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date: 15 December 2019

(p. 935) Index

(p. 935) Index

Page references for figures are indicated by f, for color plates by cp, and for tables by t.

Abbott, A., 917
Abbott, J, W, 708
Accountability, health policy networks, 640
Ackerman, G. A., 769
Acquaintances, on voting and political participation, 361–362
Actants, 884
Action field, 883–884, 883f, 884f
Activity, density and, 623n5
Actor
activity, 319
behavior, socio-environmental outcomes and networks model, 612–613, 613f, 622n2
collective, arms supply and proliferation networks, 774
covariates, 224
discourse network analysis, 304
economic, interlocking directorates, 93–94
global, 691
inference problems, 912
nonaligned, 410–411
party, informal coordination, 458
political
definition, 301
in policy debates, 301
public statements, 301–302
power, 102
sets, changing, 232
Actor-concept semantic networks, 329f, 330, 334–336
Actor conflict network, 308, 308f, 310
Actor congruence network, 306f, 307–308, 308f, 310, 335
Actor oriented models, 224–227
specification, 227–231
Actor-Process Event Scheme (APES), 842
Actor-to-actor network, 329f, 330
Actor-to-network social process, 915
Adam, S., 835, 837
Adamic, L. A., 120, 278–279, 281f, 290, 291–292
Adaptive behavior, 622–623n3
Adaptive co-management, 612–613, 613f, 615, 623n3
social capital, 616
Adaptive governance, 612–613, 613f, 615, 622–623n3
Adarov, A., 682
Administrative interest groups, EU, 599
Administrative inter-sectorality, 845
Advocacy
coalitions, 100, 303
climate change policy, 884
networked, 716
Advocacy coalition framework (ACF), 100–101, 303, 568
health policy formation, 636
network segregation, 568–569
policy networks, 100–101
Affiliation network, 306–307, 306f, 310
Affordable Care Act, 453, 498, 635, 646
Africa, Sub-Saharan, illicit arms trade, 777f, 778, 780f
Agenda setting, multiple streams, 569–570
Agent-based modeling (ABM), 740–741
Aggregate networks, international trade, 673–674
Aggression, Kenny’s study, 254, 258
Aghion, P., 591
Agora, global, 105
Agranoff, R., 25, 162, 699, 708
(p. 936) Agreement, 341. See also Disagreement
egocentric networks, Brazil, 861–862, 861t, 862t
relation, discourse network analysis, 305
Ahlquist, J. S., 215n1, 762
Ahn, T., 523
Akerman, A., 775
Akoglu, Leman, 196n14
Alatas, V., 826
Albert, R., 229
Albright, D., 771
Aldrich, J. H., 262–263, 408, 466n3
Alemán, E., 478, 479
Algorithm, 282
Allen, Michael, 93
Alliances. See also Coalition(s); Collaborations; specific types
conflict and democracy, coevolution, 739
All-observation approach (AO), 191–192
Al-Qaeda
ISIS and, 659–660
manifestations, 655
Alter effect, 230
Amati, V., 231
American Far Right, 660–661
American-Israel Public Affairs Committee (AIPAC), 438
American National Election Study (ANES), 518, 519, 521, 858, 858t
American Voter, The (Campbell), 517
America’s Health Insurance Plans (AHIP), 436
Ames, B., 394, 870n4
Amicus curiae networks, 491, 501–506
Amnesty International, 717, 718, 721–722
Analogical political networks, 790
Anand, V., 438
Anderson, C. J., 396, 809n11
Andrew, S. A., 550, 552
Andris, C., 283, 930
Andropov-style reactionary, 71
Angst, M., 618
Ansell, C., 698, 699, 701, 708, 906
Ansolabehere, S., 123
Anthropogenic global climate change, 881, 885
Antistate actions, information, 825–826
Arab Spring, collective action, 793
Arah, O., 140
Arce, M., 719, 729n11
Argentina, clientelism, 801–803
Argumentative discourse analysis, 303
Armaments, Disarmament and International Security, 775
Armitage, D. R., 618–619
Arms supply and proliferation networks, 761–782
arms data and network analysis, 774–780
collective actors and intents, 774
interstate relations structure and networks, 774–775
networked organizations, 774
arms trade networks, 781n2
challenges, 761
clandestine actors, 761–762
economic and political transactions, 762–763
illegal weaponry and networks, 763–764
major conventional weapons, 761, 781n1 (See also Major conventional weapons (MCW) trafficking)
political content of weapons transfers, 762
small arms and light weapons, 761, 781n1 (See also Small arms and light weapons (SALW) trafficking)
supply and demand, 762–763
weapons network structures, 764–774 (See also Weapons network structures)
weapons of mass destruction, 761, 781n1 (See also Weapons of mass destruction (WMD) trafficking)
Arms trade networks, 781n2
Arms transfers, 781n1
information sources, quantitative, 781–782n6
UN Register of Conventional Arms, 782n7
Aronow, P. M., 141
Asal, V. H., 769
Associative models, semantic representation, 331–332
Assortativity, 229
international trade network, 672–673
Atkin R., 904
Attenuation network, 309–310
Attitudinal models, judicial, 492
Attraction homophily, 578, 579
(p. 937) Attribute grouping, visualization, 281f, 286
Attribute interference, latent, 925
Ausserhofer, J., 290
Authoritative power, 92
Authority scores, 494–495
Autocatalysis, 59, 60f, 65–67
biographical, 66–67, 75
biological, 86n19
definition, 66
linguistic, 67, 86n19
production, 66
self-reconstruction and self-repair, 66
Stalin’s Soviet Union, 76, 76f
Autocatalytic equilibrium, 59, 60f
Autocatalytic theory, 86n16
Automated text-mining techniques. See Semantic networks
Avalanche size, 680
Average treatment effect (ATE), 132–133
Aversion homophily, 578, 578f, 579
Axiomatic foundations, 157
Back-cloth, 904
Baden, C., 333, 347
“Bag-of-words,” 121
Bahrain Centre for Human Rights (BCHR), 715–716
Bail, C. A., 335
Bailey, S., 863
Baker, A., 394, 865, 867
Baker, R. K., 471
Bakshy, E., 119
Balance, 268
Balanced four-cycles, 319
Balance theory, Heider’s, 905
Balkanization, 437, 877
Ballistic missiles weapons trafficking networks
centralized, 771–772
proliferation networks, 767, 768f, 769
geography, 773–774
state transfer likelihood, 763
Baltes, K., 697
Banek, K., 638–639
Banerjee, A., 826
Barabási, A.-L., 229, 660, 723
Barber, M., 365
Barberá, P., 118
Barigozzi, M., 673
Bartholomew, D. J., 193
Baumgartner, F. R., 442–443
Bearman, P., 519, 863
Beck, N., 17
Beck, P. A., 385, 388–389, 396
Beck, U., 879
Behavior
actor, socio-environmental outcomes and networks model, 612–613, 613f, 622n2
adaptive, 622–623n3
change, vs learning, 561f, 562
coevolution networks and nodal attributes models, 240–241
cross-domain effects, 63
egocentric networks, 515
institutionalized, 189
political
American, 10
cross-domain effects, 63
Behavior objective function, 239
Behavior rate function, 239
Beliefs, 913
changing, 564
preexisting
campaign activation, 386
social network reinforcement, 384
Bello, J., 370
Bennett, W. L., 794
Bennington College, 385
Berardo, R., 212, 237, 576, 617–618, 620, 623n7, 826
Berelson, B. R., 357, 386
Bergsten, A., 621
Berkley, S., 640
Berman, S., 823
Bernasco, W., 766–767
Bernstein, J., 458
Bertin, Jacques, 287
Between-community cohesion, 746
Betweenness, 906
Betweenness centrality, 150, 156, 251, 296n1, 345, 411, 496, 507n1
