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date: 18 August 2019

(p. 597) Index

(p. 597) Index

Abbott, Lyman, 493
Abdul-Jabbar, Kareem, 311
Abdullah, Hussain, 304
Abel, Elijah, 165
Abenaki, 330
Abercrombie and Fitch, 589
Abington School District v. Schempp, 31–32
abolitionists, 67–69, 99–101, 392
abolition movement, 100, 173, 275, 392, 408
abortion, 105
“Abraham: Father of Three Faiths,” 585
Acosta, José de, 326
Adams, Ansel, 280–284
Adams, Hannah, 127–128
Adams, John, 126, 128
adhan, 267
Advaita Vedanta, 458
affirmative action, 157
African American churches, 89–91, 350–355, 405–418, 510
African American ministers, 86, 90–91
African American Muslims, 214, 218, 410, 417
African American Policy Forum, 524–525
African American religion, 242–244, 349–355, 404–418, 474–489, 510–525
black Christianity and slavery, 404–408, 413, 519–521
black women’s organizations, 103, 415
and Buddhism, 223, 229–237
and education, 413–415
and entrepreneurship, 476, 483–489
and lay slave preachers, 406–407, 412
and popular culture, 475, 485–487
and rebellion, 412
religious leadership roles and gender, 405–406
religious self-determination, 404–406, 414–418, 476
African diaspora, 311, 343
African Episcopal Church of St. Thomas, 405
African Methodist Episcopal Church (AME), 276, 351, 405, 414
African Methodist Episcopal Ministers’ Alliance, 477
African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church, (AMEZ), 405, 415
African Muslims, 211, 214, 343–346, 366
African Orthodox Church, 515
African religions 340–355, 518–519
and Christianity, 343, 357, 411
and Islam, 343, 366
and rebellion, 353–354, 366
and ritual observance, 342, 411
and social resurrection, 342–343
and the transatlantic slave trade, 341–343
African slave trade, 67, 209, 340
Afrocentricity, 518–519
Agassiz, Louis, 273
Agent Orange, 74
Aggie, Mary, 365
aggiornamento, 182
agnostic, 241
Agyeman, Jaramogi Abebe. See Cleage, Albert
Ahmadiyya tradition, 214, 266
AIDS. See HIV/AIDS
Al-Bakri, 343
Alcatraz Island, 537
Alexander, Michelle, 524
Ali, Muhammad, 307, 310–316
Ali, Noble Drew, 214–215, 417, 479, 484
Ali Summit, 310–311
Alicindor, Lew, 311
Alien Land Laws, 458–459
All Nations Pentecostal Church, 91, 486
All Quiet on the Western Front (film), 288
Allah, 312, 417
Allen, Richard, 350–351, 405
Allende, Salvador, 74
Aluminum Company of America (ALCOA), 70
Álvares, Domingos, 367
Amah Mutsun Tribal Band, 100
Amana, 281
“Amazing Grace,” 256–257
AME Church Review, 414
AME Zion Quarterly Review, 415
American Baptist Home, 150
American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions (ABCFM), 64, 145, 420–422, 431–433
American Catholic Tribune, 416
American Civil War. See the Civil War
American Colonization Society, 68, 210, 392
the American dilemma, 579
American empire, 61–76
American Hindus, 587–588
the American Humanist Association (AHA), 253
American Indian College of the Assemblies of God, 535
American Indian Movement (AIM), 529, 536–537
American Indian Religious Freedom Act (AIRFA), 541
American Indians. See Native Americans
American Jews, 191
American Missionary Association, 413
American missionary movement, 142
American Museum of Natural History, 289, 298, 301
American Muslims, 562, 578
The American Negro exhibit, 275–277, 279
American Oriental Society (AOS), 124, 128
American Orientalism, 125–129
American Party, 2, 180
American Revolution, 330, 335, 350, 371
American Schools of Oriental Research, 124
American Southwest, 84
Americanization, 173, 229, 548–555
Amerindians. See Native Americans
Ames, Jessie Daniel, 90
Amida Buddha, 444
Amin, Idi, 460
anātman (non-self), 234
Anderson, Rufus, 420
Anderson, Tanisha, 524
Andrews, William, 86
Anglican Society for the Propagation of the Gospel (SPG), 49, 143, 348, 363–365
Anglicans, 362–364
Animal Crackers (film), 288
animists, 578, 583–584
anti-Semitism. See Judaism
antislavery movement, 393–394
Aponte, Jose Antonio, 365
Appeal to the Coloured Citizens of the World (Walker), 411–412
Arabic, 128, 217, 345
Arapaho Indians, 391
Arias, Francisco, 387
Arlen, Harold, 261
Arnett, Benjamin William, 231
Arnold, Sir Edwin, 131
Aryan identity, 135, 196, 207, 225–226, 461
Asad, Talal, 205
Ashkenazi (Eastern European) Jews, 191, 194–199
Asian American Buddhists, 227–229, 444–446, 584 (p. 599)
Asian immigrants, 440–454, 583–584
and conversion to Christianity, 445–447, 583
and discrimination, 448–449
and fraternal organizations, 447
and nationalism, 447–448
and non-Asian adoption of religion, 453
and religious ritual challenges, 442
Asiatic Society of Bengal, 126–127
Asiatick Researches, 127
Askew, Thomas, 275
Assemblies of God, 148, 534–535
assimilation, 65, 83, 149, 175, 181, 208, 212–213, 261–268, 440, 452, 529–531, 546–556, 584
and American Christian associations, 445–446
and whiteness, 449, 573–574
Association of Southern Women for the Prevention of Lynching, 90, 494
atheism, 241
Atlantic slave trade, 28
Augusta National golf club, 314
Auschwitz, 193
Axis powers, 579
Aztecs, 61–62, 85
Azurara, Gomes De, 348
Azusa Street Revival, 478, 482
Baker, Ella, 91
Baker, George. See Divine, Father
Baker-Fletcher, Karen, 523
Baldwin, James, 246
Ban, Takeshi, 444–445
Banks, Dennis, 537–538
Bannon, Stephen, 2
baptism, 9, 175–176, 329–330, 347–348, 357–365, 391, 416, 430, 478–481, 518, 554
and Mormons, 157
and slavery, 404
Baptism in the Holy Spirit, 416–417
Baptists, 142, 481, 493–498, 502, 506
black Baptist churches, 415
black women’s auxiliaries, 103
and conversion of slaves, 404–408
and emancipation laws, 350
and popular culture, 114
Barbot, John, 347
Barred Zone Act, 459
Barrows, John Henry, 133
Bay of Pigs, 554
Beastie Boys, 266
Beat Buddhism, 228–229, 232, 265, 454
Beats. See Beat Buddhism
beauty, 99, 160–161
Beecher, Catherine, 394
Bektashi Sufis, 214–215
Bel Canto Foundation, 88
Bellecourt, Clyde, 538
