers Act (ABA), 130, 157n42, 444
architecture, 150, 311, 444
archivists, 23, 12n2, 13n4
Areskon, 49
Areskusa, 49
Aristotelianism, 63
Aristotle, 74
Aristotle’s Masterpiece, 399
Armitage, Ben, 285286
(p. 505) Arskaia-Smirnova, Elena, 13n10
art. See also performance
disabled artists, 331334, 345, 361
in eighteenth-century England, 327350
self-portraits, 331333, 332f
Arthasastra, 201
art history, 58, 61
artifacts, 136n15, 142, 163. See also documents; material culture
artificial limbs, 145, 155n17, 202203, 245n59, 336, 375. See also prosthetics
artificial organs, 137n27
asbestos, 256
Ashby, Hal, 413
Asia, 71, 8990. See also South Asia; specific countries
Asian Americans, 129
assimilation, 5
assistive technology, 129, 136n14. See also technology
Association for Retarded Citizens (ARC), 445
Association of Medical Officers of American Institutions for Idiotic and Feeble-Minded Persons (AMOAIIFM), 315
Association of Medical Superintendents of American Institutions for the Insane (AMSAII), 311, 313
Associazione Nazionale degli Invalide della Guerra, 491492
The Asylum for the Deaf (Sandby), 335
asylums. See also institutional care; specific asylums
colonial records, 281292
discharges, 295298
transnational correspondence, 293306
atheism, 68n16
Athens, Greece, 4153
Atlantic Monthly, 95
Attfield, Judy, 153
Attitudes and Disabled People: Issues for Discussion (Finkelstein), 4
attitudes toward children with unusual anatomy, blind, deaf or intellectually disabled, 389390
attitudes toward disabled workers, 183185, 248
attitudes toward people with impairments, 7980, 83n41
Auckland Asylum (Auckland, New Zealand), 281, 284287, 300
Auckland Lunatic Asylum (New Zealand), 294
Augustine, 50, 60
Aulus Cornelius Celsus, 47
Australia, 281292, 451, 488491
Austria, 213
authoritative sources, 162
autism, 66
Autism and Gender: From Refrigerator Mothers to Computer Geeks (Jack), 89
Autistic History Month, 167
autonomy, 25, 397, 399
aversion therapy, 463, 465
Aveyron, France: Wild boy of, 278n10
Avicenna, 62
Al-Azhar University (Cairo, Egypt), 76
Bahan, B., 277n2
Baillie, H. W., 102n52
Bale, Anthony, 258n14
Ball, Natalie, 102n56
Baltics, 89. See also specific states
Bancroft Library (University of California, Berkeley), 17n42
Banner, Lois, 21
Banta, Martha, 242n3
Barclay, Jennifer, 166
Barnartt, Sharon, 456n47
Barnes, Colin, 192n1, 192n3
Barnum, Phineas T. (PT), 5, 354357, 365n14, 365n26, 387, 399
Baron, Ava, 231, 241n1, 257
barrier-free design, 130, 150, 157n42, 444
Barsch, Sebastian, 11–13nn2–3, 14n11, 14n15
Bartlett, John Russell, 367n49
Bartola, 356
Basch, Linda, 302n4
The Bath Fly (Collet), 336
Battle of Waterloo, 481
Bauman, L., 277n2
Baynton, Douglas C., 7, 16nn27–28, 51n7, 9394, 135n4, 352, 365n29, 468469, 471n6
Bean, Annemarie, 366n48
Becket, Thomas, 64
Bede, 59
Beers, Clifford, 317318
(p. 506) begging, 76, 200201, 218, 220, 330331, 334335, 339341, 340f, 345
behavior therapy, 465
Beitiks, Emily Smith, 156n30
Bel Geddes, Norman, 145146
Belgium, 266, 270272
Bell, Alexander Graham, 432
Bell, Christopher, 352
Bell, J. H., 318
benevolence, 283, 309
Bennett, Jane, 138n38
Berbers, 72
Berger, Stefan, 193n23
Bergler, Edmund, 462
Berkowitz, Edward D., 258n14, 259n25, 455n22, 456n37
Berkson, Gershon, 58
BESB (British Empire Society for the Blind), 215, 222, 226n40
Bess, Michael D., 138n37
Beston, Emma de, 6466
The Best Years of Our Lives (1946), 15n20, 487
Bethlehem Steel, 240
Bethlem Royal Hospital (London), 308
Bevin, Ernest, 216
Beyond the Miracle Worker (Nielsen), 30
Bible, 61, 68n16, 199
Bicskei, Éva, 382n25
Bieber, Irving, 462
Biffin, Sarah, 331
Bijker, Wiebe, 143, 156n36
Bill of Rights for Developmentally Disabled People, 450
biographical dictionaries, 7576, 82n20
biography, disability, 2140
biopolitics, 479480
biotechnology, 9495
birth defects, 385406
al-Bishari, Ahmad al-Hifnawi, 73
Bishop, Thomas, 181
Bishop, W. H. A., 218
Black, Edwin, 86, 99n17, 316
blackface minstrelsy, 351358, 361363, 364n9, 366n48
Blackie, Daniel, 80, 192n9, 201
black lung, 256
Black Lung Benefits Program, 256
Blackman, W. F., 234
Black Panthers, 449450
blacks, 339. See also African Americans
The Black Stork (1916), 389390
The Black Stork: Eugenics and the Death of “Defective” Babies in American Medicine and Motion Pictures Since 1915 (Pernick), 6
Blanc-Szanton, Cristina, 302n4
Blantyre Colliery (Scotland), 181
Blatt, Burton, 321, 444445
Blight, David, 367n54
blights and blightedness, 7374
blind education, 265266. See also special education
The Blind Girl (Mang gu nü, 1925), 409
blindness, 4849, 74, 76, 220221, 402n20
deaf-blindness, 265280
representations of, 330, 339340, 345
river (onchocerciasis), 215, 221222
Blind Veterans Association (BVA), 443444, 491492
Block, Pamela, 17n38
blue babies, 393
The Blue Kite (Lan fengzheng, 1993), 407, 411, 420
Blund, John, 62
bodily autonomy, 25
bodily conformation, 282283
bodily differences, 282, 288
body, 125139
body braces, 130, 136n16
body electric, 153
bodymind (term), 43
Body of War (2007), 487
body socks, 152
Boer War, 236, 483
Bogdan, Robert, 56, 15n19, 355
Borg, Ossian Edmund, 273276, 280n45
Borg, Pär Aron, 273
Borgmann, Albert, 138n38
Boris, Eileen, 231, 241n1, 257
Born on the Fourth of July (1989), 413, 487
Borsay, Anne, 14n13, 213214
Bosch, Hieronymus, 330
Bosnia, 483
Boster, Dea H., 12n2, 166, 173n20
(p. 507) Boston Minstrels, 356357, 365n26
Botswana, 220
Bourke, Joanna, 235
Bourne, Randolph, 236
Boutilier v. Immigration and Naturalization Services, 464
Bowe, Frank, 456n42
Bower, Frank, 356, 361
Bowles, Samuel, 209n51
Bracton, Henry de, 59, 67n14
brain injury, traumatic (TBI), 484485
Brantlinger, Patrick, 233
Brashear, Regan, 122n28
Braslow, Joel, 90, 289n5
Brazil, 86, 9091, 404n44
Brazilian Mental Hygiene League, 9091
Breaking the Silence (Piaoliang mama, 2000), 407, 414416, 420
Bredberg, Elizabeth, 162163
Breisach, Ernst, 241n2
Breslin, Mary Lou, 446447
Brewster, John, 333
Brian, Kathleen M., 173n20
Bridgman, Laura, 266, 272
Briggs, Laura, 100n23
British Empire Society for the Blind (BESB), 215, 222, 226n40
British Legion, 490
Broadway, Michael J., 260n39
Brody, Saul Nathaniel, 83n41
