Show Summary Details

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD HANDBOOKS ONLINE (www.oxfordhandbooks.com). © Oxford University Press, 2018. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Handbooks Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 12 November 2019

(p. 945) Index

(p. 945) Index

Note. Page numbers followed by f or t indicate figures and tables.

A
Abandonment
adolescents and, 557
attachment system activation and, 543
CAPS model and, 571
fear of, 513
rejection sensitivity (RS) and, 523
Abnormal behavior, 674–678, 683–684, 692–693. See also Psychopathology
Abnormal Psychology (White), 19
Accessibility
attitude strength and, 447
of available constructs, 519
CAPS model and, 571
goals and, 655
positive affect and, 377, 378
self categorization theory and, 302–303
self-with-other representations, 302
social-personality fusion, 26
Acculturation
attitudes related to, 728
biculturalism mode, 728
cross-national studies, 727–728
cultural frame switching (CFS), 728–729
definition, 727
globalization and, 740–742
intergroup processes and, 727
multiculturalism and, 727–731, 733–738, 740–742
multidimensional (non-zero sum) model, 727
unidimensional (zero sum) model, 727
variations in patterns of associations, 727–728
Accuracy
in category judgments, 416
identity/reputation accuracy, 427
in initial impressions of others, 42, 415, 425–426, 431
literature review on, 427
Achievement-related motivation, 344
Acquisitive plasticity, 404–405
Act-frequency approach, 37
Action
downstream consequences of, 173–174, 307
types of research, 911
upstream impacts on, 173
Action research
collective action research, 885, 900
diagnostic and participant, 911
empirical and experimental, 911
Lewin’s model of, 927
social policy involvement and, 910–912
Activation, person-in-situation perspective, 786–788
Active self
from chronic dispositions, 656–657
from immediate context, 657–658
Actor effect, 219, 221–223, 225–226, 232–233, 251
Actor-partner interdependence mediational model (APIMeM), 225–226
Actor-partner interdependence model (APIM), 210
basic specification, 219–220
common fate model alternative, 209, 226–228, 234
contrast patterns, 225
description, 219
for distinguishable dyads, using MLM, 221–223
for distinguishable dyads, using SEM, 224–225
dyadic patterns in, 225
for indistinguishable dyads, using MLM, 220–221
for indistinguishable dyads, using SEM, 223–224
mediation in, 225–226
multilevel approach comparison, 251
multilevel strategy, 251
mutual influence model alternative, 209, 226–228, 234
strategy alternatives, 251
Adaptationism
adaptiveness, 136
byproducts, 136
description, 136–137, 140
ecological niche, 140–141
environmental factors, 139
evolved adaptation notion, Darwin, 133
exaptation, 136
function, 135–136
human niche, 141–149
incidental effects, spandrels, 136
phenotypes, 135–136, 138–139, 147
phylogenetic analysis and, 140
secondary adaptation, 136
stability and plasticity, 401–403
traits and, 137
Adaptive contingent variation, social spheres, 149–150
Add Health data set, well-being, 701
Adulthood, personality changes, 42
Affect
accessibility principle, 377, 378
attribution principle, effects, 377
construction of self and, 163, 165
definition, 377
domination and, 180
ecological structures influence, 172
emotions, Big Five traits, and, 366
global-local focus, 378
habitus and, 168
intentionality of material artifacts and, 177
negative affect, 276, 345, 353, 354, 376–378
positive affect, 113–114, 153, 164, 273, 354, 367, 376–377
racialization of, 178
self-regulation and, 354–355
stereotyping and, 378
subjective well-being, 378–379
top-down vs. bottom-up processing, 380
within-person variations in, 55
Affect, Cognition, and Stereotyping (ed. Hamilton), 26
Affect-as-information hypothesis, 374
Affective-cognitive consistency, job attitudes, 816
Affective empathy, 491–496, 500, 502, 503
Affective events theory, 815
Affective forecasting, 376
Affective style (trait affective styles), neuroscience research, 113, 120
Affiliation-related motivation, 344
Affordance model of situation-person interactions, 70, 70f
Affordances
cultural psychology, 161–162
human niche, social world, 145
(p. 946) interactions and, 69–71
IT and, 82
selfways and, 166
social affordance and situations, 70
social constructions of, 161–162
African Americans
attitudes toward, 107–108
civil rights movement and, 752
collective memory and, 180
divorce and, 757
hormonal/immune response study, 122
inferiority myths about, 15
Jim Crow racism and, 621
killings of, 621–622
oppression of, 16
oppression study, 14
race-based rejection sensitivity, 526
Agency
extraversion and, 517
human adaptation and, 678
Aggression
antisocial behavior and, 491–492
children and, 198
dehumanization and, 501
dispositional empathy and, 502
emotion, negative experiences, and, 366
empathy’s inhibiting effect on, 493, 494, 496
identity motives and, 306
if-then signature for, 516f, 524
intrasexual aggression, 426
moral behavior and, 328
narcissistic aggression, 198
offensive aggression, 114
person in context and, 174
physical aggression, 492, 493
proactive aggression, 493
programs for reducing, 494
reactive aggression, 367
of rejection sensitive adolescents, 528
of rejection sensitive women, 528
relational aggression, 198, 493
Robbers Cave study
sexual aggression, 493
situations and, 81, 328
spontaneous trait transferences and, 421
verbal aggression, 426, 492, 493
Agreeable-dominant (AD) behavior, interpersonal circumplex, 517
Agreeableness, 39
CB5T on, 400–401
circumplex and, 406–407
cybernetic functions, negative pole, 397t
dispositional empathy and, 470, 482
group performance and, 601
leadership and, 601, 789–790, 795
social stability and, 401
Agreeable-submissive (AS) behavior, 517
Allport, Floyd, 18, 77
Allport, Gordon, 4, 13, 17, 20, 27, 29, 44
Alpha pres, beta pres, 72–73
Alternativism, personality, 44
Altruism. See also Help-giving
agreeableness and, 397t, 400–401
CB5T and, 407
egotistical alternatives, 472
empathy-altruism model, 329–331, 471–472
gaze cueing and, 419
help-giving and, 469, 471
kin relations and, 149
moral behavior and, 328, 329–330
self-sacrificial acts in, 465
American Psychological Association (APA), 26, 27, 133, 833
American Psychologist journal, 930
The American Soldier series (Stouffer, Suchman, DeVinney, Starr, & Williams), 20
Amygdala, neuroscience research, 99–100, 99f, 103, 103f, 109–112, 114–117, 119–120, 444–445
Anger, asymmetric frontal cortical activity, 114
ANOVA (analysis of variance) model
attribution, 27
dyadic data analysis, 211, 215
human beings, 25
multilevel modeling and, 245, 249
P x S framework update and, 938
situations, 70, 78
Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), conflict-monitoring function, 104
Antisocial behavior, 489–505
biological basis, 326
disconnectedness and, 490
dispositional empathy and, 492–497, 502, 504
in dramatic-emotional cluster, 46
empathy and, 491
literature review (recommendations), 496
male development and, 152
morality and, 319, 326, 328
person, situation, 490–491
prejudice and, 490, 496–497
spontaneous evaluative inferences and, 422
types of, 490
Antisocial personality disorder, 46
Antisocial punishment, 327–328
Anxious-fearful cluster, of personality disorders, 46
Applicability principle of knowledge activation, C-CAPS framework, 519
Appraisal-based approach, to situations, 73, 74
Approach and avoidance
goals, 390
reactions, motivation, 345–347, 351, 352
Approach-inhibition theory, of power, 647–648
AREA model (attention, reaction, explanation, adaptation), hedonic adaptation, 716
Army Air Force, 19
Ascendance and submission, testing for, 17
Asian Americans
cultural frame switching by, 728, 729, 732
race-based rejection sensitivity, 526
Assertiveness, cybernetic function, negative pole, 397t
Association for Psychological Science (APS), 27
Association for Research in Personality, 27
Assumption, social psychology, 917
An Atlas of Interpersonal Situations (Kelley et al), 82, 83
Attachment
attachment anxiety, 211, 545
attachment behavioral system, 543–545, 550
attachment insecurity, 545, 551, 554, 556, 568, 580
diathesis-stress and styles of, 580–585
perspective on traits, 43
significant others (S-Os) and, 515
Attachment theory
expanded view of, 539–560
motive classes, 347
as a person-situation interactional framework, 542–543
premise of, 252, 470, 539–540
relational schemas and, 521
S-O’s and, 514
trusting as a social model, 348
Attentional processes
attentional adhesion, 418
differential attention, 418
gaze direction/gaze following study, 418–419
in impressions of others, 418–419
social judgments, 418
Attitude change
arousal/perceived self-determination roles, 454
belief correction processes, 450–452
belief-discrepant behavior, 454–455
Bolster-Counterargue Scale, 455
impact on behavior, 204
information-motivation-behavioral skills model, 455–456
low- vs. high-choice conditions, 455
misattribution paradigms, 454
Need for Cognition Scale assessment, 452
(p. 947) neuroscience research, 108
Repression-Sensitization Scale, 449
resistance processes, 452–455