Benedict XVI, 586
Bengal Orientalists, 128
Benson, Ezra Taft, 157
Bentley, William, 123
Berlin, Ira, 261
Berlin Wall, 75
Bernstein, Leonard, 261
Bethel African Church, 405
Bethune, Mary McLeod, 92
Bhagavad Gita, 127, 130–131, 458
Bibb, Henry, 411
Bible, 68, 246
Adam and Eve, 325
Book of Proverbs, 172
and the curse of Ham, 7, 48, 174–175, 178, 389
Ephesians 6:5–8, 348, 381
Exodus story, 11, 68, 397, 407, 521
Genesis creation story, 325
identities based on the, 103
and the mark of Cain, 7, 48, 161
Noah and enslavement story, 68, 175, 398
Obadiah 20–21 (1:42–43), 325
Psalm 68:31, 415
Ten Commandments, 396
Bible Training School, 417
Big City (film), 585
Big Foot of the Sioux, 538–539
Bingham, Hiram, 423
Birmingham Sunday School bombing, 257
birth control movement, 105
Birth of a Nation (film), 79, 292
Black Arts Movement, 119, 273
black bodies, 151, 243, 273, 394 (p. 600)
Black Boy (Wright), 247
Black Catholic Congress, 179
Black Christ of the Andes (song), 88
black Christian nationalism, 182, 515–516
Black Church movement, 510
black Dharma, 231
Black Elk, Wallace, 538
blackface, 193, 196
Black Free Masons, 211
Black Humanism, 249, 515, 522–523
Black Israelites, 481–482
Black Legend, 42–44, 183
Black Lives Matter (BLM), 2, 18, 25, 90, 201, 207, 220, 316, 524
Black Manifesto, 248–249
black Modernism, 245
black Pacific narrative, 236–237
Black Panther Party, 248
Black Power, 216, 219, 249–250, 511–514
Black Sanctified singers, 115
Blackshear, William, 494
Black Studies, 26, 30–37, 53–57, 518–519
Black Theology, 250–251, 481, 510–525
and black feminist frameworks, 519–521
and black liberation, 516, 519–521
and contemporary black freedom struggles, 524–525
and doctrine of the white church, 513
and a Marxist framework, 519
and neoliberal globalization, 523–524
and pan-African dialogues, 517–518
and structures of black experience, 517
Black Theology and Black Power (Cone), 513
“Black Theology and the Black Woman” (Grant), 519
Black Theology Today (Roberts), 518
Blake, Eugene Carson, 504
Blakey, Art, 262, 266
Blanc, Antoine, 178
Blavatsky, Helena, 132
Blessed Sacrament for Indians and Colored People, 181
Bliss, Phillip, 263
Block, Clara, 192
Bloody Kansas, 393
Blue Lake, 540
the blues (music), 242–244, 258, 262
boarding school movement, 83
Bob Jones University, 503
bodily transformation, 113
Bon Odori, 451
Bonney, Charles Carroll, 133
Book of Mormon, 156–158, 159–169
Bopp, Franz, 128
borderland religion, 84
Born Free and Equal: Photographs of the Loyal Japanese-Americans at Manzanar Relocation Center, Inyo
County, California (Adams), 282
botánicas, 547–548, 557
Bowman, Mark, 107
Boyd, Rekia, 524
Bracero program, 549
Brahmanism, 131
Brainerd, David, 333
Br’er Rabbit, 245
Brethren in Christ Church, 149
Brigham Young University (BYU), 156
British East India Company, 421–422
British Orientalists, 126–127
Brooklyn Dodgers, 309
Brown, Catharine, 145–146
Brown, Charlotte Hawkins, 92
Brown, Jim, 307, 311, 316
Brown, John, 393, 412
Brown, Michael, 199, 220, 316, 524
Brown, Morris, 1
Brown, Simon, 351–352
Brownson, Orestes, 180–181
Brown v. Board of Education, 182, 498
Bryan, Andrew, 351
Bryant, Kobe, 314
Buchdahl, Angela Warnick, 198–199
Buddha, Gautama, 131, 225, 235–236
Buddhism, 10, 131–133, 226, 236
in America, 223–227, 236, 441, 444–454, 570
black Buddhists, 223–224, 230–237
and discrimination, 232
and diversity, 226, 229–230, 233
ethnic Buddhism, 224–227, 452–453
and heteronormative context, 236–237
(p. 601)
and intersectionality, 233–235
in Latin America, 230–231
and non-Asian people of color, 229–235, 236
and parallel congregations, 224
and Protestant hymns, 260, 265
and racial identity, 223–229, 236
and temples, 229
and whiteness, 223–227, 230, 232
Buddhist Churches of America, 444, 454
Buddhist Mission of North America (BMNA), 443
Buddhist Modernism, 227
Buddhist Studies, 223–225, 227, 230
Buddhist Women’s Association (Fujinkai), 443–444
Buffalo Bill Cody’s Wild West Show, 299
Buhaina, Abdullah Ibn. See Blakey, Art
Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), 531–533
Burke, Charles, 529–530
Burroughs, Nannie Helen, 88, 92
Burroughs, Nelson, 505
Bursum Bill, 529–530
Burwell V. Hobby Lobby Stores (573 U.S. (2014)), 590
Bush, George W., 106, 585, 588
bushido, 445
Bynum, Juanita, 116
Cable Act, 448
Cage, John, 265
Caldwell, Kinyjon, 489
calidad, [link]
Calvinists, 145
Campanis, Al, 307
Canaanite Temple, 417
Candomblé, 353, 557
Cannon, Katie G., 519
Carlos, John, 307
Carroll, Charles, 177
Carroll, John, 177
carte de visite, 273–274
Carter, Michael, 277
Cartier-Bresson, Henri, 272
Carus, Paul, 265, 453
Carver, H. P., 289
Casas, Bartolomé de las, 358
casta, 52
Castro, Fidel, 554
“Cathedral of Tomorrow” (television), 115
Catholic Charismatic Renewal (CCR), 551
Catholic Charities, 589
Catholic University of America, 182
Catholicism, 8, 84, 98, 175, 180, 357–367
in America, 84, 173, 177, 185
anti-Catholicism, 71, 74, 173–174, 177, 180–181, 362
black Catholicism, 415–417
and cultural captivity thesis, 178
and desegregation of churches, 182
in French territories and racial differences, 175–176
and Hispanic clergy, 183–184
immigration and, 2, 173, 180, 395, 569, 581–582
and interracialism, 180–182, 390, 565
lay fraternities, 365
missionaries, 98, 142–144, 359–367
multiculturalism, 84, 173–177
religious diversity, 586
racial identification, 173–175, 379–381
the segregated parish model, 179, 181, 184
Católicos por la Raza (Catholics for the Race), 184, 549
Cayuse Indians, 390–391
celibacy, 102
Center for Intersectionality and Social Policy Studies, 524–525
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), 73
The Central Jurisdiction (for all African American Methodists), 143
Central Synagogue, 198
Cercle Harmonique, 412–413
Cha-Jua, Sundiata, 524
Chamales, José, 387
Chang: A Drama of the Wilderness (film), 297–298