Brooks, Ann, 294
Brown, Harold, 137n25
Brown, John S., 463
Brownell, Susan, 409
brown lung, 256
Bruges, Belgium, 271272
Brynner, R., 403n31
Buchanan, Robert, 454n2
Buchinger, Matthias (Matthew), 331332, 332f, 333334, 345, 347n32
Buck, Carrie, 2627, 93, 318
Buck v. Bell, 93, 103n66, 318, 390
Bucur, Maria, 92, 99n17, 100n22
Buddhism, 408409
Buddle, John, 187
building design, 130, 150, 157n42, 444
Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 17n39
Bunker, Chang and Eng, 399400, 405n57
Bunzel, Dirk, 224n4
Burch, Susan, 11–13nn2–3, 37n1, 161n, 172n2
Burgdorf, Robert, 452
Burke, Lorelle, 291n43
Burma, 482
Burnham, John C., 302n5
Burt, Thomas, 181, 188
Busby, Thomas, 339
Bush, George H. W., 452
Butterfly Brigade, 449450
BVA (Blind Veterans Association), 443444, 491492
Bynum, William, 121n23
Caesar, Ginger and Julius, 359360
Cahn, Susan K., 471n2, 471n4
Cairo, Egypt, 7778
Caldwell, James, 337339, 338f
Califano, Joseph, 450
California, 23, 455n33
Callot, Jacques, 330
Cameron, Thomas, 24
Campbell, Duncan Scott, 13n10
cams, 129130
Canada
antidiscrimination legislation, 451
disability rights movement, 3
disabled veterans, 213, 488489
eugenics, 9091, 318
guidelines for accessible building design, 444
Immigration Act, 296
institutions for people with disabilities, 307324
veterans’ organizations, 490491
Canadian Legion, 490
Canadian Paraplegic Association (CPA), 492, 500n65
Candlin, Fiona, 135n1
cane belts, 141
canes, 141142
Canguilhem, George, 107
capitalism, 310
corporate, 232233
industrial, 80, 177
welfare, 251, 259n19
Captagon, 498n53
(p. 508) Carden-Coyne, Ana, 224n1
cardiac neurosis, 483
care, 113
caregivers, 414416
Carfin Colliery Friendly Society, 186
Carlston, Erin G., 472n10, 472n14
Carmody, Todd, 471n5
Carpenter, Daniel, 403n31
Carracci, 331
Carter, Jimmy, 449
Carton, Charles-Louis, 270272, 276, 278n24
Carty, Breda, 430
Casey, T. K., 102n52
caste disability, 198199, 203205, 207n6
Caswell Training School for the Feeble-Minded (North Carolina), 315
catalogueing, 329330
Catholicism, 88, 114
Cavalconte, Fatima, 17n38
CDPF (China Disabled Persons’ Federation), 410
celebrities with disabilities, 417
Cell, John, 242n5
Center for Independent Living (CIL), 447
Central America, 89. See also specific countries
Cerf, Vinton, 136n15
Chang, Iris, 493n2
change, 126
charity, 48
“Charity Covereth a Multitude of Sins” (Rowlandson), 335
Chase, Cheryl, 365n22
Chauncey, George, 463, 472n24, 473n30
Chen Guoxing, 420
Chen Huaien, 408
Chennai, India, 200
Chicago, Illinois, 235
child labor, 183
children
blue babies, 393
in Cold War Hungary, 372379
institutional care for disabled children, 290n20, 374375
monstrous births, 138nn29–30, 385406
with polio, 377380
poster children, 380
thalidomide babies, 391, 394395, 404n44
Children’s Bureau (US), 390391
China Disabled Persons’ Federation (CDPF), 410
Chitty, A. B., 257n5
Christian Arabs, 72
Christianity, 4748, 199
Christiansen, John B., 456n47
Christian stoicism, 327328
Christmas in Purgatory (Blatt), 321, 445
Christy’s Minstrels, 356, 362, 366n32
Chumakov, Mikhail, 372
Chung, Yuehtsen Juliette, 89, 99n17
Church, R. A., 182
Churchill, Winston, 23
Cigar Makers’ International Union, 249
CIL (Center for Independent Living), 447
cinema, 6, 15n20, 407423, 487
CIO (Congress of Industrial Organizations), 247248, 252254. See also AFL-CIO
citizenship, 9091, 434435
economic, 439442
martial, 479, 488492, 494n8
City of Sadness (Beiqing chengshi, 1989), 407, 412413, 420, 422n16, 422n18
Civil Rights Act, 448449
Civil Rights of Institutionalized Persons Act, 450
Civil Rights Restoration Act, 450
Clare, Eli, 122n24, 122n30
Clark, Claudia, 258n17
Clark, Patricia, 51n4
class, 202204
classical age, 5
Claudius, 48, 51n5
Clerc, Laurent, 273
clinical research, 138n34, 320
COA (Committee on Anthropology), 235, 237
coal mining, 177189, 193n23, 203, 250, 256, 258n10
Cogdell, Christina, 99n17, 136n16, 145, 154n6
cognitive disability, 445. See also intellectual disability
cognitive psychology, 47
Cohen, D., 224n1
Cohen-Rottenberg, Rachel, 172n6
(p. 509) Cold War Hungary, 369383
Coleborne, Catharine, 289n1, 289n4, 289n9, 290n13, 290n18, 291n43, 295296, 302n3
collectivism, 129
Collet, John, 336, 344
The Collier Boy, 183
colliers, 181
colonial America, 308
colonial asylum records, 281292
colonial blindness, 220221
colonial British West Africa, 213227
Colonial Development and Welfare Act (CD&W Act) (UK), 217
colonialism, 203204
Colors of the Blind (1997), 420421
combat exhaustion, 485486
combat veterans. See veterans
comedy, 330, 358359
Coming Home (1978), 413, 487
Committee for the Scientific Treatment of Severe Genetically Determined Illness (Germany), 90
Committee on Anthropology (COA), 235, 237
Committee on Scientific Problems of Human Migration, 240
Committee on the American Negro, 240
common strategies of rule, 428, 435n4
communism, 370372
community care, 220, 448
Community Mental Health Act (Mental Retardation and Community Mental Health Centers Construction Act), 320
competency, 6162
compliance, 135n5
concepts and questions, 19174
Cone, Kitty, 446447
confidentiality, 165
Confucianism, 408409
congenital conditions. See also specific conditions
family histories, 284285
monstrous births, birth defects, unusual anatomy, 385406
terms for, 284, 386
Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO), 247248, 252254. See also AFL-CIO
conjoined twins, 25, 114, 166, 356357, 386389, 393, 397401
Connecticut, 361, 455n33
conscription, 235237, 244n46
consent, medical, 25
Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD), 453
Conway, Mimi, 260n36
Copenhagen, Denmark, 428429
Coptic Egypt, 72
Le Corbusier (Jean-Claude Jeannaret), 144145
Corps Infirmes du passé (Stiker), 45
correspondence, transnational, 293306
corsets, 130
Corson, E., 232
Cosmopolitan Correspondence Club, 430
Costume of the Lower Orders of London (Busby), 339
counseling, genetic, 95
Counsell, John, 492
Cousin, John, 62, 64
Cowan, Ruth Schwartz, 130, 136n17, 137n23
Cowell Memorial Hospital (Berkeley, CA), 447
CPA (Canadian Paraplegic Association), 492, 500n65
Craft, Ellen, 353, 364n10
Cramlington Colliery (England), 186
