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date: 26 November 2020

(p. 639) Index

(p. 639) Index

Abbott, Grace and Edith, 248
abolitionism
African colonization plans and, 420, 446
calls for racial equality in, 424–25, 427
patriarchy critiqued in, 424–25, 427–28, 432
religious communities’ involvement in, 391, 417–35, 446
Somerset ruling (1772) and, 418, 560
state emancipation laws and, 560–61
Texas annexation debates and, 430
Underground Railroad and, 419–20, 431, 433–34
violent resistance against, 425–26, 429
white prejudices against black colleagues in, 10, 417, 427, 434
women’s involvement in, 3, 10, 417–37, 446–47, 488–89
abortion
class-oriented framings of, 248, 255
Comstock Laws and, 246
conservative religious opposition to, 257, 385–86, 404–5
disability and, 303–4
Great Depression and, 251
health risks from illegal forms of, 251, 254
Hyde Amendment of 1977 and, 255, 632
laws outlawing, 242, 245
nineteenth-century availability of, 246
popular culture depictions of, 385–86
prosecutions of abortionists and, 254
race and, 242, 255
Roe v. Wade and, 255–57
state governments’ effort to restrict, 257–58
women’s information networks and, 245
women’s rights activists opposed to, 246
Abzug, Bella, 182
Act for the Gradual Abolition of Slavery (Pennsylvania, 1780), 560
Adams, Abigail, 347, 444
Adams, John, 346, 444
Adams Jr., Charles Francis, 244
Addams, Jane, 248, 453–54, 487
Adkins v. Children’s Hospital, 178
affirmative action, 172, 182, 632
Affordable Care Act, 257
Afghanistan War, 102–3
African American women. See also free blacks; slavery
abortion and, 159, 248
American Revolution and, 553
beauty culture and, 293–95, 360, 379–80, 385
birth control and, 250–51
black churches and, 401
Civil War experiences of, 571–75, 579–80
consumer boycotts and, 364
discrimination in the paid labor force and, 171, 174, 176, 179
domestic work and, 157, 176, 178–79, 198, 252, 451, 581, 598
migration to the North and, 178, 247, 320, 572, 580, 597–98
as musicians, 381, 385
Reconstruction Era experiences of, 571–72, 580–85
voting rights and, 188, 459
the welfare state and, 252–53, 467–70
white sexualization of, 160, 224, 252, 277–78, 530, 584
workplace discrimination against, 174, 176, 181–82
World War I and, 597–98
World War II and, 179, 596, 602–3, 605, 607
African Methodist Church, 422
African women, 25–26, 336–37
Aguilera de Roche, Doña Teresa, 73–74, 77
Ahhontan, Sarah, 143–44
Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC). See also Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF)
establishment of, 252–53, 466
male breadwinner model and, 474–75
Reagan’s criticisms of, 473
stigmatization of recipients of, 467–68, 476–77
women of color’s activism regarding, 470–72
work requirements and, 475
Ai-Jen Poo, 186
Ainse, Sally, 348
Alexander, Mary, 341
Algonquin Indians. See Anishinaabe Indians
Allen, Gracie, 384
Allen, Richard, 422
Amanat, Sana, 410
American and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society, 427–28
American Anti-Slavery Society, 420
American Association of University Women (AAUW), 625
American Birth Control League, 250–51
American Civil Liberties Union, 515, 520
American Colonization Society, 420, 422
American Eugenic Society, 250–51
American Federation of Labor (AFL), 175, 626
American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO), 183
American Federation of the Physically Handicapped (AFPH), 302
American Legion Auxiliary (ALA), 533
American Medical Association, 250, 531
American Moral Reform Society, 200
American Revolution
British occupation of port towns during, 556
citizen-soldier ideal and, 45
consumer boycotts and, 345–46, 364, 443–44, 557
disabled veterans and, 299–300
Enlightenment thought and, 552, 558
escapes from slavery during, 554–55
Loyalists in, 556, 558
Native Americans and, 551, 553, 555–58, 562–63, 565
rape as aspect of military conflict in, 555
“republican grammar of manhood” and, 44–45
slaves fighting with British forces during, 554–56
women in combat during, 553–54
women’s autonomy and, 245, 551–52, 563–65
women’s leadership of households during, 562–63
women’s work in cause of, 3, 553, 555, 558
American Social Hygiene Association, 210
American Society (abolitionist organization), 420, 423, 426–27, 430
Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, 304
American War Mothers, 531
American West. See United States empire
American Woman Suffrage Association, 449
American Women for Peace (AWP), 628
Amwood, Elizabeth, 277
Anderson, Elizabeth and Mary, 343–44
Anderson, Margaret C., 515
Anderson, Mary, 179
Andrews, Stephen Pearl, 205, 207
Angel Unaware (Rogers), 302–3
Anishinaabe Indians
epidemic diseases and, 145
family life and kinship networks among, 137, 139–40, 145, 147–48
female captives taken by, 336
Haudenosaunee Indians’ conflicts with, 133, 135–36, 144–46
trade and, 337
Anthony, Susan B.
conservative women and, 543
coverture laws and, 448
Stanton’s biblical scholarship and, 396
Tubman and, 434
on women’s rights and US imperialism, 493
women’s suffrage advocacy work of, 449, 453
anticommunism
Cold War and, 621–27, 629, 632
conservative women’s role in promoting, 11, 528, 531, 536–37
(p. 641) consumer rights groups targeted under, 365
Hollywood blacklists (1950s) and, 624
McCarran-Walter Act (1952) and, 629
Smith Act (1940) and, 620, 630
Taft-Hartley Act (1947) and, 626
Antigua, 164
Anzaldúa, Gloria, 81
Apache Indians, 74, 77–79, 275
An Appeal in Favor of That Class of Americans Called Africans (Child), 421
Appeal to the Christian Women of the South (Angelina Grimké), 423
“Appeal to the Ladies” (Angelina Grimké), 424
Appeal to the Women of the Nominally Free States, 424
Architectural Barriers Act of 1968, 304
Arents, Annetgen, 340
Army Nurse Corps (ANC), 604
Asian American women, See also specific groups 185, 226, 278, 366, 379-80, 475-76, 479, 490, 493, 494-95, 497-98, 500
Asian Immigrant Women Advocates, 185, 498
Asociación Nacional Mexico-Americana (ANMA), 629
Association of Flight Attendants, 183
Atlantic World
family lives and networks in, 133–48
gender frontiers and, 22, 26–27, 34
women’s role as traders in, 335–50
women’s unfree labor in, 111–27
Austen, Jane, 3
“An Autobiography” (Gove Nichols), 206–7
Aztec Indians, 24, 113
Bachmann, Michele, 541
Bagley, Sarah, 7, 173
Baker, Ella, 468, 623–24, 627, 631
Bakhtiar, Laleh, 409
Baldwin, William, 153
Ball, Mary, 79
Barbados
indentured laborers in, 115–17
Ligon’s account of, 19–20
outsourcing of work to, 184
plantation agriculture in, 19
Slave Act (1661) in, 117, 124
slavery in, 19–20, 119, 123
slave women’s economic activity in, 343
Barbuda, 123
Barr, Daisy Douglas, 533
Barry, Leonora, 175
Bates, Daisy, 627
Bates, Mrs. D.B., 72–73, 75, 80
Beale, Fran, 631
Bean, Nancy Rogers, 158
Beaury, Maria Perron, 349
beauty culture
African American women and, 293–95, 360, 379–80, 385
Asian American women and, 379–80
breast augmentation and, 297–98
clothing and, 292–93
commercialization and marketing of, 293–94
corsets and, 296–97
early modern era and, 296
feminist critiques of, 385, 490
flapper fashion and, 297
immigrant population and, 293
Mexican American women and, 292, 294–95, 379
pageants and, 294, 366, 379, 385
plastic surgery and, 296–97, 305
skin care and cosmetics in, 292–96, 357
World War II and, 595–96, 599–600
Beecher, Henry Ward, 53, 207–8
Beecher, Lyman, 423
Beemyn, Genny, 313
Bemis, Frances, 358
Benjamin, Harry, 323, 325