full campaign finance network, 418, 418t
Bevir, M., 103
Beyers, J., 603, 836, 844
(p. 938) Bhamidi, S., 253
Bias
data, 926
institutional, 343
correcting for, 311–312
institution–network, 820
Biased assimilation, 579
Bibliometric analysis, 1.1–3cp, 12–18
Bibliometric networks, 12–13
Big data, 26, 107. See also Computational social science
big challenges, 124–126
causal inference, 142–143
history and definition, 116–117
institutional challenges, 126
sources, 115–116
sources, relational dimensions, 117–123
Bilateral sequential exchange, EU, 596
Bilmes, J., 215
Binary linkage, 251
Binder, M., 600
Biographical autocatalysis, 66–67, 75
Biological autocatalysis, 86n19
Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2001 (BCRA), 413, 459
Bipartite latent space networks, 262–265
Bipartite network, 183–184, 196n13
Bipartite specification, Euclidean distance metric, 271n14
Black Fish, 704–705, 704t, 707
Black Market File Archive, NISAT, 776, 778
Blanco, I., 103–104
Blei, D. M., 120–121
Blogosphere, political, 120
Blogs, 120
news media, computational social science, 120
political bloggers, U.S. Presidential election (2004), 120
Blum, R., 459–460
Blythe, J., 284
Boase, J. P., 635, 642
Bob, C., 722–723, 724
Bodin, Ö., 615, 621
Bogue, A. G., 474, 482
Boldi, P., 157
Bommarito, M. J., 494–495, 496
Bonabeau, E., 660
Bonacich, P., 155
Bond, R. M., 119, 123, 141, 195n4, 362
Bonding social capital, 576
emergence, 616
environmental politics, 612, 613f, 616–618, 623n9
future research, 622
learning, 576
Boomerang model, 717
Bootstrap pseudo likelihood methods, 210
Borgatti, S. P., 181, 189, 906
Borm, P., 765
Börzel, Ranja, 96
Boundary specification problem, 186–187
Bourdieu, P., 616, 890
Boureston, J., 772
Bout, Viktor, 774–775
Bowers, J., 142
Box-Steffensmeier, J. M., 176, 205, 281, 290, 440, 447, 502–505
Boyd, C. L., 137–138
Brader, T., 372
Brandenberger, L. M., 317–318, 321
Brandenburger, P. W., 552
Brandes, U., 284
Brannan, P., 771
Brass, D. J., 907
Bratton, K. A., 478–479
Braun, C., 771, 844
Bräuninger, T., 843
Brazilian Electoral Panel Survey (BEPS), 870n5
Brazilian Electoral Panel Survey (BEPS), 2010, 871n12
Brazilian Electoral Panel Survey (BEPS), 2014, 856 ************
agreement and disagreement, within-network, 861–862, 861t, 862t
discussion networks, political consequences, 864
political discussion, frequency, 858, 858t
relationship types, within networks, 859–861, 860t
Brazilian electorate social networks, 855–870
background, 855–857
data sources, 866–869
Brazilian Electoral Panel Survey 2014, 867–869, 868t
Two-City Brazilian Panel Study (2002-2006), 856, 859–860, 859t, 860t, 865–867
discussion networks
agreeing vs. disagreeing discussants, 856
on electoral outcomes, 856
political consequences, 864–866, 865t
egocentric networks, 856, 857–863
agreement and disagreement, 861–862, 861t, 862t
political discussion frequency and network size, 856, 858–859, 858t, 859t
relationships within networks, 859–861, 860t
vertical network ties, 856, 863, 863t
third wave of democracy, 855–856
vote choice and, 394
Breiger, R. L., 890, 891, 892
Bressers, H., Jr., 843
Breuer, A., 793
Brezhnev-style conservative reform, 71
Briatte, Françoise, 479
Bribes, 796
Bridge, 151
Bridge building, 845
Bridging network, 554n3
Bridging social capital, 575–576
emergence, 616
environmental politics, 612, 613f, 616–618, 623n9
future research, 622
learning, 576
Britain, policy networks, 836
Broadbent, J., 791, 881, 882, 885
Brokerage
leadership and, 613f, 618–620
precedents, 494
Broker-mediated distribution, 800–801
Brokers, 433–434
vs. leaders, 613f, 624n11
party elites and, 801
policy, 576
state actors as, European, 844–846
Brown, D. J., 254
Browne, W. P., 437
Bruinsma, G., 766–767
Brundidge, J., 401
Brysk, A., 717
Buckup, S., 635–636
Bueno de Mesquita, B., 596
Buffalo, New York, 527n4
Burk, W. J., 495
Burt, R., 17–18, 184, 890, 891
Burt, R. S., 191, 496, 518, 645n1, 903–905
Buse, K., 635, 639, 640, 642, 643, 645
Bush, S., 722, 723
Business and management, political science lessons, 903–908
network methods applications, mistakes and stumbling blocks, 907
network theory pitfalls and dangers, 905–907
political science contributions, 907–908
theoretical and methodological concepts, relevant, 903–905, 904f
Business of America is Lobbying, The (Drutman), 445
Butterfly effect, 892
Butts, C., 317
Buzan, B., 763
Caldeira, G. A., 474
California Marine Protected Area Policy, 101
Call detail record (CDR), 124
Calvo, E., 479, 802
Campaign financial networks. See Financial networks, campaign, political parties and
Campbell, A., 517
Campbell, D. T., 881
Campbell, J. E., 478
Campos, C., 361
Campos, Eduardo, 871n11
Campus, D., 394
Canvassing, 362–364
Capella, J. N., 345
Capitalism, institutional, 94
Capitalist classification, transnational, 104
Capitalist peace, 737
Cardoso, Fernando Henrique, 864
(p. 940) Carley, K., 345
Carley, M. K., 656
Carmann, C. J., 601–602
Carpenter, C., 721
Carpenter, D. P., 177, 440, 443, 591, 640
Carr, J. B., 550
Carroll, William, 105
Cartwright, D., 147
Catalysis, 66
organizational, 77
Categorical measurement, 181
Cattaneo, Silvia, 770
Causal devolution, 917
Causal inference, 131–143
average treatment effect, 132–133
big data, 142–143
discussion networks, 519–520
empirical challenges, 131–132
exchangeability, 133, 134–135
future observational research, 143
general framework, studying network effects, 132–135
experimental data, 134
homophily, 131, 139–140
identifying network effects
experimental research, 140–142
observational research, 139–140
political science scholarship, 136–139, 137t
interference between units, 131–132
issues, 25–26
Neyman-Rubin causal model, 132–133
party networks, 464–465
spillover effects, 134
Causality, social, 881–882
Caves, J. P., Jr., 770
Ceccarini, L., 394
Cellular phones, 121–122
call detail record, 124
Centering resonance analysis, 340
Centola, D., 822
Central command economies, 68–69, 69f
Centrality, 148, 149–150, 251
betweenness, 150, 156, 251, 345, 411–412
definition and measures, 296n1, 507n1
full campaign finance network, 418, 418t
judicial networks, 496
closeness, 156, 251, 500, 507n6
degree, 155, 251, 345, 411, 507n4
eigenvector, 155–156, 251, 495
graph-level network, 485
Katz, 155
measures, 623–624n10, 905
power, influence and, 154–155
score, 494
visualization, 285–286
weapons network structures, 770–772
Centralization
cooperation, large networks, 702
network, 692
weapons network structures, 770–772
Chan, S., 383
Change. See also specific topics
behavior, vs learning, 561f, 562
opinion, face-to-face contacts, 385–386
opportunities, 225–226
Chaos, 892
Chatterjee, S., 253
Chen, Y., 265
Chetty, R., 123
Chile, clientelism, 802–803
Chima, J. S., 763
China, 77–83
Cultural Revolution, Mao’s, 71, 77, 79–80
Deng Xiaoping, 71, 80–83, 81f
Great Leap Forward, 77–79, 78f, 87n26
Mao, 77–80, 78f, 80f