Crawford, Angus, 404n39
Crawford, Cassandra S., 138n28
Creager, Angela N. H., 136n17
Crimean War, 481
criminality, 316
crip time, 2627
critical thinking, 168
critics, disabled, 331334
Croll, Andy, 193n23
Crosse, Richard, 333
Crow, Jim (character), 351, 353355, 357358
crowdsourcing, 167
Crows and Sparrows (Wuya yu maque, 1949), 409
CRPD (Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities) (UN), 453
Cruickshank, Isaac, 337, 337f
crutches, 129
(p. 510) Cuba, 9091
Cuisinart, 150151
cultural appropriation, 354355
cultural contexts, 24
Cultural Revolution (China), 409410
culture, material, 2425, 58, 125139, 299301
cure(s), 107, 112118
Currell, Susan, 99n17
cyborgs, 138n30, 138n36
Cyclops, 44
Czechoslovakia, 89
dā’ al-asad (lion’s disease), 7679
DaCosta, Jacob Mendes, 496n29
Da Costa’s syndrome (soldier’s heart), 482483
Damascus, Syria, 78
“dandies,” 357361
Dart, Justin Jr., 452
Darwin, Charles, 87
Darwinism, social, 202
Datson, Lorraine, 138n29
Daughters of Bilitis (DOB), 466
Dauncey, Sarah, 422nn23–25
Dauvergne, Peter, 135n6
Davenport, Charles, 8889, 236, 240
Dawley, Alan, 244n37
Dawson, Maree, 285, 289n1, 302n5
Day, Mary L., 27
deaf-blindness, 265280
deaf communities, 427438
deaf education, 2829, 276, 361, 431433
deaf history, 16n23, 428
deaf migration and immigration, 430
Deaf Mutes’ Journal, 429
deafness, 2829, 333, 402n20
Decade of Disabled Persons, 410, 451
Declaration of Rights of Disabled Persons (UN), 451
Declaration of Rights of the Mentally Retarded (UN), 445
Deegan, Pat, 167, 173n24
de Ferrariis, Thomas, 62
definitions. See terminology
de Hengham, Ralph, 6162
deinstitutionalization, 394, 447
de la Sagra, Ramon, 271
Delaware, 455n33
de l’Épée, Charles, 431
delinquency, 214, 217, 226n42
Delta Airlines, 450
Delta Sigma Omicron, 446
demographics, 1
Demosthenes, 45
Deng Pufang, 410, 417
Deng Xiaoping, 410
Denmark, 9092, 428430
deportation, 90
Depression, 442
Derickson, Alan, 258n10, 259n24, 260n35
Derrida, Jacques, 245n57
design, 141159, 158n52
accessible or barrier-free, 130, 150, 157n42, 444
do-it-yourself (DIY) objects, 127128, 136n8
human-centered, 137n19
industrial, 157n39
resonant, 152
universal, 130, 137n20, 149153
user-focused (or user-directed), 153154
destitutes, 218
detribalization, 214, 220
Deutsch, Albert, 310
Deutsch, Nathaniel, 99n17
Developmentally Disabled Assistance and Bill of Rights Act (US), 445
developmental or learning disabilities, 78, 66
DIA (Disabled In Action), 446447
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), 42, 46, 459460, 462, 465466, 468, 486
diagnostic labels, 284285. See also terminology
Diamond, John, 356
Diderot, Denis, 266267
Digby, Anne, 290n21
digital tools, 167, 206
Dikotter, Frank, 99n17
Dilward (aka Dilverd), Thomas “Japanese Tommy,” 361364, 366n47, 367n49
Dirksen, H., 277n2
(p. 511) disability, 34
antebellum stage, 351368
in Arab world, 7183
in Australia, 281292
in Britain, 177195
in British West Africa, 213227
caste, 198199, 203205, 207n6
in Chinese cinema, 407423
cognitive, 445
in Cold War Hungary, 369383
colonial asylum records, 281292
concept of, 6, 117, 121n11, 166, 200201, 365n29
definition of, 2, 185186, 198, 201, 452, 470
disavowal of, 459475
in England, 327350
in Europe, 5570, 385406
in Greco-Roman antiquity, 4153
homosexuality as, 461464
Industrial Revolution, 177195
intellectual, 78, 16–17n31, 50, 5570, 284285, 290n20, 402n20, 445
medical model of, 34, 8, 108109
in Middle Ages, 5570
military (see veterans)
in New Zealand, 281292
in North America, 385406
pathology model of, 108
post-WWII US, 247261
Progressive Era, 229246
religious model of, 67n1
representations of, 289n12, 325423
social model of, 4, 6
in South Asia, 199202
terminology, 16–17n31, 289n10
in UK, 199202
in US, 229261, 351368, 459475
workplace-acquired, 202203, 250
disability (term), 16n23, 81n6
Disability, Handicap and Society, 15n19
Disability Act (Ghana), 222
disability aesthetics, 129130, 138n35
“Disability and the Justification of Inequality in American History” (Baynton), 7
disability arts, 345
disability awareness, 417
disability biography, 2140
Disability Histories (Burch and Rembis, eds.), 12–13n3
disability history, 118, 105124, 161174
approaches, 165169
body in, 125139
development of, 910
dissemination of, 169171
guidelines for, 169171
material culture in, 125139
vs medical history, 106110
methodology, 165169, 171
modern, 141159
museums of, 23
preservation of, 169171
recent works, 11–12n2
sources of, 910
as study, 12
technology in, 125139
“Disability History” (Baynton), 51n7
“Disability History: Why We Need Another Other” (Kudlick), 7, 51n6
A Disability History of the United States (Nielsen), 3
Disability History Quilt (Selders), 172n6
disability history week, 23
Disability Rights and Independent Living Movement collection (Bancroft Library), 17n42
disability rights movement, 34, 13n10, 108109, 291n45
in Europe and North America, 394395, 397398, 404n42
in US, 253254, 439457
disability studies, 13, 89, 109, 178180
Disability Visibility Project, 17n42
Disabled American Veterans, 443444
Disabled In Action (DIA), 446447
Disabled Peoples’ International (DPI), 451
Disabled People’s Organizations (DPOs), 222223
Disabled Persons (Employment) Act (UK), 216
Disabled Students’ Program (DSP), 446447
Disabled Veterans of America, 490
DisAbled Women’s Network, 450
The Disbanded Soldier (Caldwell), 337339, 338f
discrimination, 448
(p. 512) disease history, 107
dissemination, 169171
diversity, 34, 9, 135n5
Dix, Dorothea, 309, 313
DIY (do-it-yourself) access, 147149
DIY (do-it-yourself) objects, 127128, 136n8
DOB (Daughters of Bilitis), 466
documents, 161174
biographical dictionaries, 7576, 82n20
colonial asylum records, 281292
exposés, 314, 319321, 394, 443, 445
representations, 289n12, 325423
statistical records, 232235, 270272
Dodd, Jocelyn, 328329
Dodds, E. R., 43
do-it-yourself (DIY) access, 147149
do-it-yourself (DIY) objects, 127128, 136n8
Dolmage, Ray, 91
Dols, Michael, 82n26
Dominique-Marie-Joseph, 269
Dömök, István, 381n2
Donahue, Phil, 487
Dorr, Gregory Michael, 99n17
Døves blad, 430
Dowbiggin, Ian Robert, 99n17, 100n22, 309