selective exposure process, 449–450
social cognitive theory, 455
social judgment theory on, 452
theories of reasoned action, 455
underlying processes, 449–452
Attitudes, 439–457
adaptations and, 394
affective/evaluative priming, 419–420, 431
assessment emphasis, 15
bases and personality determinants, 448–449
behavior, correlation with, 26, 43, 193, 194, 441–442, 444
behavioral genetics and, 41
beliefs and, 440, 442–443
cybernetics and, 388
definition, 439–440, 441, 446
dimensions of strength of, 447–448
discrimination and, 189
dispositions and, 171–172, 203, 441, 452
EEG assessment of, 108–109
elaboration likelihood model, 204
emotions and, 371, 372
as evaluations, 439, 440, 441, 446
formation and change processes, 195, 449
functions and personality correlates, 448
future research directions, 456–457
G. Allport on, 11
gender-related, 21
homophobic attitudes, 242
identity and, 297, 299
impressions of others, 420, 427, 431
intentions and, 443
intergroup attitudes, 28, 244, 248, 305–306
internalization of, 350
interpersonal liking, 441
job attitudes, 813–816
measures, implicit and explicit, 444–445
methods of studying, 106
military research on, 17
multilevel modeling, 249, 250, 253, 255–256
neural substrates of, 109
neuroimaging studies, 107–109, 444–445
political attitudes, 320, 416
post-World War II investigations, 17, 18
psychology of, building blocks, 440–445
psychophysiological studies, 107–109
reinforcement theories of formation, 675
self-monitoring and, 149–150, 193
situations and, 26, 82, 440, 440f
social class and, 327
social dominance attitudes, 242
social psychology and, 13, 20, 43
specific and general levels, 440f
specific vs. general, 441
structure of, 446–447
targets (subject matter) of, 440–441, 440f, 445–446, 455
tripartite model of, 108
Attitude theory, 76
Attraction-selection-attrition model, organizational psychology, 807
Attribution, ANOVA model of, 25
Attribution principle, affect, 377
Attribution theory, 428
Australia, multiculturalism in, 723
Authoritarianism (authoritarian personality)
authoritarian theory, 22
collective action and, 896
dispositional strategy and, 569
prejudice and, 496–497, 624–625
research studies, 22
The Authoritarian Personality (Adorno), 22
Authority ranking (AR), models of relationality, 165, 177
Authority/subversion, moral systems, 319
Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) questionnaire, 418–419
Autobiographical memories, 294
Automaticity, learning and memory, 102–103
Automatic processes, impression formation, 424
Autonomy
autonomous thinking, 896
autonomy-oriented help, 473
human adaptation and, 678
self-determination theory and, 350
Availability principle of knowledge actvation, C-CAPS framework, 519
The Averaged American (Igo), 15
Aversive-arousal reduction hypothesis, help-giving, 471–472
Avoidance
approach-avoidance, 45, 110, 345, 355, 523
attachment-related, 470, 545, 550
attitude-related, 449
depression and, 399
emotions and, 375, 529
exploration behavioral system and, 546
goals and, 356, 390, 398–399
incest avoidance, 138
mastery avoidance, 355
neuroticism and, 408
performance avoidance, 355
regulatory focus theory and, 346
ritualized avoidance, 168
social interactions, 352, 528
spontaneous trait references and, 421, 426
Avoidant personality disorder, 46
B
Baby Boomers, social activism, 763
Back, Kurt, 22
Back to the Future, McFly’s personality, 515, 517, 531
Bales, Robert Freed, 20
Bales Interaction Process Analysis (IPA) system, 197
Banal dehumanization, 502
Barker, Roger, 22, 73
Basic Empathy Scale, 429
Bayesian reverse inference, 101
Behavior. See also Antisocial behavior; Behavior assessment; Behavior observation
agreeable-dominant (AD), 517
agreeable-submissive (AS), 517
attitudes, correlation with, 26, 43, 193, 194, 441–442, 444
B = f(P, E) formula, 1, 3, 4, 6–7, 34–35, 35–36, 52, 77–78, 677–678, 910
Big Five correlations, 444, 445
black sheep effect, 305
blaming and, 75–76
bystander intervention studies, 190
conscious vs. unconscious, 191b
consistency in, 42–43
context of, 74
covert, 443
definition, 191–192, 441
DIAMONDS predictions, 50–51
dimensions relevant to measuring, 192, 192t
discrete vs. continuous, 191b
dispositions and, 567
distinct vs. embedded, 191b
duality of, 388
dynamic processes, 79, 388
ecological settings influence on, 74
Freud’s views on, 513
genetic determinism and, 139
if-then profiles, 267, 491, 517
if-then signatures, 491
independent vs. interdependent, 191b
integration into social-personality psychology theory, 203–204
intentional vs. unintentional, 191b
interactional model, 78–79
interpersonal circumplex combinations, 517
interpretation, as psychologically meaningful constructs, 203
low-frequency, 192
of narcissists, 79
novel vs. habitual, 192
obedience study, Milgram, 23, 71, 190
(p. 948) of others, explanations vs. descriptions, 427–428, 427–430
outcome interdependence, 73, 83–84
overt, 188, 191, 203, 299, 443, 915
person-to-person variances, 42, 73
priming, 419–420
quarrelsome-submissive (QS), 517
Robbers Cave study, 27, 84–85, 190, 505n1
search for stability in inconsistency across situations, 515–518
signature model (Mischel and Shoda), 79–82
simulation theory and, 416, 429, 431
situation-behavior, interpersonal circumplex model, 516
situations’ influence on, 68–70, 515
socially undesirable, 192
social psychology’s view on, 77
spontaneous trait inferences (STIs) from, 420–424
stage models of change, 832
trait continua, 15
traits’ relevance to, 40–41, 70
Behavioral activation system (BAS), 345, 558, 841
Behavioral approach sensitivity (BAS), 114
Behavioral confirmation, experimental studies, 298–300
Behavioral genetics, 41–42
Behavioral immune system, evolutionary perspective, 147–148
Behavioral inhibition system (BIS), 346, 349, 558, 647, 661, 841
Behavioral systems. See also Deactivation, behavioral system; Hyperactivation, behavioral system
association with personality, 558–559
attachment and emotion regulation, 553–554
attachment and mental health, 554
attachment behavioral system, 543–545
attachment theory and, 542–543
caregiving behavioral system, 546–547
conceptualizing, 543–549
exploration behavioral system, 545–546
hyperactivation/deactivation scale items, 552t
individual differences, components, 541–542
individual differences, in functioning, 551–552
individual differences, measurement in attachment orientations, 550–551
individual differences, origins, 559–560
individual differences, psychological correlates, 552–553
interrelation of, 556–558
motivation and, 539–540
normative parameters, 540–541
personality structure and development, 556–560
physiological correlates, individual differences, 552–555
physiological correlates, other behavioral systems, 554–555
physiological reactions to stress, 553–554
power behavioral system, 548–549
sexual behavioral system, 547–548
Behavior assessment, 192–203
disposition-behavior linkages, 4–5
interactionist perspectives, 1, 4–5
levels of analysis, 196–197
new technologies, 200
reliability/validity measures, 4
research question formulation, 194–196
setting and task choice, 198
system generalizability, 197–198
training coders, 198–199
training coders, establishing reliability, 198–199
virtual reality, 201
wearable technologies, 200–201
Behaviorism research, groups, 594–595, 596
“Behavior manifesto” (Watson), 17
Behavior observation
coder computer support systems, 202
direct, 189, 192–194, 200
frequency counts, 198
Internet, 201–202
interpretation issues, 203
participants, 202
personal living spaces, 202–203
social networking sites, 202
strengths and weaknesses, 199–200
surveillance monitors, 201–202
system selection, development, 195f, 196–199
time-consuming challenges, 204
webcams, 201–202
Behavior therapy, 675. See also Psychotherapy
Belief correction processes, attitude change, 450–452
Beliefs
attitudes and, 442–443
defined, 440, 442
downstream consequences of action and, 174
independent constructions of self and, 163
intentional worlds and, 175
social interaction’s influence on, 530
specific and general levels, 440f
Benedict, Ruth, 17
Benevolence
help-giving and, 468–469, 473–474, 482
relationality and, 165
in securely attached people, 580–581
social status and, 478
uses of power, 658–660, 662–663
value prioritization and, 318
volunteering and, 327, 919–922
Between-dyads variables, 211
Between-group competition, 85
Between-person variations, 253, 388
Between variables, dyads, 211
B = f(P, E) formula, 1, 3, 4, 6–7, 35–36, 52, 77–78, 677–678
Bicultural identity integration (BII), 730–737
antecedents and development, 734–736
cognitive complexity and, 734
creativity and, 733–734
cultural blendedness component, 731, 733, 734, 736
cultural frame switching (CFS) and, 732–733
cultural harmony component, 731
future research directions, 736–737
identity configurations, 730
individual variations, 732–733
measurement of, 730, 736
social relations and, 733
validity of, 731
Bicultural Identity Integration Scale-Version 1 (BIIS-1), 736
Bicultural Identity Integration Scale-Version 2 (BIIS-2), 736
Biculturalism. See also Bicultural identity integration
acculturation and, 727, 728, 729