Charles, Ray, 257–258
chattel slavery, 145, 393 (see also slavery)
Chávez, César, 84, 549
Cheng, Kang, 148–149 (p. 602)
Cherokee Nation, 63–66, 145–146, 336, 394
Cheyenne Indians, 391
Chicago Urban League, 295
Chicano movement, 107
Chickasaw nation, 64, 66, 336
Chick-Fil-A, 117
Child, Lydia Marie, 131
China, 131, 144
Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association. See Six Companies
Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882, 12, 13, 85, 439, 441, 579
Chinmoy, Sri, 266
Chivington, John, 391
Choctaw nation, 64, 66, 336
Christian America, 150
Christian fundamentalism, 73, 296
Christian hip-hop, 115, 119
Christian identity movement, 150
Christianity 6–8, 11, 40–53, 62, 71
Africans and, 51–56, 346–355, 357
as challenge to racism, 145
and citizenship, 142–151
civilization and, 425
and colonization, 97, 146–150, 323–325, 357
and conversion and, 47–53, 63, 146–150, 323, 348, 357–367, 445
and immigration, 569–571, 581–582
and influence on music, 259–260, 264
and Muslims, 62, 211–213
and nationalism, 72, 76, 292
and Native Americans, 10–12, 51–55, 63, 84, 145, 175, 323–325, 357–367
and power, 6, 97, 150, 352, 365
and racialization, 56, 174–175, 323, 357–367, 513–514
and rejection of God (theism), 241–248
and religious hybridization, 581–582
and religious pluralism, 586–587
and slavery, 67–68, 346–355, 404–418
as social control, 351–352
and whiteness, 11, 142–151, 355–367
Christianity Takes a Stand, 496
Christianity Today (publication), 141
Christian Life (periodical), 499
Christian Life Commission, 498
the Christian MC, 115
Christian Recorder, 414
Christian Right, 75, 84
Christian Science, 214
Christmas, 588
Christocentric, 304
Church of England, 257, 363–365, 371
Church of God Choir, 486
Church of God in Christ, 87
Church of God and Saints in Christ, 475, 479, 481–485
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS), 156, 160, 213
Church of the Lukumi Babalu Aye, Inc. v. Hialeah (508 U.S. 520 (1993)), 554
Church of Our Lady of Mount Carmel, 582
Church World Service, 589
cinema, 119
Circle Seven Koran, 214, 479
“Circular 1665: Indian Dancing,” 529–531
Circular 2970, 531
City of Boerne v. Flores (521 U.S. 507 (1997)), 542
Civil Rights Act of 1964, 503
Civil Rights Bill, 501
civil rights movement, 90, 174, 182, 184, 250, 491–507, 579
and the activist clergy, 504–505, 511
black is beautiful, 194
and Buddhism, 230
and construction of race, 564–565
and Jewish Americans, 191, 195
and Mormons, 166
and non-theism, 247, 249–250
and nonviolence, 250–251, 511
and sexual freedom, 104
and white allies, 494–499
and World War II, 495
the Civil War, 173, 179, 242, 275, 393–395, 412, 416
The Clansman (book), 79, 293
Clarke, James Freeman, 131
Clay, Cassius. See Ali, Muhammad
Clay, Henry, 210
Cleage, Albert, 250, 513–515
Clinton, William (Bill), 257 (p. 603)
Coates, Ta-Nehisi, 524–525
Coca-Cola, 118
Code of Gentoo Laws, 127
Code Noir of 1685, 176, 362
Codrington, 364
Coggins, Ross, 141, 148
Cold War, 72, 85, 125, 193, 228, 579, 585, 587
Coleman, Monica, 523
Coleman, Will, 518
Collier, John, 531–533
Collier-Thomas, Bettye, 86
colonialism, 51–53, 97
anti-colonial movements, 74
Belgian, 74
in the Congo, 74
and construction of race, 143–146, 168–169, 174, 323–324, 371–372
European, 51–56, 62, 70, 83, 97, 207, 323–329, 355–367
and expansion of Christian theology, 325
and immutable inferiority, 323–324, 329
in Iran, 73
languages of status and, 53
and Native Americans, 323–334
and remaking native bodies, 97–100, 323–329, 421–425
structural racism, 493, 565, 575
structures of authority and, 54, 63–76, 143, 329
Color and Conscience, 496
color-blind theologies, 566–567
Colored Catholic Congress, 416
Colored Methodist Episcopal Church (CME), 413
Coltrane, John, 257, 266
Columbia (Records), 114
Columbus, Christopher, 325
Comanche empire, 66, 399
Commandment Keepers of Harlem, 198
Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 529–530
the Commission on Interracial Cooperation, 90, 494
Commission on Race Relations, 494
the Committee on Public Lands, 336
communism, 71–74, 278, 462
Community of Christ, 10
A Comparison of the Institutions of Moses with that of the Hindoos and Other Ancient Nations, 127–128
complex marriage, 101
Comstock Laws, 104
concubinage, 67, 521
Cone, James, 250, 262, 512–516
Confucianism, 131, 133, 441
Confucius, 413, 480, 588
Congo Pictures, 288–289, 296
Congregationalist American Missionary Association, 143
Congregationalists, 65, 143, 180, 493
Conservative Jews, 194
the Constitution of the United States, 219
contraceptives, 104–105
conversion
Africans and, 8–10, 346–348, 357–367
civilization and, 65, 336, 425–428
and clothing as symbol of Christian modesty, 425–428, 431
and cultural transmission, 432–433
indigenous communities and, 8, 11–12, 84, 96–100, 323–329, 357–367
Jews and, 8, 10, 44, 174
missionaries and, 48–53, 84, 146, 149–150, 347–348, 420–433
Muslims and, 8, 10–11, 44, 174
and rebellion, 364–366
and slaves, 348
as theological practice, 47–53, 174
conversos, 174, 358, 559
cool pose, 304
Cooper, Merian C., 297, 301
Copland, Aaron, 261
Corporate evangelicals, 113
Cotton, John, 380
Council of the All New Mexico Pueblos, 529–530
Council of Conservative Citizens, 1
Council on Religion and the Homosexual, 107
Counterterrorism, 75–76 (p. 604)
Courtright, Paul, 468
Cox, Harvey, 504
Cox, John Coates, 209
Craft, Francis, 391
Crashaw, William, 360
Crawford, John, 524
Creek Nation, 64, 336, 362, 398 (see also Muskogee Nation)
Creek War of 1813–14, 68
Crisis (magazine), 181, 275–276
Cristero Rebellion, 549
Crosby, Fanny, 263
Crow Dog, Leonard, 537–539
Crow Dog, Mary, 537
Crow Dog’s Paradise, 537–538
Crowdy, William Saunders., 198, 481–485
Crowell, Henry P., 113
Cruz, Jessie de la, 84
Cuban Revolution, 367, 554
Cummings, Dwight, 518–519
curanderas, 85
curanderismo, 547–548