Down, John Langdon, 161162
Downs, Jim, 242n4
Down syndrome, 58, 61, 66
DPI (Disabled Peoples’ International), 451
DPOs (Disabled People’s Organizations), 222223
Dreger, Alice Domurat, 399, 402n7
Dreyfuss, Henry, 137n19
Drougou, S., 52n22
The Drunkard, 357
Dryden, John, 338, 338f
DSM (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders), 459460, 462, 465466, 468, 486
DSP (Disabled Students’ Program), 447
Duberman, Martin, 463
Dubinsky, Karin, 372
Dubofsky, Melvyn, 257n5, 259n25
Du Bois, W. E. B., 234, 241, 244n37
Dubow, Sara, 138n39
Dulles, Foster Rhea, 257n5
Dumbleton’s Minstrels, 366n32
Dunedin Lunatic Asylum (New Zealand), 294
Durkheim, Émile, 290n17
dwarfism, 291n41, 333, 356, 361362
Dybwad, Gunnar, 445
Dyke, Erika, 90
dyslexia, 66
Eagar, Waldo McGillicuddy, 216
Earle, S., 102n56
East Asia, 8990. See also specific countries
eastern Europe, 92. See also specific countries
Eastern State Hospital Project, 172n13
ecomaterialism, 138n34
economic citizenship, 439442
ECT (electroconvulsive therapy), 319, 463
education
access to, 371, 445446
blind, 265266
deaf, 2829, 276, 361, 431433
prenatal care, 390391
rights to, 393, 403n24, 446
Educational Facilities Laboratories, 156n39
Education for all Handicapped Children Act, 403n24, 446
Edwards, Martha L., 15n21
effort syndrome, 483
Egypt, 7172, 7475, 7778
Eisenhower, Dwight, 255, 464
electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), 319, 463
electroshock therapy, 319
Elias, Norbert, 57
Ellis, Havelock, 461
Ellis Island, 91
Elllis, David, 187188
Elllis, Griffith, 187188
emancipation, 234
embodiment, 122n28, 125139
Emcke, Matthias, 419
Emerson’s Minstrels, 362
emotional life
in New Zealand asylums, 293306
in North American institutions, 315
empathy, 298299, 333
employment
industrial labor, 80
rehabilitation for, 213222, 286287
right to work, 204206
work, 175261
(p. 513) EnAble, 206
endogamy, 7172
Enforcing Normalcy: Disability, Deafness, and the Body (Davis), 6
enfreakment, 6, 15n18
Engeman, William, 362
engineering, human factors, 130131
England, 327350. See also Great Britain; United Kingdom
deaf-blindness, 266
eugenics, 88
Industrial Revolution, 177195
monsterism, 394395
monstrous births in, 387
engravers, disabled, 331, 333
enhancement, 138n31
Enlightenment, 114, 309
epidemics, 110112, 121n21, 370372, 381n4, 391
Epstein, James, 349n70
ergonomics, 130131, 137n21
Ernst, Waltraud, 289n8
Esch, Elizabeth, 231, 242n4
“Essence of Virginny,” 366n46
Estonia, 89
ethics, 161174
ethnicity, 9394
etymology, 61
eugenics, 6, 122n32
in Europe and North America, 316, 389390, 398399, 430
history of, 85103, 115116
medical, 95
as model for design, 145146
negative, 88
new, 85, 9495
old, 8788, 97
positive, 88, 90
Progressive Era, 230, 240
proto-eugenics, 8788, 99n12
Eugenics Monthly, 89
Eugenics Protection Law (Japan), 89
Eugenics Society of São Paulo, 90
eunuchs, 4950
Euro-Americans, 129
Europe. See also specific countries
deaf communities, 429
eugenics, 8990, 92, 115116
institutions for people with disabilities, 308
intellectual disability in, 5570
Middle Ages, 5570, 481
monstrous births, birth defects, unusual anatomy, and disability in, 385406
special education, 265280
euthanasia, 90, 97, 116
Evans, Raymond, 290n17
Everelles, Nirmala, 34
“EveryBody: An Artifact History of Disability in America” virtual exhibit (NMAH), 23
Everyone Here Spoke Sign Language: Hereditary Deafness on Martha’s Vineyard (Groce), 5
exceptionalism, 315, 356357, 428
exclusion, 198, 296297
ex-patient liberation movement, 447448
experiential sources, 162163
expertise, 242n6, 243n28
exposés, 314, 319321, 394, 443, 445
extractive trades, 258n7
The Eye of the Beholder: Deformity and Disability in the Graeco- Roman World (Garland), 6
Eyler, Joshua, 67n2
Fadiman, Anne, 122n24
FAIR Education Act (California), 23
Fair Housing Amendments Act (US), 450
Falconer, Alen, 300
family histories, 69n32, 284285
family planning, 392
family systems, 2629, 190, 218, 220, 408409
Farber, Sam, 151
Faries, John, 146
fatwas, 7475
Fay, Fred, 254, 446
Fayyum, Egypt, 77
feeblemindedness, 315317, 319
Felstiner, Mary, 31
Feng Xiaogang, 407408, 417418
Ferenc Deák Masonry Lodge, 374375
Fernald State School (Massachusetts), 320
Ferrers, Benjamin, 332333
Fetlar, 267
feudalism, 67n5
field medicine, 481482
(p. 514) fieldwork, 316317
filial piety and devotion, 408
film. See cinema
finding aids, 134135, 164165
Finkelstein, Victor (Vic), 4, 80
Finland, 8992, 489
Fiske, Deborah, 29
Fissell, Mary, 405n55
Flaxman, John, 341
Fleischer, Doris, 13n10, 456n42
Florida, 319320
folklore, 330
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), 226n41
Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 396, 404n37
Fools and Idiots?: Intellectual Disability in the Middle Ages (Metzler), 8
fools and jesters, 4950, 5556, 5962, 330
Ford, Gerald, 449
Ford Motor Company, 240
Foucault, Michel, 45, 14n11, 14n14, 107, 110, 290n17, 310, 349n71
The Four Times of Day (Hogarth), 333
France, 45, 88, 266, 269, 278n10, 489491
Franco-Prussian War, 481
Fraser, Ian, 216
Frasier, William, 340
freaks and freak shows, 56, 14n17, 330, 351356, 385387, 399400. See also monstrous births
Freak Show: Presenting Human Oddities for Amusement and Profit (Bogdan), 56, 15n19
Frederickson, George, 242n5
Freeman, Walter, 319
French method, 431432
Freud, Sigmund, 317, 461462, 472n14
Friedrich, Jorg, 493n2
future directions for research, 80
gadgets, 147149
Gagen, Wendy Jane, 224n1
Galen, 4243
Galer, Dustin, 12n2
“Gal from the South” (Holt), 358359, 366n31
Galileo, 137n25
Gallagher, Hugh Gregory, 37n12
Gallagher, Nancy L., 99n17
Gallaudet University, 172n8, 450451
Galton, Francis, 87, 316
Gannon, Jack, 456n47
Gantz, Carroll, 137n22
Garland, Robert, 6, 51n4
Garland-Thomson, Rosemarie, 12n2, 15n18, 37n12, 289n12, 328, 386387
Garrison, William Lloyd, 352
Garton, Stephen, 289n9, 290n19
Gatrell, Vic, 335
gay rights, 38n17, 459475
GE, 157n51
“Gender: A Useful Category of Historical Analysis” (Scott), 7
gender conformity, 393
gender differences, 203204, 286, 316
on antebellum stage, 351368
among disabled veterans, 492
gender history, 38n17, 102n46