adjustment benefits, 737–738
alternating biculturals, 729
benefits of, 737
blended biculturals, 729
future research directions, 735
immigrants, immigration, and, 731, 733, 735–736
individual variations in, 729
levels of, 731f
Big Five (trait structure of personality). See also Cybernetic Big Five theory; specific traits
accretion of processes, 57–58
behavior correlations, 444, 445
cooperation and, 599
dyadic research, 219
efforts at applying cybernetics to, 388
emotions and, 366
evolutionary perspectives, 152–153
goals and, 401
hierarchy of traits and, 39–40
interpersonal circumplex model comparison, 517
job performance and, 812
lifespan and, 751–752
multilevel random coefficient model (MRCM) and, 253
(p. 949) neuroticism, 69
personality psychology’s focus on, 18, 23, 26, 28, 514
person-in-situation and leadership, 788–790
pre-Big Five rise and fall of trait perspective, 779–781
predicting cooperative behavior, 599
predicting group performance, 600–601
stability of, 751
traits and cybernetic functions, 397t
two-step development of, 38
validity across cultures, 40
whole trait theory and, 52–54, 56, 58
Biological evolution, 17
Biological perspective, of emotions, 368
Black sheep effect, 305
Blind (Gladwell), 190
Boas, Franz, environmentalism, 17
Body image, identity, 293
Bolster-Counterargue Scale, 455
Borderline personality disorder (BPD), 46, 445
Borrowing theory, horizontal and vertical, 805–806
Bottom-up approach, rejection sensitivity (RS), 526
Brain. See also Neuroscience
anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), 100f, 104, 107
asymmetric involvement of prefrontal cortex (PFC), 112–114
attitude correlations, 444–445
attributional judgment study, 425
coronal slice, 103f
dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), 105f
emotion-related areas, 366, 380
empathy research findings, 469
executive functions (EFs), 417–418
help-giving and, 469
hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, 121
lateral aspect, right hemisphere, 105f
left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (left DLPFC), 425
medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), 100, 100f, 104–105
midbrain, 103
nucleus accumbens, 112
orbital frontal cortex (OFC), 100f, 109, 112, 445
posterior prefrontal cortex (pPFC), 105f
resting frontal cortical asymmetry, 113
temporal cortex, 103
temporoparietal junction (TPJ), 105f
triune brain theory (Maclean), 370
ventral mPFC (vmPFC), 104–105, 107, 109, 112
ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC), 105f
visual cortex, 101
Brain-mapping, 98–99
attitudes, 109–110
empathic processes, 107
fear conditioning, 103
fMRI imaging, 98
forward influence and, 100–101
hypothesis-testing comparison, 100, 110
primary visual cortex, 101
visual cortex, retinoic mapping, 101
Brainstorming, group decision-making, 604, 614n6
Bridges, of personalty and social psychology, 831
Brief fear of negative evaluation (BFNE), 418
Brigham, Carl, 16
Brown, Roger, 20
Buddhism, 15, 266–267, 272–273
Bullying, 494
Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory, 492
Byproducts, of adaptationism, 135–138, 140
Bystander effect, 467
Bystander intervention studies, 190, 468, 472
C
Canada
cross-national acculturation studies, 727
immorality study, 320–321
multiculturalism in, 723
Caregiving behavioral system, 546–547
deactivation, 548, 555, 556
hyperactivation, 555, 556
hyperactivation/deactivation of, 556
Caregiving System Scale (CSS), 551
Care/harm, moral systems, 319
Catastrophes
earthquakes, 477, 766
general impact of war, 767–768
Holocaust, 768–770
internment of Japanese Americans, 768–770
9/11 terrorist attacks, 480, 501, 681
Categorical outcomes, multilevel random coefficient model (MRCM), 247
Categorization theory. See Self-categorization theory
Cattell, Raymond, 22
Causal reasoning, structure induction model of, 428
Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) scale, 701
Center for Group Dynamics (MIT), 613n2
Centering, multilevel random coefficient modeling (MRCM), 246–247
Characteristic adaptations
CB5T’s definition, 394–396
defined, 394
openness/intellect and, 399
resemblance to “cognitive-affective units,” 395
situations and, 81
traits vs., 395–396
Character-related traits, 40
Charismatic leadership, 778–779, 782, 785, 788, 818–819
Charismatic-transformational leadership, 778–779, 782–783, 788–789, 792–793, 818
Childhood and Society (Erikson), 18
Children
aggression-empathy relation in, 493
identity development, 297–298
if-then profiles of verbal aggression, 516f
influence of divorce on, 755
intentionality in socialization, 520–521
moral judgments of, 321
Piaget’s studies of, 318
problem-solving strategies, 520
responses to socializing situations, 346
self-esteem of, 281–282
theory of mind abilities in, 106
China, immorality study, 320–321
Citizenship, 39
Civilian Morale (Watson), 20
Civil rights movement (U.S.), 19, 307, 469, 526, 752, 762–763, 891
Coder computer support systems, behavior observation, 202
Cognitive-affective mediating units (CAUs), 519–521, 525, 530, 571–572
Cognitive-affective personality system (CAPS) model, 26, 44, 51. See also Cognitive-affective mediating units
close relationships and, 568, 570–573
cognitive-affective units, 395
description, 491, 570–573
integration with whole trait theory, 56
interactional theory, 568, 570–573, 578
multiple random coefficient model (MRCM), 254
person as meaning maker in, 81
person-by-situation framework, 573
person-by-situation interactionist perspective, 79–82
relational schemas, 521
schematic diagram, 80f
situations focus, 571
stable personality patterns in, 389
Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), 675
(p. 950) Cognitive dissonance theory, Festinger, 25, 27, 455
Cognitive empathy, 491, 493–495, 497, 500, 503
Cognitive flexibility, personality characteristic, collective action, 896
Cognitive Processes in Stereotyping and Intergroup Behavior (ed. Hamilton), 26
Cognitive revolution, 21, 97, 351, 387, 675
Cohesion, group maintenance, 608
Cohesiveness, group data, 212–214, 216
Collaboration, in group processes, 594
Collective action, 885–903
benefits of, 146
description, 479
education and work experience, 895
experiences with discrimination, 894
group processes and, 594
individual differences variables, group consciousness variables, 892–893, 898t
integrated model, 892
intergroup contact and, 479, 594, 634, 637
life experiences, 893–895
material resources, 894–895
nigrescence theory, 889–890
perceived efficacy, 887
perceived injustice, 887
personal change and, 308
personality characteristics, 895–897
personality literature on, 893
relative deprivation theory, 885, 890–892
resource mobilization theory and, 885
social creativity and, 307
social identity model of, 885, 887–888
social psychological models of group consciousness and, 886–897
stratum consciousness, 888–889
theories related to, 885, 892t
Collective identity, 291–292, 888–889
Collective identity motive, 306
Collective memory, 179–180
Collective personality, 812–813
Collective psychology, 15
Collective representations theory (Durkheim), 15
Coloniality, 169, 179–180
Combined territories, personality and social psychology, 833–834
Common-bond experience, constructions of self, 166
Common fate model, dyad analysis, 209, 226–228, 234
Common group identity model, multiculturalism, 726–727
Communal sharing, model of relationality, 165–166
Communion
extraversion and, 517
human adaptation and, 678
Compatibility
attitude theory, 815
bicultural identity integration, 730–731
collaborative partners, 143, 146, 153
job attitudes, 815
self-categorization and, 295
Competence motivation, 19
Competition
choice-making in, 5
power and, 648
Conceptual act model, of emotions (Barrett), 368
Conceptual distinguishability, 216
Concrete vs. abstract properties, of situations, 75–76
Confessions
consequences of, 864
dispositional risk factors, 861–862
false confessions, 857, 858, 861–865, 873, 876
false evidence ploy, 857, 862–863
Miranda rights, 860, 861–862
phenomenology of innocence, 863
situational risk factors, 862–863
Conflict
behavioral inhibition system (BIS), 346
conflict resolution theory, 22
groups situations, 594, 596–600
monitoring hypothesis, 104
motive/goal systems and, 349, 350, 357
multiculturalism and, 724
Conformity, group decision-making, 606
Confrontation technique, confessions, 861
Congruence, motive/goal systems, 357
Conjoint constructions, cultural-ecological variation, 171
Conscientiousness, 39–40, 517
CB5T on, 400
cybernetic functions, negative pole, 397t
description, 399–400
group performance and, 601
leadership and, 601, 788
motivational stability and, 401
Conscious vs. unconscious behavior, 191b
Consensual agreements, 72
Consensus, achievement of, group decision-making, 607
Consideration of future consequences (CFC), cooperation, 599
Consisitency (behavioral consistency)
attachment theory and, 252
attitudes, 815–816
Experiences in Close Relationships inventory, 550
implicit/explicit motives and, 350
morality, 332
situational determinants, 74, 79, 515
traits and variations in, 42–44