Benjamin, Sarah, 155
Bennett, Judith, 265–66
Bennett, Katharine, 401
Bentley, Gladys, 381
Berenson, Senda, 382
Bethune, Mary McLeod, 494
Beveridge, Albert, 95
Beyoncé, 387
Bhabha, Homi, 65n31
Bight of Biafra, 31, 119–20
(p. 642) birth control. See also abortion; sterilization
abstinence-only education and, 257
Affordable Care Act and, 257
American Medical Association and, 250
birth control pill and, 255–56, 500–501, 630
commercialization of products for, 245–46, 251
Comstock Laws and, 246
conservative women’s opposition to, 542
eugenics movement and, 249
feminism and, 499, 501
Goldman’s lectures on, 209
Great Depression and, 251–52
interuterine devices and, 256
laws outlawing or restricting, 242, 247
Planned Parenthood and, 542
public education regarding, 251
Puerto Rico trials (1950s) and, 96–97, 500–501
race and, 242, 250–51
Sanger’s promotion of, 515–16
sexually transmitted diseases and, 249
“sexual revolution” of 1960s and, 255, 501
slaves’ use of, 244
US armed forces and, 249, 251
Black Lives Matter movement, 278, 366
Black Panther Party (BPP), 463, 472, 631–32
Black Power movement, 295, 631–32
Blackstone, William, 339
Blackwell, Elizabeth, 204
Black Women’s Liberation Forum (BWLF), 631
Blatch, Harriot Stanton, 601
blues music, 381
Boasman, Dolly, 269
The Bondwoman’s Narrative (Crafts), 293
Boston Massacre (1770), 556
Bowers v. Hardwick, 233
Boydston, Jeanne, 33
Boyle, Barney, 266–67
bracero program, 99–100, 622, 626
Bradwell, Myra, 246
Brant, Molly (Konwatsi’tsiaienni), 11, 26, 557
Brazil, 120, 122
Brisbane, Albert, 205
Brown, Charlotte, 579
Brown, Elsa Barkley, 4, 392
Brown, Gertrude Dorsey, 293
Brown, Mary and Joe, 584
Brown, Peggy McKinnon, 159
Browne, James, 275
Brown v. Board of Education, 252, 630
Bryant, Anita, 539–40
Bryant, Charity, 209
Buck, Pearl, 302
Buck v. Bell, 301
Bud Dajo, Battle of (1906), 96
Bullough, Bonnie and Vern, 318, 517
Burke, Tarana, 281
Burns, George, 384
Burroughs, Nannie Helen, 401
Bush, George W., 102
Bushnell, Katharine, 396
Butler, Judith, 312
Butrick, Daniel Sabin, 244
Byrd, Mary Willing, 558
Byrd, William, 269
Cabeza de Vaca, Alvar Nuñez, 314
Cable Act (1922), 226
Cade, Toni, 255
California Gold Rush, 79
Canada, 275, 433–34
Canaday, Margot, 218
Canterill, Dorothy, 321
The Caribbean. See also specific islands
Dutch colonies in, 125–26
feminism in, 492
free blacks in, 560
free labor ideology in, 53
indentured laborers in, 115–16
enslaved indigenous women in, 113–14
post-emancipation work regimes in, 53–54, 56, 61
Revolutionary era “republican grammar of manhood” and, 44
sexual coercion and rape of Indians in, 274–75
sexual coercion of slaves in, 111–12
slavery in, 122–26, 154–55
slave trade and, 119–20, 122
Spanish colonies in, 113–14, 125
sugar plantation economy in, 112, 115, 118, 120, 122–23, 126, 154
US expansion in, 493, 495
(p. 643) Carlyle, Thomas, 55
Carter, Michael, 183
Carter, Susan Boslego, 183
Cashier, Albert D. J., 318–19
Castro, Fidel, 630
Catholic Church
Holy Office of the Inquisition and, 73–74
immigrant population and, 407
Ku Klux Klan opposition to, 532–33
missions and, 29–30, 33, 89
parochial schools and, 398–99
Protestant sentiment against, 49, 398–99, 408, 533
Religious Right and, 540
reproduction politics and, 241, 251, 255, 385–86
sex abuse (2000s) in, 280
slavery and, 125
theological notions of gender and, 396–97
United States empire and, 72–74, 77, 82
women’s religious orders in, 397–99
Catt, Carrie Chapman, 396, 456–57, 532, 601
Cauldwell, David O., 323
Cayuse Indians, 90–91
Celebrated Trial of Rev. J. H. Fairchild, for the Alleged Seduction of Miss Rhoda Davidson, 200
Central Park rape case (1989), 273–74
Chace, Elizabeth Buffum, 417, 429
Chamberlain-Kahn Act in 1918, 606
Chandler, Elizabeth, 419, 421
Chandler, William/Mary Lacy, 318
Channing, William Ellery, 421
Chapman, Maria Weston, 421, 425–27
Charlotte Temple (Rowson), 198, 559
Chauncey, George, 224
Chavez, Cesar, 626, 630
Cherokee Indians, 51, 158, 244, 555
Chicana Welfare Rights Organization, 471
Chickasaw Indians, 51, 160
Child, Lydia Maria, 421, 424–27, 430, 434
child labor laws, 454, 530–31
The Child Who Never Grew (Buck), 302
China, Cold War and, 536, 630
Chinese Americans/Chinese American women
Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 and, 249
discrimination against, 58, 99, 223–24
domestic labor and, 176
garment industry work and, 185, 496
intermarriage and, 60, 79, 227
nineteenth-century infrastructure work and, 56
Page Act and, 58, 225
prostitution in nineteenth century and, 58–59, 278
World War II and, 179
Chisholm, Shirley, 182
Choctaw Indians, 51, 159–60
Christian Science, 395
Citron, Danielle, 387
Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC), 465
Civil Rights Act of 1964, 182, 383, 632
Civil Rights Congress (CRC), 629
civil rights movement
African American women’s economic opportunities and, 182
anticommunism and, 623–24, 627
Federal Communications Commission and, 386
Montgomery Bus Boycott (1954) and, 627, 630–31
voting rights and, 188
women’s involvement in, 489, 627
Civil War
African Americans working for Union Army during, 574
charity and relief services during, 578–79
citizen-soldier ideal and, 45–46
Confederate women’s experiences during, 575–77
“contraband camps” during, 574
emancipated slaves as soldiers in, 45–46
epidemic disease during, 574
free blacks as soldiers in, 45
gender-crossing soldiers in, 11, 318–19, 579
gender normativity and, 12, 576, 579
labor protests during, 175
prisoners of war and, 571–72
rape during, 574, 576
refugees during, 576
slaves’ escapes during, 11, 573–74, 580
slaves’ resistance to owners during, 574–75
Southern women’s experiences in, 175
(p. 644) Union women’s experiences during, 175, 577–79
women in the work force during, 175
women’s autonomy during, 579–80
Clare Booth Luce Policy Institute, 543
Clarkson, Thomas, 428
Clay, Susanna, 575
Cleaver, Kathleen, 631
Clinton, Hillary, 521, 542
Clover, Nathaniel, 428
Coad, Mary, 321
Coalition of Labor Union Women, 178, 183
Cockacoeske, 26
Code Noir (1724), 220
Coffin, Keziah Folger, 348
COINTELPRO (Federal Bureau of Investigation surveillance program), 632
Cold War
anticommunism as organizing principle of, 621–27, 629, 632
civil rights movement and fight against segregation during, 623–26, 630–31
consumerism and, 359, 365
containment policy and, 619, 630–32
decolonization in developing world/Global South and, 617–18
end of, 633
gender normativity and, 609, 618–22, 624, 627, 629, 633
immigration policy and, 622
interracial sex and marriage in, 231
“Kitchen Debate” (1959) and, 359, 618–19, 625
mothers’ movement in, 535–36
motion picture industry and, 624
nuclear family ideal during, 620–21
pacificist organizations in, 628
prosecutions for espionage during, 620
“Second Red Scare” (1950s) and, 620, 622, 624
Vietnam War and, 618, 630
women in the workforce and, 621, 626
women’s labor activism during, 496–97
Collier-Thomas, Bettye, 401–2
Collins, Jennie, 173
colonialism. See also United States empire
colonial settler societies and, 27–29, 34–35, 89, 93, 134
domestic labor and, 27–29, 142
family life in early modern North America and, 134, 143–44
gender frontiers and, 20–27, 33–36
race and, 21, 34–36
religious missions and, 29–30, 33, 35, 50, 398
trade and, 30, 335–36
Colored Ladies Literary Society, 424
Columbus, Christopher, 24
Comanche Indians, 74, 90
Comer, Robbie, 533
Commission on the Status for Women (Kennedy Administration), 489, 495, 630