gender identity disorder, 468
General Electric (GE), 240
genetic counseling, 95
genetics, 9495
geometry, 49
Georgian Britain, 184
Gerber, David A., 15n19–15n20, 18n44, 142, 173n21, 213, 493n1
German measles, 391392
German oral method, 431
Germany
deaf-blindness, 278n22
deaf communities, 429
disabled veterans, 213, 489, 495n13
eugenics, 8892, 9697, 99n17, 115116
monsterism, 394395
special education, 276
veterans’ organizations, 490491
Gessinger, J., 278n9
Gethin Colliery (South Wales), 184185, 187188
Ghaly, Mohammed, 74
Ghana, 214215, 219222, 226n37, 489
Ghana Association of the Blind, 226n39
Ghana Cripples’ Aid Society, 226n37
Gharaibeh, Numan, 81n3
G.I. Bill, 446
(p. 515) Gibney, Jane, 286
Gilded Age, 314
Gillette, A., 102n52
Gillray, James, 330
Gin Lane (Hogarth), 335336
Ginsburg, Faye, 102n56
Gintis, Herbert, 209n51
The Girl with the Purple Cane (Jackson), 141
Gittings, Barbara, 463
Gleeson, Brendan, 191n1, 192n3, 290n17
Glenn, Brian, 233
Glover, Jonathan, 102n52, 102n56
Goddard, Henry, 316
Goffman, Erving, 315, 320, 468469
Gold Coast, 218220
golden age, 450451
Goler, Robert I., 495n10
Gompers, Samuel, 249, 259n20
Gong Li, 414415
Goodchild, Francis, 335
Goodey, Christopher (Chris) F., 52n25, 56, 58
Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, 28
Gospels, 61
Gough, Ian, 208n24
Granatstein, J. L., 224n4
Grant, Madison, 316
Graves, Robert, 51n5
Gray, Chris Hables, 132, 137n27
Great Britain, 177195, 290n15, 294. See also United Kingdom
Boer War, 236
coal industry, 177178, 180183
colonial asylum records, 281292
Colonial Office, 214219, 224n5
eugenics, 89
guidelines for accessible building design, 444
India Office, 224n5
Industrial Revolution, 177195
institutions, 281292, 288n1
Mental Defectives Act, 284
Ministry of Labour, 215216
Ministry of Pensions, 215216
programs for veterans, 489
rehabilitation, 215222
welfare programs, 215222
Greco-Roman antiquity, 4153, 495n15
Greek Bronze Age, 4344
Greek Era, 4347
Green, William, 252
Greene, Mark, 167
Gregg, Norman, 391
Grob, Gerald, 310
Groce, Nora, 5
grotesques, 46, 330
group biography, 32, 37n5
Grove City College v. Bell, 450
Les Gueux (Callot), 330
Guinea, 489
Guins, Raiford, 135n1
Gulf War syndrome, 483, 496–97n36
Gutman, Herbert, 137n23
Hacking, Ian, 270
Haddon, Rosemary, 422n18
Hadith, 79
hagiography, 61
Haiselden, Harry J., 389390
al-Halabi, Salih b. Nasr Allah (Ibn Sallum), 82n26
Halberstam, Judith, 138n34
Halderman v. Pennhurst, 448
Hale, Blanche, 286
Hale, Elizabeth Grace, 242n5
Hales, Carol, 467
Haller, Mark H., 98n11
Hamilton, Alice, 245n64
Hanafi school, 7475, 77, 82n17
Hanbali school, 7475, 77, 82n17
Hanger, James, 136n15
Hannibal, Julius Caesar, 358
Hansen’s disease (leprosy), 7679, 82nn26–27, 83n41, 404n44
Hanson, Olof, 429
happiness, 466467
Happy Times (Xingfu shiguang, 2000), 408, 416417, 420
“Happy Uncle Tom,” 361
Haraway, Donna, 132, 137n27
Harpies, 44
Harrison, Edward, 342343
Harrison, Marc, 151
Hartford Retreat, 311
Hartigan, Richard Shelley, 493n2
(p. 516) Harvard University, 320
Hathaway, Katharine Butler, 2627
Havstad, Lars, 429430
Hawkes, Sarah, 342, 343f, 344f, 345
Hay, William, 401n1
Hayles, Katherine, 138n34
healing (concept), 112
health, 107, 166, 464470
health activism, 256
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of1996 (HIPAA), 165
Heilbrun, Carolyn G., 36
Heine-Medin Post Treatment Hospital (Budapest, Hungary), 371, 377379
Heinicke, Samuel, 265, 277n3, 431
Hendren, Sara, 152
Hennock, E. P., 495n13
Henry III, 69n32
Hensel, Brittany and Abby, 397398
Hephaestus, 44
Herbert, Isaac, 331
hereditary mental defects, 284285
hermaphroditism, 49, 365n22, 387, 402n7
Hesiod, 44
Heskett, John, 142
Het Dorp, 447
Heth, Joice, 354355, 365n12
Heumann, Judith (Judy), 2728, 446447, 451
Hevey, David, 328
Heywood, Colin, 375
Hibbert, Samuel, 267269, 275
Hickel, Walter, 239
Himmler, Heinrich, 9697
Hinduism, 199, 408409
Hippocrates, 42
Hirschmann, Nancy J., 15n20
historiography, 4243, 4751, 328329
history
antebellum stage, 351368
art, 58
deaf, 16n23, 428
disability, 118, 4153, 105139, 141159, 161174, 177195, 199202
England, 327350
eugenics, 85103
Europe, 265280
family histories, 284285
gadget era, 147149
gender, 38n17
Gilded Age, 314
Greco-Roman antiquity, 4153, 495n15
Industrial Revolution, 177195
institutional, 172n2
labor, 18n44
legal, 61
LGBT/queer, 38n17, 459475
of medicine, 58, 61, 105124
microhistory, 8
military, 18n44
modern, 141159
New Zealand, 293306
oral, 163
patient-centered, 107, 110
Progressive Era, 229246
Republican period, 409
rhetorical, 89
social, 18n44, 105124
sources, 161164
US, 247261, 450451
visible and invisible, 343345
Western deaf communities, 427438
women’s, 18n44, 22, 38n17
and work, 199202
Hitchcock, Alfred, 422n14
Hitler, Adolf, 90, 116
Hoffman, Frederick L., 233234, 242n4, 243n28, 243n32
Hogan, Brendan, 399
Hogan, Tatiana and Krista, 388, 399
Hogarth, William, 327, 333336, 343
Holewell, John de, 6162
Holmes, Martha Stoddard, 184
Holmes, Oliver Wendell, 93, 318
Holmstedt, Karen, 494n7
Home for Crippled Children (Nyomorék Gyermekek Otthona) (Hungary), 374375
homelessness, 394
Homer, 4344
homosexuality, 38n17, 459475
Hooker, Evelyn, 464466
Horgan, Eileen, 286
hormone therapy, 463
Horowitz, Roger, 260n39
Hoult, Adrienne, 290n19
Hou Xiaoxian (Hou Hsiao-hsien), 407, 412413, 422n16
(p. 517) Howe, Samuel Gridley, 272, 279n33, 309, 314315
Hu (Chinese convert to Catholicism), 24
Hu Dingan, 89
Hughes, Thomas, 135n7
Huizinga, Johan, 57
human-centered design, 137n19
human factors engineering, 130131, 137n21
human-limb objects, 145, 153
humanness, 131132
human studies, 320
human worth technology, 132
Humphrey, Hubert, 448
Hungary, 89, 369383, 381n2
Hunter, Daniel, 158n52
Husson, Thérèse-Adèle, 116117
Hu Xuanming, 89
Ibn Daniyal, 74
Ibn Khaldûn, 63
Ibn Sallum (Salih b. Nasr Allah al-Halabi), 82n26
IC (military designation), 34
Iceland, 89
IDEA (Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act), 403n24, 446
identities, 425501
idiota, 59, 64
idiots, 4950, 5566
Igarashi, Yoshikuni, 493n2
Iliad (Homer), 4344
Illinois, 314, 448
Illinois State Hospital, 314
al-Imadi, Hamid, 82n31