cursillo movement, 550
Cut Loose Your Stammering Tongue (Hopkins and Cummings), 518
cybersanghas, 233
daguerreotype, 273–274
Dahomean Vodun, 518
Dakota Access pipeline, 542–543
Dakota Indians, 391
Dalai Lama, 266
Daoism, 441–442
Darwin’s theory of evolution, 296
Davies, Samuel, 364
Davis, Cyprian, 182
Dawes Act of 1887, 532
death, 84–85, 381
DeCarava, Roy, 270–277, 282–285
Declaration of Independence, 177
Deloria, Vine Jr., 529, 539, 543
Department of Defense, 588
Derfelt, John Carlos, 281
Diasporism (Jewish), 202
A Dictionary of All Religions and Religious Denominations: Jewish, Heathen, Mahometan, Christian
Ancient and Modern (Adams), 127
Diocese of Baltimore, 177
Diocese of Savannah, 172
Disciples of Christ Church, 484, 493
Discourse of Buddhist Universality, 226
discrimination, 105, 232
Divine, Father, 103, 113, 271, 482–483
divine grace, 145
Diwali, 578, 587
Dixon, Thomas, 79, 293
Dollar, Creflo, 476, 487
Domenech, Emanuel, 184
Dominicans, 359–367
Dominus Jesus, 586
Dorsey, Thomas A. “Georgia Tom,” 114, 115, 263
Douglass, Frederick, 11, 231, 247–248, 262, 274, 349–355, 396, 407
Dred Scott case, 408–409
Drew, Timothy. See Ali, Noble Drew
Drexel, Katharine, 181
“Dr. Watts,” 264
DuBois, W. E. B., 30, 86, 114, 181, 241
and photography, 275–276
and sorrow songs, 262
and theism, 246
Du Mont Laboratories, 115
Dutch West India Company, 192
Easter, 588
East India Marine Society (EIMS), 123
Ebony (magazine), 486, 500
Edmunds-Tucker Act of 1887, 164
Edwards, Jonathan, 145, 153, 381–383
Edwards, Sarah, 383
Eid Al-Adha, 588
Eid Al-Fitr, 588
Eikerenkoetter, Frederick J. II, 116, 474, 483, 487–489
Eisenhower, Dwight D., 72, 585
Eisenstadt v. Baird (405 U.S. 438(1972)), 105
Elauf, Samantha, 589
Elder Lightfoot Solomon Michaux show, 116, 483–487
Eliot, John, 11, 329, 381
Ellington, Duke, 88, 262
Ellis Island, 272
Ellis, Tom, 212 (p. 605)
Ellison, Ralph, 258
El Niño Fidencio, 548
emancipation, 101, 306
Emancipation Laws, 350
Emanuel African Methodist Episcopal Church (Emanuel AME), 1, 256
Embodiment, 233–234
Emerson, Ralph Waldo, 13, 130, 458
Employment Division v. Smith (494 U.S. 872 (1990)), 542
England, John, 177
the Enlightenment, 27–30
Epstein, Hedy, 199–201
Equiano, Olaudah, 342, 378
Espada, Martín, 387
espiritismo, 551
espiritismo Maria Lioncero, 557
ethnocentrism, 141, 145–146
ethnomusicologists, 265
eugenics, 105, 193
Eurocentrism, 233
evangelicalism, 100, 142, 150, 371, 493
and coreligionists, 501
and resistance to civil rights movement, 500–503
and white evangelicals, 498–500
Evans, Walker, 272
Eve, 82
Everts, Jeremiah, 394
evil, 68, 73, 243–244, 251, 289, 315
as equated with race, 113, 161
Ewe-Fon, 367
exclusion laws, 150
Executive Order 9066, 280, 450–452
Exoduster movement, 481
extinction discourse, 298–300
Fairbanks, John K., 141, 152
Falwell, Jerry, 72, 503
Farm Service Administration (FSA), 280, 285
Farrakhan, Louis, 217
Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), 72, 208, 217, 247, 278, 480, 590
Federal Communications Commission (FCC), 115
Federal Council of Churches of Christ (FCC), 452, 493–496
Federal Trade Commission, 301
Federated Colored Catholics (FCC), 182
Feeney, Leonard, 586
Felder, Cain Hope, 519
Ferguson (Missouri), 192, 199, 220, 316
Fiasco, Lupe, 266–267
Field Museum, 301
Filipino Federation of America, 447
film, 288–302
Finney, Charles, 112
Fifth Commandment, 381
First African Baptist Church, 351
First Amendment, 4, 13, 32, 467, 531–536, 586, 591
First Congregational Church in Atlanta, 276
First Great Awakening. See Great Awakening
First Presidency, 157
First Quorum of the Seventy, 156–157
Fisk Jubilee Singers, 114, 263
Five Civilized Tribes, 336
Flaherty, Robert, 292, 297
Flood, Curt, 308
folk healers, 85
folktales (oral narratives), 244–245
Ford Motor Company, 70
Forman, James, 248
Foster, Rube, 308
Foster, Thomas, 209–210
Foucault, Michel, 124
Four Noble Truths, 235
Fourteenth Amendment, 89, 542
Fox, George, 364
Franciscans, 11, 96–100, 329–330, 359–367
Francis Pope, 100
Franco, Divaldo, 557
Frank, Anne, 196
Franklin, C. L., 486
Free African Society, 405
Freedom Riders, 195, 309, 504
Freedom Summer, 504
free lovers, 102 (p. 606)
French and Indian War, 330
French Revolution, 28
French Royal African Company, 347
Frey, Shelly, 524
Fugitive Slave Act, 396
Fujii, Sei, 445
Fulbe, 209
Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina, 361–362
The Fundamentals (print), 113
Gallagher, Buell, 496
Galloway Memorial Methodist Church, 502
Gandhi, Mahatma, 92, 266
Ganesha, 468
Gantt, Harvey, 314
Garden, Alexander, 364
Garner, Eric, 524
Garnet, Henry Highland, 397
Garvey, Marcus, 117, 215, 515
Garveyism, 215
Gates, J. M., 263, 486
gay rights, 107
Gemora, Charles, 289
gender, 80–89
and African American religious experience, 87, 178, 405–406
African American women, 82, 85–90, 99, 217
and artistic productions, 88
and Asian Americans, 85, 229
black men’s religious leadership, 103
black women as sexually dangerous, 295
and Buddhism, 229–234
and construction of race, 143–144, 295, 420
and extralegal violence, 86–89
and indigenous sexuality, 97, 420–423, 428–429
and intersectional analysis, 80, 207
and missionary concepts of, 144, 152, 420–423
and Nation of Islam, 217
Native American women, 82–84, 145, 329
and respectability, 149
and shaping of religious practice, 91, 329
gender binaries, 82, 84
General Committee of Virginia Baptists, 350
genocide, 11, 63–69, 83, 105, 158, 201, 329–521
Gentiles, 157–158
Gentlemen’s Agreement, 441
German philology, 128
Gershwin, George, 261
Gershwin, Ira, 261
Getz, Stan, 261
Ghost Dance, 67, 264–265, 399, 529, 537–538
Gibbs, Terry, 261
Gillard, John, 183
Gilmer, Rachel, 201
Ginsberg, Allen, 13, 227, 454
Gladden, Washington, 493
Glass, Phillip, 265–266
Glide Memorial (Methodist) Church in San Francisco, 107
The Glorious Radio Church of the Air, 486
