(p. 593) Education
Abstract and Keywords
The establishment of community music courses and degree programs in universities gives rise to discourse about the fundamental principles of community music. Can community music flourish in the complexity of academia, where disciplines are regulated, researched, and examined systematically? This chapter will argue that community music principles are synergistic with higher education goals, and, in fact, traditional music education has much to learn and gain from community music practices. How can schools of music be more civic minded, community friendly, and enhance the cultural life of the regions they serve? How can rigour exist (artistic and scholarly) in a culture of empathy, inclusivity, and hospitality where nonformal pedagogies are practiced, and where intergenerational and lifelong learning—along with activism, health, and wholeness—are foundational? These questions are addressed and measured against a tradition where audition standards and progression pathways are becoming increasingly multivalent.
The final section of the handbook looks at the increasing number of community music courses and programmes across the world, and the dynamics of developing appropriate curriculum and resources for this increasingly complex purpose. The opening chapter in this section by Lee Willingham and Glen Carruthers begins by arguing that community music principles are synergistic with higher education goals, and, in fact, traditional music education has much to learn and gain from community music practices. They pose critical questions, such as how rigor can exist (artistic and scholarly) in a culture of empathy, inclusivity, and hospitality where non-formal pedagogies are practised, and (p. 594) where intergenerational and lifelong learning, along with activism, health, and wholeness, are foundational. Susan Helfter and Beatriz Ilari’s chapter then moves on to discuss the nature of collaboration as it pertains to community music. The chapter features vignettes that stem from the authors observations of community music programmes in Canada, Brazil, and the United States, presented to both introduce and discuss different models that might assist in designing and developing effective collaborations within community music programmes. The discussion begins with some areas of tension in collaborative initiatives within community music, and, in so doing, points out the implications of models and traits for the assessment of collaborations and collaborative research within the context of community music. Pat Campbell and Shannon Dudley’s chapter then explores examples of university–community partnerships initiated by the Ethnomusicology and Music Education programmes at the University of Washington that prepare music students for the diverse and complex society into which they will graduate. The Visiting Artists in Ethnomusicology programme will be highlighted for the extent to which world-renowned and local artist-musicians have been invited to the faculty for extended periods to perform, teach, and interact with students on instruments, vocally, and in dance forms associated with traditional musical practices. In particular, this chapter underscores the critical need for university–community exchanges, and suggests some ways that such exchanges can be accommodated. Continuing many of these themes, Brydie-Leigh Bartleet, Dawn Bennett, Anne Power, and Naomi Sunderland’s chapter tackles the topic of preparing community music students for working in increasingly diverse cultural contexts. In particular, it focuses on how to enable students to develop distinctive approaches to community music-making that are respectful of, and responsive to, the customs and traditions of that cultural setting, focusing on engaging with First Peoples through community service learning.
Rineke Smilde’s chapter then turns the focus to lifelong learning, discussing the relationship of community music with the concept of lifelong learning. Specifically, three case studies of community engagement are explored with different aims and points of departure, but with shared values and approaches, comprising important aspects of the concept of lifelong learning, as well as implications for the training and education of community musicians. Picking up on many similar themes, Don Coffman’s chapter continues the theme of lifelong learning within the context of working with adults, and examines three approaches to learning and teaching that resonate with community music principles. Specifically, he considers a continuum of viewpoints about pedagogy, andragogy, and heutagogy, and illustrates how aspects of each approach can be applied to community music by using the New Horizons Band of Iowa City in the United States as an example. To conclude this section, Dave Camlin and Katherine Zeserson’s chapter outlines an approach to training in community music that accounts for its pluralistic and diverse character. From the situated perspective of Sage Gateshead, they reflect on some of the ways in which musicians have developed the skills, knowledge, and attitudes to become effective practitioners of community music by remaining rooted in a dialogic and democratic pedagogy.