imagery. See representations
immigration
deaf, 430
restrictions on, 9091, 240241, 296297
Immigration Act (Canada), 296
Immigration Act (US), 296297, 430
Immigration and Naturalization Act (US), 464
Immigration and Naturalization Services, 464
Immigration Restriction Act (US), 240241
The Imperfect Historian (Barsch, Klein, and Verstraete), 12–13n3, 14n11, 14n15
impotentia, 48
incarceration, 90, 321322, 394
inclusion, 5, 442450
Inclusion International, 445
incurables, 216, 219
independent living, 129, 447
independent views, 416419
India, 197200, 203206, 207n6
Indiana, 90
individualism, 129
Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEA), 403n24, 446
industrial accidents, 202203, 250
industrial design, 157n39
Industrial Design magazine, 149150
industrialization, 130131, 137n23, 177195, 199204, 229
industrial work, 80, 177195, 245n66, 258n17
Industry and Idleness (Hogarth), 335
Inez Petersen Collection of Life Stories of Deaf People (Rochester Institute of Technology), 172n8
information technology (IT), 130131
Inglefield, Thomas, 331
inheritances, 69n32, 284285
injury, workplace, 202203, 250
Insane Liberation Front, 447448
institutional care, 90, 172n2, 263324. See also specific institutions
asylums, 293306
in Cold War Hungary, 374375
in colonial Australia and New Zealand, 283284
emotional life in, 293306
in England, 341
in Europe, 265280
exposés, 314, 319321, 394, 443, 445
inmate populations, 321322
Kirkbride Plan for, 311, 314
labels applied to inmates, 285286
mental hospitals, 302n11
minimum standards of care, 445
in New Zealand, 283, 293306
in North America, 307324
polio hospitals, 377378
private facilities, 311
public or state-run facilities, 290n17, 311, 320
terminology, 307
transnational, 293306
(p. 518) Institut National de Jeunes Sourds de Paris, 273
insurance, 233
integration, 5, 445, 448
intellectual disability, 50, 278n10, 402n20, 445
in European Middle Ages, 5570
family histories, 284285
hereditary defects, 284285
insitutional care for children with, 290n20, 374375
markers of, 6465
studies of, 78
terminology, 16–17n31
intelligence tests (IQ tests), 237238, 316317
internalization, 472n24
International Conference for Human Rights and Against Psychiatric Oppression, 451
International Congress of Eugenics, 89
International Hygiene Exhibition, 89
International League of Societies for Persons with Mental Handicaps, 445
international relief, 430
international sign, 433
International Symbol of Access, 152
International Union for Child Welfare, 445
International Year of Disabled Persons, 410, 451
intersex, 49, 365n22, 386, 402n7
Invalid Corps, 3435
Inventing the Feeble Mind: A History of Mental Retardation in the United States (Trent), 8
iodine deficiency, 72
Iowa, 455n33
IQ tests (intelligence tests), 237238, 316317
Iran, 89
Ireland, 294
iron lungs, 153
irritable heart (soldier’s heart), 482483
Isaacson, Walter, 9495
Isidore of Seville, 5556
ISIS, 498n53
Islam, premodern, 72, 7477, 79, 82n17
Island Etude (Lianxi qu, 2006), 408, 416, 418420
Israel, 72, 498n55
Italy, 491492
ivermectin (Mectizan), 222
Ivory Coast, 489
J. Crew, 141, 154
al-Jabarti, ‘Abd al-Rahman, 76
Jack, Jordyn, 89
Jackson, Liz, 141, 154
Jackson, Vanessa, 167, 173n24
Jacobsen v. Delta Airlines, 450
Jacoby, Sanford, 259n19
al-Jahiz (Abu ‘Uthman ‘Amr b. Bahr al-Basri), 73
Japan, 8889, 408, 489, 499n58
Japanese Imperial Army, 483
Jeannaret, Jean-Claude (Le Corbusier), 144145
Jeffreys, Mark, 395396
Jennings, Audra, 18n44, 259n26, 260n30, 454n2, 455n15, 498n55
jesters, 4950, 5961, 64
Jewish War Veterans of the United States of America, 490
Jim Crow (character), 351, 353355, 357358
Jim Crow (segregation), 2829, 230235, 241, 242n5, 351, 353354
John E. Taylor’s Minstrels, 362
John of Beverley, 61
John of Garland, 59, 63
Johnson, Charles F., 27, 3435
Johnson, Mary, 456n44
Johnson, William Henry, 356
Jonas, Emil, 274
Jones, Gareth Stedman, 290n15
Jordan, 72
Jordan, I. King, 450
Journal of Mental Science, 294
Judaism, 199
judhām (leprosy), 7679, 82n26
Judkins, Bennett M., 260n35–260n36
Kádár, János, 371
Kaebnick, G. E., 102n52
Kafer, Alison, 2629, 40n45, 138n30, 156n27, 471n4, 471n7
Kalllikak, Deborah, 316317
Kameny, Frank, 459, 465469
Kanstroom, Daniel, 297
karma, 408409
(p. 519) Katz, Jonathan Ned, 463
Katz, Michael, 488
Keller, Helen, 2223, 28, 266, 441
Kelly, Catriona, 373
Kelly, Patrick J., 494n8
Kelly and Leon’s Minstrels, 362
Kelves, Daniel, 238
Kenez, Peter, 381n6
Kennedy, John, 320, 445
Kennedy, Robert, 445
Kennedy, Rosemary, 320
Kenny Foundation, 403n25
Kent, Annabelle, 429
Kenya, 216217
Kerr, Anne, 102n52
Kesey, Ken, 320
Kevles, Daniel J., 98n11, 122n32
Kew Cottages (Melbourne, Australia), 290n20
Kew Metropolitan Asylum (Melbourne, Australia), 286287
Kinder, John M., 12n2
King, Truby, 293, 300301
kinship ties, 2629, 187188
Kirisits, Natalie, 173n16
Kirkbride, Thomas, 311
Kirkbride Plan, 311, 314
Kite, Elizabeth, 316317
Kleege, G., 278n8
Klein, Anne, 11–13nn2–3, 14n11, 14n15
Klein, Jennifer, 259n19
Kline, Wendy, 99n17
Kluchin, Rebecca M., 90, 99–100n17
Knewstubb, Elspeth, 302n5
Knights of Labor, 249
Knowles, L. P., 102n52
Koch, Robert, 117
Kolff, W. J., 137n27
Kononov prosthetic arms, 375
Korea, 408
Korean War, 482
Kornbluh, Felicia, 454n2
Koven, Seth, 382n29
Krafft-Ebing, Richard von, 461
Krimsky, S., 102n52
Kudlick, Catherine, 7, 11n2, 14–15n17, 17n41, 22, 37n1, 38n18, 51n6, 135n4, 173n19, 469
Kühl, Stefan, 100n22, 122n32
Kurds, 72
Kurzman, Steven, 156n27
Kuwait, 497n36
labels. See terminology
labor. See work
labor history, 18n44, 257–58n5, 258n7
labor management, 229, 244n45
labor theory, 209n51
labor unions, 190, 247261, 259n20
Ladd-Taylor, Molly, 90, 100n17
Laes, Christian, 52n28, 277n5
Lagos, Nigeria, 218
Lamarck, Jean-Baptiste, 99n16
Lamb handle, 137n22
The Lancashire Collier Girl, 183
Lane, William Henry “Juba,” 356, 362
Lang, Raymond, 421n5
language, 5860. See also terminology
premodern Arabic, 7273
signed, 279n35, 432
sign language(s), 428, 431435
Laporte, Norman, 193n23
Largent, Mark A., 100n17
Larkhall Miners’ Mutual Protection, Accident and Funeral Association, 186
Larson, Edward, 95