Go Tell It on the Mountain (Baldwin), 246
Go Up for Glory (Russell), 308
God is Red: A Native View of Religion (Deloria), 539
Godwyn, Morgan, 363
Goldstein, Joseph, 227
“Goodbye Christ” (Hughes), 247
Goodman, Benny, 261
Gospel music, 115, 262–263
Gospel Society for Bible Study, 443
Graca, Macelino Manuel da. See Grace, Charles Emmanuel “Sweet Daddy”
Grace, Charles Emmanuel “Sweet Daddy,” 484
Graham, Billy, 71, 112, 117, 500–501
Grant, Amy, 115
Grant, Jacquelyn, 519
Grant, Ulysses S., 395
Granz, Norman, 261
Grass (film), 297–298
Great Awakening, 333, 349–351, 371, 382–383
the Great Depression, 216, 479, 482, 486, 549
the Great Migration, 216, 242, 475–477
Great Spirit, 299, 301, 333
Great White Hopes, 312
Greene-Bey, Skeik Claude, 480
Gregory, Pope XVI, 177
Griffin, Cyrus, 210
Griffith, D. W., 79, 292 (p. 607)
Grimké, Angelina Weld, 79–82, 89, 92
gris-gris bags, 410–411
Griswold v. Connecticut (381 U.S. 479 (1965)), 105
Grossman, Albert, 261
Guggenheim Fellowship, 278–279, 281
Gulf War, 587
gurdwara, 443, 458, 465–466
H1-B visa program, 460, 466
Haaretz (newspaper), 201
Hadden, Jeffrey K., 506
Haitian Revolution, 353
Hajj, 344
Haley, Nimrata (Nikki) Randhawa, 1
Halhead, Nathaniel, 127
Hall, Stuart, 30
Hallelujah (film), 88
Hamer, Fannie Lou, 92, 111
Hamid, Sultan Abdul II, 69
Hammerstein, Oscar, 261
Hammurabi, 588
Hancock, Herbie, 266
Handsome Lake, 66, 333
“hands up, don’t shoot,” 316
Hansberry, Lorraine, 247
Hare Krishna, 266
Hargis, Billy James, 503
Harlem Document, 277–278
Harlem Renaissance, 30, 245, 273, 279
Harlem YMCA, 277
Harper’s Ferry, 393, 412
Harpo, Inc., 118
Harrison, George, 266
Harrison, William Henry, 335
Hart-Celler Immigration Act of 1965, 1, 208, 216, 568, 573, 580–581
Harvard, 129
Harvard Divinity School, 504
Hassan, Ahmed, 213
Hastings, Warren, 127
hate crime, 218, 467, 580, 590
Hatzaad Harishon, 198
Haudenosaunee origin story, 327
Hawaiian creation story, 428
Hawley, Rebekah, 383
healing, 84–85
Enslaved women’s practices of, 87
Mexican American traditions of, 85
and religious cultures, 91
Healy, James Augustine, 409–410
Healy, Patrick Francis, 409–410
Healy, Sherwood Alexander, 409–410
heathen, 10–11, 49, 145, 150–151, 323, 329, 357, 388
The Heathen Women’s Friend (magazine), 147
Hebraism, 193
Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion, 199
Heco, Joseph, 448
Hell’s Angels (film), 288
Helms, Jesse, 314
Herberg, Will, 585
heresy, 8, 42–48, 514
Heritage USA, 117
Heschel, Rabbi Abraham Joshua, 191, 195
heterosexuality, 104, 242
Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, 262, 407–408
hijab, 589
Hindu American Foundation, 467–468, 587–588
Hindu Association, 443
Hindu International Council against Defamation (HICAD), 588
Hinduism, 10, 133–134, 453, 458, 464–469, 570, 584
Hine, Lewis, 272–277, 280
hip-hop, 266–267, 346
Hiro, Sui, 281
HIV/AIDS, 105, 151
Hmong, 576, 583, 589, 592–593
Holiness movement, 416, 475, 478
Holiness women, 103
Holocaust, 13, 192, 194
Holy Communion, 482
holy kiss, 149
Holy Koran of the Moorish Science Temple (aka Circle Seven Koran), 214 (p. 608)
Holy Spirit, 417, 478, 534–535
Home Missions Council of North America, 452
homosexuality, 104, 105–106, 242
Hompa Hongwanji Buddhist mission, 445
Honolii, John, 424
Hood, Robert E., 519
hoodoo. See conjure
Hoover, J. Edgar, 72, 247
Hopkins, Dwight, 518–519
Hopu, Thomas, 424
House of Israel, 157
Houston Black Non-Believers, 252
Howe, Gertrude, 148–149
Huerta, Dolores, 84
Hughes, Howard, 288
Hughes, John, 178, 181
Hughes, Langston, 247, 270–271, 284
hula, 428
humanism, 241, 246–252
and African Americans, 241–254
and political power, 253–254
and race, 252–253
secular humanism, 250–251
Humanists of Houston, 252
Humbard, Alpha Rex Emmanuel, 115
Hume, David, 28
Hunter, Jane Edna, 114
Hunt, Robert, 360
hu plig, 592
Hurston, Zora Neale, 245–246, 520
Hutterites, 281
Hutton, Judge Frank, 212
hypodescent, 67
Iberia, 40–57, 62, 174–175, 192
Ibrahima, Abd al Rahman (aka Ibrahim Abd ar Rahman), 209–211, 345
Idle No More, 542
iftar, 578, 588
Ikeda, Daisaku, 230
Illegal Immigrant Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act, 580
immigrants, 84, 569–570
Latina/o communities, 84
and music, 258–259
as racial others, 572–573
and religious diversity, 567–569
and religious practices, 570–575
Immigration Act of 1917, 442
Immigration Act of 1924, 442
Immigration Act of 1990, 460
Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965. See Immigration and Naturalization Act of 1965
Immigration and Naturalization Act of 1965, 228, 439, 442, 457
Immigration Reform Act of 1965, 459
Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA), 460, 580
imperialism, 271
Indian Antiquities, 127
Indian Christianity, 333
Indian New Deal, 528, 531–533
Indian Placement Program, 156–157
Indian Removal, 336–337
Indian Removal Act, 160, 394
Indian Reorganization Act (IRA), 532–533
Indo-European civilization, 135
Ingagi (film), 288–297, 301–302
Inquisition, 8, 45, 192, 259–360
institutional racism, 47, 179, 183, 492, 566
International Peace Mission Movement, 475, 482–483
International Sufi Movement, 454
internment, 265, 450–452
and photography of Japanese Americans, 280–284
intersectionality, 233–234, 572–575, 582
Institutes of Hindu Law; or, the Ordinances of Menu, 127
invisible institution, 407–408, 414
Inward Light, 392
Iran Hostage Crisis, 462
Iranian Revolution of 1979, 75, 208
Iroquois Confederacy, 63, 66
Isaacs, Captain Sam, 66
Isaiah, 157
Isis Unveiled: A Master-Key to the Ancient and Modern (Blavatsky), 132 (p. 609)
ISKCON, 266, 454
Islam, 6, 8, 69, 205–208, 453–454, 464–465, 479
and America, 73, 75, 206, 219, 458
anti-Muslim sentiment, 208, 218–219
and biological race categories, 215
and constructions of race, 206–212
and conversion, 48–53, 211
and identity production, 206, 208, 215, 217
and immigration, 208–209, 211, 219