Mao vs. Deng Xiaoping, 61
Cho, W. K. T., 365–366, 478, 481, 827
Choice
fixed-choice designs, 191
homophily, 566
rational choice approach, 9
reciprocation, 228
two-sided, 233
vote (See Vote choice)
Choudhury, T., 215
Christakis, N. A., 140, 358
Christenson, D. P., 176, 205, 281, 290, 440, 447, 502, 503–505, 507n2
Christoph, B., 394
Chyba, C. F., 771
Cialdini, R. B., 907
Circular flow of power, 69, 87n23
Císař, O., 837
(p. 941) Citation analysis, 13
Citation networks, 1.3cp, 18, 491, 492–497
Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission, 412, 459, 466
Civic culture, 823
Civil society organization (CSO), 689, 710n1
UNDP collaboration, 709
Clandestine actors
arms supply and proliferation networks, 761–762
weapons networks, organizations, 764–765
Clans, 159
Clark, John, 474
Clark, T. S., 497
Clark, W. C., 885
Classical network theory, 151
Classical scaling, 284
Classification, 157
Clean network, 186
Clemens, Elisabeth, 435
Clientelism, 800–803, 824
Climate change
adaptation, 563–564
case, 882
ecopolitical model, 882–884, 883f
global cross-case variation, 881
Climate change policy networks, comparative, 875–896
challenges and new directions, 891–895
complexity and chaos, 892
meaning, relational social and political approach, 891–892
network approach limits, 894–895
theoretical forms, new, 892–893
Comparing Climate Change Policy Networks (Compon), 877–882
data and methods, 878–879
global climate change as quasi-experimental research project, 879–882
origins and history, 877–878
status, 879
modeling climate change domain, policy network approach, 882–885, 883f, 884f
multiple networks, 876
national climate change responses, causes, 885–886
network image, 889–891
construction, 889
quantitative descriptive indicators, 889–891
social distance, 889
policy network approach, 875–876
development, 876–877
power, 875
survey instrument and data, 886–889
measuring power, 888–889
Climate change policy networks, Swiss, 572–573, 572f
Clinton, J., 263
Cliques, 158–160, 158f, 250, 250f
Closeness centrality, 156, 251, 500, 507n6
Clustering, cross-sectional, 303
Coalition(s)
advocacy, 100, 303, 884
discourse, 303
formation, 304
interest groups, 441
winning, 461
Coarseness, classical networks, 154
COBLOC block model analysis, 597
Co-citation, 13–20
American politics, 1.2cp, 17
analysis of bibliographies, 1.2cp, 14–15
articles on networks, frequency, 20, 20f
bridges and gaps between subfields, 14
citation network, 1.3cp, 18
general political science journals, 1.1cp, 13–14
international relations journals, 1.1cp, 13, 14, 17–18
journal connectivity, 1.1cp, 13–14
public administration journals, 1.1cp, 1.2cp, 13, 14, 15–16
public policy literature, 1.1cp, 17
sample journals, citation among, 18–20, 18t, 19t
top articles/books, by cluster, 1.2cp, 16, 16t
top journals and weights, by cluster, 14, 15t
Co-citation network, 1.3cp, 18
Coercive power, 92
(p. 942) Coevolution
alliances, conflict and democracy, 739
models, 222
multiple networks, 241
network-level activity and micro-level behavior, environmental politics, 614–620 (See also Network-level activity and micro-level behavior, coevolution)
network panel data, 221–222
networks and nodal attributes models, 237–241
behavior dynamics specification, 240–241
fundamentals, 237–238
network and behavior dynamics, 238–239
Cognitive change, vs. learning, 561f, 562
Cognitive liberation, 883
Cognitive mapping, 331–332
Cohen, L., 477
Cohesion, 157–158
between-community, 746
within-community, 745–746
Cohesion coefficient, 745–746
Cole, A., 838–839
Coleman, James, 102
network analysis formal theory and European Union politics, 592, 595–601 (See also under European Union politics)
Coleman, J. S., 229, 243, 645n1
Collaborations. See also specific types
human rights organizations, 696
institutional, 580
policy regimes, 560
political science and
computer science, 927
economics, 913–914
sociology, 918, 918f
relationships, 564
Collective action, 790–795
dilemma, global climate change, 879
networks, 877
social movements, 790, 791
Collective actors, arms supply and proliferation networks, 774
Collier, N., 66
Collins, P. M., 502, 504, 505
Color, 281f, 289–290
hue, 289–290
links, 291–292
saturation, links, 292
Columbia school studies, 385–388, 400, 516–517
Committee of Regions, 603
Commodity-specific networks, international trade, 673–674
Common Agricultural Policy, 598–599
Common-pool resources, 611, 622n1
Common security and defense policy, EU, 602
Communication
discussion networks, 520
flow, as nerves of government, 876
thick, 702
Communism
economies, 68–69, 69f
purge and mass mobilization, 71
Community(ies), 148, 150, 160
detection, 150, 927
international, cooperative, 744–746, 745f, 747f
membership, 744–745
psychological approach, 9
Community cohesion coefficient, 753, 754t
Community density matrix, 751, 752t
Community detection analysis (CDA), 414–416, 416f
Community-partitioned adjacency, 751, 752t
Comparative National Election Project (CNEP), 394–397, 399, 401nn6–8, 402n11
comparative studies, 855, 870n1
cross-national studies, 870n1
Comparative politics, 789–809
analogical political networks, 790
collective action and contentious politics, 790–795
Arab Spring, 793
conceptual and methodological challenges, 795
hegemonic approach, 791
Indignados movement, Spain, 793–794
linkages, across organizations, 792
linkages, events and ideas, 792 (p. 943)
online social movements, 793–794
Palestinian Liberation Organization, 794–795
resource types, 791
social networks and social movements, 791–793
Tunisian Revolution, 793
descriptive political networks, 790
fundamentals, 789–790
inferential political networks, 790
political economy, 796–803
clientelism, 800–803
corruption, 796–798
institutions, 798–800
relational, 803–807
political organizations and political identities, 806–807
state-society relations, 803–806
Comparing Climate Change Policy Networks (Compon), 877–882
data and methods, 878–879
global climate change as quasi-experimental research project, 879–882
origins and history, 877–878
status, 879
Compatibility, 185
Compensatory, 233, 236
Complexity, 892
organizational, 444
Components, 25–26
Computational social science, 116
Computational social science, political networks, 115–127
big data, big challenges, 124–126
big data sources, 115–116
big data sources, relational, 117–123
cellular phones and smartphones, 121–122
content-sharing platforms, 119–120
Facebook, 118–119
governmental archival data, 122–123
Internet and World Wide Web, 117
Internet Archive, 121
news media, blogs, 120
textual analysis, bills, news media, and email, 120–121
Twitter, 118
institutional challenges, 126
methodological opportunities, 123–124
political networks, 116–117
Computer science, political science lessons, 925–927
collaborations, political science–computer science, 927
network methods applications, mistakes and stumbling blocks, 926–927