trust building and, 150
Conspiracist ideation, 452
Construal
impressions of others, 427
personality and, 44
Constructivist approaches, to social cognition, 74
Construct validity
behavioral system functioning, 559
group studies, 610–611
jury simulation studies, 874
neural indicators, 99–102
trust and, 597
well-being and, 699, 700, 702
Contemporaneity, social psychology, 917
Context in person
cultural-ecological scaffolding of self, 166–169
dispositions, 162
independent constructions of self, 163–164
independent selfways, 166–169, 171–172, 181
interdependent constructions of self, 164–166
interdependent selfways, 167–168, 171–172
personal identity, 170–171
selfways as habitus, 168
sociocultural constitution of psychological experience, 163–166
Contingencies of self-esteem, 266–268, 270–271
Continuity, cumulative and interactional, 26
Controlled processing, neuroscience, 103–104
Control processes, impression formation, 424
Cooley, Charles, 16
Cooperation
agreeableness and, 397t, 400–401, 407
benefits of, 82–83, 143
Big Five traits and, 599
in children, cognitive-developmental progression, 318
coalitional cooperation, 143, 145–146
components of, 400
consideration of future consequences (CFC), 599
cultural variations, 321, 326–328
hormonal influences on, 121
impersonal, abstract forms of, 169
individual variations, 326
integrative model of, 599–600
kin vs. nonkin, 142
morality and, 325–330
social capital and, 144
social value orientation (SVO) and, 598–599
survivability and, 490
systemic research on, 594
tit-for-tat strategy, 203
(p. 951) trust and, 597
within-groups, 85
Cooperative processes model, 84–85, 504
Coping processes, social relationships and, 529–530
Correspondence bias, impressions of others, 424–425
Cortisol, psychological dispositions, 121
Cosmopolitanism, 498–499, 726
Cost-benefit modeling, evolutionary economics, 137–138
Covert behavior, 443
Criminal Interrogations and Confessions (Inbau, Reid, Buckley, Jayne), 859
Cross-cultural research, MRCM examples, 255–256
Cross-group helping relations, 477
Cultural anthropology, 17, 20
Cultural artifacts, 164
Cultural blendedness component, bicultural identity integration, 731, 733, 734, 736
Cultural cognitive-affective processing system (C-CAPS)
accessibility principle of knowledge activation, 519
applicability principle of knowledge activation, 520
availability principle of knowledge activation, 519
knowledge acquisition and activation, 519–520, 519, 520
organization of, 520
tying to social interactions, 520–521
Cultural-ecological scaffolding of self, 166–169
history and materiality of selfways, 168–169
independent selfways, 166–169, 171–172, 181
interdependent selfways, 167–168, 171–172
Cultural ecologies, 170–171
Cultural frame switching (CFS)
acculturation and, 728–729
bicultural identity integration and, 730, 732–733
Cultural harmony component, bicultural identity integration, 731
Cultural psychology, 161–181
attitudes and dispositions, 171
beyond cultural variation, 169–173
collective memory, 179–180
coloniality, 169, 179–180
cultural-ecological scaffolding of self, 166–169
cultural-ecological variation, 171–172
defining focus of, 162
of domination, 177–180
history/materiality considerations, 162
independent constructions of self, 163–164
intentional worlds, 175–177
interdependent constructions of self, 164–166
personal identity, 170–171
on personality, 515
of power, 177–180
privilege as outcome enhancement, 178–179
sociocultural bases of personal experience, 170
sociocultural bases of species-typical tendencies, 169–170
Culture
moral behavior and, 318, 326–328
persons nested in, 251–252
Cumulative continuity, 26
Cybernetic Big Five theory (CB5T), 393–401
on agreeableness, 400–401
background, 393
characteristic adaptations, 52, 394–395
on conscientiousness, 400
on extraversion, 398
future directions, 408–410
goals and, 394–395
interpersonal theory integration, 405–408
IPC model and, 40, 405–408, 406f
metatraits, functions of, 397t
personality traits, definition, 394
personality traits, hierarchy in, 396, 396f, 405
on plasticity, 401, 402–403
on stability, 401, 402
whole trait theory similarity, 52
Cybernetic functions
aspects, 397t
Big Five traits, 397t
metatraits, 397t
Cybernetics, 387–410
definition, 387
goals, as viewed by, 389–392
living systems and, 390
principles of, 389–393
self-regulation, as viewed by, 391
serial vs. parallel processing cycle, 392–393
variables and operators, 392
Cybernetics–Or Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine (Wiener), 387
D
Darwin, Charles
on emotions, 368
evolved adaptation notion, 133, 134
shifting perspective of, 134–135
theory of evolution, 72, 133, 134–135, 138, 153
Data analysis, definitions, 211–212
Data collection
changing variables of interest, 229
cross-sectional, longitudinal dyadic data, 234
multilevel analysis, 240–241
multilevel random coefficient model (MRCM), 255
Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, 876
Deactivation, behavioral system
attachment behavioral system, 550
caregiving behavioral system, 548, 555, 556
consequences of, 555
ECR inventory measurement, 551
examples of scale items, 552t
exploration behavioral system, 545–546, 555
power behavioral system, 548, 551–552, 555, 557
sexual behavioral system, 548, 555, 557
Deception detection, forensic psychology, 858–859
Decision-making
emotions and, 366, 376
group situations, 594
by juries, forensic psychology, 873–874
power holders and, 653–654
Defensive helping, 478
Defensive pessimism, 354–355
Dehumanization
aggression and, 501
antisocial behavior and, 490
banal dehumanization, 502
collective violence and, 501
defined, 107
empathy and, 497, 501
nefarious effects of, 501–502
out-group dehumanization, 502
watching violent video games and, 504
Density distributions, 37, 55–56
Department structures, social and personality psychology, 835
Dependency-oriented help, 473
Dependent personality disorder, 46
Depression, 680
Descartes, emotional regulation, 114
Descriptive vs. theory-driven approaches, to situations, 76–77
Developmental systems perspectives, evolutionary biology, 139–140
Dewey, John, 16, 19, 77, 133
DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone), 122
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSMV), 46, 72, 673
Diagnostic/participant action research, 911
DIAMONDS (“Situational Eight”) model of psychological situations, 50–51, 75, 358
Diary (daily diary) studies, 230, 243, 254, 578, 711, 713
Diary/event (experience) sampling methods, 241
(p. 952) Diathesis-stress, attachment styles and, 580–585
Differential psychology, 17
A Different Voice (Gilligan), 318
Discrete vs. continuous behavior, 191b
Discrimination
as antisocial behavior, 490
behavior study, 189
personal experiences with, 894
Discussions, group decision-making, 603–604
Disgust
influence on moral judgment, 323
Disorder-based perspectives, on the person, 46
Dispositional attitudes, 441
Dispositional empathy
agreeableness and, 470, 482
antisocial behavior and, 489, 492–497, 504
empathy-altruism hypothesis, 472
help-giving and, 331, 466, 477, 480
Dispositional gratitude, helping, 473
Dispositional strategy, in social behavior research, 68, 569
Dispositions
attitudes and, 171–172, 203, 441
behavior and, 567
defined, 38
influence on perceptions, interpretations, 569
neuroscience research, 121
risk factors, forensic psychology, 861–862
Distinct vs. embedded behavior, 191b
Distinguishability
conceptual vs. empirical, 216
defined, 211–212
definition, 211–212
testing, 216–217
testing with MLM, 217–218
testing with SEM, 218–219
Distinguishable dyads, 211–212, 214–222, 224–226, 230, 232–233
Divorce
benefits for (some) adults, 756–757
changing social meaning of, 755–756
economic factors, 757
impact of, 755–757
influence on children, 755
race and, 757
Dominance
affect and, 180
cultural psychology of, 177–180
submissiveness vs., 40
Dopamine
emotions and, 380
extraversion and, 398
hedonic/incentive rewards and, 398
reward processing and, 112
Dot probe task (attention assessment), 418
Dramatic-emotional cluster, of personality disorders, 46
“Dramatics Productions Test” (Erikson), 18–19
Drive-reduction theories, motivation, 345
Durkheim, Emile, 14, 15, 17
Dyads, 209–235. See also Over-time dyadic models
actor effect, 219, 221–223, 225–226, 232–233, 251
actor-partner independence model (APIM), 210, 219–228
between-dyads variables, 211
cohesiveness, group data, 212–214, 216
definitions for data analysis, 211–212
distinguishable dyads, 211–212, 214–222, 224–226, 230, 232–233
growth models, 209, 230–234
indistinguishable dyads, 211–212, 214–226, 230, 233
mixed-dyads variables, 211
multilevel modeling (MLM), 210, 212–215
nonindependence, 210, 211, 213–215, 222, 230–231, 244
overview of current practices, 209–211
persons nested in, 251
structural equation modeling (SEM), 210
truth-and-bias model, 210
within-dyads variables, 211
Dynamic interactionism, 5
Dynamic processes, 79
Dynamic Theory of Personality (Lewin), 13
E
Ecology, moral judgment and, 321
Economics
evolutionary economics, 137
immigration and, 759
impact of divorce, 757
Educational psychology, 19