as legal category, 219
and naturalization, 211–21
and popular culture, 117, 266–267
and religious othering, 218
and religious pluralism, 587
and slaves, 209–211, 343–346, 417
and stereotypes, 10, 218, 462
and surveillance, 208, 217–218
and whiteness, 211–213
Islam, Yusuf, 267
Islamic fundamentalism, 73, 218
Islamic Law, 217
Islamic studies, 208
Islamophobia, 208, 218
Issei, 441, 444
The Jackie Robinson Story (film), 309
Jackson, Andrew, 66, 160
and the Creek War of 1813–14, 68
Jacksonian democracy, 68
and Native American policy, 394
Jackson, Joseph H., 91, 511
Jackson, Mahalia, 263
Jackson, Michael, 257–258
Jackson, Rebecca Cox, 102
Jacobs, Harriet, 67
Jainism, 133
Jakes, Thomas Dexter “T. D.,” 111, 116, 119, 476, 483, 487–489
James, Black, 381
James, Jane, 165
James, LeBron, 316
James, William, 584
Jamestown, 360
Janamashatami, 465
Japanese Christian church federations, 444
Japanese Independent Congregation Church, 281
Jaramillo, don Pedrito, 547
jazz, 258, 262–263, 346
The Jazz Singer (film), 193, 260–261, 292
J. C. Penney, 114
Jefferson, Thomas, 63, 126, 335, 412
Jehovah’s Witnesses, 314
Jessye, Eva, 87
Jesuits, 176, 359–367
Jesus Christ, 6, 157, 161, 212, 310, 315, 397, 447, 474, 513–515
as a black revolutionary, 251, 515–516
as a black woman, 520
as a conception of salvation for poor and marginalized, 522
as the divine co-sufferer, 520
as the first Klansmen, 117
as prophet, 482
Jet (magazine), 486
Jewish Buddhists, 227
Jewish Community Relations Council (Boston), 201
Jewish jazz, 261
Jewish Voices for Peace, 201
jihad, 75
Jim Crow, 17, 166, 174, 184, 194, 306, 414, 417, 476–477, 484, 494, 510, 579
and Asian immigrants, 449–450
João I, 346
Jockey Syndrome, 306
Jodō Shinshu Buddhists, 228
Jodō Shinshu Hongwanji-ha (True Pure Land Buddhism), 443
John Paul II, 586
Johnson, Jack, 307
Johnson, Martin, 298
Johnson, Osa, 298
Johnson-Reed Act of 1924, 180, 579
Johnson, Robert, 244
Johnson, Samuel (1740), 323
Johnson, Samuel (1873), 131
Jolson, Al, 193, 260–261, 292
Jones, Absalom, 405
Jones, Bobby Jr., 503
Jones, Charles Colcock, 408
Jones, James D., 116 (p. 610)
Jones, William, 126–127, 130
Jones, William R., 251, 515
Jordan, Clarence, 498
Jordan, Michael, 118, 313–314
Josephson, Barney, 261
Journal of the American Oriental Society, 128
Joy of Living (television), 487
Judaism 13, 479, 559
anti-Semitism, 10, 13, 42, 195, 227
and blackface, 193
and conversion, 48, 196–197
crypto-Judaism, 44
and ethnicity, 194
ethno-racial performance, 193, 196
and immigration, 569–570
and the Inquisition, 192
and Jewish identity, 191–202
and Native Americans, 196
and Palestine, 200–201
and racial positioning, 194–198
and racialization, 191
and religion versus race, 193, 197
and religiosity, 202
and religious othering, 8, 196–198
and whiteness, 13, 192–194
Judeo-Christian concept, 585
Ka’ahumanu, 425
Kalākua, 425
Kant, Immanuel, 28
Kanui, William, 424
Kapi’olani, 420, 425, 430–431
Kardec, Allan, 551, 557
Karenga, Maulana, 511
Kawaida, 511
Kenrick, Francis Patrick, 178
Kern, Jerome, 261
Kerouac, Jack, 454
Keystone Pipeline, 542
Khan, Hazrat Inayat, 453–454
Kim (book), 125
Kimball, Spencer, W., 156–157, 166
King Kamehameha, 425
King Kong (film), 301
King, Martin Luther Jr., 91, 92, 104, 111, 191, 195, 249–250, 500–501
and black theology, 510–512
King Philip’s War, 328–329, 361
Kingsbury, Cyrus, 64, 66
Kiowa Indians, 399
Kipling, Rudyard, 125
kippot, 194
kirpan, 589
Klamath Indian, 542
Klunder, Bruce, 491, 505
kneel-ins, 502
Knight, Michael, 267
Knights of Columbus, 182
Know-Nothing Party (Know-Nothings). See American Party
Koinonia Farm, 498
Kominas, 267
Kongo, 346, 366
Konitz, Lee, 261
Koop, US Surgeon General C. Everett, 105
Kornfield, Jack, 227
kriya yoga, 453
Ku Klux Klan, 117, 181, 194, 292–293, 494
Kung Fu (television drama), 86
Lacrea, 115
Laden, Osama bin, 75
LaFarge, John, 181
Lakota Indians, 391, 398
Lamanites, 156–160
Lamont, Buddy, 539
Lange, Dorothea, 272, 280–283
language, 219
La Raza Cósmica, 184
Las Hermanas (The Sisters), 184, 549
Lateef, Yusef, 262, 266
Latin America. See Iberia
Latino Jews, 559
Latino Muslims, 558
Latinos/as, 183–185
Central Americans’ religious experience, 554–556
and Christianity as a colonial import, 546–547
and creation of religious identity, 545–560
(p. 611)
the Cuban American religious experience, 553–554
the Dominican American religious experience, 552–553
the Puerto Rican religious experience, 550–552
and religious hybridization, 548, 551–552, 557–558
and the religious unaffiliated, 559–560
South Americans’ religious experience, 566–558
and transnationalism, 546–547, 553–557
Lee, Charlie, 534–535
Lee, George P., 156–158, 159
Lee, Jarena, 86, 405–406
Lee, Mother Ann, 101
Lee, Va Meng, 577
Le Jau, Francis, 363
Lerner, Alan Jay, 261
Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Religious Archives Network (LGBT-RAN), 107
“Letter from Birmingham Jail,” 501, 504
Leventhal, Mel, 195–196
Lewis, Walker, 165
LGBT(QI), 104, 107, 207
liberation theology, 85
Liberia, 68, 143, 210
Liebman, Dave, 261
Life (magazine), 279
Light of Asia (Arnold), 131
Limbaugh, Rush, 307
limpieza de sangre, 8, 44–57, 62, 146, 174–175, 358
Lin, Jeremy, 315
Lincoln, Abraham, 412
Lindquist, G. E. E., 532–533
Lion, Jules, 273
Liston, Sonny, 312
lived religion, 464–465
Livingston Union School District, 589
Livingstone College, 415
Loewe, Frederick, 261
Long, Eddie, 476, 487–489
Long Lance, Buffalo Child Chief, 299
Look, 277–279
Los Angeles Clippers, 316
Los Angeles Dodgers, 307
Lost-Found Nation of Islam. See Nation of Islam
Louverture, Toussaint, 412
Loving v. Virginia (388 S. 1(1967)), 104
Luce-Celler Act, 448, 459
Lumen Gentium, 586
Lumumba, Patrice, 74
Lunar New Year, 588
lynching, 79, 88–89, 389–390, 393, 397, 477
machismo, 84
Maclin, Anthony G., 488
Mahatmas, 132
Major League Baseball (MLB), 308–310