network theory pitfalls and dangers, 925–926
political science contributions, 927
theoretical and methodological concepts, 925
COMTRADE, 684n6
Concept congruence network, 306f, 308–309, 308f, 335
Concept popularity, 319
Concepts, 304. See also specific types
discourse network analysis, 304–305
Concept-to-concept network, 329f, 330
Conditional independence, 193
Conflict
avoidance, 369
interdependence, 742
international, determinants, 741–744
Conflict and cooperation, network analytic studies, 738–744
international conflict, 741–744
international cooperation, 738–741
Conflict network, 308, 308f
actor, 308, 308f, 310
Conflict resolution organizations (CROs), 264
Congruence network, actor, 306f, 307–308, 308f, 310
Connaughton, S. L., 332
Connectivity, 148, 150–151
international trade network, 672–673
network, local government networks, 539–540
Consensual systems, Europe, 834–836
Consultants, political, 458
Contagion, political party networks, 464
Content measurement, communication network, 520–522
Content-sharing platforms, 119–120
(p. 944) Context, social. See also specific topics
institution, 822–823
vs. social networks, 383
on voting and political participation, 364–365
Contextual conflict, 367
Continuous ties, 196n18
Continuous-time Markov process, 225
Control of Corruption Governance Indicator, 797
Conway, L. G., 346
Co-occurrences, 189
Cook, J. M., 230
Cooperation, 826. See also specific types
alliances and, terrorism
high-end, 657–658
low-end, 658
crowding out effect, 580
forms, 733
frequency, 733
global patterns (2000-2015), 733, 734f
institutionalized, 733–734
interest groups, 440–441
international, 734
conventional wisdom, 735–738
determinants, 738–741
nation-states, 733
strategic, 462
Cooperative networks, democracy and, 733–756
balance and imbalance, 748
“democratic communities,” 756n4
dyadic analysis, moving beyond, 747
fundamentals, 733–735, 734f
international communities, 744–746, 745f, 747f
international cooperation, conventional wisdom, 735–738
methods, 748–755
community cohesion coefficient, 753, 754t
community-partitioned adjacency and community density matrix, 751, 752t
community variance matrix, 751, 752t, 755t
data sources, 748–749
dyadic similarity (hypothetical), 753, 753t
methods, 749–755, 751t, 752t, 753t, 754t, 755t
model deficiencies, 746–747
modularity, 756n5
network analysis contribution, marginal, 746
network analytic studies, conflict and cooperations, 738–744
international conflict, 741–744
international cooperation, 738–741
popularity effects, 747
Coordination
EU formal and information ministerial structures, 600
health policy networks, 638–640
interministerial, EU, 599–600
Coordination search problem, 543
Corera, G., 771
Corman, S. R., 340
Corporate interlocks, 93–94
Corporatist concertation, 98
Corporatist interest intermediation, Europe, 836–837
Corpus, 338
Correlates of War (COW), 744, 745f
Corruption, 796–798
Corruption Perceptions Index, 797
Cosine similarity, 312
Cosponsorship, legislative, 478, 479–480
Counterterrorism networks, 662–664
crisis management stage, 662–663
Hamas Hebrew University attack, Israeli response problems, 662–663
offensive response, 663–664
prevention, 663
Countryside Alliance, 96
Coviello, L., 119
Covoting networks, 483
Cranmer, S. J., 17, 194, 204, 210, 214, 215, 222, 266–268, 269t, 739, 743, 922, 930
Crona, B. I., 615, 619
Cross-cutting ties, weak, 480
Cross-domain behavioral effects, 63
Cross-pressures, 357, 366–367
Roosevelt1940 presidential campaign, 386
structural position, 371–373 (p. 945)
vote choice preference change, 387
voter turnout, 385
Cross-role consistency, 86n9
Cross-sectional clustering, 303
Cross-sectional models
exponential random graph model, 204–205
latent space model, 206–207, 215n1
quadratic assignment procedure, 207–209, 208f
Crowding out effect, 580
Crucitti, P., 261
Cues, voting, 481–482
Cultural hole, 891
Cultural resources, 791
Cultural Revolution, Mao’s, 71, 77, 79–80
Curwein, P. A., 778
Cyclic closure, 548
D’Agostino, G., 892
Dahl, R. A., 445, 553, 888
Dal Bó, E., 828
Dal Bó, P., 828
Dale, A., 616, 617
Danowski, J. A., 347
Dark networks, weapons trafficking, 765, 774
Dasgupta, N., 829
Dasovic, J., 393–394
Data
bias and imperfections, 926
big (See Big data)
collection issues, 926
dependency, as solution not problem, 252–257, 257f
experimental, studying network effects with, 134
lack of, 926
network, issues with, 926–927
Data mining
techniques, 912
text mining, 328, 338 (See also Semantic networks)
Date stamp, discourse network analysis, 305
Daugbjerg, C., 846
Davenport, T. C., 363, 364
Davis, D. R., 720, 726, 737
Davis, J. A., 147
Dawson, M. C., 376
De Benedictis, L., 672
Decision-making, EU majority system, 590
Deductive theoretical hypothesis testing, 896n7
Deem, M. W., 675
Defection problem, 543
Degree centrality, 155, 251, 345, 411, 507n4
political discussion, 859, 859t
Dekker, D., 208
de Leo, F. L. L., 361
Dell’Apa, A., 613
DeMars, W. E., 719, 720
de’Medici, Cosimo, 63, 82, 88n43, 906
Democracy
allies, other democracies, 739
conflict and, coevolution, 739
cooperative networks, 733–756, 756n5 (See also Cooperative networksdemocracy and)
promotion
human rights advocacy, 723
hyperlink-created democracy promotion network, 722
third wave, Brazil, 855–856
“Democratic communities,” 756n4
Democratic institutions, 818
political networks and, 817–830
fundamentals, 817
incentives, 821–824
information, 824–828
institutions and networks, 818–821
opportunities, 828–829
Democratic Party financial network, 419–423, 420f, 422t, 423t, 424t
Democratization
European integration in Eastern Europe, 839–840
mass politics, 855–856
third wave, 855–856
Democrats, 454. See also Political parties
Deng Xiaoping, 71, 80–83, 81f
vs. Mao, 61
Density
activity and, 623n5
fragmentation and, 612, 613f, 614–616
information exchange and joint problem-solving, 702
international trade network, 672
(p. 946) Dependency network, 904, 904f
De Rynck, F., 838
Descriptive network model, 306–310, 306f, 308f
actor conflict network, 308, 308f, 310
actor congruence network, 306f, 307–308, 308f, 310
affiliation network, 306–307, 306f, 310
attenuation network, 309–310
concept congruence network, 306f, 308–309, 308f
conflict network, 308, 308f
statement, 306–307
time window network, 309–310
Descriptive political networks, 790
Design, 281
Desmarais, B. A., 17, 210, 214, 215, 222, 478, 930
de Solla Price, D. J., 229
Deutsch, Karl, 876
Development
climate change policy networks, comparative, 876–877
education aid organizations, 696–697
health policy networks, 638, 648n5
identity, interest group politics, 437–439
institutional, 638, 646n5
international trade network, 681–682
network studies, 4–5
De Vries, M. S., 839
Diaconis, P., 253
Diani, M., 624n11, 791–792
Dickson, W. J., 285
Dictatorial, 233, 234
Diesner, J., 656
Dijkstra, J., 596
Dilemma of collective action (DCA), global climate change, 879