Educational testing mandates, U.S., 909–910
Effectance motivation, 545
Efficacy element, social identity model of collective action (SIMCA), 887, 892, 892t
Ego control, ego resilience (Block’s model), 40
Ego psychology, 345
Elaboration likelihood model, persuasion in attitudes, 204
Electrocardiogram (ECG), neuroscience studies, 102
Electroencephalography (EEG), neuroscience studies, 102, 108–109, 345
Electromyography (EMG), neuroscience studies, 102
Electronically Activated Recorder (EAR), 200
Emotional intelligence, 426
Emotional processes, 366
Emotions
affect dimension of, 366, 369, 370–371
affect vs., 371
associated PFC asymmetries, 112–114
attachment and regulation, 553–554
attitudes and, 371
and behavior, modern perspective, 375–376
and behavior, social-personality perspective, 375
and behavior, traditional perspective, 374–375
Big Five traits and, 366
biological view of, 368, 369, 370, 378, 380
brain-mapping efforts, 98–99, 102, 108
CAPS model subsystem of, 80–81
collective, and help-giving, 479
conceptual act model (Barrett), 368
culture and, 369
Darwin’s view on, 368
decision-making and, 366, 376
Descarte’s view on, 370
description, modern view, 368–370
description, traditional, 368
disgust, 136
dramatic-emotional cluster, 46
evolutionary accounts of, 375
flexible effects of, 377–378
function of conscious experiences of, 375–376
gene-environment interactions and, 676
goals and, 391
implications for social-personality psychology, 379–381
interactiveness of, 366–367
iterative processing model, 371
iterative reprocessing model, 372
James’s view on, 365, 368, 369
Kant’s view on, 370
leadership and, 794
LeCoux’s view of, 368
mere exposure effect, experiment, 370
modern perspective, 371–372
mood-cognition relationships, 378
moral judgement and, 317
motivation and, 109–110
natural kinds of, 369
negative vs. positive, 366
neuroticism and, 366, 380
passion-reason distinction, 370
and perception, modern view, 372–374
and perception, social-personality perspective, 372
and perception, traditional perspective, 372
perception of relevance of, 110–111
personality-by-situation dynamics, 372, 380
reactivity/regulation of, 366
(p. 953) regulation of, 114–115
regulation processes, 371–372
as regulators of thought, modern view, 377–379
as regulators of thought, social-personality perspective, 376–377
as regulators of thought, traditional perspective, 376
related brain areas, 366, 380
resource view of, 374
rumination and, 376
scripts and, 44
self-regulation of, 45
self-regulatory patterns, 372
situations and, 40, 87, 369–370
social coordination and, 88
social emotions, 374
social interaction and, 76
social-personality perspective, 370–372
social-personality perspectives, 366, 368, 372, 376–377
socioeconomic roles, 18
stability of, 38–39, 41–42
state vs. trait, 379
stereotyping and, 378
top down view of, 380
traditional perspective, 370
types/causes of reactions, 379
unconscious aspects, 371
Empathic distress, 469
Empathic Response Questionnaire (ERQ), 494
Empathize-systematize, cognitive style, 430
Empathy
affective empathy, 491–496, 500, 502, 503
aggression and, 493–494
altruism and, 329–331, 400, 471
antisocial behavior and, 491, 492, 503
associated neural, psychological processes, 107
asymmetric interdependence and, 84
Basic Empathy Scale, 429
brain mapping of, 107, 117, 118
building blocks of, 490
bullying’s negative relation to, 494
cognitive empathy, 491, 493–495, 497, 500, 503
compassion and, 407, 408
dehumanization and, 501
description, 107, 490, 491–492
dispositional empathy, 331, 466, 470, 472, 480, 482, 492
empathic concern, 84, 472, 479, 481, 482, 492–495, 497, 500, 502, 547
empathy-altruism model, 330–331, 471–472
gender differences, 319
help-giving and, 330–331, 467, 469–471, 477
humanization and, 107, 117
impressions of others and, 420
incarceration, recidivism, and, 495
inhibition, 490
intergroup contact, intergroup bias, and, 500–501
moral behavior and, 318, 319, 329–330
offending and, 494–496
overcoming lack of, 504–505
perspective taking, role-playing, and, 499–500
related personality traits, 326
self and, 265
simulation and, 430
social coordination and, 88
socioeconomic status and, 427
us and them, 497–502
Empirical distinguishability, 216
Empirical/experimental action research, 911
Encounter stage, nigrescence, 890
Environment
adaptationism and, 139
B = f(P, E) formula, 1, 35
environmental identity, 293
“just natural” environment, 162
person in, 687–688
social policies, 911
vulnerabilities in, 685–686
Environmentalism, Social Darwinism vs., 17
Environmental psychology, 74
Environmental vulnerabilities, 689–690
Equality matching models, of relationality, 164
Eriksen flankers task, 103
Erikson, Erik, 18, 20, 23
Essentialism, social policies, 914–915
Estrogen, human environment, 140
Eugenics, 16
European approach, to groups, 596
European Association of Personality Psychology, 27, 833
European Association of Social Psychology, 27
European Journal of Personality, 25, 834
European Journal of Social Psychology, 25, 834
European Review of Social Psychology, 25
Event- and interval-contingent data, 251
Event-related potentials (ERPs), 102, 105, 108
Evers, Megar, civil rights, 621
Evidentiary issues, forensic psychology
corrupting influence of confessions, 864
deception detection, 858–859
eyewitness identifications, 865–869
guilty pleas, 864–865
jury decision-making, 873–874
lie detection, 859–860
physical evidence, 858, 869–870, 873
training to detect deception, 859
Evolution
Darwin’s theory, 72, 133, 134–135, 138, 153
synthetic theory of, 135
Evolutionary biology. See also Adaptationism; Evolutionary perspectives
adaptations, 135, 138
attachment theory and, 559
causal processes addressed by, 154
Darwin, evolved adaptation notion, 134
developmental systems theory and, 138–140
environmental features in, 139
function, 135–136
gene-centered approach, 138
human psychology and, 134
identification of adaptations by, 136–137
phenotypes, 135–136, 138–139, 147
present viability needs, 154
special selection issues, 135
Evolutionary economics, cost-benefit modeling, 137–138
Evolutionary perspectives, 133–154. See also Adaptationism
adaptation, 135–136
adaptive contingent variation, 149–150
affordances, social world, 145
behavioral immune system, 147–148
Big Five and, 152
byproducts, 135, 136–138, 140
Darwin’s theory of evolution, 72, 133, 134–135, 138, 153
developmental systems theory and, 138–140
ecological niche, 140–141
evolutionary economics, cost-benefit modeling, 137–138
exaptation, 136
fitness, variations in, 150–151
friendships, 145–147
function, 135–136
genetic determinism, Darwinism, 138–139
genetic variation in personality, 151
human adaptive complex, 141–142
human niche, 140–149
individual differences in, 149–153
kinship, 148–149
mating and pair-bonding, 148
negative frequency-dependent selection, 150
phylogenetic analysis, 140
secondary adaptation, 136
self-monitoring variations, 149–150
social spheres, social capital, 144–145
synthetic theory of evolution, 135
Evolutionary psychology, 133, 137, 517
Evolution-inspired functionalism, 153–154
Exaptation, adaptationism, 136
(p. 954) Exchange situations, 82, 85, 574
Executive functions (EFs), brain, 417–418
Expectations, social interaction’s influence on, 530
Experience in Close Relationship (ECR) anxiety and avoidance scales, 554
Experience in Close Relationship (ECR) inventory, 550–553
Experimental/empirical action research, 911
Experimental psychology, 20
Experimental Social Psychology (Gardner and Gardner), 13–14
Experiment film, 190
Explanations in Personality (Murray), 702
Explanations (vs. descriptions), of others’ behavior, 427–428
Exploration behavioral system
deactivation, 545–546, 555
hyperactivation, 545–546
Explorations in Personality (Murray), 18, 19
Exploration System Scale (ESS), 551, 556
Extraversion, 38, 42
agency, communion, and, 517
amygdala and, 111
CB5T on, 398
circumplexity of, 406–407
cybernetic functions, negative pole, 397t
description, 398
emotions and, 380
group performance and, 601
leadership and, 651
MLM for group data and, 212
reward-related association processes, 407
traits related to, 388
trait vs. state, 51
underlying mechanisms for, 389
Eyewitness identifications, 865–870
alibis and, 869–870
identification speed, 868–869
lineup administration, 867–868
lineup composition, 866–867
lineup instructions, 867
lineup presentation, 867
system variables, 866
witness accuracy postdictors, 868–869
witness confidence, 868
F
Facebook, 202
Faces
angry faces, 111
behavioral immune system and, 147
cultural norms and, 328
emotions and, 366
fear processing, 111
help-giving and, 482
implicit association test findings, 371
initial impressions of others, 417–418, 420, 424–425
motives and, 348–349
neuroscience findings, 102, 107, 111, 115–121
perception of, 105–107
power relationships and, 647
social interactions and, 520
Facial Action Coding System (FACS), 195, 198, 199
Facial muscle activity, neuroscience studies, 102
Fairness
cheating, moral systems, and, 319
leadership and, 794–797
False confessions, forensic psychology, 857, 858, 861–865, 873, 876