Committee to End Sterilization Abuse (CESA), 255
Communist Party of the United States (CP), 620, 623, 627–29
Community Action program, 469
Community Service Organization (CSO), 626–27
Company of St. Ursula (women’s religious order), 398
Comstock Law, 208, 246–47, 251
Concerned Women of America (CWA), 404, 540–41
Congo, 87, 618
Congressional Union, 456
Congress of American Women (CAW), 628
Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO), 178, 184, 626, 629
Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), 627
The Conscience of a Conservative (Goldwater), 538
conservative women
anticommunism and, 11, 528, 531, 536–37
Equal Rights Amendment opposed by, 538–39
feminism opposed by, 537–41
government intervention as anathema to, 531, 536, 538
Ku Klux Klan and, 532–33
LGBTQ rights opposed by, 539–40, 542–43
maternalism and, 530–34, 539, 543
mothers’ movement and, 534–37
religious conservatism and, 539–40
republican motherhood ideology and, 529
Tea Party and, 527, 529, 541–43
women’s suffrage and, 11, 532
Consumers’ National Federation, 365
consumer societies
boycotts and, 345–46, 364, 366, 443–44, 557
chain stores and, 365
Cold War and, 359, 365
consumer credit and, 362
consumer rights groups and, 365–66
fashion and clothes in, 363, 366
feminist critiques of, 361
food products and, 361–62
gendered nature of consuming and purchasing in, 345, 355–68
labor unions and, 365–66
marketing and advertising in, 357–58, 360–61
outsourcing of production in, 363
proxy shoppers and, 345, 363
race and, 357–58, 360, 362–63
status achieved through purchasing in, 344–45, 360
Veblen’s critique of, 377
containment policy (Kennan), 619, 630–32
Continental Association, 557
contraception See birth control
The Contrast (Tyler), 347
Cooke, Marvel, 468
Cooper, Esther, 629
Cooper, Samuel, 418
The Coquette (Foster), 198, 559
Corbin, Margaret, 553
Correll, Shelley J., 258
Cortés, Hernan, 24, 111, 114
Cott, Nancy, 217
coverture
Anthony and, 448
Martin v. Massachusetts and, 347, 563–64
Stanton and, 447–48
states’ overturning of, 447–48, 564
trade and, 339–41, 346–49, 444
Cowles, Betsy, 430–31
Craddock, Ida, 208
Crafts, Hannah, 293
Crane, Phil, 528
Crevecoeur, J. Hector St. John de, 348
Criolla, Isabel, 125
Cromwell, Jason, 315
Cubin, Barbara, 474
Cuneo, Michele de, 274–75
Cushman, Eva, 324
Dale, Thelma, 628
Danvers Statement, 405
Darragh, Lydia, 554
Dartmouth, Earl of, 418
Darwin, Charles, 513
Daughters of Bilitis, 511–12, 519–20, 627
Daughters of Liberty, 444
Daughters of the American Revolution (DAR), 533
Davis, Angela, 272, 295, 381, 487, 632
Davis, Eunice, 147
Davis, John, 147
Davis, Sylvester, 232
Dawes Act (1887), 174–75
Deckman, Melissa, 542
Declaration of Independence, 558
Defense of Marriage Act (1996), 233, 404
Delaware Indians, 29, 34, 557
Del Castillo, Adelaida R., 471, 478
D'Emilio, John, 511–12
Democratic Party, 217, 454, 456–57. See also specific politicians
Democratic-Republican Party, 558
DeMoro, Rose Anne, 186
Dennett, Mary Ware, 251
de Rasiere, Isaack, 23
Detroit (Michigan), 82–83
Diallo, Nafissatou, 265
Dickson, Amanda America, 218
Didrickson, Babe, 382
Dignam, Dorothy, 358
Dilling, Elizabeth, 534–35
disability
Agent Orange defoliant and, 304
beauty culture’s stigmatization of, 302
disability rights movement and, 302–3
eugenics movement and, 301
(p. 646) institutional care for, 300–301
legislation designed to promote rights of, 304
military veterans and, 299–302, 304
pregnancy and, 291
religious interpretations of disability and, 299
slavery and, 157–58, 300–301
thalidomide crisis and, 303–4
abortion and, 303–4
domestic and reproductive labor
African American free women and, 176, 178–79, 198, 252, 451, 581, 598
American Revolution and, 553
households and, 27–29, 142
Domestic Workers Bill of Rights (2010) and, 186, 498
feminist perspectives on, 498–99
immigrant women and, 98, 101–2, 176, 185, 498
indentured laborers and, 116
labor unions and, 186, 188
Native Americans and, 139–40
sexual coercion as aspect of, 198, 200, 265, 451, 598
slaves and, 121–23, 157, 164, 174
welfare programs and, 252
in West Africa, 119, 121, 141
Domestic Workers United (DWU), 186, 188
Douglass, Frederick, 429–30, 432–33, 489
Douglass, Grace, 420, 424
Douglass, Sarah Mapps, 200–201, 204, 446
Downs, Laura Lee, 4
Drake, Sylvia, 209
Dred Scott decision, 448
Dreiser, Theodore, 176
Droullard, Mary Todd, 599
Duberman, Martin, 518
Du Bois, W. E. B., 617
Dum Diversas papal bull (1452), 113
Dunmore, Lord, 554–55
Dunn, Edwin, 78
Durham, Tempe Herndon and Exeter, 161
Duston, Hannah, 143
Dutch West India Company (DWIC), 124–26
Dwight, Margaret Van Horn, 271
Dyer, Mary, 299
Eagle Forum, 540–41
East Saint Louis race riot (1917), 602, 612n46
economic inequality
contemporary increases in, 183–85
in early American Republic, 465
feminism and, 10, 172, 488, 495–99, 503
welfare state and, 465, 469, 472–73, 477–78
Economic Opportunity Act of 1964, 472
Eddy, Mary Baker, 395
Edendale neighborhood (Los Angeles), 515–16
education
expansions for women in, 376, 450–51, 564
literacy and sexual knowledge gains through, 195–96
physical education and, 382
“republican motherhood” cited as goal in, 445, 564
women’s role as teachers and, 445
Ehrlich, Paul and Anne Howard, 254
Eighteenth Amendment, 455
Eilberg, Amy, 403
Eisenhower, Dwight, 622, 625
Elizabeth I (queen of England), 137
Elkins, Jane, 163
Ellis, Havelock, 322, 499, 514
Emancipation Act of 1833, 53
Emancipation Proclamation, 46, 222
Employment Non-Discrimination Act (ENDA), 325–26
The Enlightenment, 5, 444, 552, 558
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), 182–83, 187
Equal Pay Act of 1963, 182, 489
Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)
conservative women’s opposition to, 538–39
labor feminists’ support for, 183, 626
religious organizations’ opposition to, 404
state legislatures as obstacle to passage of, 458, 488, 538–39
women-only labor protections and, 178, 183
women opponents of, 178, 397
women’s organizations work in support of, 625–26, 630, 632
Erickson, Reed, 325
Ernst, Joni, 541–42
Escalante, Alicia, 471
(p. 647) Esoteric Anthropology (Nichols and Gove Nichols), 205
eugenics movement
Darwin and, 513
disability and, 301
immigration and, 57, 59, 99, 226
sterilization and, 99, 249, 301
Evangelical Christians
abolitionism and, 421, 426–27, 429
ordination of women opposed by, 406
racism condemned by, 406
Religious Right and, 540
Second Great Awakening and, 391, 394, 422
theological notions of gender and, 396
women’s missionary associations and, 400
women’s self-help genre and, 540
women’s subservience to men emphasized by, 404–6
Executive Order 9835 (Truman Administration), 620
Executive Order 10450 (Eisenhower Administration), 622
Expatriation Act of 1907, 226
Fair, Laura, 207
Fairday, Elizabeth, 342
Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA), 179, 183, 467–68, 472
families in early modern Atlantic World
colonialism and, 134–35, 143–44
epidemic diseases and, 145
familiarity and, 136
“fictive kin” and, 135–36
gendered organization of labor and, 138–39, 142–43, 145
households and, 138–45
lineage and, 136–38
marriage dynamics and, 135, 139–41
Native Americans and, 135, 137, 139–40, 144–46, 219
in New England, 142–43
property issues and, 137
slaves and, 135–36, 145–47
status and belonging established through, 133–34, 138
violence within, 138
wars and, 144–45
in West Africa, 137, 140–41, 146