DiMaggio, P., 907
Dionne, K. Y., 826
Directed graphs, 152
Directed measurement, 182
Directive on Ambient Air Quality and Cleaner Air for Europe, 601
Disagreement, 341
egocentric networks, Brazil, 861–862, 861t, 862t
egocentric partisan, 367
egocentric political, 367, 369
lack, homogeneity problem, 861
network partisan, 367
Disagreement, political, 366–373. See also Discussion networks
cross-pressures and structural position, 371–373
ethnicity, 522
gender, 522
heterogeneity and conditionality, 521
historical context, 366–367
interpersonal, 520–522
on participation and turnout, 366
vs. political isolation, 367–369
primary relationships, 386–387
responses, individual differences, 369–371
social expertise, 521–522
Discourse, political, 301–302
definition, 301
micro-level mechanisms, 317–319
as network phenomenon, 302
Discourse coalitions, 303
Discourse field, 883–884, 883f, 884f
Discourse network analysis, 301–321, 331, 334–335
coding scheme and variables, 304–306
descriptive network model, 306–310, 306f, 308f
actor conflict network, 308, 308f, 310
actor congruence network, 306f, 307–308, 308f, 310
affiliation network, 306–307, 306f, 310
attenuation network, 309–310
concept congruence network, 306f, 308–309, 308f
conflict network, 308, 308f
statement, 306–307
time window network, 309–310
Discourse Network Analyzer, 302
examples, brief descriptive, 313–317, 315f, 316f
concept network, hierarchical cluster of Jaccard-normalized concept congruence network, 314–317, 316f
decreasing threshold value, normalized actor congruence network, 314, 315f (p. 947)
German pension politics (1993-2001), 313–314, 315f
variety of applications, 313
future research, 320
inferential network analysis, policy debates, 317–320
normalization, discourse networks, 310–313, 311f
policy debates, 301
political actors, 301–302
political discourse, 301, 302
problems, 320–321
theory, 302–304
advocacy coalition framework, 303
argumentative discourse analysis, 303
cross-sectional clustering, 303
frames, 304
political waves, 303
Discourse Network Analyzer, 302, 605
climate change policy networks, 882
Discourse networks, EU politics, 604–606
Discursive fields, 334
Discussants, political
selection and influence, 383
on voting and political participation, 358–361, 389–390
spouses, 358–359
Discussion networks, 515–527. See also Disagreement, political
Brazil
agreeing vs. disagreeing discussants, 856
on electoral outcomes, 856
frequency and network size, 856, 858–859, 858t, 859t
political consequences, 864–866, 865t
relationships within networks, 859–861, 860t
vs. U.S., 858, 858t, 859t
Brazilian electorate
agreeing vs. disagreeing discussants, 856
on electoral outcomes, 856
political consequences, 864–866, 865t
core network absence, 527n6
different levels of analysis and approaches, 527
discussion and participation, mechanisms, 520, 528n7
dissimilar views, exposure to, 516
egocentric, 515–516, 527n1
on attitudes and behaviors, 515
exposure, on political activity, 520, 528n7
fundamental principles, 515–516
General Social Survey questions, 518
history, 516–517
individual vote choice, 387
learning models vs. information shortcut models, 523
name generators and interpersonal network measurement, 518–519
participation, 520, 528n7
political expertise, 521–522
research agenda, 523–526
data, 525–526
methodology, 524, 526
theory, 524–525, 526
research paradigm, challenges, 519–523
causality questions, 519–520
conceptualization and communication network content measurement, 520–522
mechanisms of influence, 522–523
WIMTY (whatever it means to you), 519, 527n6
Distance scaling algorithms, 283
Diversity, network, 565, 575
Division problem, 543
Djupe, P. A., 519, 522, 867
Doerfel, M. L., 332
Doherty, J. W., 458
Domhoff, William, 93–94, 104
Dominguez, C. B. K., 408, 444, 447, 459
Donas, T., 603
Dorff, C., 254, 256
Dorussen, H., 741, 742
Dowding, Keith, 96
Dowdle, A., 459
Downs, A., 303, 522–523
Drutman, Lee, 445
Dual hierarchy
circular flow of power, 69, 87n23
communist, 68–72, 69f
enterprise or firm level, 70, 70f
Dueñas, M., 677–678
Duernecker, G., 682
(p. 948) Dulio, D. A., 184, 408
Dumais, S. T., 341
Dyad, 180–181, 203
definition, 745
so-called, political science networks, 258–259
Dyadic analysis
moving beyond, 747
so-called, 271n15
Dyadic conflict, interdependence, 742
Dyadic covariate effect, 230
Dyadic covariates, 224, 230
Dyadic interactions, cooperative networks and democracy, 740
Dyadic interdependence, 179
Dyadic similarity, 753, 753t
Dyadic variation, 180
Dyck, J., 365
Dynamic latent space networks, 265–266
Dynamic models, 209–212
stochastic actor oriented models, 211–212
temporal exponential random graph model, 209–211
Dynamic networks, 912–913
Dynamics, 251
Eastern Europe, democratization and European integration, 839–840
Ecology of games model, 106
Ecology of Interest Representation, The (Gray and Lowery), 435
Economics
actors, interlocking directorates, 93–94
communist (central command) economies, 68–69, 69f
international trade network, 681–682
networks, 59, 60f
Economics, political science lessons, 911–914
collaborations, political science–economics, 913–914
network methods applications, mistakes and stumbling blocks, 912–913
network theory pitfalls and dangers, 912
political networks contributions, 913
theoretical and methodological concepts, 911
Economy, political, 796–803
clientelism, 800–803
corruption, 796–798
institutions, 798–800
Ecosystem-based management planning, 615
Edelenbos, J., 103, 846
Edges, 152
definition, 748
false negative, 186, 186t
Edge weight normalization, discourse networks, 310–313, 311f
Edwards, B., 791
Effectiveness, 641, 646n6
global governance networks, 698–709 (See also under Global governance networks (GGNs))
Effects, 228
Efficiency, network, 700
Efficiency/security trade-off, weapons networks, 765–770
countering illicit networks, 769–770
fundamentals, 765–766
small arms trafficking, 766–767
weapons of mass destruction trafficking, 767–769, 768f
Egalitarian power, 92
Ego-alter interaction effect, 230
Egocentric networks, 205, 515–516, 537n1. See also Discussion networks
on attitudes and behaviors, 515
Brazil, 857–863 (See also Brazilian electorate social networks)
agreement and disagreement, 861–862, 861t, 862t
political discussion frequency and network size, 856, 858–859, 858t, 859t
relationships within networks, 859–861, 860t
vertical network ties, 856, 863, 863t
local government, 548–551
definition, 548–549
as dependent variable, 549–550
as independent variables, 550–551
theoretical, 516, 537n2
Egocentric partisan disagreement, 367
Egocentric political disagreement, 367, 369
(p. 949) Egocentric techniques, 537n2
Ego effect, 230
Ego-net analyses, 177–178, 181
Ego-nets. See Egocentric networks
Ego network, 176
Eigen, M., 66, 86n17
Eigenspectrum approaches, 107
Eigenvector centrality, 155–156, 251, 495
Elkins, 717–718Z.