Families
help-giving and, 468, 471, 474, 481, 482
impact of divorce, 755–757
kinship helping, 480
Fantasy realization theory, 353
Fear conditioning, neuroscience findings, 99–100
Fear-flight-freeze system (FFFS), motivation, 346
Feature utilization, 71
Federal Rules of Evidence (FRE), 876
Felt insecurity, 576
Feminism
feminist consciousness, 890
life span changes, 764
women’s movement, 764–766
Festinger, Leon, 22, 27
Field theory (Lewin), 11, 73–74, 77–78, 567–569, 681, 693
Five factor theory (FFT), characteristic adaptations, 394
Five-trait view of personality. See Big Five
Follower personality-in-situation perspective, leadership, 795–797
Forensic confirmation bias, 864
Forensic psychology, 857–876. See also Eyewitness identifications; Juries; Police interrogations, confessions
alibi evidence, 869–870
deception detection, 858–859
decision rule, 872–873
description, 857
dispositional risk factors, 861–862
evidentiary issues, 858–865, 869–870, 872–876
eyewitness identifications, 865–870
false confessions, 857, 858, 861–865, 873, 876
Federal Rules of Evidence (FRE), 876
Frye test, 876
inadmissible evidence, 875
jury decision-making, 873–874
jury nullification, 875
jury selection, 870–872
lie detection, 858–860
Miranda rights, 860, 861–862
nonevidentiary issues, 857, 873–874, 876
personality-social psychology’s contributions, 857
phenomenology of innocence, 863
police interrogations, confessions, 860–861
pretrial publicity (PTP), 874–875
science, common sense, role of in courts, 876
situational risk factors, 862–863
strategic use of evidence (SUE), 860
training to detect deception, 859
Forward inference, neuroscience, 100–101
Fragmented pluralism approach, multiculturalism, 726
Freud, Sigmund
emotional regulation, 114, 370
innate drives finding, 539
intrapsychic forces emphasis, 513
motivation theories, 345
personality theory, 13, 15, 18
Friendships. See also Relationships
cross-group, in intergroup contact, 631–633
evolutionary perspectives, 145–147
Functionalism
defined, 133
emergence of new functionalism, 134
evolution-inspired, 153–154
Functional leadership theory, 819–820
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)
attitudes studies, 109
attributional judgment assessment, 425
bias assessment, 425
emotional regulation research, 114
empathy study, 107
fear conditioning studies, 103
perceiving faces study findings, 105
self-judgment study findings, 104
social neuroscience studies, 102
spontaneous/intentional trait inference comparison, 423
top-down emotional control measures, 380
Functional psychology, 133–134
Fundamental attribution error (FAE), impressions of others, 424–425
Funding agencies, social and personality psychology, 834–835
G
Galton, Francis, 16
Gaze cueing, 418–419
Gender
divorce and, 756–757
empathy differences, 319
help-giving and, 469, 474
(p. 955) marital conflict and, 756
morality differences, 319
personality/social psychology and, 23–24
prosocial behavior and, 326–327
Gene-environment interactions, 676
General Social Survey (U.S.), 255
Generation-since-immigration analysis, immigration, 758–759
Generativity, personality characteristic, collective action, 896
Genes/genetics
gene-environment interactions, 676
genetic determinism, Darwinism, 138–139
role in personality and social psychology, 120–121
traits and, 41–42
GenX, social activism, 763
Gestalt psychology, 18, 352
Globalization
antisocial behavior and, 498
multiculturalism and, 740–742
social policy and, 911
Global-local focus, of affect, 378
Goals
achievement situations, 355
affect and, 354
appraisal, 351, 352
approach and avoidance goals, 390
automatic processes and implicit, 355–356
beliefs, motives, and, 355
of caregiving system, 546
CB5T and, 394–395
characteristic adaptations, 395
common, intergroups, 628, 632, 636
conflicts and, 349, 350, 357
conscious vs. nonconscious pursuit, 356–357
cybernetics view of, 389–392
defensive pessimism and, 354–355
definition, 351
emotions and, 391
fantasy realization theory, 353
future research directions, 356–359
general action goals, 443
general inaction goals, 443
generation processes, 401
goal setting, 351–352
goal striving, 351–352
hierarchical organization of, 391
as instantiations of personality, meaning, 355
intention and, 444
leadership and, 791–792
memory and, 391
mindset theory of action phases, 352
motivation and, 355, 391
personality systems interaction theory, 353
person-centered, 351
psychologists view of, 389–390
pursuit of, 353
regulatory focus’s influence on, 347
selection and commitment, 353
self-construal, self-concordance, and, 353
self-regulation and, 353–354
shared, of personality-/social psychology, 48
situation-centered, 351, 354
social interaction’s influence on, 530
socioemotional goals, 427
specific and general levels, 440f, 443
spontaneous inference of, 422
structure and content, 351, 352–353
traits’ relations to, 357–358
unconscious, and STIs, 421
well-being and, 703–704
within-person variations in pursuit of, 46
Go/no-go task, 103
Google Scholar, 13
Grant Study, well-being, 702
Gratitude
dispositional, 473
state, 473
Great Depression, 19
Group consciousness. See also Collective action; Social movements
education and work experience, 895
experiences with discrimination, 894
feminist consciousness, 890
individual differences, collective action, and, 892–893
low-status memberships, 894
material resources, 894–895
nigrescence theory, 889–890
race consciousness, 890
relative deprivation theory, 885, 890–892
stratum consciousness, 888–889
Group decision-making, 594, 603–607
achievement of consensus, 607
brainstorming, 614n6
conformity principle, 606
discussions, brainstorming, 603–604
influence, 604–606
martyr influence, 605–606
risk factors, 607
Group identity dimensionality, multiculturalism, 727
Group maintenance, 594, 607–609
cohesion, 608
integration of new members, 609
resolution of relational conflict, 608–609
Groups. See also Cooperation; Group consciousness; Group decision-making; Group maintenance
behaviorism research, 594–595, 596
Big Five prediction of performance, 600–601
Big Five traits and, 599, 601
collaboration, lack of, 594
conflict situations, 594, 596–600
decision-making, 594, 603–607
F. Allport’s argument, 595
future research directions, 610–612
group maintenance, 594
group mind, 15, 17, 77, 915
group-optimal outcomes, 597
group personality composition (GPC), 601
group vs. personally optimal outcomes, 597
identification with, and life span, 752
individual differences interface, 594–596
interpersonal processes, 594
interpretive processes, 594
Lewin’s research findings, 594
Mann’s review, 596
mixed-motive situations, 596–598
multilevel modeling (MLM), 210, 212–213, 212–214
narcissism and, 602
persons nested in, 242
social value orientation (SVO), 597–600, 611, 613
sport groups, 602–603
systemic approach to, 595–596
task performance, 594
trust, 597, 602
un(der)studied traits, 602
unique nature of personality in, 612–613
within-groups cooperation, 85
Growth (extraversion/openness), 39
Growth models, dyadic, 209, 230–234
Gulf War (1991), 896
H
Habitus, 168
Handbook of Personality: Theory and Research, 6
Handbook of Personality Psychology (ed. Hogan, Johnson, and Briggs), 6, 24
Handbook of Social Psychology, 6, 26
“Happiness is Everything, or Is It?” (Ryff), 704
Hartmann, George, 19
Harvard, Department of Social Relations, 835
Harvard Psychological Clinic, 18
Health behavior
health belief model, 832
implications for interventions, 837
interplay between moderators and mediators, 833–837, 835f, 836f
intervention challenges, 835, 837
intervention strategies, 837–846
IV (independent variables), 834, 838, 840–844, 846
matching frames to perception of behavior, 840–841
matching frames to personality, 841–842
(p. 956) matching interventions, 838, 840–842, 846–848
measurement-of-mediation approach, 838–839
mediated moderation, 834–836
mediators-moderators link, 833–837, 848–850
message framing, 833, 838, 840, 849
message tailoring, 833, 838, 842–843, 848
models, social psychology, 832
moderated mediation, 836–837, 836f
MV (mediating variables), 838–844, 846
patient x treatment matching, 845–846
personality traits and, 832, 838, 841, 849, 851
Person x Intervention (P x IS) strategy, 833
Person x Situation (P x S) perspective, 833
planned behavior theory, 82
precaution adoption process model (PAPM), 832
protection motivation theory, 832
reasoned action theory, 832
social cognitive theory, 832
social-personality integrated perspective, 833
social policy concerns, 911
stage matching, 843–845
theoretical challenges, 835–836
transtheoretical model (TTM), 832, 836, 844–845
Health belief model, health behavior, 832
Hedonic adaptation, 706–707, 714, 716
Hedonic rewards, 398
Hedonic treadmill theory, well-being, 714
Hedonic well-being, 476
Help-giving. See also Altruism; Helping; Helping relations; Intergroup helping relations
attentional determinants, 469
attributions of responsibility and, 472–473
autonomy vs. dependency-oriented help, 473
aversive-arousal reduction hypothesis, 471–472
aversive racism, discrimination, and, 479