Malcom X, 92, 216–217, 220, 266, 311–313, 481
Manifest destiny, 63, 76
Manne, Shelly, 261
ManPower, 487
Manuel, Zenju Earthlyn, 233–234
manumission, 210, 350, 393, 404–405
Manzanar Relocation Center, 282
Marā, 235
Maracle, Andrew, 534
March on Washington, 248, 501, 504–505
Markoe, William, 181
Marley, Bob, 258
Marrant, John, 349
marriage, 99, 103
celibate marriage, 101
complex marriage, 101
consistent with Christian principles, 242, 430
equality, 107
interracial, 104, 175
as marker of racial difference, 99
marriage moment, 104
monogamous Christian marriage, 430
and national identity, 104
plural, 101
(p. 612)
as requirement for missionaries, 423–424
same-sex couples, 104
sanctioned by church and state, 99, 101, 103–104, 146, 182, 242
and slavery, 360
as tool of domination, 100
marronage, 68
Marschalk, Andrew, 210
Martin, Auguste Marie, 178
Martin, Trayvon, 316, 524
Marx Brothers, 288
Marxist-Leninism, 30, 72, 82, 90, 511, 519
Mary Kay Cosmetics, 117
masculinity, 82, 304
black, 104, 217
mass incarceration, 86
Maston, T. B., 496, 498
Mather, Cotton, 380–381
Matthew, Wentworth Arthur, 198
Mauntaukett Indians, 334
Maurice, Thomas, 127
McCarran-Walter Act, 442, 579
McCollum, Sister Mary, 115
McIntyre, Carl, 503
McKenzie, Vashti, 86
McLaughlin, John, 266
McNabb, Donovan, 307
McPherson, Aimee Semple, 112
McPherson, John, 534
Means, Russell, 538
megachurch, 476
Meiji Restoration, 441
Mercy Medical Center, 576–578, 589, 592–593
“Mesa Blanca,” 551
Mésalliance, 175
mestizaje, 185
Metacom (King Philip), 329
Methodist Episcopal Church, South, 413
Methodist General Assembly 1964, 502
Methodist Women’s Foreign Missionary Society, 147
Methodists, 164, 481, 493–496
black Methodist churches, 404–415
and conversion of slaves, 404–405
and emancipation, 350–351
and missionary work, 143–145, 364
and popular culture, 114
and racial segregation, 496–497
and the Woman’s Division and segregation, 496
métissage, 176
Metoaka, 360
Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (MGM), 88
Metropolitan Community Church (MCC), 107
Mexican Revolution, 549
Mezzrow, Mezz, 261
Miami Heat, 316
Michaux, Elder Lightfoot Solomon, 115, 483
micro-musics, 260
Middle Passage, 6, 67, 98, 518
Milestone, Lewis, 288
Mill Hill Fathers, 179
Millennialism, 415
mindfulness movement, 227
Minnesota State Supreme Court, 592
miscegenation, 104, 161, 164, 172, 175, 215, 448
missionaries, 48, 64–65, 71, 346–347, 363, 496
in Africa, 71, 346–347
African American, 146
Anglo-American, 64–67, 71, 144–145, 348
in the Caribbean, 71
challenging racism, 145–147
in China, 148–149
and Chinese immigrants, 85, 150
as Christianizers, 150
and constructions of race, 143–152, 361–362
and cultural imperialism, 141
in Hawai‘i, 85, 148, 420–433
in India, 147
and integration, 147
and interracial cooperation, 152
in Japan, 147–148
in Latin America, 71
in Liberia, 143
and music, 257–258
(p. 613)
and Native Americans, 84, 97–100, 142–150, 152, 196, 329
and native clothing, 146, 426–428
and native dancing, 529–543
in Rhodesia, 149
Southern Baptist, 141
The Missionary Friend (magazine), 147
Mohegan Indians, 334
Mohriez, Mohamed, 213
Moncado, Hilario Camino, 447
monogenists, 56
Montesquieu, 412
Montezuma, 412
Montgomery Ward, 115
Moody Bible Institute (MBI), 113
Moody, Dwight, 263
Moonies, 453
Moon, Sun Myung, 453
Moore, Kayla, 524
Moorish identity, 215
Moorish Science Temple of America (MSTA), 5, 214–215, 346, 417, 475, 479–484
Moraga, Cherríe, 107
Moravians, 65, 143, 330, 364–365
Morgan, Jacob, 533
Mormon Church, 101, 156
Mormonism, 159, 169, 281
and conversion of Lamanites, 161–166
and diversity, 167–168
and evolving notions of race, 156, 159–169
interfaith marriage, 589
interracial marriage, 164–165
Lamanite theology, 157
missionaries, 158–159, 162–167
and Native Americans, 156–158, 160–166
descendants of Father Lehi, 158–159
a divine curse, 160
as God’s chosen people, 161
seed of Ephraim, 158
racial priesthood ban, 165–168
and slavery, 165–166
universalized gospel, 164–165
whiteness and righteousness, 161–167
Moroni, 160
Morrison, Toni, 520
Moses, 588
Moslem Association in America, 443
Moss, Thomas, 88
Mother Bethel, 256
Moton, Jennie Booth, 92
Motown, 257–258
Mott, John, 152
Movement for Black Lives, 200
Muhammad, 588
Muhammad, Elijah, 216–217, 311, 480–481
Mohammed, Warith Deen, 217
Mukyōkai, 446
Müller, F. Max, 135
Muramoto, George, 445
Muscular Christianity, 85, 113, 306
music, 256
American Music influenced by Christianity, 259–260
bonding social capital, 257, 264
bridging social capital, 257, 264
crossover, 258, 263
Islam as influence on African American musicians, 266
as performance, 268
and race, 258–259
religious song, 257
sacred song, 257–258
Muskogee (Creek) Nation, 63, 66, 398
Muslim Anti-Racism Collaborative (ARC), 219–220
Muslim Brotherhood, 73
Muslim Political Action Committee, 585
Muslims for Ferguson, 220
NAACP, 79, 92, 195, 275–276
Nanook of the North (film), 292, 297
napalm, 74
Narváez, Panfilo de, 358
Nast, Thomas, 180 (p. 614)
Nation of Islam (NOI), 90, 103, 216, 266, 311–313, 346, 417, 475, 479–481, 511
and entrepreneurial ventures, 485
and renaming of converts, 480–481
National Association of Colored Women, 90
National Association of Evangelicals (NAE), 499
National Baptist Convention U.S.A. (NBC), 102–103, 415, 511
National Black Catholic Clergy Caucus, 183
the National Black Economic Development Conference, 248–249
National Black Sisters Conference, 183
National Catholic Conference of Interracial Justice (NCCIJ), 181
the National Catholic War Council, 182
National Committee of Negro Churchmen, 512
National Conference of Black Churchmen (NCBC). See National Committee of Negro Churchmen
National Conference on Religion and Race, 504
National Congress of American Indians, 539
National Council of Churches (NCC), 496, 504
National Council of Jewish Women 1896 convention, 192–193