Larson, Edward J., 100n17
Latin, 55
Latin America, 88, 9091. See also specific countries
Latino/a Americans, 129
Latour, Bruno, 110, 138n38
Latvia, 89
Lauffer, Charles, 245n66
Laughlin, Harry, 41, 88, 240241
Lawrence, Louise J., 122n25
Lawrie, Paul, 12n2, 242n4
League of Nations, 217
League of the Physically Handicapped, 441442
learning disabilities, 78, 66
Lebanon, 72, 78
Lebow, Katherine A., 381n6
Le Corbusier (Jean-Claude Jeannaret), 144145
le Fevere, Augustine, 62
legal history, 61
Lenderink, H. J., 277n4
(p. 520) Leon, Joan, 451
Leonard, Annie, 135n6
Le Piper, Francis, 330
leprosy (Hansen’s disease), 7679, 82nn26–27, 83n41, 200, 404n44
lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT)/queer history, 38n17, 459475, 471n7
Leviticus, 199
Lewis, Abram J., 467
Lewis, David Levering, 37n2
Lewis, Jerry, 4748, 118
Lewis, Joanna, 214
Lewis, John L., 253
Lewis, Milton, 294
LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender)/queer history, 38n17, 459475, 471n7
Li, Jet, 415416
liberty, 341342, 349n70
Lichtenburg, George Christoph, 333
Lifchez, Raymond, 156n39
life insurance, 233234, 243n32
Life magazine, 95, 319
limb fund schemes, 203
Limont, Mark, 158n52
“Limpin’ Sal,” 359
Lin, Sylvia Li-chun, 422n15
Lindee, M. Susan, 493n2
Linn, Bobbi, 446447
Linton, Simi, 2223, 459, 470
Lipsedge, Maurice, 297
Lithuania, 89
little people, 361
Littlewood, Roland, 297
The Lives They Left Behind: Suitcases from a State Hospital Attic (Penney and Stastny), 32
Livingston, Ira, 138n34
Livingston, Julie, 24, 122n24
Livingstone, James, 241n2
lobotomy, 319, 463
local strangers, 267
Locke, John, 267268
Logan, Rayford, 367n54
Lombardo, Paul A., 103n66, 122n32
London, England, 334336, 339341, 340f
London, Jack, 322n11
Long, Matthew L., 82n26
Longmore, Paul K., 67, 11–12n2, 13n10, 15n20, 48, 134, 408, 421n2, 454n2, 469
Look magazine, 321
Loos, Adolph, 144
Lunacy Statute (Victoria, Australia), 283
Lunatic Acts (UK), 295
Lunatics Act (New Zealand), 295
Lunbeck, Elizabeth, 136n17, 317
lung cancer, 256
Lusher, Ruth, 130
Lu Xun, 89
Lynchburg State Colony (Virginia), 318
al-Ma‘arri, Abu al-‘Ala,’ 76
Mace, Ron, 130, 136n15, 150151
Mace, Ronald, 157n44
Mackworth, Herbert, 184
Macy, Anne (Annie) Sullivan, 28, 3031
madness. See also intellectual disability
in colonial asylum records, 281306
in European Middle Ages, 6061
institutional care for, 310, 317
studies of, 79
Madness Network News, 447448
mad people’s liberation movements, 447448
Mahone, Sloan, 288n1
mainstreaming, 446
Malawi, 217
Mali, 221, 489
Maliki school, 7475, 77, 82n17
Maloney, Mary, 287
Mamluks, 7677
Manilla school (Stockholm, Sweden), 273274
Mann, Horace, 309, 311312
Manning, Corinne, 174n31
manualism, 276
Mao Zedong, 407, 409
March of Dimes, 372373, 393, 403n25
marginalization, 34, 172n2, 177180, 198, 231, 248, 290n15, 344345
Mariner’s Friendly Society, 249
Marine Society, 249
(p. 521) Markowitz, Gerald, 248, 257, 258n5, 259n21, 259n24, 260n36
marriage, consanguineous, 7172
Marriage A La Mode (Hogarth), 333
marriage restrictions, 9092
Mars, Frank, 136n15
Martha’s Vineyard, 5
Martial, 4950
martial citizenship, 479, 488492, 494n8
Martin, Emily, 459460
Marxism, 189190
masculinity, 102n46, 213, 221
Massachusetts, 190, 233, 311313, 320
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), 320
Massieu, Jean, 273
material culture, 2425, 58, 125139, 299301. See also artifacts; documents
materialism, 80, 189190, 202
material objects, 10
maternal responsibility, 387, 390392
Matson, Floyd W., 453, 454n2
Mattachine Society, 464465
Mauss, Marcel, 135n3
Maximo, 356
McCarthy, Angela, 289n4
McDonagh, Patrick, 51n4
McGee, G., 102n52
McGuire, Ranald, 136n9
McKoy, Millie and Christine, 25, 166, 356357
McLean Asylum, 311
McMurtrie, Douglas C., 495n11
McNeill, J. R., 135n6
McRuer, Robert, 460, 468469
Meade, Teresa, 12n2
Meany, George, 255
Mectizan (ivermectin), 222
Medicaid, 320
medical consent, 25
medical eugenics, 95. See also eugenics
medical examinations, prenuptial, 9091
medical gaze, 349n71
medicalization, 110, 287, 341343, 343f, 344f, 388, 463464
medical model, 34, 8, 108109
medical records, 165
Medicare, 320
medications, 321
medicine, 6
battlefield, 481482
history of, 58, 61, 105124
Western, 114115, 166
medieval Europe, 5570
Meister, David, 137n21
Meister, Jacques-Henri, 335336, 345
The Men (1950), 487
Mendel, Gregor, 99n16
Mental Defectives Act (Great Britain), 284
Mental Defectives Act (New Zealand), 284
mental hospitals, 302n11. See also institutional care; specific institutions
mental hygiene, 317
mental illness. See intellectual disability; madness
Mental Patients’ Liberation Front, 447448
Mental Patients’ Liberation Project, 447448
mental retardation (term), 16–17n31
Mental Retardation and Community Mental Health Centers Construction Act (Community Mental Health Act), 320
Mental Retardation in America: A Historical Reader (Trent and Noll, eds.), 8, 16–17n31
Mental Retardation Project (International Union for Child Welfare), 445
Merck and Company, 222
mesothelioma, 256
methodology, 165169, 171
Metzl, Jonathan, 467468, 470
Metzler, Irina, 8, 67n2
Mexico, 86, 8990, 100n23
M’Gee, Charles, 339
MGM, 319
Michelangelo, 331
microcephaly, 356
microhistory, 8
Middle Ages, European, 5570, 481
Middle East, 63, 7183
midwifery, 387
Miese, Barbara Blaser, 32
migrant correspondence, 295298, 304n43
migration
deaf, 430
restrictions on, 9091, 240241, 296297
Mihm, Stephen, 122n28, 137n18, 154n6
Miles, M., 81n2
(p. 522) military history, 18n44
Military Medical Academy (St. Petersburg, Russia), 89
military psychiatry, 485
military service, 235238, 244n46. See also veterans
Mills, Mara, 137n18, 155n6
Minculescu, M., 381n2
miners’ asthma, 184
miner’s lung, 202
mining. See coal mining
Minnesota, 455n33
Minnesota Teamsters Public Employees Union, 256
minority approach, 109110
minstrelsy, 351363, 364n9, 366n46
Mirzoeff, N., 278n14
Mississippi, 444
MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology), 320
Mitchell, Alex, 52n24, 269
Mitchell, David T., 8, 15n20, 89, 100n22, 231, 435n4
Mitchell, James, 267268, 274
Mitchell, L., 138n39
Mock, Henry, 239
models, disabled, 331334, 341