Family and Medical Leave Act (1993), 182
Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), 623–24, 628–29, 632
Federal Communications Commission, 386
Federal Housing Administration (FHA), 465, 468, 621
Federalist Party, 558
Feinberg, Leslie, 314–15, 326
Female Anti-Slavery Society, 417, 420–21, 447
Female Benevolent Society of St. Thomas, 561
The Female Husband (Fielding), 317
The Feminine Mystique (Friedan), 384, 489, 540, 621
feminism
beauty cultures critiqued in, 385, 490
celebrities’ engagement with, 387
consumer societies critiqued in, 361
definitions of, 491
domestic labor and, 498–99
economic inequality challenged in, 10, 172, 488, 495–99, 503
globalized economy and, 497–98
international dimensions of, 487–503
labor feminism and, 183, 626
lesbianism and, 10, 490, 518–20
political citizenship and, 10, 488, 490–95, 503
radical feminism and, 489–90
relational feminism and, 488
Religious Right’s opposition to, 404
reproduction politics and, 256
sexual conventions challenged in, 10, 488, 499–503
sexual violence confronted in, 267, 283
transgender populations and, 10, 312, 501
US imperialism and, 493, 495
“waves” of, 488–91
women of color and, 487, 490–91, 503
women’s sports and, 383
workplace rights and, 171
Feminists for Life (FFL), 541
fertility
attempts to restrict women’s autonomy regarding, 247, 254
“culture of poverty” and, 100
(p. 648) early nineteenth-century declines in, 246
fertility treatments and, 257
immigration politics and, 100–101
population control policies and, 242–43
racial framings of, 249–50, 255
slavery and, 32, 123, 158, 243
women’s autonomy and, 241–43, 245–47, 251, 256
Fielding, Henry, 317
Fifteenth Amendment, 449, 452, 455
Fight for Fifteen campaign, 186
Filipinas. See The Philippines
Finger, Anne, 291
Finkbine, Sherri, 303–4
Finney, Charles Grandison, 422, 431
First Amendment, 258
Fisher, Bernice, 627
fistula, 300–301
Flint (Michigan) strike (1937), 178
Flores, Francisca, 629
Florida
free blacks in, 90
marriage law and property rights in, 89–90, 144, 347
Native American population in, 89, 137, 144, 347
Spanish colonization of, 125
US acquisition (1819) of, 89
white women’s role in colonizing, 89–90, 347
Flynn, Elizabeth Gurley, 620
Food and Fuel Control Act of 1917, 600
Foote, Julia, 394, 396
Forshee, Maria, 279
Forten, Sarah, 420, 424, 435
Foster, Hannah Webster, 198, 559
Foster, Jeannette Howard, 518
Foster, Stephen S., 430–32
Fourier, Charles, 205
Fourteenth Amendment, 46, 223, 448–50
France
coverture doctrine and, 339–41
French Revolution and, 45
fur trade and, 338
missions and, 29, 33
Native Americans’ status in the colonial territories of, 220
Seven Years’ War and, 553, 556
slavery laws and, 558, 560
uprising (1848) in, 447
Franklin, Benjamin, 27
Frazier, E. Franklin, 621–22
Frederick, Christine, 358
Free African Union Society, 561
free blacks
American Revolution and, 551
emancipation of wives of, 46
forced apprenticeships and, 53–54
manhood and, 46, 52, 54–56, 61
military service and, 48
segregation and, 174
sexual violence against, 277
United States empire and, 79–80
women as heads of household among, 561
women as larger number of, 560
workplace discrimination and, 174
Freedman, Estelle, 491, 511–12
Freedmen’s Bureau, 46, 54, 580–82
Freeman, Elizabeth, 560
Freeman, Theophilus, 154–55
Freud, Sigmund, 499, 516
Friedan, Betty
Commission on the Status for Women and, 489
on housewives’ dissatisfaction, 489
labor journalism of, 621, 626
LaHaye’s opposition to, 540
National Organization of Women and, 520, 630
on women’s magazines, 384
Fukui, Elliot, 522
fur trade, 25, 90, 337–39
Gaffney, Mary, 159, 276
Gage, Matilda, 434
Galbraith, John Kenneth, 365
Gallyot, Pat, 463
Gangá, Polonia, 164
Garland, Diana, 406
Garland, Jack B., 325
Garland-Thomson, Rosemary, 305
Garrett, Thomas, 433
Garrison, William Lloyd
(p. 649) anticlericalism of, 426
Liberator newspaper and, 420, 429, 446
Non-Resistance Society and, 429
Pennsylvania Hall convention (1837) and, 425
women abolitionists and, 421–23, 427
World Anti-Slavery Convention (1840) and, 428
Garvin, Vicki, 629
Ga women (Gold Coast), 26, 35
Gay and queer men
Cold War and, 622
job discrimination and, 522
Kinsey Report and, 517–18
Mattachine Society and, 516, 519–20, 627–28
print culture in the nineteenth century and, 208–9
publications supporting, 520
sexologists’ invention of sexual categories and, 513–14
urban enclaves and, 224
gay rights. See LGBTQ rights
gender
Civil War and, 12, 576, 579
Cold War and, 609, 618–22, 624, 627, 629, 633
consumerism and, 345, 355–68
gender frontiers in colonial encounters and, 20–27, 33–36
gender nonconformity and, 522–23
intersectionality and, 3-4
Native Americans and, 4, 8, 21, 23, 30, 33–36, 49, 51–52, 114, 244, 314–15, 564
normative concepts regarding, 8, 562–64, 576, 579, 583, 604, 618
social construction of, 4-6, 20
theological conceptions of, 393–97
General Allotment Act of 1887, 584–85
Genner, William, 279
Gerber, Henry, 516
German immigration to the United States, 173, 176
Ghana, 617–18, 625
GI Bill, 621
Goldman, Emma, 209, 515, 602
Goldwater, Barry, 538
Gove Nichols, Mary, 203–7
Grable, Betty, 608
Graham, Michael, 527
Graham, Patricia, 527
Graham, Sylvester, 203–4, 429
Grammer, Mabel, 230
Gray, James/Hannah Snell, 318
Great Britain
abolitionist movement in, 418–19, 446
American Revolution and, 553–56
coverture doctrine and, 339–40
Seven Years’ War and, 553
trade and, 338, 341–44
women’s suffrage and, 456
Great Depression, 178, 250–51, 534. See also New Deal
Great Recession (2008-2010), 185
Great Society programs, 464, 469, 472
Green, Warren, 540
Greenwich Village neighborhood (New York City), 209, 515
Griffing, Josephine, 433
Grimké, Sarah
abolitionist movement and, 423–25, 429
Douglass and, 200–201
women’s rights advocacy by, 201, 393–94, 425, 446–47
Grimké Weld, Angelina
abolitionist movement and, 423–26, 429
women’s rights advocacy by, 393–94, 446–47
Grotius, Hugo, 340
Guale Indians, 137, 144
Gutridge, Molly, 562
Haag, Pamela, 520
Hadassah, 392
Hagerty, Rebecca McIntosh Hawkins, 156
Haiti, 45–46, 96, 558, 560, 563
Hale, Lord Matthew, 268
Hall, Fannie Christina, 602–3
Hall, Radclyffe, 517
Hall, Thomas/Thomasine, 315–16
Hamer, Fannie Lou, 631
Hamilton, Charles, 317
Hansberry, Lorraine, 628
Harding, Peter, 279
Harlem Renaissance, 380–81
(p. 650) Harris, Della, 161
Harris-Perry, Melissa, 392
Hart, Alan, 324
Hart, Joseph Coleman, 348
Hart-Celler Immigration Act (1965), 100–101, 185, 496
Hasinai Indians, 30, 36
Hastings, Selina, 418
Haudenosaunee Indians
American Revolution and, 11, 555, 557
Anishinaabe Indians’ conflicts with, 133, 135–36, 144–46
households among, 138–39
trade and, 337
Haviland, Laura, 419, 433
Hawai‘i, 94, 225, 494
Hay, Harry, 516, 519, 627
Hayek, Friedrich, 534
Hayes, Eliza, 158–59
Healthcare. See also birth control; abortion; sterilization
enslaved women and, 158, 300-01
feminism and, 491
Hormone Replacement Therapy and, 305-06
LGBTQ population and, 522
mental illness and, 301
mobilization for increased access to, 472–74
poverty and lack of access to, 256
welfare programs and, 463
women’s employment in, 172, 181, 184, 186, 621
Hemings, Sally, 160–61
Hempstead, Joshua, 142
Henry, Sarah Shelton, 299
Heyrick, Elizabeth, 419
Hicks, Elias, 419–20
Higginbotham, Evelyn Brooks, 467
hijab (head covering for women in Islam), 407–410
Hill, Anita, 490
Hills, Seth, 269
Hirschfeld, Magnus, 322, 499, 514
