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date: 27 October 2021

Abstract and Keywords

Contrary to the traditional notion that disability rights in the United States were the by-product of the tumultuous 1960s, the disability rights movement actually dates back to the late nineteenth century. Over the years, ordinary citizens and local, national, and international organizations combined in promoting the citizenship rights of disabled people. Excluded from most aspects of public life, people with disabilities championed self-determination through deinstitutionalization, the independent living movement, and access to education, employment, and public transportation. This examination of local, state, and national efforts by people with disabilities to achieve full participation in civic life will help expand our understanding of civil rights movements in modern U.S. history.

Keywords: accessibility, civil rights, disability rights, Americans with Disabilities Act, activism, deinstitutionalization, independent living movement, United States

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