biological antecedents, 469
bystander effect and, 467
bystander intervention studies, 190, 468, 472
demographic antecedents, 469
direct vs. indirect intervention, 467–468
dispositional empathy and, 331, 466, 477, 480
empathy-altruism hypothesis, 471, 473
empathy and, 330–331, 467
families and, 468, 471, 474, 481, 482
gender and, 469, 474
individual variance factors, 468–471
normative influences, 468
“physical escape” experimental paradigm, 472
prosocial behavior and, 465–466, 470
self-esteem of receiver and, 473
situational determinants, 467–468
social antecedents, 469
socioeconomic status and, 469
as two-stage process, 472
Helping
belongingness and, 481
defensive helping, 478
kinship helping, 480
kin vs. nonkin, 479–480
micro-/macro-/meso-levels, 466
personality and situation in, 466–467
social psychology research, 465–466
strategic helping, 478
volunteering, 480–481
Helping relations. See also Intergroup helping relations
cross-group relations, 477
generosity within the group, 476–477
help, characteristics of, 474
helper, characteristics of, 474
helper, consequences of helping for, 475–476
helper-recipient relations, 473–474, 476–477
personality dispositions, 475
receiving help, negative consequences, 474
receiving help, positive consequences, 473–474
recipient characteristics, 474–475
recipient coping, 475
self-categorization and cross-group, 477
self-esteem and, 474, 475
state gratitude, defined, 474
Hermeneutics, 15
Heroism, prosocial behavior and, 192
Herskovits, Melville, 17
Histrionic personality disorder, 46
Hitler, Adolf, 19, 22
HIV/AIDS, volunteerism, 919–922
Holistic tendencies, construction of self, 165
Holocaust (World War II), 768–770
Homelessness, social policy concern, 911
Hong Kong, multiculturalism in, 723
Horizontal theory borrowing, 805–806
Hormones
adaptation and, 137
neuroscience research, 121
Human adaptive complex, 141–142
Human Development Index (HDI), United Nations, 255
Humanization
defined, 107
in psychopathology, 680
Human nature, contrasting views of, 3–4
Human niche, 140–149
ecological niche and, 140–141
fitness variations, 150–151
friendship, 145–147
genetic variation in personality, 151–152
group living, behavioral immune system, 147–148
hominin niche vs. ape niche, 141
kinship, 148–149
mating, pair-bonding, 148
primate niches, miocene apes, and, 141
self-monitoring variations, 149–150
social spheres, 144–145
social world affordances, 145
special adaptations, 142–149
Human resources, 804
Hyperactivation, behavioral system
attachment behavioral system, 550
caregiving behavioral system, 555, 556
characteristics of, 546
consequences of, 546, 555
deactivation vs., 542
ECR inventory measurement, 551
examples of scale items, 552t
exploration behavioral system, 545–546
power behavioral system, 549, 551–552, 557
sexual behavioral system, 548, 557
Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, 121
Hypothesis-testing approach, social neuroscience, 98–100
I
Identification speed, eyewitness identifications, 868–869
Identity. See also Identity motives; Identity narratives; Identity processes
autobiographical memories, life stories, 294
body image, physical body, 292
classification challenges, 295
collective identification, 291–292
collective identity stereotypes, 174
collective memory and, 179
contents of, 289–295
definitions, 290, 291
disciplines associated with, 289
dynamic construction of, 174–175
elaborated social identity model, 306
environmental identity, 293
extended self, personal and social, 291–293
(p. 957) generational identity, 763
identity accuracy, 427
identity change, sociocultural change, 306–308
identity cues, 300, 419
identity dynamics, 290, 306–308
identity fusion, 292
identity stories, 171
Inclusion of Other in the Self scale, 291
individual self, personal and social, 293–294
inherent flexibility of, 303–304
interconnections among aspects, 295
labels and attributes, 298
management strategies, 305
material identification, 292
motives, 296, 303–307
multiplicity of content, 294–295
national identity, 243
online participant observation and, 202
personal narratives, 294, 301–302, 305, 703
personal relationships, 292
“personal-social” dichotomy, 290
place identification, 292–293
processes, 289, 290
psychological traits, 292–293
relational identification, 291
self-categorization, shifting levels, 294–295
self-identity, 171
self-other overlap, 291
self-perception processes, 299
self-views and, 300
selfways and, 171
self-with-other representations, 302
social identity theory, 25, 290, 305
stories, functions of, 171
structures of, 295
varied conceptualizations, 289–290
“who are you?” question and, 289, 291
working self-concept, 301
Identity (Erikson), 18
Identity motives, 296, 303–307
belonging, 303, 304, 305
characteristics of, 303–304
collective, 306
continuity, 303, 304, 305–306
dissatisfaction of, 306–307
distinctiveness, 303, 304–305
efficacy, 304, 305, 307
meaning, 303, 304, 305
motivated identity construction theory, 303
personal, 306
social, 306
Identity narratives, 294, 301–302, 305, 703
Identity processes, 289, 290, 295–308
formation/negotiation, in social relationships, 297–301
identity motives, 302–304, 303–305
intergroup/intragroup, social identity maintenance, 304–305
major life changes, 307–308
positive group distinctiveness, 305–306
reflexive, symbolic self-awareness, 296
self-evaluation processes comparison, 291
self-fulfilling, 297–299
self-perception, 299
self-verification, 299–301
social identity maintenance, 304–305
sociocultural repertoires, categories and positions, 296–297
working self-concept, 301
Ideographic approach, well-being, 702
Ideological congeniality, social vs. personality psychology, 917–918
Ideology
belief correction and, 451–452
black nationalist ideology, 627
defined, 625, 917
gender ideology, 761
meritocracy ideology, 275
multicultural ideology, 725
political ideology, 319–320, 325, 327, 428, 624, 738
social policy and, 623
If-then contingencies of behavior, 491, 516
activation, 88
aggression signature, 516f, 518, 524
behavioral stability, 491
CAPS system and, 254
description, 267
dispositions and, 80
groupings along interpersonal dimensions, 516
local consistencies of persons in interaction, 527
mindset theory of action and, 353, 354
rejection sensitivity (RS) and, 523–524
self-esteem, 270
situation-behavior, 79
Immersion/emersion stage, nigrescence, 890
Immersive virtual environment technologies (IVETs), 201
Immigration (and immigrants)
agression and hostility toward, 501, 556
anti-immigrant prejudice, 243
assimilationist perspective, 630
biculturalism and, 731, 733, 735–736
conditions of arrival, 759–760
country-of-origin variations, 757–758
cultural identity and, 297
economic conditions, 759
feelings of rejection by, 690
generation-since-immigration analysis, 758–759
help-giving and, 477, 478
motivation push and pull of, 759
multiculturalism, acculturation, and, 724–725, 727–729
personality and social context, 760–762
as psychological context, 757–762
social conditions, 760
social identity maintenance and, 305–306
social policies, 911
Implicit association test (IAT), 45, 371, 417–418, 623
Implicit memory, 102
Implicit motive theory, 344, 348–350
faces of motives, 349
implicit and explicit motives, relationship, 350
implicit motives, profiles, 349–350
well-being studies, 703
Implicit prejudice, 623–624
Impressions of others (initial impressions), 415–431
accuracy of, 425–426
aging’s influence on, 426–427
attachment style influences, 426
attentional processes, 418–419
attribution theory, 428
automatic processes, 424
bias studies, 425
category judgments, 425
cognitive stimulation and, 429
control processes, 424
correspondence bias, 424–425
embodied cognition and metaphor as bases, 429
empathy and, 420
explanations vs. descriptions, 427–430
formation processes, 417–425
functional projection study, 426
fundamental attribution error (FAE), 424–425
inference-monitoring process, 421
motivated biases and distortions, 426
perceivers, 415–416, 426–427, 429, 431
personality psychology’s focus, 415–416
priming, 419–420
relational features, 427
self-referential bases of, 429–430
social constructionist perspective, 415, 431
social psychology’s focus, 415–416
spontaneous evaluative inferences (SEIs), 422
stereotyping, 415–416, 418, 422
target features, 426–427, 430–431
theory of mind, 428–429
valence acquisition, 420
Inadmissible evidence, forensic psychology, 875
Incentive rewards, 398
Inclusion of Other in the Self (IOS) scale, 291
(p. 958) Independent constructions of self, 163–164
Independent vs. interdependent behavior, 191b
Indistinguishable dyads, 211–212, 214–226, 230, 233
Individualized Classroom Assessment Scoring System (inCLASS), 197
Individual well-being. See also Well-being
affective life experiences and, 699
behavioral genetic research, 702
benefits of positive affect, 378
close relationships and, 580, 707–708
cultural perspectives, 714, 729
genetics and, 712
goals and motivations, 703–704
hedonic adaptation, 706
interest, values, and, 353
interventions, 710
intraindividual variation, 702–703
item response theory (IRT) and, 700–701, 703