HIV/AIDS pandemic, 521, 632–33
Hodes, Martha, 272
Holbrook, Nova Lee McGhee, 599
Holland, William, 277
Holley, Sallie, 431–32
Hollick, Frederick, 204
hooks, bell, 387
Hoover, J. Edgar, 609, 623
hormone replacement therapy (HRT), 305–6
Hotel Employees and Restaurant Employees Union (HERE), 185
Household Technicians of America, 182
House Un-American Activities Committee, 536, 623
Housing and Urban Development (HUD) Department, 469
Houston, Sam, 91
Huerta, Dolores, 626, 630
Hughes, Charles Evans, 457
Hughes, Louis, 571–72, 574, 580
Hughes, Matilda, 571–72, 574, 580, 585
Hull, William, 529–30
Hull House, 453–54
Hunt, Harriot, 204
Huntingdon, Countess of, 418
Huntingdon, Lady, 418
Hurtado de Salas, Juana, 75
Hurwitz, Sara, 403
Hutchinson, Anne, 299
Huyssen, Andres, 375
Hyde Amendment of 1977, 255, 632
I Love Lucy, 384
immigration
anti-Asian legislation (1870s–1920s) and, 57–59, 99, 249, 493
border enforcement policies and, 101, 226, 622
bracero program and, 99–100, 622, 626
Cold War and, 622
English-language acquisition and, 376
eugenics and, 57, 59, 99, 226
Expatriation Act of 1907 and, 226
family reunification provisions and, 101, 185
fertility as topic in debates regarding, 100–101
gender ratios and, 98–100
Great Depression and, 99
Hart-Celler Immigration Act (1965) and, 100–101, 185, 496
(p. 651) Johnson-Reed Act (1924) and, 99, 178, 228, 249
Ku Klux Klan opposition to, 532–33
manhood and, 56–61
marriage and, 57–61, 226
organized opposition to, 98–99, 101–2, 476
Page Act (1875) and, 225
population control policies and, 242
prostitution cited as concern regarding, 58–60, 179, 224–26
settlement house movement and, 99
Trump and, 542
United States as empire and, 88, 97–102
US economy’s dependence on, 101–2
imperialism. See colonialism; US empire
Inca Indians, 24, 113
Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl (Jacobs), 201–2
indentured laborers, 115–17, 127, 265
India, 184
Indian immigrant laborers in North America, 56, 58–59
Indian Removal Act of 1830, 52
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 1975, 304
Industrial Workers of the World, 177
Ingram, Rosa Lee, 629
Inman, Mary, 629
In re Jacobs, 174
International Congress of Women, 487
International Council of Women, 492
International Domestic Worker Federation, 186
International Labor Organization (ILO), 187
International Woman Suffrage Alliance, 492
interracial sex and marriage
Asian populations and, 221–24, 226–27, 229, 231–32, 500
Cold War era and, 231
colonial laws prohibiting, 219–20, 243
eugenics movement and, 249
Fourteenth Amendment and, 223
growing acceptance during twentieth century of, 230–33
legal challenges to laws prohibiting, 232–33, 500
metissage and, 21, 90, 220
mobilization to stop coercive forms of, 518–19
in nineteenth-century cities, 222
nineteenth-century laws prohibiting, 221–24, 229
Obama family history and, 217
presidential election of 1864 and, 217, 222
segregationand, 223
enslaved children offspring and, 220
twentieth-century laws regarding, 226, 228–31
unions between nonwhites and, 227–29
War Brides Act (1945) and, 231
World War I and, 230
World War II and, 230–32
Zoot Suit riots (1943) and, 230
Interstate Highway Act of 1956, 621
Irish immigration to United States, 98, 173, 176
Iroquois League, Haudenosaunee Indians. See Haudenosaunee Indians
Islamic Revolution (Iran, 1979), 404, 407
Islamic Society of North America (ISNA), 409
Jackson, Andrew, 51
Jackson, Esther Cooper, 629
Jacobs, Harriet, 159, 165, 201–2, 276, 434
Jalama, Raymond, 120
Jalisco (Mexico), 82
Jamaica, 54–55, 115, 117, 124
Japanese Americans/Japanese American women
discrimination against, 99, 223
as domestic workers, 176
immigration law and, 58, 99
World War II internment of, 596, 603, 605
Jefferson, Elizabeth, 299
Jefferson, Thomas, 51, 160–61, 271, 299
Jehovah’s Witnesses, 392
Jewett, Helen, 202
Jews
anti-Semitism and, 532–35
denominations among, 402–3
immigration to United States and, 58, 98, 176
kosher goods and, 364–65
labor activism and, 176–77
(p. 652) Johnson, Lyndon B., 469
Johnson, Oliver, 432
Johnson, William, 26, 557
Johnson-Reed Act (1924), 99, 178, 228, 249
Jones, Claudia, 620, 629
Jones, Jacqueline, 171
Jones, Mary, 575
Jones Act (1917), 228
Jorgensen, Christine, 8, 324–25, 487
Josslyn, John, 23
Juana, La Coyota (mestiza in seventeenth-century New Mexico), 6, 75, 77
Juanotilla (mestiza in seventeenth-century New Mexico), 75–77
Judge, Ona, 163, 560
Kahahawai, Joseph, 225
Kardashian sisters, 387
Kearney, Stephen Watts, 80
Keith, B. F., 378
Kelley, Abby
American Society (abolitionist organization) and, 427
Appeal to the Women of the Nominally Free States and, 424
Civil War and, 434–35
Pennsylvania Hall convention (1837) and, 426
Rose and, 433
Truth and, 432
violent opposition to, 431
women’s rights advocacy by, 428–30
Kelley, Florence, 178, 248, 453–54
Kelsey, Frances, 303
Kennedy, Florynce, 385
Kennedy, John F., 489, 630
Kenyon, Dorothy, 623
Keyserling, Mary, 623–24
Khrushchev, Nikita, 359, 618–19
King, Billie Jean, 383
King Jr., Martin Luther, 617, 630
King Philip’s War, 144
King v. Smith, 470
Kinsey, Alfred, 517–18, 627
“Kitchen Debate” (Nixon and Khrushchev, 1959), 359, 618–19, 625
Klouda, Sheri, 406
Knight, Anne, 419, 428, 447
Knight, Sarah Kemble, 142
Knights of Labor, 175
Konwatsi'tsiaienni (Molly Brant), 11, 557
Korean War, 49, 618
Krafft-Ebing, Richard Freiherr von, 499, 514
Ku Klux Klan, 55, 532–33, 584
labor unions
African Americans excluded from, 177–78
consumer politics and, 365–66
declining power and influence of, 180, 184, 188, 258, 632
men’s domination of, 7, 175
New Deal and, 178–79
public sector unions and, 187–88
radicals excluded from, 178
service sector and, 183–86, 188
strikes and, 177–78, 183, 186
Taft-Hartley Act (1947) and, 626
wage negotiations and, 7, 172, 188
women’s involvement in, 171–72, 175–79, 183, 451
women’s leadership positions in, 179
Lacy, Mary/William Chandler, 318
Ladao, Apolonia Salvador, 95
The Ladder (publication for lesbian community), 520, 627–28
Ladies Home Journal protest (1970), 385
Ladies New-York City Anti-Slavery Society, 422
LaFeber, Walter, 87–88
LaHaye, Beverly, 404, 539–41, 543
LaHaye, Tim, 404
La Malinche (Malintzin), 24, 111, 114
Lange, Dorothea, 12
Laredo (Texas), 81–82
Latinas. See also specific groups
beauty pageants and, 379
domestic work and, 184
interracial marriage and, 500
prejudices against, 494
the welfare state and, 467, 471, 474–76
World War II and, 596, 599, 607–8
(p. 653) Lawrence, Clarissa, 427
League of Women Shoppers, 365
Leaphart, Paulette, 298
Lee, Hannah Farnham Sawyer, 347–48
Lee, Jane Kwong, 251
Lee, Jarena, 422, 433
Le Jau, Francis, 143–44
Le Jeune, Paul, 23, 33, 135
leisure
advertising and marketing’s role in, 375, 380
barriers to women’s participation in nineteenth century and, 378
bicycling and, 381
blues music and, 381
heteronormativity and, 382
motion pictures and, 379–80
popular music and, 385–86
race and, 379–80
social media and, 387
sports and, 375, 381–84
television situation comedies and, 384–86
Title IX and, 383–84
vaudeville and, 378–79
women’s magazines and, 384–85
Lend Lease Act of 1941, 535
Leonard, Karen, 227
Leo XIII (pope), 396–97
Lerner, Gerda, 1, 3
lesbians. See also LGBTQ rights
civil rights framework and, 512
Cold War and, 12, 622, 627
conservative religious opposition to, 520
Daughters of Bilitis and, 511–12, 519, 627
feminism and, 10, 490, 518–20
fictional depictions of, 517–18