Elmira, New York, 385, 386
Embeddedness, 9
of economic entities in political sector, 94
Emergence, organizations and states, 59–88
autocatalytic reaction, 59, 60f, 65–67
change, 59–61
China, 77–83
Deng Xiaoping, 71, 80–83, 81f
Mao, 77–80, 78f, 80f
Mao vs. Deng Xiaoping, 61
communist economic-cum-political transformation, Soviet Union and China, 67–84
cross-domain behavioral effects, 63
dual hierarchy, 68–72, 69f, 70f
feedback mechanisms, 61
innovation vs. invention, 2.1cp, 62–65, 64t
multiple-network ensemble, Renaissance Florence, 60f
multiple-network folding mechanisms, 2.1cp, 62–65, 64t
network dynamics, 59, 60f
novelty, 59, 61
organizational novelty, 59
recombinant mechanisms, 63
search strategy, coevolutionary schema, 2.1bcp, 67–68
Soviet Union
Gorbachev, 83–84, 84f
Stalin, 72–77, 74f, 76f
Stalin vs. Gorbachev, 61
symbiosis vs. contradiction, 61
transposing social relations, 63
Emirbayer, M., 86n19, 224, 893, 894, 895
Emmons, J., 736
Encompassing interests, 800
Endogenous processes, 25
Engel, S. M., 437–438
Environmental policy, 11
political party networks, 465
Environmental politics, 11, 611–624. See also Climate change
adaptive co-management, 612–613, 613f, 615, 623n3
adaptive governance, 612–613, 613f, 615, 622–623n3
common-pool resources, 611, 622n1
fundamentals, 611–612
future research directions, 620–622
international level, 612
local level, 611–612, 622n1
network-level activity and micro-level behavior, coevolution, 614–620
bridging and bonding capital, 616–618, 623n9
brokerage and leadership, 618–620
network density and fragmentation, 614–616
networks, actor behavior, and socio-environmental outcomes model, 612–613, 613f, 622n2
social network analysis, social-ecological systems, 611–612
Environmental problems, global governance networks, 690
Environmental risk policy network, U.S., 573, 574f
Epstein, L., 137–138
Equilibrium, autocatalytic, 59, 60f
Erdős, P., 252
Erdős-Renyi model, 676
Erie County, Ohio, 385, 386
Ernstson, H., 845
Esterling, K. M., 440
Ethical considerations, 196n16
Ethnicity
social networks, 826
voting and political participation, 365–366
Eubank, N., 826
EUGENE, 271n10
Eulau, H., 473, 474, 480
Europe, institutions and policy networks, 833–848
further research, 847–848
institutional context, 834 (p. 950)
institutional context and European policy networks, 835–842
democratization and European integration in Eastern Europe, 839–840
industry sectors, liberalization, 840–841
interest intermediation systems, 836–837
majority vs. consensual systems, 834–836
multilevel governance, 837–839
venue participation as opportunity structures, 841–842
institutions on policy networks, 833–834
literature, 834
state actors, 843–847
decisions and influence, 843
meta-governance, 846–847
as networking activists and brokers, 844–846
as networking targets, 843–844
vs. private actors, 843
variety, 833
European Community (EC), 589
European Parliament, 601–602
European Union (EU)
actors, multitude, 590
institutional architecture, policy-specific, 590
legislative and executive branches, 590
member states, 589
political system, 589
European Union (EU) politics, 589–606
Committee of Regions, 603
common security and defense networks, 602
decision-making and majority system, 590
discourse networks, 604–606
European Parliament, 601–602
future developments, 606
hybrid and transient character, 590
method as content, 606
network analysis, Coleman’s formal theory, 592, 595–601
bilateral sequential exchange, 596
Binder’s formal and information coordination structures, ministerial, 600
Common Agricultural Policy, 598–599
Dijkstra’s follow-up studies, 596
Henning and Wald’s research, 598
history, 592
interest mediation, multilevel systems, 598
König’s research, 597–598
Krause and Henning’s research, 598–599
McSharry reform, 598
model overview, 592
Pappi and Henning’s research, 597–598
persuasion networks, 596–597
procedural approaches, 596
public and private actors, 592
Putnam’s administrative interest groups, 599
Scharpf’s interministerial coordination, 599–600
Stoiber’s formal coordination structure and informal communication behavior, 600
Stokman and van den Bos’s informal logrolling process modeling, 592
Stokman and van Oosten’s mutual adjustment of positions, 596
Thurner and Binder’s negotiation performance/return, 600
Thurner and Pappi’s International Negotiations and Interministerial Coordination, 599
Thurner and Pappi’s structure, determinants, and transgovernmental network investigation, 600
Thurner’s process management, 600–601
network character/governance, 591
procedural rules, 590
quantitative network studies, 591–592, 593t, 594t, 595t
regulatory agencies, 603–604
Eveland, W. P., 361, 372
Evolution
international trade network, 674–675
network, 26–27
social, vs. biological evolution, 59, 60, 85n1
Exchangeability, 121, 133, 134–135
Exchange models, 101–103
(p. 951) Experimental research
data, studying network effects, 134
identifying network effects, 140–142
Expertise, social, 521–522
Expert knowledge, 564
Explanatory, 930
Explandum, 318
Exponential random graph models (ERGMs), 5, 107, 162–163, 163f, 166n26, 204–205, 252–253, 906–907
alliance formation, 739
arms supply and proliferation networks, 776
differential dependence between nodes, 163
dynamic latent space networks, 265–266
frailty, 506
importance, 931
inferential network analysis, policy debates, 317
interest group politics, 440
judicial networks, 504
local government collaboration and network segregation, 573
semantic networks, 347
separable temporal, 507, 618
structural parameters, 162
temporal, 209–211, 222, 265, 317, 507
Extended party network, 11, 408–411, 426nn6
formal party organizations, 409
nonaligned actors, 410–411
party allies, 410
party-connected committees, 409–410
Eyre, D. P., 763
Faas, T., 393
Face-to-face contacts, opinion change, 385–386
Face to face mobilization, 362–364
Factionalism, Kantian, 743
Fagiolo, G., 673, 675, 677–678
Falsely aggregated node, 188
Falsely disaggregated node, 186t, 188
False negative edges, 186, 186t
False negative nodes, 186, 186t
False positive nodes, 186t, 187
Fames, 304
Families, voting and political participation, 359
Family circles, 73, 77, 83
Fariss, C. J., 721
Far Right, American, 660–661
Fattore, G., 645n1
Faul, Moira, 696
Faust, K., 17, 196n8, 890
Fawcett, P., 846
Fearon, J. D., 826
Federal Electrion Commission, 122
Feedback loops, negative, 86n18
Feinstein, B. D., 828
Feiock, R. C., 194, 539–553, 554n2, 636
Felbermayr, G. J., 669, 684n1
Feng, M., 347
Fernandez, R. M., 446, 619, 639, 890
Fiellin, A., 474, 480, 481
Financial crises, international trade network, 682
Financial networks, campaign, political parties and, 407–426
Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act (2001), 413, 459
Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission, 412, 459, 466
contributions, by party, 426n5
data and methods, 411–413
Democratic and Republican Party, 419–423, 420f, 421f, 422t, 423t, 424t
extended party network, 408–411, 426nn6, 11
formal political party organizations, 407, 425n1
full campaign finance network, 413–419, 415f, 416f, 417t, 418t
actor connectivity, 416, 417t
actors and direct connections, 414–415
between-party comparison, 416, 417t, 418–419, 418t
community detection analysis, 414–416, 416f
core-periphery structure, 414
PACS, allied, 417–418, 417t, 418t
PACS, nonaligned, 416, 417t, 418
partisan actors, 414
visual patterns, 414, 415f
implications, 424–425
network, defined, 426n6
patterns, 458–459
permutation-based differences of means tests, 413, 418, 421, 426–427, 427t, 428t, 429t
political action committees, 407–408, 425n2
social networks, 407
Finifter, A. W., 399, 402n10
First past the post model, 225–226
Fischer, M., 446, 838, 842
Fitzgerald, J., 393–394
527s, 459
Five-Year Plan, Stalin’s 1st (1927-1932), 72–73, 75, 77, 79, 82
Fixed-choice designs, 191
Flanagan, S. C., 392
Flandreau, M., 279, 285
Flash in the pan decisions, 497
Fleeting ties, 188–189, 196n18
Flickr, 119–120
Florence, Renaissance, multiple-network ensemble, 59, 60f
Flows, 189
Focus/context, 293, 296f, 296f
Focusing events, 569
Foljanty-Jost, G., 844
Fombrun, C., 907
Forest Stewardship Council (FSC), 694
Formal and information coordination structures, EU ministerial, 600
Formal party organizations, 407, 409, 425n1
Foti, N. J., 681
Fowler, J. H., 140, 358, 408, 478, 481, 494, 827
Fragmentation, 270, 623n4
density and, 612, 613f, 614–616
horizontal, 576
policy system, 570–571
Frailty exponential random graph models (FERGMs), 506
Frames (framing)
discourse network analysis, 304
normative, 718
semantic networks, 331, 332–333, 346
Frederickson, H. G., 552
Fredrickson, M., 142
Free association networks, small-worldness, 332
Free association task, 332, 348n1
Freeman, L. C., 107–108, 277, 278, 285, 297n1, 565, 894
Free-rider effect, 720
Free West Papua Movement, 724
Frequent contact, 187
Freud, Sigmund, 249, 270n1
Friedkin’s network autocorrelation model, 915
Friel, N., 263
Friends
close, on voting and political participation, 359–361
on voting and political participation, 361–362
Friendship ties, legislators, 473
Fringe organizations, identifying, 335
Fruchterman, T. M. J., 283
Fruchterman-Reingold algorithm, 414
Fuhrmann, M., 771, 778
Fujimori, Alberto, 798
Future, 26–27
Gage, N. L., 881
Galafassi, D., 621
Gallo, J., 286
Game-theoretical models, 232
legislative networks, 484
myopic optimization, 227
Garavito, Rodríguez, 717
Garcia-Quijano, C., 615
Gargiulo, M., 229
Garlaschelli, D., 672
Gash, A., 698, 699, 701, 708
Gastner, M. T., 261
General Social Survey (GSS) 1987, 359–360
discussion networks questions, 518
Geodesics, 182
Geographical space, homophily, 259
Geometrically weighted edgewise shared partner (GWESP), 229
alliance formation, 739
Gerasev, M., 772
Gerber, A. S., 363, 374–375, 821
Gerlak, A. K., 564
(p. 953) Germany
networks and vote choice, 393–394, 395
policy networks, 98–100
Gerschekron, A., 87n35
Gestalt theory, 284
“Get out the vote” (GOTV) field experiments, 524
Gibson, J. L., 502, 507n8, 823
Gilardi, F., 603–604
Gile, K. J., 191–192, 196n9
Gilens, M., 445
Gimpel, J. G., 365
Gimpel,J. G., 365–366
Girvan, M., 749
Glance, N., 120, 278–279, 281f, 290, 291–292
Gleason, S. A., 505
Glick, D. M., 507n2
Global agora, 105
Global Environmental Policy Network (Gepon) survey, 879
Global governance networks (GGNs), 689–710
definition, 691
dynamics, 694–698
benefits, 694–696
drawbacks, 696–697
efficiency, network, 700
environmental problems, global, 690
essential aspects, 691
fundamentals, 689–690
goals, 689
governance networks, defined, 690–694
governance vs. government, 692
health policy formation, 635, 646n4
model, network effectiveness, 698–709
conceptualizing, 699–701
leadership quality, 707–708
outcomes, studies, 698–699
resource distribution, 708–709
structural network features, as determinants, 701–703
structural network features, Black Fish (small), 704–705, 704t, 707
structural network features, UN Global Compact (large), 704t, 705–708
multi-stakeholder networks, 689
mutual adjustment and consensus, 693
networked governance concept, 689
networked politics, 689, 690
vs. private transnational regulatory initiatives, 694
vs. transnational advocacy networks, 693
voluntary policy coordination, 693
Globalization, 104
first wave, 684n1
second wave, 669, 684n1
Global policy networks, 104–106
Global threshold, 293, 295f
Golder, S. N., 829
Goldstein conflict-cooperation scale, 748
Gomes, Ciro, 864
González-Bailón, S., 794
Goodhart, A. L., 496
Goodwin, J., 86n19, 224, 895
Google, search algorithm, 125
Gorbachev, 71, 83–84, 84f
vs. Stalin, 61
Gossip regime, 63, 82, 88n43, 906
Gould, R., 446, 619, 639, 795, 890
Governance
adaptive, 612–613, 613f, 615, 622–623n3
EU networks and politics, 591
global (See Global governance)
vs. government, 692
health policy networks, 639
informal, nonauthoritative and nonhierarchical, 692
meta-, of state actors, 846–847
multilevel, Europe, 837–839
networked, 689
pluri-centric, 692
shared, local networks, 538
uni-centric, 692
Governance network, 103–104
definitions, 690–694
Governmental archival data, 122–123
Governmental Process, The (Truman), 434–435
GPI, 905–906
Granovetter, M. S., 1.2cp, 17, 147, 398, 546, 903, 907
Graphs, directed, 152
Graph-theoretic power index (GPI), 905–906
Graph theory, 151–152
(p. 954) Gravity model, international trade network, 677–678, 735, 739
Gray, Virginia, 435
Great Britain, social networks and vote choice, 392–393, 395, 396
Great Leap Forward, 77–79, 78f, 87n26
Great Purge, Stalin’s, 71, 87n25
Great Terror (1936-1938), 72, 74–75, 74f, 77
Green, D. P., 363, 821
Green-washing, 706
Gregersen, H., 892
Gross, H., 601
Gross, J. H., 476, 482, 485n2
Grossman, M., 408, 444, 446, 447, 448–449, 459
Growth, economic, international trade network, 681–682
Gruselle, B., 770, 771, 772
Guerrero, A. M., 621
Gulati, R., 229
Gunther, R., 396
Haber, S., 798, 799
Habyarimana, J., 826
Hadden, J., 177, 435, 448
Hafner-Burton, E. M., 18, 725, 726, 741, 770, 774
Haim, Dotan A., 740
Hajer, M. A., 303, 305
Halpin, D., 434, 438
Hamas, 653, 654
Hamers, H., 765
Hammersley-Clifford theorem, 252
Han, J. Y., 370
Handcock, M. S., 191–192, 196n9, 206, 210, 254–255
Hanneke, S., 265
Hanneman, R., 6
Hansford, T. G., 493, 504
Harary, F., 147
Hare, C., 263
Hargittai, E., 286
Hargreaves-Heap, S., 361