latent traits view, 701, 712, 714
life events and, 707
narratives analysis, 703
person and situation factors, 711
power systems and, 549
predictors, 700, 711
representative approaches, 700t
social identity theories and, 887
social networks and, 715
value-as-a-moderator model, 713
Industriousness, cybernetic function, negative pole, 397t
Inference-monitoring process, impressions, 421
Inferiority myths, 17
Influence, group decision-making, 604–606
Information-motivation-behavioral skills model, attitude change, 455–456
Information-processing systems, cybernetics and, 387
In-groups. See also Out-groups
bias, 327, 330, 622
boundary defining within, 292, 305–306, 471
cooperative coalitions and, 143
depersonalization and, 302
discrimination within, 275, 292
favoritism in, 166, 327, 477
group distinctiveness within, 304
helping and, 468, 477, 478, 481
humanization research, 107
identity model of, 477, 479
in-group love vs. outgroup hate, 622–623
mimicry in, 497
neuroscience research, 107, 115–117, 122, 497–498
out-groups vs., 116, 143, 477, 490, 497, 502
racial in-groups, 497
religion and, 327
shared emotionality in, 501
social identity perspective, 477
social motivations, 115–116
Inhibition, person-in-situation perspective, 786–788
Initial impressions. See Impressions of others
Injustice element, social identity model of collective action (SIMCA), 887, 892t
Insecurity
attachment insecurity, 545, 551, 554, 556, 568, 580
deactivating coping strategies, 550
felt insecurity, 576
normative processes related to, 545
societal variations, 551
words related to, 544
Institute for Social Research (ISR), University of Michigan, 20
Institute of Personality Assessment and Research (IPAR), UC Berkeley, 20
Intellect, cybernetic function, negative pole, 397t
Intelligence testing, 16–17
Intentional vs. unintentional behavior, 191b
Intentional worlds, 175–177
active relationship, 176
“intention” in, 176
or romantic love, 176
parent-child interaction, examples, 177
passive relationship, 176–177
principle of intentionality and, 161
reactive relationship, 176
scaffolding and, 176
Intentions (intentionality)
attitudes and, 442
automaticity and, 102
cultural psychology and, 161
defined, 442
goals and, 444
intentional worlds and, 161, 176–177
privilege as outcome enhancement, 178
Interactional continuity, 26
Interactional strategy, in social behavior research, 68
Interactionism (interactional perspectives). See also Cognitive-affective personality system (CAPS) model
attachment theory, 252, 257, 347, 470, 514, 539–560, 575–577
benefits of, 1, 4–5
dynamic interactionism, 5
as foundational for personality-social psychology bridge, 5
G. Allport’s contributions, 25
interdependence theory, 73, 82, 84, 347, 573–575, 585
kin vs. non-kin, 72
person x situation models, 69, 71, 78–79, 82–83, 278, 318, 567–587
precipitating vs. nonprecipitating situations, 569, 570
reciprocal interactionism, 79
statistical interactionism, 5
strong vs. weak situations, 86–87, 569
Interaction Process Analysis (IPA) system, 197
Interactive pluralism approach, multiculturalism, 726
Intercultural policies, multiculturalism, 726
Interdependence theory (IT)
basis of interdependence, 85
behavior and, 81
concerns of, 74
coordination situations, 85
description, 73, 74, 77, 82, 573–575
groups, organizations, cultures, 88–89
individual differences, 585
information certainty, 86
interactional perspective, 568
mutuality of outcome interdependence, 84
outcome correspondence, 84–85
outcome interdependence, 73, 83–84
person and situation (p x s) linkages, 82–83, 86
taxonomy of situations, 83–84
temporal structures, 85–86
Interdependent constructions of self, 164–166
Intergroup helping as status relations (IHSR) model, 478, 479
Intergroup helping relations, 477–483
collective emotions and, 479
defensive/strategic helping, 478
differentially advantaged groups, 478–479
IHSR model, 478, 479
independence and recipient of help, 481–482
personality/situational determinants, 482
self-categorization and cross-group, 477
Intergroup processes
anxiety reduction through, 633–634
cooperation and common goals, 628
cross-group friendship, 631–633
empathy promotion through, 634–635
equal status in situation, 628
examining psychological motivation and need, 636–637
implicit prejudice, 116–117, 623–624
institutional support, 628–629
neuroscience, 115–118
potential for positive contact outcomes, 635–636
(p. 959) recategorization and superordinate group identities, 630–631
salience of group membership, 629–630
situation conditions for contact, 627–628
stereotyping, 117–118
Internalization-commitment stage, nigrescence, 890
Internalization stage, nigrescence, 890
International Personality Item Pool (IPIP), 401–402
Internet, behavior observation, 201–202
Interpersonal circumplex (IPC) model, 40, 405–408, 406f
agreeable-dominant (AD) behavior, 517
agreeable-submissive (AS) behavior, 517
behavior combinations, 517
Big Five comparison, 517
description, 516–517
quarrelsome-dominant (QD) behavior, 517
quarrelsome-submissive (QS) behavior, 517
situation-behavior, 516
Interpersonal dimension, person-situations interactions, 515–517
Interpersonal liking, attitudes, 441
Interpersonal rejection, P x E vulnerabilities, 688–691
Interpersonal Relations and Group Processes (IRGP), 209–210
Interpersonal theories, of personality, 513–514
Interpersonal theory, CB5T integration with, 388, 405–408
Interpretation, situational meaning and, 44
Intersectionality theory, 295
Intervention strategies, health behavior, 837–846
Intraindividual variation, well-being, 702
The Invention of Society (Moscovici), 15
Isolation technique, confessions, 861
Israel, in-group love vs. outgroup hate, 622
Item response theory (IRT), well-being, 700–701, 703
Iterative processing model, emotions, 371
Iterative reprocessing model, of emotions, 372
J
James, William, 16, 133, 365
Japanese Americans, internment of, 768–770
Job attitudes
affective-cognitive consistency, 816
affective events theory, 815
compatibility principle, 815
job involvement, 814
job satisfaction, 813–814
organizational commitment, 814
social information-processing theory, 814–815
social-personality psychology integrated study, 813–816
strength, 815–816
Journal Citation Reports, 911–912
Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology (JASP), 21, 23, 674–675, 834, 940, 942
Journal of Applied Psychology, 805, 816
Journal of Personality, 676
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (JPSP), 6, 23, 26, 209, 674, 805, 816, 834
Journal of Research in Personality, 51
Journal of Social Issues, 24, 930
Jung, Carl, 15
Juries
bias in selection, 872
decision-making, evidentiary issues, 873–874
decision-making, nonevidentiary issues, 857, 873–874, 876
decision rule, 872–873
jury nullification, 875
jury selection, 870–872
jury size, 872
pretrial publicity and, 874–875
Justice orientation-related cognitions, 45
Justification suppression model, prejudice, 623
K
Kinship, evolutionary perspective, 148–149
Kuder-Richardson reliability coefficient, 19
L
Latent traits view, individual well-being, 701, 712, 714
Leader-member exchange (LMX) theory, 789, 792, 817–818
Leadership
adaptive team leadership, 820
agreeableness and, 601, 789–790, 795
assessment tools, 196–197
Big Five dimensions, 779–785, 791
charismatic-transformational leadership, 778–779, 782–783, 788–789, 792–793, 818
conscientiousness and, 601, 788
contingency approaches to effectiveness, 789
cooperative behavior and, 144
corruption, testosterone, and, 600
dominance and, 649, 816
emotions and, 794
empathic vs. egoistic, 659
extraversion and, 651, 788, 789
fairness, 794–797
follower personality-in-situation perspective, 795–797
functional leadership theory, 819–820
goal-orientation framework, 791–792
identity and, 308, 477
identity dynamics and, 308
leader-follower personality combinations, 789–790
learning goal orientation, 790
LMX theory of, 789, 792, 817–818
narcissism and, 790
neuroticism and, 789
openness and, 788
organizational psychology, 816–820
personality and, 778–779, 817
person-in-situation perspective, 777–778, 783, 785–795
Person x Situation interactions in, 794–795
plasticity and, 402
power and, 645, 651–652, 657, 659
prosocial orientation, 152
self-regulatory focus, 792, 796
self-sacrificial leadership, 818–819
shared leadership, 820
situational factors, 78, 85, 777–778, 790
social identity perspective, 793, 796
styles within groups, 594–595, 659
team leadership models, 793, 819–820
trait activation and, 786–792, 787f, 794–797
transformational, 818–819
uncertainty and, 789
women and, 649
Leadership Behavior Description Questionnaire (LBDQ), 197
Leadership categorization theory, 792
Leadership Trait Questionnaire (LTQ), 196
Learning goal orientation, leadership, 790
Lewin, Kurt
action research of, 910–911
B = f(P, E) formula, 1, 3, 4, 6–7, 35–36, 52, 77–78, 677–678, 910
death of, 22
on Explorations in Personality, 19
field theory, 11, 73–74, 77–78, 567–569, 681, 693
groups research findings, 594
high impact lab experiments, 21
influential works of, 13
P x E behavioral field,