Harlem Renaissance and, 380–81
international rights and, 501
job discrimination and, 522
Kinsey Report and, 517–18
motherhood and, 257
publications supporting, 520, 627–28
recreational sports leagues and, 382–83
right to privacy and, 515
same-sex marriage and, 8, 233, 521–22, 542
sexologists’ invention of sexual categories and, 513–14
“sexual revolution” of 1960s and, 515, 520
social media and, 387
Stonewall Riots and, 367
Universal Declaration of Human Rights and, 521
urban enclaves and, 224, 515–16
the welfare state and, 468
Women’s Army Corps and, 605, 608–9, 627
Letters from an American Farmer (Crevecoeur), 348
Letters on the Equality of the Sexes (Sarah Grimké), 201, 393, 425
Lewis, Deborah, 316–17
Lewis, Karen, 186
Lewis, Oscar, 100
Lewis, Susan, 159–60
LGBTQ rights. See also gay men; lesbians; transgender population
academic scholarship and, 312–13
Cold War and, 628, 632
conservative women’s opposition to, 539–40, 542–43
family recognition agenda and, 522
Stonewall Riots and, 325
the welfare state and, 479
Líderes Campesinas, 185
Ligon, Richard, 19–20, 22, 25–27, 33
Lili‘uokalani (queen of Hawai‘i), 94, 494
Lincoln, Abraham, 175
Lippmann, Walter, 618
Lish, Ira, 319
Lobdell, Joseph, 311–12, 326
Long, Huey, 534
Lott, Rosa, 160
Louisiana, 347, 564
Loving v. Virginia, 233, 500
Lowell (Massachusetts), 98, 173
Lowell Female Labor Reform Association, 173, 188
Lozen (“Apache Joan of Arc”), 78–79
Lucumí, Fermina and Carlota, 164
Luna, Mary, 599
Lundeen Bill (social welfare proposal in New Deal era), 466, 481n9
Lundy, Benjamin, 419
Luter, Fred, 406
(p. 654) lynching, 55, 450, 490
Lyon, Phyllis, 511, 517, 519–20, 627
Lyons, Florence Fowler, 537
Madison, Dolly, 561
Magill, Pamela, 383
Mahican Indians, 29
Mainardi, Pat, 498
Major Crimes Act of 1885, 275
Malintzin (La Malinche), 24, 111, 114
The Manchurian Candidate (film), 624
manhood
autonomy and, 44
Carlyle on, 55
citizenship and, 44
free blacks and, 46, 52, 54–56, 61
free labor ideology and, 52–53, 61
immigrants and, 56–61
“imperial grammar” of, 48–49, 54–55, 57–58, 60–61
marriage and household order as aspect of, 44–45, 53, 57, 60
military service and, 45–50, 61
Native Americans and, 49, 51–52
race and, 44, 51, 54–60
“republican grammar” of, 43–44, 46–49, 60
United States empire and, 48–49, 52, 91–92, 95
yeoman ideal and, 43, 50–52, 54, 61
Manifest Destiny ideology, 4, 45, 72, 91, 174
Mankiller, Wilma, 487
Mann Act of 1910, 60, 500
Manning James, Jane Elizabeth, 79–80
Mansfield, Lord, 418
Mao Zedong, 630
Ma Rainey, 381
marriage
arranged marriages and, 58
Christianity and, 143–44
companionate marriage and, 563
consumer societies and, 367
Defense of Marriage Act (1996) and, 233, 404
divorce and, 143, 206
free blacks and, 46
interracial marriage and, 59–60, 73, 218, 521
laws against interracial forms of, 59
mestizas and, 76
between Native Americans and Europeans, 30, 36, 219–20, 338, 348
polygamy and, 58, 139, 141, 143–44
premarital sex and, 197–99
Reconstruction Era and, 582–83
same-sex marriage and, 8, 233, 521–22, 542
sex and, 204–7, 269
slavery and, 46, 119, 146–47, 161
transgender population and, 8, 317–20
United States empire and, 73, 80–81, 92
Marriage (Nichols and Gove Nichols), 205–6
Marston, William Moulton, 608
Martin, Del, 511, 517, 519–20, 627
Martin v. Massachusetts, 347, 563–64
Martyr, Peter, 22–23
Mary Tyler Moore Show, 385
Massie, Thalia, 225
masturbation, 203–4, 208
maternalism
conservative women and, 530–34, 539, 543
“cult of true womanhood” and, 530
Evangelical Christians and, 540–41
isolationism and, 535–37
mothers’ movement, 534–37
race and, 530
republican motherhood ideal and, 445, 529–30, 539, 562
Roosevelt (Theodore) on, 602
maternity. See also motherhood
birth control and women’s decisions regarding, 242, 246–47, 251
healthcare and, 250, 453, 530–31
workplace leaves and, 182–83, 187, 495–96
Mattachine Society, 516, 519–20, 627–28
Mattson, Ingrid, 409
Maude (television program), 385–86
May, Elaine Tyler, 536, 619
Maya Indians, 113
McCarran-Walter Act (1952), 629
McCarter, Catherine, 265
McCarthy, Joseph, 536, 609, 623
McCrea, Jane, 553
McDonagh, Eileen, 383
McDonald’s, 184–85
McElroy, Julia and Eunice, 248
McKinley, William, 93
(p. 655) McKinney, Jesse, 159
McManus, Jane, 91
Medicaid, 255, 469
Medicare, 469
Megapolensis, Johannes, 23
Mendoza, Hope, 626
Mennonites, 392
menopause, 305–6
menstruation, 596, 605
mestizas, 71, 74–77, 174
Methodist Church
abolitionism and, 418, 420, 430
African Methodist Church and, 422
ordination of women and, 403–4
women’s activism within, 399–400
worship styles in, 408
metissage, 21, 90, 220
MeToo movement, 281, 283
Mexican American War (1846-48)
citizenship laws following, 92, 221, 227, 493
territory conquered in, 73, 89, 91–92
volunteer regiments and, 47, 49
Mexican American women
agricultural work and, 176, 185
beauty culture and, 292, 294–95, 379
cross-border and transnational identities among, 81–83
domestic work and, 176
immigration law and, 178, 226, 250, 493–94, 622
labor activism and, 178, 626–27, 629–30
marriage to nonwhites and, 228
marriage to whites in American West and, 81, 90, 224, 227
pachuca subculture and, 295, 607
prejudices against, 476
as producers and entrepreneurs, 362
sexual coercion of, 278
sterilization of, 101
the welfare state and, 253, 468, 471, 476
United States empire and, 71–72, 75, 80–81
World War II and, 599, 607
Mexico
bracero program and, 99–100, 622, 626
Hart-Cellar Immigration Act of 1965 and, 101
immigration to United States from, 73, 82–83, 99–101
Lewis’s scholarship on, 100
maquiladoras in, 497
Mexican Revolution (1910-17) and, 99
Meyerowitz, Joanne, 384
Miami Indians, 140
Mica, John, 474
Michel, Sonia, 531
military service
all-volunteer army since 1970s and, 102, 468
citizen-soldier ideal and, 45–46, 61
disabilities among veterans and, 299–302, 304
enlisted soldiers and, 47–50
family benefits and, 468, 476–77
free blacks and, 48
immigrants and, 48
male breadwinner model and, 468
manhood and, 45–50, 61
marriage for emancipated blacks and, 45–46
nursing corps and, 604
office corps and, 47–48
rape of female service members and, 280
soldiers’ pensions and, 301–2
transgender population and, 318–19, 554, 579
volunteer militias and, 47–49
women’s opportunities in, 9, 102–3
women’s service in World War I and, 603–5, 610
women’s service in World War II and, 604–5, 608–10
Mill, John Stuart, 55
Millard, Betty, 629
Mink, Patsy Takemoto, 10, 494
Minute Women of the U.S.A., 537
Miriam Coffin: Or the Whale-Fisherman (Hart), 348
miscegenation. See interracial sex and marriage
Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party, 631
Missouri Compromise (1820), 79
Mohawk Indians, 23, 140, 146, 557
Mohler, Al, 406
Montagnai Indians, 140
Montgomery, Helen Barrett, 396
Montgomery Bus Boycott (1954), 627, 630–31
Montour, Andrew, 348
Moore, Fanny, 155
More, Hannah, 419
Moreno, Luisa, 487
Mormons
African Americans and, 80
origins of, 422
polygamy and, 58, 206
prejudice against, 408, 532
Religious Right and, 540
theological conceptions of gender and, 395
women’s subordination to men emphasized by, 405
motherhood. See also maternalism; maternity
adoption and, 253, 501
class-oriented framings of, 248, 258
mothers’ pension programs and, 248
Native Americans and, 135, 140, 248
race and, 244–45, 255
scientific research regarding, 620
slavery and, 33
surrogate motherhood and, 257
World War I images of, 596, 602
mothers’ movement, 534–37