National Football League (NFL), 304, 315
National Guard, 200
National Office of Black Catholics, 183
National Origins Act of 1924, 13, 459
National Security Council, 72
Native American Church (NAC), 535, 541–542
Native American Graves and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA), 540–541
Native Americans, 8–10, 11–12, 63, 323–326, 528–543
and Catholic missionaries, 98–100
and Christianity, 11, 40–56, 63–67, 84, 328–333, 357–367, 533–543
and colonization, 300–301, 323–326
and cultural and religious transformation, 329–333
the disappearing Indian myth, 528–530
and music, 260, 264–265
and non-Christian native groups, 82
and origin stories, 326–327
and Protestant hymns, 260, 264
and racial identity, 299, 323–324, 327, 332, 379–380
and racial violence, 83, 98
and reassertion of autonomy, 528
and repatriation of sacred objects, 529, 540–543
and the reservation system, 529–530
sacred practices, 83
and self-designation of “red,” 327
and slavery, 67–68, 327–328
and the United States, 61–68, 82, 300, 335
native bodies, 326, 421–425
Native Deen, 267
nativism, 180–181, 458–459
and immigration, 578–579
Natural and Moral History of the Indies (de Acosta), 326
Naturalization Act of 1790, 64, 448, 461
Nausets, 327
Negritude movement, 30
The Negro Christianized (Mather), 380–381
Negro Leagues, 307–309
Negro Life in Georgia, U.S.A., 275
Negro spirituals, 114
neo-Nazis, 13
Nephi, 160
New Bethel Baptist Church, 486
New Birth Missionary Baptist Church, 488
New England Transcendentalists, 129–131
New Jerusalem, 161
The New Jim Crow (Alexander), 524
New Negro movement, 90, 92, 119
New Testament, 130, 325
New Thought, 13, 113
New York Female Moral Reform Society (NYFMRS), 101
New York City Public Schools, 588
Newton, John, 257
Ng, Noon Chew, 445–446 (p. 615)
Nike, 314
Nikkei, 444
Nippon seishin, 444
Nisei, 441, 444
Nisei Buddhists, 228
Nishijima, Kakuryo, 443
Nixon, Richard, 157
Nobody Knows My Name (Baldwin), 246
Nóbrega, Manuel da, 326
North, Oliver, 75
Nostra Aetate, 586
NOTCHES: (Re)marks on the History of Sexuality (blog), 107
Noyes, John Humphrey, 101
Obama, Barack, 2, 17–18, 219, 316, 562
Confederate flag and, 17
and music, 256–258, 267
obeah, 366–367
Obergefell v. Hodges (576 U.S._ (2015)), 104
the Oblate Sisters of Providence, 178, 410
Obookiah, Henry. See Ōpūkaha’ia
Occom, Samson, 333–335
The Occult World (Sinnett), 132
Odea, Thomas F., 551
Odin, Jean Marie, 179, 184
Oglala Sioux, 538–539
Ojibwa, 289, 297–298, 301
Ojibwa hymn-singers, 84
Olcott, Henry Steel, 13, 132, 453
Old Man Coyote, 539
Old Testament, 128, 325, 329
old-time religion, 113
Old World Islam, 215
The Oneida Community, 101
Oneness Pentecostalism, 487
Opechancanough, 360–361
Operation Ajax, 73
Ōpūkaha’ia, 424
Orders for New Discoveries, 359
Oriental and Linguistic Studies, 129
Oriental Monk, 86
Oriental Renaissance, 126
Oriental Studies, 128
Orientalism (Said), 123
Orientalism, 6, 123–129, 224, 228, 236–237, 266
as discourse of representation, 124–126, 129, 132–135, 237
and eighteenth century America, 126–129
and nineteenth century America, 128–135
and notions of race, 124–126, 135
positional superiority of, 135
and power, 123–124, 126, 133–135
and religion as social agent, 125, 129
and representations of Oriental other, 131, 135, 237
original sin, 145, 243
Osborne, Henry Fairfield, 298
Osborne, Sarah, 380
Osteen, Joel, 112
Ottoman Empire, 207
Our Lady of Guadalupe, 84, 184–185, 387, 389, 549
Our Lady of the Rosary, 365
Owens, Lama Rod, 223
Pacific, Asian, and North American Asian Women in Theology and Ministry, 85
Pacific Coast Khalsa Diwan Society, 443
Padres Asociados para Derechos Religiosos, Educativos, y Sociales (Priests Associated for Religious
Education, and Social Rights) PADRES, 184, 549
paganism, 8, 323, 388
Palace Cathedral, 474
Palestine, 200–201
Palmer, Phoebe, 416
pan-African internationalism, 217
A Pan-African Theology (Young), 518
Paquiquineo, 359
Paramount, 114
Paris Exposition of 1900, 275
Parker, Quanah, 535
Park, Robert E., 30
Parks, Gordon, 271–272, 279
Parks, Rosa, 92, 309
Parliament of World’s Religions (1893), 133, 228, 231, 453, 458 (p. 616)
Parnham, Charles, 417
Passover, 481
PATRIOT Act, 218
Peace Policy, 395
Pentecostal Ensign, 486
Pentecostalism, 84, 87, 417, 550, 556
black church mothers, 103
black Pentecostal churches, 417, 478
the indigenous principle, 534–535
and music, 259, 262–263
and Native American religion, 529, 534–536
and popular culture, 114, 115
Pequot War, 328–329
Perez v. Sharp (32 Cal.2d 711), 182
Perfect Harmony Temple, 584
Perot, Rebecca, 102
Perry, Troy, 107, 119
peyote, 535–537
Philadelphia Korean Congress, 447
Phillips, Hilton, 295–296
phonograph, 113–15, 119, 283–4
Photo League (New York), 277–279
photography, 270–285
albumen prints, 274
daguerreotypes, 274
documentary, 270–280, 285
and internment, 280–284
regime of truth, 272
and religion, 273–279, 284–285
social photography, 275–279, 283–285
stereographs, 274–275
Phyllis Wheatley Association, 114
Pickering, John, 129
Pietists, 364
Pinckney, Clementa, 2, 17, 256
Pinn, Anthony, 251, 518, 522
plaçage, 178
Plymouth, occupation of, 537
Poblete, Renato, 551
Pocahontas, 329
Poj Koob Yawm Ntxwv, 583
polygamy, 101, 160, 213, 429
polygenists, 56, 398
Pontiac, 333
Poole, Elijah. See Muhammad, Elijah
Popé, 329–330
popular culture, 110
and black clergy, 113, 475
commercial entertainment, 113–115
and commodification, 118
and the consumer marketplace, 112–113, 117–119
contemporary Christian music, 115
discrimination, 113
and the divine, 110
ideas of whiteness, 113
and Muslim youth, 117
nineteenth-century print, 112
and notions of well-being, 117
as ordained facets of Christian life, 117
and race, 110–119, 260–261
racial narratives, 112
and religion, 110–118
television, 115–116, 475
and white normativity, 111, 116
poststructuralism,