Harman, B. P., 623n9
Harmer, A., 635, 643
Harrison, M., 75–76, 76f
Hastings, J. V., 772, 773
Haunss, S., 605
Hawking, S. W., 895
Hays, J. C., 260
He, J., 675
Healthcare reform, 453
Health policy interest groups, 459
Health policy networks, 631–648
challenges, 638–644
accountability, 640
assessment, 640–642
coordination, 638–640
power distribution, uneven, 642–644
effectiveness, striving for and measuring, 646n6
fundamentals, 631–632
future research directions, 644–646
institutional analysis and development, 638, 646n5
policy formation, 632, 634–636
policy implementation, 632, 636–638
social network analysis applications, 635, 646n4
types and classification, 632–633, 633t, 645n1
Heaney, M. T., 177, 194, 408, 437, 444–445, 446, 459, 827
Heath, A., 398
Heclo, Hugh, 9
Heider, F., 147, 905
Heikkila, T., 564
Heinz, John, 446
Helmke, G., 819
Hennicke, M., 727
Hennig, M., 278
Henning, C. H. C. A., 597–598, 598–599
Henry, A. D., 208, 559, 561–564, 568, 578
Herger, Wally, 478
Herring, E., 763
Herring, P., 442
Herrnson, P. S., 408, 409
Heterogenous networks, global governance, 702–703
Heterophily, 702
Hezbollah, Iran terrorist networks and, 654, 659, 665nn1–2
Hierarchy, communist dual, 68–72, 69f, 70f
Hilbert, D., 25
Hilgerdt, F., 670
(p. 955) Hillis, V., 338
Hinkle, R. K., 494, 497
Hironaka, A., 879
Hirschi, C., 618, 842
Hitt, M. P., 447, 494, 496, 504
Hix, S., 591
Hobbs, W. R., 358
Hobson, J. A., 278
Hodgson, G., 623n3
Hoeman, Paul, 706
Hoff, P. D., 206, 254–255, 259, 265, 266, 268, 738, 762
Hoffman, M., 338
Holland, P. W., 185, 186, 204, 225, 229, 931
Hollenbach, F. M., 122
Holloway, D., 772
Hollow Core, The (Heinz et al.), 446
Homans, G. C., 876–877
Homogeneity
definition, 702
network functionality, 702
Homophily, 268, 461
alliances, 740
attraction, 578, 579
aversion, 578, 578f, 579
Brazilian political discussion network, 861
on bridging organizations, 617
causal effects of network, 148
choice, 566
definition, 131, 148, 195n2, 259, 566, 578, 702
development education aid organizations, 696–697
geographical space, 259
global governance networks
effectiveness, 701, 703
functionality, 702
localized, large networks, 710n7
network segregation, 566, 577–579, 578f
network structures, 139–140
polarization, 465, 911
political, 101
political opinion and behavior formation, 913
political party networks, 465
similarity (homophily) effect, 230
social movement structures, 793
structural, 566
Hopmann, D. N., 369
Hostile networks, 368
Hosting arrangements, 643
Hot deck imputation, 191
Høyland, B. K., 591
Huang, K., 637, 640, 641
Huber, G., 399
Huckfeldt, R., 1.2cp, 10, 17, 23–24, 230, 237, 364–365, 370, 388, 389, 392, 395, 401n3, 517–523, 822, 857, 859–861, 863
Hue, color, 289–290
links, 291–292
Huisman, M., 191–192, 196n19, 232
Huitema, D., 620
Human resources, 791
Human rights and transnational advocacy networks, 715–729
Bahrain Centre for Human Rights, 715–716
collaboration, 696
Human Rights Watch, 715
International Federation for Human Rights, 715
Invisible Children, 718, 723
literature, moving forward, 725–727
network connections to human rights actors, benefits, 718–721
networked advocacy, 716
network effects on human rights advocacy, 721–725
Amnesty International, 721–722
democracy promotion, taming, 723
hyperlink-created democracy promotion network, 722
issue adoption and gatekeepers, 722–723
resource disparity, global North vs. global South, 723–724
scale-free network, 722–724
quantitative research, 726
transnational advocacy network, 716–718
United Nations Working Group on Arbitrary Detention, 716
Human Rights Watch, 715, 717
Hungarian style economic reform, 71
Hungary, Kádár, 88n40
Hunter, D. R., 210
Hunter, G., 888
Huppé, G., 694
(p. 956) Hypergraph, 165n11
Hyperlink-induced topic search (HITS), 155
Hypothesis test, 426n8
Ideal network, 186
Ideal point analysis, 263
Identifying network effects, 136–142
experimental research, 140–142
observational research, 139–140
political science scholarship, 136–139, 137t
Identity resolution, 122
Ignorability, 133, 139
Iida, R., 504
Ikeda, K., 392
Ikeda, M., 252
Illicit arms trade, 761, 781n1
Illicit weapons networks, 763–764
countering, efficiency/security trade-off, 769–770
organizations, 764–765
Imai, K., 365
Imbalances
cooperative networks, 748
trade, international trade network, 675–676
Implementation, policy
health, 632, 636–638
studies, 632, 636–638
Incentives
to act, social networks on, 819
democratic institutions and political networks, 821–824
institution–network interaction, 820
Incorporation and detachment, 86n12
Indegrees, 155, 224
with outdegrees, 229
popularity, 229
Independent identically distributed (IID) errors, 737
Indignados movement, Spain, 793–794
Individualism, methodological, 4, 7, 85n8
Individualism-holism, 6–7
Industry. See also specific types
European, liberalization, 840–841
Inertia, 319
Inference, 339
Inferential network analysis, policy debates, 317–320
Inferential political networks, 790
Influence, 239
attitudinal peer, on polarization, 915
centrality and, 154–155
centrality of power, 154–155
discussants, political, 383
discussion networks, 522–523
mechanisms, 522–523
interest group politics, 445–448
political party networks, 464
social networks, 383
state actors, EU, 843
voting and political participation, 358–366, 373–376 (See also Voting and political participation)
mechanisms, 374–376
vs. selection, 373–374, 383–384
sources, 358–366
Informal communication behavior, EU formal coordination structure, 600
Informal logrolling process modeling, EU, 592
Information
on actors, 818
democratic institutions and political networks, 824–828
legislative networks, 480–482
mapping, 287, 287t (See also Visualization)
sharing, 182–183
Information-based model, 522–523
Information exchange, density, 702
Information paradox, 721
Information shortcut models, 523
Ingold, K., 210, 838, 841, 842, 845
Ingram, P., 826
Inner circle, 93–94
Innovation
vs. invention, 2.1cp, 62–65, 64t
organizational, 63–64
reproduction and resource flows, 63–64
Instagram, 119–120
Institution(s). See also specific types
clientelistic, 824
collaborative, 580
definition, 818
democratic, 818
political networks, 818–821 (p. 957)
formal, 818–819
incentive–network interaction, 820
informal, 819
informational structure, internal, 827
intermediary, 433
legislative body interactions, 827
legislative networks, 481
network interaction, on bias, 820
on policy network structure, 833–834
political
American, 10
policy studies, 10–11
political economy, 798–800
social context, 822–823
Institutional analysis and development (IAD), 638, 646n5
Institutional bias, 343
correcting for, 311–312
Institutional capitalism,