motion picture industry, 379–80, 624
Mott, Lucretia Coffin
abolitionist advocacy by, 419–20
Seneca Falls Convention (1848) and, 447
Tubman and, 433
women’s rights advocacy of, 424–27, 431–32, 489
World Anti-Slavery Society Convention (1840) and, 427–28, 489
Moynihan, Daniel Patrick, 474, 621
M.T. v. J.T., 323
Muller v. Oregon, 172, 248
Murray, Judith Sargent, 445, 529, 559
Murray, Pauli, 520, 603, 623, 630
Muslims in the United States, 10, 407–10
Myrdal, Gunnar, 231–32
Nash, Diane, 631
National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA), 456, 532, 601
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), 459, 494, 623–24, 627, 631
National Association of Colored Women, 450
National Association Opposed to Woman Suffrage (NAOWS), 532
National Baptist Convention, 401
National Consumers League (NCL), 176–77, 364
National Council of Negro Women, 458
National Domestic Workers Alliance (NDWA), 186
National Legion of Mothers of America (NLMA), 535
National Nurses United, 186
National Organization for Women (NOW)
Equal Rights Amendment and, 630
establishment of, 489
Federal Communications Commission Fairness Doctrine and, 386
lawsuits supported by, 188
sexual violence confronted by, 267
Statement of Purpose of, 520
women’s sports and, 383
workplace discrimination targeted by, 183
National Welfare Rights Organization, 253, 470, 631
National Woman’s Party, 456–57, 532, 601, 625
National Woman’s Rights Convention (1850), 431–32
National Woman’s Rights Convention (1851), 432–33
National Woman’s Rights Convention (1858), 207
National Woman Suffrage Association, 449, 455
Native Americans. See also specific groups
agricultural production and, 32
American Revolution and, 551, 553, 555–58, 562–63, 565
assimilation policies and, 50–51, 88–89, 92, 564, 585
as captives, 6, 75, 140, 552–53
captives taken by, 6, 140, 143, 145–46, 292–93, 336, 553
children removed from, 247–48, 275
Christianity and, 24, 564
clothing and, 28–29, 314
colonial religious missions and, 29–30
consensual sexual relationships with European colonists and, 2, 25, 30, 114
(p. 657) as cultural intermediaries, 24–25, 75–77
domestic labor and, 139–40
epidemic diseases among, 24, 91, 114, 145, 244
family life among, 135, 137, 139–40, 144–46, 219
feminism and, 494–95
fur trade and, 25, 90, 337–39
gendered organization of labor among, 139, 145
gender identity and, 4, 8, 21, 23, 30, 33–36, 49, 51–52, 114, 244, 314–15, 564
marriages among, 139–40, 143–44, 146
marriages to nonwhites and, 227–28
marriages with colonial settlers and, 30, 36, 219–20, 338, 348
medicine and, 292
motherhood and, 248
rape and sexual coercion of, 113–14, 244, 274–76, 278, 494
religious practices among, 30
Seven Years’ War (1756–63) and, 144
slaves owned by, 153, 156–60, 164, 585
textile trade and, 51–52
US colonization of lands of, 11, 48–52, 78–79, 88–90, 144, 187, 219, 242, 244, 494, 584
US Constitution and, 561
violence involving European settlers and, 28–29, 90–91, 93, 114, 126, 143
violent conflict between groups of, 133, 140, 144–46
voting rights and, 459
welfare state and, 253, 466, 470, 479
white sexualization of, 20, 22–23, 25–26, 111
Navajo Indians, 6, 74–75, 77
Nell, William, 423
Neolin (Delaware Indian leader), 556
The Netherlands
Atlantic World trade and, 336–38, 341
Caribbean colonies of, 125
married women’s property and, 339–40
Network of Patriotic Letter-Writers, 537
Nevil, Dinah, 560
New Deal
conservative opposition to, 534, 538
employment sectors excluded from, 472
labor unions and, 178–79
male breadwinner model and, 179, 465–66, 480n8
means testing and, 464
Popular Front coalition and, 620
public housing and, 468
range of programs initiated under, 465–66
segregation and, 468
New England Society (abolitionist organizations), 421, 426
Newman, Pauline, 177
New Netherlands colonies, 125, 336, 338
New York City draft riots (1863), 222
Nicholas, Thomas L., 205
Nieves de Chávez, Maria, 78
Nineteenth Amendment, 376, 453, 458, 489, 532
Nixon, Richard M., 182, 359, 361, 617–19
Noel, Ursula, 265
Non-Resistance Society, 429
Noonan, John, 320
Normani, Asra, 409
North Carolina, 116, 123–24
Nyasha, Kiilu, 463–64, 469, 478
Obama, Barack, 217, 541
Obergefell v. Hodges, 233, 522
Office of Vocational Rehabilitation (OVR), 302
Office of War Information, 12, 599–600
O’Hare, Kate Richards, 601
Olmstead, Mildred Scott, 628
Olney, Selinda, 321
On Christian Marriage (Leo XIII), 396–97
ONE, Inc., 519–20
One Day at a Time (television show), 385
Oneida Associationists, 206
“On the Equality of the Sexes” (Murray), 559
Operation Bootstrap (Puerto Rico), 1, 97
Operation Wetback, 622
Order of the Kamelia (Ku Klux Klan women’s auxiliary organization), 532–33
Orwell, George, 618
Osborn, Timothy, 79
Osborne, Eliza, 434
O’Sullivan, John L., 91
Our Bodies, Ourselves, 5, 502
Owens, Shirley, 9, 385
(p. 658) Pacific Islander women. See Hawai‘i
Padelford, Louise Hawkes, 537
Page Act of 1875, 58–59, 225, 500
Palin, Sarah, 541–43
Palmer, Alice, 156
Palmer, Alison, 87–88, 102
Pankhurst family, 456
Pappano, Laura, 383
Parker, Mary, 421, 424, 427
Parks, Rosa, 494, 627, 630–31
Parsons, Louella, 379
partus sequitur ventrum doctrine, 112–13, 117–18, 122, 158
Pascoe, Peggy, 218
patriarchy
US involvement in Afghanistan and, 102
American Revolution’s confirmation of, 565
antebellum South and, 575–76
Biblical justifications for, 393–96
Butler on, 265–66
Civil War and, 577
coverture doctrine and, 552
feminism’s critiques of, 490, 494, 499
Spanish colonialism and, 113
transgender population and, 318–19
women’s sexual autonomy as challenge to, 195
Paul, Alice, 456–59, 532, 601, 625
Paul, Susan, 421
Pears, Elizabeth, 269
Pearsy, Unice, 321
Pentecostalism, 403–4
People’s Party (Populist Party), 452–53
Pequot War (1636-38), 114
Perez, Andrea, 232
Pérez, Emma, 71–72
Perez v. Sharp, 232
Perkins, Frances, 179
Perry, Lila, 162
Perry, Mary Louise, 311
Perry v. Hollingsworth, 522
Peterson, Esther, 365
Phelps, Amos, 425–27
Phelps, Charlotte, 421
The Philippines
anticolonial insurrection (early 1900s) in, 96
education system in, 95
immigration to United States from, 99, 101–2, 185, 228–29
“imperial grammar of manhood” and, 49
missionaries in, 88, 93
Spanish-American War and, 95
territorial status of, 228
voting rights in, 459
women’s sexuality in, 96
Phillips, Wendell, 428
Pickford, Mary, 379
Pillsbury, Parker, 432
Pipher, Mary, 386
Pizarro, Francisco, 24
Planned Parenthood, 542
Pocahontas, 24, 137, 228
Pontiac’s rebellion (1763), 35, 557
Popular Front coalition, 620
The Population Bomb (Ehrlich and Ehrlich), 254
Populist Party, 452–53
Portugal, 29
Post, Amy and Isaac, 430, 434
The Power of Sympathy (novel, 1787), 198
Powhatan, 24
pregnancy. See also reproduction
court-mandated child support for single women and, 197–99
disability and, 291
indentured laborers and, 115–17
Native Americans and, 244
postpartum period and, 256
premarital sex and, 142, 195, 197, 199
rape and, 265
rubella and, 303
slavery and, 158–59, 162
thalidomide crisis and, 303–4
transgender population and, 318
women’s autonomy regarding, 243, 246, 251–53, 255–58
workplace discrimination and, 180, 183, 248
premarital sex
marriage following, 197
pregnancy and, 142, 195, 197, 199
print culture of the nineteenth century and, 196, 198–99
punishments for, 197
reputational concerns and, 198–99
(p. 659) Presbyterian Church, 401–2, 404, 421–22
Price, Mary, 317
Priesand, Sally, 403
Prince, Nancy, 433