modern Chinese cinema, 407423
modern design, 144147
modern history, 141159
modernism, 131132, 317
modernization, 214
Mollow, Anna, 471n7
Molyneux, William, 268
Molyneux equation, 268
monsterism, 394395
monstrous births, 138nn29–30, 385406
monstrum, 48
Moor, Pauline M., 402n20
Moore, James, 88, 99n13
moral technology, 129, 138n38
moriones, 4950, 60
moron (term), 316317
Morris, Andrew, 409
Morris Brothers, 362
Mosely, Jane, 287
Moser, Ingunn, 156n27
Moss, Candida R., 122n25
motion pictures. See cinema
Motteux, Peter, 330
movements, 425501
Mozambique, 487, 489, 491
Muhammad, 77, 79, 82n27
Muhammad b. Mar‘i, 78
Mulcahy, Richard P., 259n25
Mullinger Asylum (Ireland), 297
Muncy, Robyn, 256, 259n25, 260n31
Murakawa, Naomi, 472n22
Murolo, Priscilla, 257n5
Murray, Joseph J., 277n2
Murton Colliery (County Durham), 181
muscular dystrophy, 4748
Museum of Modern Art, 152
museums of disability history, 23
Muslim communities, premodern, 72
Myrdal, Gunnar, 243n28
NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People), 31
NACW (National Association of Colored Women), 31
NAD (National Association of the Deaf), 440, 448449
Nagy, Imre, 370371
Nakamura, Karen, 24, 89
Namibia, 489
NAPH (National Association of the Physically Handicapped), 443, 448449
NARC (National Association for Retarded Children), 445
Nasaw, David, 21
National Association for Retarded Children (NARC), 445
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), 31
National Association of Colored Women (NACW), 31
National Association of the Deaf (NAD), 440, 448449
National Association of the Physically Handicapped (NAPH), 443, 448449
National Black Deaf Advocates, 450
National Civil Rights Week for the Disabled, 448449
National Commission on the Handicapped (NCH), 451452
(p. 523) National Committee for Mental Hygiene, 317318
National Council on Disabilities, 451452
National Council on Public History (NCPH), 12n2
National Employ the Physically Handicapped Week, 443
National Endowment for the Arts, 156n39
National Federation of Disabled Persons’ Associations, 383n50
National Federation of the Blind (NFB), 440441, 448449, 452
National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis-March of Dimes, 403n25
National Geographic, 388
National Institute of Mental Health, 464
nationalism, 430, 433434
National Labor Relations Act (Wagner Act), 252
National Mental Health Foundation, 443
National Museum of American History (NMAH), 23
National Paraplegia Foundation, 448449
National Public Radio (NPR), 17n42
National Research Council (NRC), 235, 237, 240
National Union of the Deaf, 446
Native Americans, 129
Nazi Germany, 41, 86, 8992, 9697, 115116
NCH (National Commission on the Handicapped), 451452
Neary, Peter, 224n4
negative eugenics, 88
Negroes. See African Americans
Neill, A. H., 295
Netherlands, 447, 455n32
Network Against Psychiatric Assault, 447448
neurodiversity, 9
neuropsychiatric injury, 484
New Deal, 252253, 440442
The New Disability History: American Perspectives (Longmore and Umansky), 7, 11–12n2
new eugenics, 85, 9495
Newman, Simon P., 193n29
New Republic, 95
Newsweek, 95
New York, 235, 314, 319321, 448
New York City, New York, 249, 430
New York Times, 150, 388, 400401
New Zealand, 281292, 293306
New Zealand Human Rights Commission, 291n45
New Zealand Medical Journal, 294
NFB (National Federation of the Blind), 440441, 448449, 452
NGOs (nongovernmental organization), 200, 383n50
Nichols, Tom, 329
Nicholson, Ebenezer “Little Mac,” 361
Nielsen, Kim E., 3, 11n2, 30, 3234, 119, 312, 405n49, 460
Niermeyer, J. F., 68n19
Nigeria, 214215, 218
“Niggers from the South,” 366n32
Nilsson, R., 403n31
Nixon, Richard M., 449450
Nkrumah, Kwame, 222, 226n42
Nők Lapja, 376
Noll, Steven, 8, 16–17n31
nongovernmental organization (NGOs), 200, 383n50
Norden, Martin, 15n20
normalcy, 6, 149150, 166
on antebellum stage, 352
in Europe, 275, 397398, 403n21
familial normativity, 29
in modern Chinese cinema, 408
in North America, 317, 397398, 403n21
in South Asia, 199, 202
normalization, 393400, 445
Norman, Donald, 137n19
Norplant, 95
North Africa, 71. See also specific countries
North America, 166. See also specific countries
British, 308
disability studies, 3
eugenics, 8990, 115116
industrialization, 179
institutions for people with disabilities, 307324
monstrous births, birth defects, unusual anatomy, and disability in, 385406
North Carolina, 316
(p. 524) Norway, 92, 429430
Noseworthy, F. P., 219
NRC (National Research Council), 235, 237, 240
Nyasaland (Malawi), 217
Nye, David, 135n1
O’Brien, Gerald V., 122n32
O’Brien, Mark, 153
occupational aid societies, 249
occupational safety, 202203, 250, 252, 256257
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), 256257
Ocean Heaven (Haiyang tiantang, 2010), 407408, 415416, 420
O’Connor v. Donaldson, 447448
OCP (Onchocerciasis Control Program), 215, 222, 226n41
Odysseus, 4344
Odyssey (Homer), 4344
Office of Vocational Rehabilitation (OVR), 254255
Oldenziel, Ruth, 130, 135n1
Oliver, Michael, 80, 179, 192n1, 192n3
Olsson, Magnus, 272276, 280n45
Olympic Games, 44
onchocerciasis (river blindness), 215, 221222
Onchocerciasis Control Program (OCP), 215, 222, 226n41
One Flew over the Cuckoo’s Nest (Kesey), 320
oppression, 34. See also marginalization
optical instruments, 137n25
oral history, 17n42, 163
oralism, 28, 279n35, 393, 431434
Ordover, Nancy, 100n17
Oregon, 455n33
organized labor, 190, 247261, 259n20. See also labor unions
Orillia Asylum (Ontario, Canada), 309
Orillia Hospital School (Canada), 320
orthopedics, social, 213214, 216
OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration), 256257
Oslo Deaf Club, 429430
Ostroff, Elaine, 158n52
“Other,” 7, 356357
O’Toole, Corbett Joan, 171, 174n35
Ott, Anna (Barbara Blaser Miese), 32
Ott, Katherine, 17n43, 122n28, 135n2, 136n16, 137n18, 143, 154n6, 163, 172n11
Ottoman Empire, 7780, 82n17, 82n20, 83n44
Out of Sight, Out of Mind: A graphic picture of present-day institutional care of the mentally ill in America, based on more than two thousand eye-witness reports (NMHF), 443
Overton, John, 330
OVR (Office of Vocational Rehabilitation),