Prince, Virginia, 313–14, 324–25
print culture
advertisements in, 357–58
free love movement and, 196, 204–10
homosexuality in, 208–9
masturbation as a topic in, 203–4, 208
moral reform publications and, 200–201
“penny press” and, 199
premarital sex as topic in, 196, 199
prostitution as topic in, 199–200, 208, 210
seduction as topic in, 196, 199–200
traditional authorities’ power challenged through, 196
women’s magazines, 380, 385
Prison Rape Elimination Act of 2003, 281
Progressive movement, 453–55, 528, 530
Progressive Party, 454
Progressive Union, 205
Promise Keepers, 405
Prostitution and sex work
immigration debates and, 58–60
indentured labor as punishment for, 115
Page Act (1875) and, 225
print culture of nineteenth century and, 199–200, 208, 210
Singer’s report on, 203
World War I and, 605–6
World War II and, 607
Protestantism. See also Evangelical Christians
Catholic Church’s rivalry with, 49, 398–99, 408, 533
fundamentalism/modernism divide in, 396, 401–2
hegemonic presence in American culture of, 393, 408
missions and, 29–30
Second Great Awakening and, 394
sola scriptura principle and, 393
women’s activism within, 399–400
women’s missionary associations and, 399–401
Pueblo Indians, 6, 74, 82
Puerto Rico and Puerto Rican women
birth control trials (1950s) in, 96–97, 500–501
Jones Act (1917) granting US citizenship in, 96, 228
migration to mainland United States and, 12–13, 100, 228–29, 471
missionaries and, 88, 93
Operation Bootstrap industrialization policy in, 1, 97
prostitution and, 96
racial hierarchies in, 12–13
sterilization policies in, 96–97, 101
territorial status of, 228
voting rights in, 459
women’s sexuality and, 96–97, 100
women workers in, 1, 12, 97
Putnam, Elizabeth, 533
Quakers, 417–19, 423, 430–31
Queens of the Golden Mask (QGM), 533
queer theory, 312–13
race. See also interracial sex and marriage
citizenship and, 250, 435, 448-49, 493-94, 602-603
colonialism and, 21, 25, 34–36
consumption’s reinforcement of, 356-57
intersectionality and, 182, 490-91
manhood and, 44, 51, 54–60
marriage law and the definition of, 218–224, 226, 228–31
as model for study of women in religion, 392, 406-8
plantation societies and, 26
politics of respectability and, 200–01
role in sexual vulnerability, 274–78
slavery’s role in definition of, 35, 112–17, 147
twentieth-century challenges to notion of biological basis for, 232
United States empire and, 44, 48–49, 72–73, 75–76, 80–83, 493
whiteness and, 35, 155, 222-23, 227-28, 245, 249, 293, 360, 528-29, 552, 620
Rambo films, 624
Randall, Nancy, 156
Randolph, A. Philip, 623
(p. 660) Rankin, Jeanette, 458
rape and sexual violence
American Revolution and, 555
of children, 265–66, 270, 279
Civil War and, 574, 576
criminal statutes regarding, 266–68, 273, 275–76
date rape and, 270
death penalty as punishment for, 273–74
Hale’s legal theories and, 268
indentured laborers and, 117
marital rape and, 204–5, 267
medical misinformation regarding, 270
racial myths and, 55, 272–74, 605
rape shield laws and, 270
underreporting of, 8–9, 266–67, 280
US armed forces and, 280
victims blamed for, 266, 268–71, 278–82
World War I and, 605–6
World War II and, 608
Rape Crisis Centers, 267, 281–82
Reagan, Ronald, 404, 471, 473–74, 528, 632
Reagon, Bernice Johnson, 631
Reconstruction
African American political rights expanded in, 573, 580
African American women’s experiences during, 175, 571–72, 580–85
agricultural labor systems in, 580–82
campaigns against Native Americans during, 584–85
gender norms and, 572, 583
marriage and, 582–83
northern migration during, 580
poor white women’s experiences in, 582–83
violence against African Americans during, 584
voting rights and, 450, 583
white backlash against blacks’ rights and, 55, 449–50
Reed, Carolyn, 182
Reeves, Martha, 385
Rehabilitation Act of 1973, 304
religious communities
abolitionism and, 391, 417–35, 446
Bible translations and, 395–96
Biblical notions of patriarchy and, 393–96
ordination of women and, 403–4
prejudices against, 406–8
temperance movement and, 391
theological notions of gender and, 393–97
women’s activism within, 397–406
women’s leadership roles in, 9, 392, 397
Religious Right, 404–5, 528, 540
Remond, Charles, 428
Remond, Sarah, 433
reproductive rights and justice. See abortion; birth control; fertility; reproduction.
reproduction
Catholic Church and, 241, 251, 255, 385–86
eugenics movement and, 249
Native American practices and, 244
population control policies and, 242–43, 246, 249, 254–56, 500–501
pronatalist policies and, 242–43, 245, 252, 601–2
race and, 241–42, 245, 249, 252
slavery perpetuated through, 112–13, 117–19, 122–23, 126, 146, 154–55, 158–60, 174, 220, 243–44, 300, 446, 561, 563
women’s autonomy and, 241–43, 245–46
Republican Party
African American voters and, 457, 538
interracial sex issue during presidential election of 1864 and, 217, 222
presidential election of 1964 and, 538
Progressive Party and, 454
Reconstruction and, 583
“security state” and, 478
Tea Party and, 541–42
women’s role in, 528, 539
Resor, Helen Landsdowne, 358
Richards, Renée, 323
Richardson, Beulah, 629
Riddle, Debbie, 102
Ridge, Susannah, 160
Riggs, Bobby, 383
Riot Grrrl bands, 387
Rising Daughters of Abyssinia, 424
Roberts, William, 163
Robeson, Paul, 229, 617, 629
(p. 661) Robinson, Jackie, 538
Rockwell, Norman, 598–99
Rodriguez, Celia, 629
Roe v. Wade, 255–57
Rogers, Dale Evans, 302–3
Roldan v. Los Angeles County, 229
Rolfe, John, 24, 228
Romanus Pontifex papal bull (1454), 113
Roosevelt, Eleanor, 251, 623
Roosevelt, Franklin D., 179, 465, 534–35, 596–97
Roosevelt, Theodore, 49, 54, 96, 249, 454, 602
Roper, Lizzie, 581
Rose, Ernestine Potowski, 433, 447–48
Rosen, Robyn, 531
Rosenberg, Julius and Ethel, 620
“Rosie the Riveter,” 179, 496, 596, 598–99, 608
Rosskam, Louise, 12
Roth, Benita, 397
Rough Riders cavalry, 49, 54
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques, 529, 559
Rowlandson, Mary, 28
Rowson, Susannah, 198, 529
Royal Proclamation Line, 556
Ruble, Dick, 322
Rush, Benjamin, 529
Ruuttila, Julia, 251
Salem Female Antislavery Society, 420
Sampson, Deborah/Robert Shirtliff, 318, 554
Sandberg, Sheryl, 185
Sanders, Beulah, 470
Sanger, Margaret, 249, 251, 499, 515–16
Sanger, William W., 203
Santa Fe (New Mexico), 82
Santelli, Rick, 541
Save Our Children (SOC) campaign, 540
Sayonara (1957 film), 232
Schlafly, Phyllis, 538–39
Schneiderman, Rose, 177
Scott, Anne Firor, 4
Scott, Joan, 33
Scottsboro Boys case (1931), 225, 271
Secotan Indians, 24
segregation
Cold War politics and, 625–26, 630–31
eugenics movement and, 249–50
federal mortgage programs and, 477
healthcare sector and, 181
interracial sex as a basis for, 55, 223
legal challenges to laws enforcing, 232
lynching as means of enforcing, 55, 450
maternalism and, 530
in northern cities, 174
public housing and, 467–68
resistance to, 10
suburbanization and, 469
women’s suffrage and, 532
Seise, Marie, 79
Seminole Indians, 89, 347
Seneca Falls Convention (1848), 403, 431, 447, 459, 489
Senegambia, 119–20, 140–41
Sentinels of the Republic, 531
Service Employees International Union (SEIU), 183–86
Seventeenth Amendment, 455
Seventh-day Adventism, 395
Seven Years’ War (1756–1763), 144, 551, 553, 556–57
Sewall, Samuel, 418
Seward, William and Frances, 434
sex
consent and, 269–71
marriage and, 204–7, 269
novels’ treatment of, 198
print culture of the nineteenth century and, 195–210
“sexual revolution” of 1960s and, 255,